Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 127

s>Si[Fn l[Knmi> urN

(Citation in Report Writing)


Based on APA Style

Di[. jgd)p si[nvN[

ISBN

978-81-925192-1-0

Title

Sanshodhan Lekhanma Udhdharan

Author

Dr. Jagdip Sonwane

Year

2013

Edition

First

Vol

Publisher

www.edupublication.com
Dr. J. R. Sonwane
Department of Education
M. K. Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar
INDIA

Contact

edupublication@gmail.com

Price

Free

Pages

121

Subject

Educational Research

Language

Gujarati

This book can be downloaded free of cost from


www.edupublication.com

an&k\m(Nki
p\iAti(vk
s>Si[Fn l[Knmi> urN (vS[n&> ai p&Atk Si miT[?
p&Atk ki[ni miT[?
p&Atkn) (vS[Pti
1. urN
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

2.7
2.8
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

urN a[Tl[ S&>?


urN yir[?
si(h(Ryk ci[r) k[ uqi>tr)
Avsi(hRy ci[r)
2.avtrN an[ Sdi>tr
s\i[tn&> s)F&> avtrN
lKiNn&> Sdi>tr
pZOqi>kn vgrni ainlien si(hRyn&> s)F&> avtrN
avtrNn) ci[ksie
s\i[tmi> a[vi f[rfir j[mni miT[ ApOT)krNn) j$r n pD[
s\i[tmi> a[vi f[rfir j[mni miT[ ApOT)krNn) j$r pD[
lKiN d*r krv&>
lKiN um[rv&>
(vPyvAt&n&> um[rN
Bir um[rvi[/ dSi<vvi[
avtrNmi> urN
p&n: m&WN, avtrN k[ $pi>tr miT[n) m>j*r)
3. lKiNmi> s>dBi[<n&> urN
a[k l[Kkn) a[k kZ(t
b[ k[ vF& l[Kki[ oiri a[k kZ(t
l[Kk tr)k[ j*Y
a[k j aTkviLi vF& l[Kki[

7-12

13-25

26-44

2
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

4.5
5.1

5.2

l[Kkn) ai[LK (vnin&> aYvi anim) l[Kkn&> kiy<


a[k j ki]>smi> b[ aYvi vF& l[Kki[
(ot)y {gi]N} s\i[t
p\(SOT kZ(tai[
s\i[tni ki[e ci[s Bign&> urN
y(tgt p\Ryiyn
ki]>sn) simg\)mi> urN
4.s>dB<s*(c
45-56
ci[s an[ s>p*N< s>dB<s*(cn) rcni
s>x[p
ar[(bk n>br
a[k$pti
a(FkZt s>g\hn) nkl k[ s>g\hn&> s>AkrN
s>dB<s*(cmi> s>dBi[<ni[ k\m
smin p\Ym l[Kk oiri an[k kZ(tai[
smin aTkviLi j*di j*di p\Ym l[Kki[n) j&d) j&d)
kZ(tai[
l[Kki[n&> j*Y aYvi l[Kki[ni nim (vnin) kZ(tai[ni[
k\m
a(F(vl[PNmi> smi(vOT s>dB<
5.s>dB<ni GTki[
57-73
l[Kk an[ s>pidkn) (vgt
l[[Kk
s>dB<ni[>F miT[
lKiNmi> urN miT[
l[Kk tr)k[ j*Y
ci[pi(nyini l[Kn) ni[>F
l[Kk k[ s>pidk (vnini ainlien s>dB<kiy<n) ni[>F
smicirp#ini[ l[K
y(tgt s>g\h
s>pidk
p\kiSnni[ smy

3
5.3

5.5

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

S)P<k
l[K k[ p\krNn&> S)P<k
jn<l, sim(yk k[ y&Zz l[Trni S)P<k
p&Atk an[ (rpi[T<
S)P<kmi> (bnpr>prigt mi(ht)
p\kiSnn) mi(ht)
jn<l, sim(yk k[ y&Zz l[Trni S)P<k
p&Atk an[ (rpi[T<
6. el[T^i[(nk s\i[t an[ AYindS<kn) (vgt
URL n) smj

74-86

DOI

l[Kn) ai[LK tr)k[ DOI


DOI n&> ji[DiNkiy<
El[T^i[(nk s\i[t an[ p\kiSn mi(ht)
pi(rBi(Pk Sdi[
s>dB<s*(c
Sd s*(c

114
115-121

s>Si[Fn l[Knmi> urN (vS[n&> ai p&Atk Si miT[?


ki[epN s>Si[Fk[ pi[tini s>Si[Fnkiy< miT[ - smin r)t[ mh_vn) b[ p\(k\yimi>Y) psir Yv&> pD[ C[: s>Si[Fnn&> x[#ikiy< (Fieldwork)
an[ ah[vil l[Kn (Report writing) . s>Si[Fn ah[vil
l[Kn a>tg<t s>Si[Fk pi[tini s>Si[Fnx[#imi> p*v[< Yy[li> kiyi[<n)
ni[>F kr[ C[, yi>k s>Si[Fn p(rNimi[n[ ayni> p(rNimi[ siY[ m*lv[
C[. ai bFi> kiyi[<n) ni[>Fn&> urN m*L lKiNmi> an[ t[n) p\i(t miT[n) bF) (vgti[
s>dB<s*(cmi> dSi<vvin) rh[ C[.
urNmi> a[kviyti rh[ tYi t[ s>p*N< an[ h[t&(s bn[ t[ miT[ urN yi[y
r)t[ Yiy t[ j$r) C[. ai>trriOT^)y kxia[ s>Si[Fnmi> urN a>g[ an[k s>AYiai[ j[mk[, am[(rkn siyki[l(jkl asi[(Sa[Sn (APA), mi[D<n l[>v[j asi[(Sa[Sn
(MLA) , an[ (Skigi[ y&(nv(s<T) vg[r[ - a[ pi[[tini s*cni[ kyi< C[. ai upri>t k[Tlik
s>Si[Fn sim(yki[ pN pi[tin) alg S]l)n[ an&sr[ C[. ai p]k) am[(rkn siyki[l (jkl
a[si[(Sa[Sn (APA) S]l)n[ simi(jk (vXini[ni s>Si[Fni[mi> (vVmi si]Y) vF&
an&srvimi> aiv[ C[. g&jrit) BiPimi> ai>trriOT^)y kxini> Fi[rNi[n[ lgt&> si(hRy
t]yir Yiy ti[ s>Si[Fnl[Knmi> g&Nv_ii aiv[ an[ g&jrit) BiPimi> s>Si[Fnkiy< krti
s>Si[Fki[, (vwiY)<ai[ an[ (Sxki[n[ upyi[g) Ye Sk[.
g&jrit) BiPimi> s>Si[Fk (vPyk l[Knmi> urN miT[ni> - ai>trriOT^)y Atr[
lgBg sv<Av)kZt S]l)ni> Fi[rNi[n[ lgti - Avt>#i p&Atkni[ aBiv hti[. t[Y) APA
S]l)ni> s*cni[ an&sir g&jrit) BiPimi> - g&jrit) udihrNi[ siY[ - ai p&Atk t]yir
krvimi> aiy&> C[.

p&Atk ki[ni miT[?


s>Si[Fn ah[vilmi>

APA

S]l) an&sir urNi[ rj* krvini> Fi[rNi[ (vP[n&> ai p&Atk

(vS[Pt: S]x(Nk s>Si[Fn miT[ni ah[vili[ t]yir krniri s>Si[Fki[ miT[ C[. simiy r)t[
ai p&Atk S]x(Nk upri>t ay simi(jk (vXini[mi> s>Si[Fn ah[vili[ t]yir krniri
s>Si[Fki[n[ pN upyi[g) Yiy t[m C[, kirN k[

APA

S]l) (SxN s(htni> simi(jk

(vXini[mi> s>Si[Fn ah[vilni l[Kn an[ p\kiSn miT[n) t]yir)ni> lgBg sv<Av)kZt
ai>trriOT^)y Fi[rNi[ rj* kr[ C[. ai Fi[rNi[ni[ m*LB*t h[t& s>Si[Fn (vPyk p\Ryiynmi>
ApOTti an[ sitRy (so krvini[ C[.
ai p&Atk S]x(Nk s>Si[Fnn[ lgti lG& Si[F(nb>F, mhi (nb>F, s>Si[Fnl[K,
aYvi (rsc< p\i[j[T (rpi[T< - a[vi ki[e pN Av$pmi> s>Si[Fn ah[vilmi> urNi[ rj*
krvini> APA S]l) m&jbni> Fi[rNi[ dSi<v[ C[. at: ai p&Atk ai bFi S]x(Nk s>Si[Fni[
miT[ C[.
ai p&Atk s>Si[Fni[n&> po(tSiA#i (research methodology) S)Kniri
(vwiY)<ai[ tYi ai (vPy S)Kvniri ayipki[n[ pN upyi[g) Yiy t[m C[.
a>tmi>, ai p&Atk s>Si[Fn (vPyk XinvZ( krnir) ki[e pN y(tn) urNi[n)
rj*ait miT[n) (jXisi s>ti[P) SkS[.
vs>t p>cm), f[b\&air), 2013

jgd)p si[nvN[

p&Atkn) (vS[Pti
ai p&Atk (nymi[ tYi t[ni udihrNn) smj siY[n&> C[. t[Y) t[n&> vicn vF& smy
mi>g) l[ C[. t[ni[ upyi[g p\s>gi[vS - Sdki[S (Dictionary) an[ Xinki[S
(Thesaurus) n) j[m - Ye Sk[.
urN miT[ APA p(lk[Sn m[y&al {2010} mi> dSi<v[li mi[Ti Bigni>
s*cni[n[ an&sr) (voini[ni a(Bp\iyi[n[ k[Wmi> riK) g&jrit) s>Si[Fn l[Knmi>
urN miT[ni (nymi[ udihrN siY[ dSi<viyi C[.
si(hRy)k ci[r) (Plagiarism) - a[Tl[ k[ b)jini si(hRyn[ pi[tini lKiN k[
p\kiSn $p[ rj* krvini di[P an[ apriF s>dB[< ai>trriOT^)y smj an[ t[
a>g[ni ci[ks (nymi[ an[ ki[p) rieT tYi kiydik)y bibti[ dSi<v) C[.
avtrN, (v(vF (ch`ni[, a[k k[ vF& l[Kki[ni kiyi[<, ki]>sn) (vgti[, y(tgt
p\Ryiyn, T>&kixri[ vg[r[n) (vgti[ aivyktin&sir sirN) tYi ki[OTk vD[
dSi<vvimi> aiv) C[.
pi(rBi(Pk Sdi[ a>g\[J - g&jrit) tYi g&jrit) - a>g\[Jmi> dSi<yi C[.
p&Atkni a>t[ (vPys*(c (Index) aipvimi> aiv) C[, j[Y) j[ - t[ m&in[
srLtiY) p&Atkmi>Y) Si[F) Skiy.

vF& vicn miT[ p&Atki[ tYi v[b sieTn) mi(ht) dSi<v) C[.

p\krN -1 urN

p\krN -1 urN
urN a[Tl[ S&>?
s>Si[Fn ah[vil dryin s\i[tn) ni[>F k[ ul[K a[Tl[ urN. udihrN tr)k[,
s>Si[Fn ah[vilni piqyvAt& (text) mi> s>Si[Fk ay l[Kkni s>Si[Fnl[Kn) ni[>F
k[ ul[K kr[ ti[ t kh[ C[. APA S]l) an&sir s>Si[Fn ah[vilni piqyvAt&mi>
simiy r)t[ l[Kkn) aTk an[ s\i[tni p\kiSn aYvi l[Knni vP<n) ni[>Fni
Av$pmi> urN s>(xt hi[y C[. uZt s\i[tn) s>p*N< (vgt s>Si[Fn ah[viln[ a>t[
s>dB<s*(cmi> hi[y C[.
urN yir[ krv&>?
pi[tini kiy<n[ j[mni (vciri[, (si>ti[ (theories) k[ s>Si[Fnn[ p\Ryx r)t[
p\Bi(vt ky&<> hi[y t[mni s\i[t k[ kZ(tn&> s>Si[Fk urN kr[ C[. urN m& yRv[ aiTli>
kiy< kr[ C[: {1} s>Si[Fnn) B*(mkin) civ)$p jiNkir) aip[ C[, {2} s>Si[Fkni
gZ(ht (thesis) n&> smY<n k[ (vri[F kr[ C[, an[ {3} mh_vn) yiyiai[ an[
mi(ht) (data) aip[ C[. s\i[tn&> urN s*cv[ C[ k[ s>Si[Fk[ pi[t[ t[ s\i[t vi>yi[ C[.
s>Si[Fk urN oiri pi[tini gZh)tn) rcnimi> upyi[g) Yy[li b)jiai[ni
(vciri[ni NAv)kir kr[ C[. upri>t simiy Xin n hi[y t[vi> tyi[n&>
dAtiv[JkrN p*r&> piD[ C[.

s>Si[Fn (vPyk lKiNni u[y m&jb t[mi> uZt Yti s\i[tin) s>yi j&d)
j&d) hi[y C[. mi[Ti Bigni s>Si[Fnl[K aYvi Si[F(nb>Fmi> civ)$p dr[k m&i miT[
si]Y) vFir[ p\(t(n(F$p hi[y t[vi a[k k[ b[ s\i[ti[ uZt Yiy C[. pr>t& ki[e (vPyni
s>Si[Fnn[ lgti si(hRyn) sm)xini l[Kni[ u[y a[ (vPy pr j[Tl&> lKiy&> hi[y
t[ bFini[ p(rcy vickn[ krivvini[ hi[viY) si(hRyn) sm)xini l[Kmi> urNi[n)
s>yi GN) mi[T) hi[y C[. ah)>, sirN) 1.1 mi> urNni yi[y Atrn&> udihrN
ji[e Skiy C[.

sirN) 1.1 urNni yi[y Atrn&> udihrN


vicnni s>Si[Fni[ dSi<v[ C[ k[ biLki[ni vicnmi> mi[T[Big[ (c#i viti<ai[ tYi
kip(nk pr)kYiai[ni[ smiv[S Yiy C[ {ki[s an[ hi[l, 1997}. yir[
(kSi[ri[ni vicnmi> sihskYiai[, p\visvN<n tYi p\[mkYiai[ni[ smiv[S Yiy C[
{mi[s, 2000}. vicn zDp s>dB[< (kSi[ri[n) zDp biLki[ni vicn krti vF&
ji[vi mL[ C[ {(vD)S, 1998} yir[ y&vini[ krti biLki[mi> vicn vlN vF&
ji[vi mL[ C[.

ni[>F. Bivngr (jlimi> vi>c[ g&jrit a(Byin n) p\vZ(_iai[ an[ t[n)


asrkirkti v[gD, s&. n. {2011}, ap\ki(St a[m. a[D`. lG&Si[F (nb>F,
(SxN SiA#i Bvn, Bivngr y&(nv(s<T).

10

si(h(Ryk ci[r) k[ uqi>tr) (Plagiarism)


am[(rkn siyki[li[(jkl a[si[(Sa[Sn { APA, 2010}, uqi>tr) s>b>F[ ApOT
(nymi[ dSi<v[ C[. p(lk[Sn m[y&almi> dSi<yi p\miN[ l[Kk aYvi s>Si[Fk
ayni (vciri[ k[ Sdi[ pi[tini C[ t[ r)t[ ul[K n kr) Sk[. yi> s\i[t dSi<vvin)
j$r hi[y an[ m*L l[Kk k[ (vcir aipnirni nimi[l[Kn) j$r hi[y Ryi>
avypN[ t[ni[ ul[K Yvi[ j ji[ea[. yi> ayni (vciri[ SdS: dSi<yi hi[y
Ryi> avtrN (ch`nni[ upyi[g Yvi[ ji[ea[. yir[ tm[ ayni (vciri[ni[ sir Sdi[ k[ viyi[ni f[rbdl siY[ - aipi[ Ci[ Ryir[ m*L s\i[tni[ urN tmiri
lKiNmi> Yvi[ ji[ea[. n)c[ dSi<v[li gwK>D oiri vF& ApOTti m[Lv) SkiS[.

am[(rkn siyki[li[(jkl a[si[(Sa[Sn { APA, 2010}, uqi>tr) s>b>F[ upyi[g)


(nymi[ dSi<v[ C[. p(lk[Sn m[y&almi> dSi<yi p\miN[ l[Kk aYvi s>Si[Fk
ayni (vciri[ k[ Sdi[ pi[tini C[ t[ r)t[ ul[K n kr) Sk[. yi> s\i[t
dSi<vvin) j$r hi[y an[ m*L l[Kk k[ (vcir aipnirni nimi[l[Kn) j$r hi[y
Ryi> avypN[ t[ni[ ul[K Yvi[ j ji[ea[. yi> ayni (vciri[ SdS: dSi<yi
hi[y Ryi> avtrN (ch`nni[ upyi[g Yvi[ ji[ea[.

ai (si>tni[ civ)$p GTk a[ C[ k[ l[Kk ayni kiy<n[ k[ (vciri[n[ pi[tini C[ a[


r)t[ rj& n krvi. uprni udihrNmi> dSi<v[l (vgti[n[ fr)Y) bi[D axri[mi>
ji[eS&>.

11
am[(rkn siyki[li[(jkl a[si[(Sa[Sn { APA, 2010}, uqi>tr) s>b>F[ upyi[g)
(nymi[ dSi<v[ C[. p(lk[Sn m[y&almi> dSi<yi p\miN[ l[Kk aYvi s>Si[Fk
ayni (vciri[ k[ Sdi[ pi[tini C[ t[ r)t[ ul[K n kr) Sk[. yi> s\i[t
dSi<vvin) j$r hi[y an[ m*L l[Kk k[ (vcir aipnirni nimi[l[Kn) j$r hi[y
Ryi> avypN[ t[ni[ ul[K Yvi[ j ji[ea[. yi> ayni (vciri[ SdS: dSi<yi
hi[y Ryi> avtrN (ch`nni[ upyi[g Yvi[ ji[ea[.

uprni udihrNn[ ji[ti ApOT jNiS[ k[ l[Kk[ ci[s r)t[ a[ kiLJ riK) C[ k[ j[
t[ (nymi[ APA oiri aipvimi> aiyi C[ an[ yi> j$r jNiy Ryi> s\i[t an[
nimni[ ul[K kyi[< C[. yir[ rj&ait g&jrit)mi> hi[y Ryir[ { . . .l[Kkn&> nim} ni

mt m&jb, { . . .l[Kkn&> nim} ni an&sir, { . . .l[Kkn&> nim} jNiv[ C[ k[ j[vi viyi[ oiri rj&ait Ye Sk[. a>g\[J lKiN hi[y ti[ According to
{l[Kkn&> nim. . . } vg[r[ oiri rj&ait Ye Sk[.
m&t r)t[ AYini>t(rt Yt) mi(ht)ni ud`BvAYinn) jiN l[Kkn[ hi[y ti[
t[vi s\i[tni[ ul[K y(tgt p\Ryiyn a>tg<t Ye Sk[. { y(tgt p\Ryiynn)
vF& mi(ht) (vBig 1.20 mi> mL) SkS[.}
Av- si(hRy ci[r) k[ uqi>tr) (Self-Plagiarism)
j[m l[Kk ayni lKiNni[ pi[tini lKiN k[ (vcir tr)k[ ul[K n kr) Sk[, a [j
r)t[, t[ pi[tini p*v[< p\ki(St ki[e l[K k[ (vcirni[ pN pi[tini nvi Xin k[ Si[F
tr)k[ ul[K n kr) Sk[. ji[ k[ pi[tini j lKiN k[ (vciri[n[ dSi<vvin) p(r(AY(t

12

K*b j ai[C) hi[y C[. mi[T[ Big[ upkrN, p(t k[ ki[e p\(k\yimi> pi[tini agiuni
p\kiSnni[ upyi[g krvini[ p\s>g up(AYt Yiy C[. pi[tini j nimni[ ul[K
pi[tini j ay l[Kmi> krvin&> a(nCn)y k[ ayi[y ligS[ a[m min) l[Kki[
pi[tini nimni[ urN krvin&> TiL[ C[. yir[k b>n[ l[Kni l[Kk pi[t[ j C[ t[Y)
aivi ki[e ul[Kn) j$(ryit nY) a[v) Ki[T) miyti pN p\vt[< C[. ai bF)
myi<din[ d*r kr) h>m[Si yi[y hi[y Ryi> urN j$r) bn[ C[.
am[(rkn siyki[li[(jkl a[si[(Sa[Sn{APA) p(lk[Sn m[y&al{ 2010}
m&jb ji[ pi[tini p*v[<ni l[Kmi>Y) nkl kriy[l Sdi[ni[ yip ai[Ci[ hi[y ti[ nkl
Av)kiy< C[. yir[ nkl kriy[l Sdi[ni[ yip vF& hi[y Ryir[ t[ni[ urN Yvi[
ji[ea[. k[Tli Sdi[n[ ai[Ci[ k[ vF& yip gNvi[ t[ bibt ApOT krv) m&k[l C[.
simiy smj a[v) C[ k[ ki[e upkrN, p(t k[ p(tSiA#i s>dB[< nvi Xin aYvi
m*L lKiNn) smj miT[ j*ni lKiNni[ smiv[S a[k gwK>Dmi> Ye Sk[, ji[
rj&ait l>biNy&t hi[y ti[ b[ k[ #iN gwK>Di[mi> pN t[ smiv) Skiy. p\Ry[k
gwK>Dn[ a>t[ urN krvi[ j$r) C[.
nvi gwK>Dn) S$aitmi> j[m l[Kk oiri p*v[< cci< krvimi> aiv) ht)
j[vi viyi[ oiri gwK>Dn) S$ait krvimi> aiv[ ti[ vickn[ agiuni si(hRy
(vS[n) mi(ht) mL[ C[.
T&>kmi>, l[Kkni pi[tini p*v[< p\ki(St Yy[l (vciri[ k[ l[Ki[ miT[ (n:s>ki[cpN[
nim siY[ urN krvi[ an[ s>dB<s*(cmi> t[n[ dSi<vvi.

13

p\krN -2
avtrN an[ Sdi>tr

14

p\krN -2 avtrN an[ Sdi>tr


2.1 s\i[tn&> s)F>& avtrN
ay l[Kk oiri Yy[l kiy< aYvi l[Kkni pi[tini p*v[< p\ki(St Yy[l kiyi[<n[ s)Fi
j avtrNmi> dSi<v) Skiy C[. yir[ aivi s\i[tn[ Ti>kvimi> aiv[ C[ Ryir[ h>m[Si
l[Kk, vP< an[ ci[s pini urN aYvi yi> pin k\mi>k uplF n hi[y Ryi>
gwK>D n>br dSi<vvini[ rh[ C[. upri>t ai bibtni s>p*N< s>dB<n[ s>dB<s*(cmi>
dSi<vvini[ rh[ C[.
yir[ ki[e avtrN 40 Sdi[Y) ai[C&> hi[y ti[ smg\ avtrNn[
lKiN a>tg<t j b[ avtrN (ch`ni[ { } mi> m*k)n[ rj* kr) Skiy.
ji[ ki[e avtrN viyn) mymi>/ vc[ aivt&> hi[y ti[ t[ Bigni
a>tmi> avtrN (ch`n m*k) trt j ki]>smi> s\i[tn&> urN krv&>, an[
viyn[ cil& riKv&>. ki[e pN ay (ch`nni[ ul[K n krvi[, (sviy k[
viyn) pi[tin) ki[e j$(ryit hi[y.
di.t.,
pT[l {1991} n&> s>Si[Fn dSi<v[ C[ a>g\[J miymn&> (SxN
g&jrit)BiP) biLkn) a(By(tni (vkismi> a>triy$p bn[ C[ , yir[

15
a>g\[J miymmi> BNnir biLkni[ Si(dk (vkis @>Fiti[ nY) {pin.
65}, miym a>g[ni ay s>Si[Fni[ pN ai p(rNimi[n[ smY<n aip[ C[.

ji[ avtrN viyni a>t[ hi[y ti[ avtrN (ch`ni[ siY[ avt(rt Bign[ p*N< krvi[.
ki]>smi> avtrN (ch`ni[ bid trt j s\i[tn&> urN krv&>
a>(tm ki]>sn) bhirn) trf p*N<(vrim aYvi ay (vrim siY[ a>t krvi[.
di.t.,
SiLin) (p\l)mnr) an[ a[s. a[s. s). bi[D< n) pr)xini p(rNimi[mi>
siyti ji[vi mL[ C[. g&jrit), (hd), smij(vwi, vi(Nyg(Nt,
minvJvn, (vXin vg[r[ (vPymi> SiLin) (p\l)mnr) pr)ximi> u>ci an[
n)ci p\iti>k m[Lvnir a[s. a[s. s). bi[D< n) pr)ximi> pN an&k \m[ U>ci
tYi n)ci p\iti>k m[Lv[ C[ {niyk, 2010, pin. 32}.
ji[ avtrN 40 k[ t[Y) vF& Sdi[n&> hi[y ti[ viyn[ avtrN (ch`ni[ (vni Avt>#i li[kmi> m*kv&>.
aivi li[kn[ nv) lienY) S$ krv&> an[ li[kn[ Dib) trfni mi(j<nY)
aDFi e>c Ks[D)n[ m*kv&> { a[k nvi p[r[g\if/ gwK>Dn) j[m j }.

16

ji[ Ryi> avtrN a>tg<t p[r[g\if hi[y ti[ t[ gwK>Dni p\Ym viyn[ aDFi
e>c Ks[D)n[ m*kv&>.
smg\ avtrNn[ Dbl Ap[s aipv).
li[kni avtrNn[ a>t[ p*N<(vrim m*kv&>.
ul[(Kt s\i[tni[ an[ pinn&> urN ki]>smi> krv&>.
di.t.,
s>Si[Fnmi> aivriy[l s>Si[Fnx[#i[ p]k) si]Y) vF& aikP<N S]x(Nk m*yi>kn an[
pr)xi {26.36%} tYi ayisk\m an[ piq`yp&Atk {21.82%} an[ Ryirbid
ksi[T)n) rcni an[ p\miN)krN {15.45%} tYi (Sxk - p\(SxN {13.64%}
mi> K[DiN Yy[l&> ji[vi mL[ C[. ai upri>t S]x(Nk mni[(vXin an[ t_vXin j[vi
x[#ii[mi> pN p*rti p\miNmi> s>Si[Fni[ Yy[li ji[vi mL[ C[.
p(t an&sir sv[<xN p(tmi> si]Y) vF& s>S i[Fni[ Yyi C[. b)ji k\mni
s>Si[Fni[[mi> p\iyi[(gk s>Si[Fn p(tni[ upyi[g Yyi[ hi[y C[. {pT[l, 2008,
pin. 2}.

v]k(pk r)t[, ji[ li[kni ul[Kni p(rcyiRmk viymi> s\i[tni[ ul[K hi[y ti[
ft pin n>br aYvi gwK>D n>br j avtrNni a>t[ dSi<vvini[ rh[ C[.

17

pT[l {2008} s>Si[Fnni K[DiN (vS[ jNiv[ C[ k[


s>Si[Fnmi> aivriy[l s>Si[Fnx[#i[ p]k) si]Y) vF& aikP<N S]x(Nk m*yi>kn
an[ pr)xi {26.36%} tYi ayisk\m an[ piq`yp&Atk {21.82%} an[
Ryirbid ksi[T)n) rcni an[ p\miN)krN {15.45%} tYi (Sxk p\(SxN {13.64%} mi> K[DiN Yy[l&> ji[vi mL[ C[. ai upri>t S]x(Nk
mni[(vXin an[ t_vXin j[vi x[#ii[mi> pN p*rti p\miNmi> s>Si[Fni[ Yy[li
ji[vi mL[ C[.
p(t an&sir sv[<xN p(tmi> si]Y) vF& s>S i[Fni[ Yyi C[. b)ji k\mni
s>Si[Fni[mi> p\iyi[(gk s>Si[Fn p(tni[ upyi[g Yyi[ hi[y C[. {pin. 2}.

2.2 simg\)n&> Sdi>tr


yir[ ayni kiy<mi> smi(vOT (vcirni[ ayis k[ an&vid kyi[< hi[y ti[ pin k[
gwK>D k\mni[ ul[K krvi[. j[Y) vick li>bi an[ s>k&l lKiNmi> ci[s Bign[
ai[LK) Sk[ an[ j[ t[ AYin[Y) t[n[ Si[F) Sk[.
2.3 pZOqi>kn vgrni ainlien si(hRyn&> s)F&> avtrN
ainlien si(hRyni avtrNn[ l[Kk, vP< an[ pin n>brn[ ki]>smi> s)Fi dSi<vvi.
GNi> bFi el[kT^i[(nk s\i[t pin n>br dSi<vti nY). ji[ gwK>D n>br mL) Sk[ a[m
hi[y ti[ pin n>brn) jyia[ t[ni[ ul[K krvi[ an[ Ryi> T*>kmi> gw. / p[r[. dSi<vv&>.

18

di.t.,
d[sie an[ Sih {2011} T[kni[l(jni (vkis s>dB[< jNiv[ C[ hv[ Labor
theory of value n) jyia[ Knowledge theory of value n&>
mh_v vF) rH&> C[ {p[r[. 4}.

ji[ dAtiv[jmi> (vBign&> S)P<k hi[y, pr>t& gwK>D k[ pinn>br ji[e Skiy a[m n
hi[y ti[ S)P<kni[ urN kr) t[n[ an&srti gwK>Dni[ ul[K krvi[ j[Y) vick
ul[(Kt si(hRyn&> AYin jiN) Sk[.
di.t.,
am*t< tk< a>g[ Sih {2010} a[ amdivid Sh[rni 1000 (vwiY)<ai[ upr
ayis hiY Fyi[< hti[ , j[mi jNiy&> C[ smg\ Ci[kri Ci[kr)ai[n) sr[riS
am*t< tk< S(tmi> ji(tgt tfivt ji[vi mL[ C[. Ci[kr)ai[n) am*t< tk< S(t
Ci[kri krti> vF& ji[vi mL[ C[ { cci< (vBig, p[r[. 2}.

k[Tlik (kAsimi> pin n>br k[ gwK>D n>br ji[e Skiy a[m n hi[y. vL), S)P<k pN
urN krvimi> (bnj$r) r)t[ K*b mi[T&> hi[y, ti[ gwK>Dni urN miT[ avtrN
(ch`ni[ siY[n&> T*>k& S)P<k lKv&>.
di.t.,

19
Bivngr y&(nv(s<T) s>ln b). a[D`. ki[l[ji[ {g\iy (vAtir} ni til)miY)<ai[ni
p\iyi[(gk piq a>g[ni a(Bp\iyi[: a[k sv[<xNiRmk ayis

uprni udihrNni[ urN avtrN siY[ n)c[ m&jb kr) SkiyS)P<k ht&>- b). a[D`. ki[l[ji[ni til)miY)<ai[ni p\iyi[(gk piq a>g[ni a(Bp\iyi[.

2.4 avtrNn) ci[ksie


s)F&> avtrN ci[ksiep*N< hi[v&> ji[ea[. m*L s\i[tmi> yikrN k[ ji[DN) (vPyk B*li[
hi[y ti[ pN avtrNni Sdi[, ji[DN) an[ ai>t(rk (vrim (ch`ni[ j[mni t[m
lKivi ji[ea[.
ji[ m*L s\i[tmi> rh[l Sdi[, ji[DN) k[ yikrN vickn[ m&zvNmi> m*k[ a[m
hi[y ti[ avtrNmi> B*ln) trt j ki]>smi> eTi(lk kr) sici Sdn[ dSi<vv&>.
s\i[tn) rj*ait sim[ h>m[Si hAtp\tn) m*L nkl tpisv).
di.t.,
Avc(rt Avr(ct s>Si[Fn upkrNi[ simiy r)t[ s>Si[Fk pi[tini s>Si[Fn
dryin jit[ bnivti hi[y C[. s>Si[Fk aivi> upkrNi[n&> p\Nim)krN
p\miN)krN kr) Skti nY).

20

2.5 s\i[tmi> a[vi f[rfir j[mni miT[ ApOT)krNn) j$r n pD[


viyni a>t[ aivti (ch`ni[mi> viyrcnin) j$(ryitn[ yinmi> riK)n[ f[rfir Ye
Sk[. a[k avtrN (ch`n b[vDi avtrN (ch`nmi> tbd)l Ye Sk[ an[ a[niY)
uT& pN Ye Sk[, a[Tl[ k[ b[vDi avtrN (ch`n pN a[k avtrNmi> tb(dl Ye
Sk[. a>g\[J ni[>Fmi> s>dB<ni viyni[ p\Ym axr avtrNmi> aprk[s
(uppercase) k[ li[ark[s (lowercase) mi> bdlie Sk[. ay f[rfiri[ ci[s
r)t[ dSi<vvi ji[ea[.
2.6 s\i[tmi> a[vi f[rfir j[mni miT[ ApOT)krNn) j$r pD[
(vPyvAt&n[ d&r krv).
m*L si\[tmi>Y) d&r kr[l (vPyvAt&n) jiN krvi miT[ {ayihir} #iN Tpki>
{. . . } ni[ upyi[g krvi[.
di.t.,
ai miT[ j&d) j&d) ai>kDiSiA#i)y p(tai[ . . . upyi[gmi> l[viy C[.
uprni udihrNmi> viyn) vc[ rh[li #iN Tpki> viyn) a>drni k[Tlik
Sdi[ni[ li[p Yyi[ C[ t[ dSi<v[ C[.

21

b[ viyi[ vc[ni d&r Yy[l Bign[ dSi<vvi cir Tpki>ni[ upyi[g krvi[.
{. . . .} ai cir Tpki> p]k)n&> ph[l&> Tpk&> ul[(Kt viyni[ a>t s*cv[ C[,
yir[ bik)ni #iN Tpki>ai[ t[n[ an&sr[ C[.
di.t.,
p\mi(Nt s>Si[Fn upkrNi[ s>Si[Fn (nONiti[ oiri p\mi(NkrNn) li>b) p\(k\yin[
a>t[ t]yir Yy[li hi[y C[. . . . p\mi(Nt upkrN oiri mL[l) mi(ht) (vVsn)y
mL[ C[.

uprni udihrNmi> b[ viyi[ C[


{1} p\mi(Nt s>Si[Fn upkrNi[ s>Si[Fn (nONiti[ oiri p\mi(NkrNn) li>b) p\(k\yin[
a>t[ t]yir Yy[li hi[y C[.
{2} p\mi(Nt upkrN oiri mL[l) mi(ht) (vVsn)y mL[ C[.
uprni b[ viyi[ vc[ rh[li cir Tpki> {. . . .} b[ viyi[ vc[ni li[pn[ s*cv[ C[.
ai Tpki>ni[ upyi[g avtrNn) S$ait k[ a>tmi> n krvi[ j[Y) m&zvN
(nvir) Skiy. tmir[ a[ dSi<vvin&> rh[ k[ avtrN viyn) S$ait k[ a>tmi>
S$ Yiy C[.

22

(vPyvAt&n&> um[rN
s\i[tni l[Kkni m*L kiy<mi> ay y(t oiri Yt&> um[rN k[ avtrNn[ dSi<vvi miT[
b\[k[T ni[

upyi[g krvi[. ki]>sni[ upyi[g n krvi[.

di.t.,
yir[ pi#ii[ p\yi[gpi#ii[ n[ j$r) s*cni aipvimi> aiv) ht).
Bir um[rvi[ / dSi<vvi[
ji[ avtrNmi> ki[e a[k Sd k[ Sdi[ um[rvi hi[y ti[ t[ Sdi[n[ eTi(lk krvi an[
eTi(lk kyi< bid b\[k[Tmi> avFirN um[rN dSi<vv&>. ji[ viy a>g\[J hi[y ti[
[emphasis added] vD[ Bir dSi<vvi[.
di.t.,
k[vT {2011} n)c[ p\miN[ ni[>F[ C[:
(Sxki[n&> d](nk aiyi[jn ni[>Fpi[Y) p\Ry[n&> vlN nkiriRmk C[. vF& an&Bv)

(Sxki[n&> vlN ai[Ci an&Bv) (Sxki[ krti sir&> C[

avFirN

um[rN ji[ k[ A#i)pi#ii[ p&$Ppi#ii[ krti ni[>Fpi[Y) p\Ry[ U>c&> vlN dSi<v[
C[.

23

a>g\[J ni[>F miT[:


APA Publication Manual notes:
Quatation marks should be used to indicate the exact words
of another. Each time [emphasis added] you paraphrase
another author.

2.7 avtrNmi> urN


ul[K krvimi> aiv[l si(hRymi> ul[(Kt urNn[ d*r krvin) j$r nY).
avtrN a>tg<t ul[(Kt urNni[ s>dB<s*(cmi> smiv[S krvi[ j$r) nY), (sviy
k[ tmiri s>Si[Fnp#imi> yi>k tm[ t[ni[ m*L s\i[t tr)k[ urN kyi[< hi[y.
di.t.,
vicnni s>Si[Fni[ dSi<v[ C[ k[ biLki[ni vicnmi> mi[T[Big[ (c#i viti<ai[ tYi
kip(nk pr)kYiai[ni[ smiv[S Yiy C[ {ki[s an[ hi[l, 1997}. yir[
(kSi[ri[ni vicnmi> sihskYiai[, p\visvN<n tYi p\[mkYiai[ni[ smiv[S Yiy C[
{mi[s, 2000}. vicn zDp s>dB[< (kSi[ri[n) zDp biLki[ni vicn krti vF&
ji[vi mL[ C[ {(vD)S, 1998} yir[ y&vini[ krti biLki[mi> vicn vlN vF&
ji[vi mL[ C[ {v[gD, 2011}.

24

2.8 p&n: m&WN, ul[K k[ smi(vOT vAt&miT[n) m>j&r)


ji[ lKiNmi> sirN), aikZ(_i k[ p&n: m&WN k[ l>biNp*v<kni avtrNni[ smiv[S kyi[<
hi[y ti[ m*L kiy<ni l[Kkn) l[(Kt m>j&r) l[v) j$r) bn[ C[. p&n: m&WN a[ s*cv[ C[
k[ (vPyvAt&n) rj&ait t[ni m*L s\i[tni j[v) j - ki[epN p\kirni s&Firi vFiri
vgr - Ye C[.
Av)kZt (Aduption) ni[ aY< C[ k[ m*L si(hRyn[ nvi h[t&n[ k[Wmi> riK)n[
s&Firi-vFiri krvimi> aiyi C[.
{ ki[e gwK>D k[ (vAtirp*v<k cci< Yy[l ki[e (vcir k[ m*L (si>t j[ tmiri
lKiNn[ upkirk hi[y t[n) sirN) k[ aikZ(tni[ m*L hAtp\tmi> Av)kir.}
ul[K krvi miT[ m>j*r)n) p\(k\yi an[ kxi j*di j*di l[Kki[a[ j*d) j*d) hi[e
Sk[. di.t., APA l[Kki[n[ k[Tl)k C*TCiT aip[ C[. jn<l l[Kmi>Y) k[ p&Atk
p\krNmi>Y) vF&mi> vF& #iN aikZ(t k[ sirN) le Skiy. ki[e lKiN, j[ 400
Sdi[Y) aYvi ti[ lKiNi[n) hirmiLi j[ 800 Sdi[Y) ai[C) hi[y, t[n[ APA n)
m>j*r) vgr le Skiy C[. ki[p)rieT si(hRy miT[ p\kiSk siY[ k[ ki[p)rieT mi(lk
siY[ upyi[gmi> l[vinir simg\)n) m>j*r)n) tpis mh_vn) C[.
(p\T an[ el[T^i[(nk, b>n[ Av$pni si(hRy miT[ m*L l[Kkn) m>j*r)
m[Lvvimi> aiv) C[ k[ nh)> t[ tpisvin) jvibdir) l[Kkn) C[. p*v[<ni ki[p)rieT
hi[y a[vi si(hRyn[ APA p\ki(St krt&> nY).

25

ji[ tm[ ki[p)rieT si(hRyni mi(lkn) l[(Kt m>j*r) l)F) hi[y , ti[ ul[K
kriy[l si(hRyn) n)c[ pidni[>Fmi> ki[p)rieT mi(lk trfY) siBir Av)kir
dSi<vvin&> rh[ C[. pidni[>F miT[n&> miLK&> n)c[ dSi<y&> C[.

s\i[tni[ p\kir1

ki[p)rieT m>j*r)n) pidni[>F

jn<l

l[Kn&> S)P<k, l[Kkn&> nim, vP<, jn<ln&> S)P<k {eTi(lk},


vi[y&m, pin k\mi>k. ki[p)rieT {vP<} ki[p)rieT Firkn&> nim.
m>j&r) siY[ p&n: m&WN/ siBir Av)kir.

p&Atk

p&Atkn&> S)P<k {eTi(lk} {pin n>br}, l[Kkn&> nim, vP<,


p\kiSnn&> AYL : p\kiSk. ki[p)rieT vP< ki[p)rieT Firkn&>
nim. m>j*r) siY[ p&n: m&WN / Av)kir.

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, VandenBos and


others, 2010, Wadhing, DC. Copyright 2009 Adapted with permission from
APA.

26

(vBig-3
lKiNmi> s>dBi[<n&> urN

27

(vBig-3 lKiNmi> s>dBi[<n&> urN


lKiNmi> s>dBi[<n&> urN
APA p\kiSnmi> s>dB<n[ m&y lKiNmi> l[Kk, vP<n) ni[>F krvin) rh[ C[, j[n[
s>dB<s*(cmi> m&Lixr (Alphabet in English) p\miN[ dSi<vvini rh[ C[.
urN miT[n) ai S]l)Y) vickn[ lKiNni s\i[tni[ yil aiv[ C[ an[ vF& mi(ht)
miT[ t[ s>dB<s*(cmi> kkivir) p\miN[ dSi<v[l s>dBi[<mi>Y) s\i[tn&> yi[y AYin Si[F)
Sk[ C[. m&y lKiNmi> urN pim[l s>dB<ni[ smiv[S s>dB<s*(cmi> Yvi[ j ji[ea[.
s>dB<s*(cmi> smi(vOT s>dB<ni[ urN m&y lKiNmi> Yvi[ j ji[ea[. vL), b>n[
AYL[, urNmi> an[ s>dB<s*(cmi> s>dB<n) ai[LK ji[DN), l[Kkn&> nim an[ vP<
ai[LK) Skiy t[v) ApOT hi[v) ji[ea[.
simiyt: lKiNmi> b[ p\kirn) simg\)ni[ urN Ye Sk[: SiA#i)y kiy<ni[
s>dB< j[mk[ g)ti, k&rin, biebl - j[ni (vBigi[ ki[epN p\kirn) aivZ(_iY) pr C[,
tYi y(tgt p\Ryiyn. a(F(vl[PN (Meta analysis) ni s>dBi[<ni[ m*L
lKiNmi> ul[K n Yyi[ hi[y, ti[ t[ni m*L lKiNmi> urN nY) Yti[.
3.1 a[k l[Kkn) a[k kZ(t
urN miT[n) l[Kk-tir)K p(t/ S]l) (author date method) mi>
l[Kkn) aTk (Surname) - {ki[e pN p\kirni p*v<g k[ an&g j[vik[ p\i[.-

28

p\if [sr, Di.- DiTr vg[r[ (vni} tYi p\kiSnni vP<ni[ yi[y AYin[ ul[K krvini[
rh[ C[.
di.t.,
d[sie {1968} a[ S]x(Nk s>Si[Fn (vS[ jNiy&> C[ k[
mitZBiPimi> (SxN mni[v]Xi(nk r)t[ upyi[g) C[ { mhijn, 2010}.

ji[ ki[e l[Kkn&> nim vN<nni Big tr)k[ aivt&> hi[y { j[mk[ WOTi>t ph[l&>} ti[ mi#i
p\kiSnni vP<ni[ j ki]>smi> ul[K krvi[. nh)tr upr dSi<v[li udihrN k\m-2 n)
j[m nim an[ p\kiSnnni vP<n[ ap(vrim oiri j&di piD)n[ ki]>smi> rj& krvi. ji[
s>dB<mi> mis/ m(hni an[ vP< b>n[ni[ ul[K hi[y ti[ pN urNmi> mi#i vP<ni[ j
ul[K krvi[. K*b j ai[Ci (kAsimi> vP< an[ l[Kkni nim- b>n[n[ lKiNni Big
tr)k[ dSi<vvimi> aiv[ C[, Ryi> ki]>smi> vFirin) ki[e mi(ht) dSi<vv) nh)>.
di.t., mhijnni[ vP< 2009 ni[ ayis dSi<v[ C[ k[ . . .

gwK>Dmi> yir[ {uprni udihrNn) j[m} l[Kkn>& nim m*L lKiNni vN<nni[
Big bn[ Ryir[ yi> s&F) j[ - t[ ayis ay ayis siY[n) m&zvN UB) n kr[
ti[ vP<ni[ ul[K ki]>s vgr krvin) j$(ryit nY). vP<ni[ ki]>smi> smiv[S krvi[.
di.t.,

29
si>v[(gk b&( s>dB[< pT[l {2010} ni[ ayis jNiv[ C[ k[ jit)ytin) (OTa[
A#i)ai[ni[ b&(ai>k p&$Pi[n) t&lnimi> vF& jNiyi[ hti[. . . . (vAtirni s>dB<mi>
pN tfivt ji[vi myi[ hti[, j[mi g\iy (vAtirn) A#i)ai[ krti Sh[r) (vAtirn)
A#i)ai[ni[ b&(ai>k vF& ji[vi myi[ hti[ {pT[l, 2010}.

vF&mi, yir[ nim an[ vP< b>n[ ki]>smi> hi[y Ryir[ gwK>Dmi> an&gim) urNmi>
vP<ni[ smiv[S krvi[.
di.t.,
g\iy (vAtirn) A#i)ai[ krti Sh[r) (vAtirn) A#i)ai[ni[ b&(ai>k vF& ji[vi myi[
hti[ {pT[l, 2010}. pT[l {2010} n&> s>Si[Fn vF& a[k bibt a>g[ p\kiS piD[
C[.

3.2 b[ k[ vF& l[Kki[ oiri a[k kZ(t


yir[ ki[e a[k kiy<ni b[ l[Kki[ hi[y Ryir[ p\Ry[k urN vKt[ b>n[ l[Kki[ni[ ul[K
krvi[.
di.t.,
jin) an[ d[sie {2010} biLki[ni si>v[(gk (vkismi> k&T&>bn) mh_vn) B*(mki
Av)kir[ C[. ay s>Si[Fni[ pN aim tn[ shkir aip[ C[. jin) an[ d[sie
SiLini vitivrNn) pN cci< kr[ C[.

30

uprni udihrNmi> p\Ym urNmi> b[ l[Kki[ni nimi[ni[ ul[K C[, a[ p\miN[ j a[


gwK>Dmi> ay AYL[ aivti urNmi> b>n[ l[Kki[ni nimni[ ul[K Yyi[ C[.
{APA (nym m&jb gwK>Dmi> b)J vKt aivti smin urNmi> vP<ni[
ul[Kn) j$(ryit jNit) nY) t[Y) b)ji ul[Kmi> mi#i l[Kki[ni nimi[ j ji[e
Skiy C[.}

yir[ ki[e kiy<ni #iN, cir k[ pi>c l[Kki[ hi[y Ryir[ p\Ym vKt bFij l[Kki[n)
aTkni[ ul[K krvi[, an[ t[ni an&vt)< urNmi> mi#i p\Ym l[Kkn) aTkni[
ul[K kr) - an[ ay lK) Ryir bid vP<ni[ ul[K krvi[.
di.t.,
{1} ai(hr, kisr, Kin, niyk an[ s[vk {2008} ni mtin&sir { p\Ym
urNmi> ai m&jb ul[K krvi[.}
{2} ai(hr an[ ay {2008} ni mtin&sir { b)J vKt an[ Ryirbidni
an&vt)< urNmi> ai m&jb ul[K krvi[.}
{3} ai(hr an[ ayni mtin&sir
{gwK>Dmi> a[kvir ki]>smi> vP<ni[ ul[K Ye gyi[ hi[y pC) t[ j gwK>Dni
an&vt)< urNmi> ki]>smi> vP<ni[ ul[K krvin) aivykti rh[t) nY)}.

Error! No text of specified style in document.

apvid: ji[ a[ksmin vP<mi> #iNY) vFir[ aTkviLi smin nimi[viLi s>dB< hi[y
ti[ p\Ym l[Kkn) aTk lKv) an[ s>dBi[<n) (Bnti miT[ {,} (vrim
(ch`n tYi an[ ay lK) (nd[<S krvi[.
di.t.,
{1} ai(hr, kisr, Kin, niyk an[ s[vk, 2008
{2} ai(hr, kisr, ci]hiN, an[ an[ s[vk, 2008

uprni b>n[ (nd[<Si[n[ n)c[ dSi<yi m&jb T*>kiv) Skiy.


ai(hr an[ ay., 2008.
pr>t& b>n[ (nd[<Sni l[Kki[ni p\Ym nimi[ smin hi[viY) b>n[ vc[ B[d piD) Skiti[
nY). aiY) aivi (kAsimi> b>n[ (nd[<Si[ j*di n pD[ Ryi> s&F)ni l[Kki[ni nimi[ni[
ul[K krvi[.
di.t.,
ai(hr, kisr, Kin, an[ ay.{2008} an[ ai(hr, kisr, ci]hiN, an[ ay
{2008}

31

32

uprni udihrNmi> p\Ym b[ nimi[ smin C[ pr>t& #i)ji nimi[ an&k\m[ Kin an[
ci]hiN j*di C[. j[ni vD[ b>n[ (nd[<Si[ j*di C[ t[ni yil aiv[ C[. aim, yi> s&F)
b>n[ (nd[<Si[n) Avt>#i ai[LK UB) Yiy Ryi> s&F) l[Kki[ni nimn) ni[>F krv).
cil& lKiNmi> a>(tm nim lKti ph[li an[ Sd lKvini[ rh[ C[. ki]>sni
(vPyvAt&mi, sirN) an[ S)P<kmi>, s>dB<s*(cmi> nimi[n[ oiri ji[Dvimi> aiv[
C[.
pT[l an[ Sih {2009} ni dSi<yi m&jb
b&( an[ s>v[gi[ vc[ shs>b>F C[ {pT[l Sih, 2009}.

yir[ ki[e kiy<n[ C k[ vF& l[Kki[ hi[y Ryir[ mi#i p\|Ym l[Kkn) aTkni[ j (nd[<S
krvi[ an[ Ryirbid an[ ay tYi vP<ni[ ul[K krvi[.
di.t.,
1

ai(hr, kisr, Kin,

ci]hiN,

ai(hr an[

{2008}

ay

niyk, pT[l, an[ s[vk,

2008

Error! No text of specified style in document.

ji[ C k[ t[Y) vF& l[Kki[ a[k j Av$pmi> lKiyi hi[y ti[ p\Ym l[Kkni[ ul[K
krvi[ an[ b>n[ s>dB<n[ C*Ti piDvi miT[ j$r) hi[y t[Tli an&vt)< l[Kki[ni[ (vrim
(ch`n {,} an[ an[ ay oiri (nd[<S krvi[.
di.t.,
1

ai(hr, kisr, Kin, ci]hiN, niyk, pT[l, an[ s[vk, 2008


ai(hr, kisr, Kin, jin),

niyk, pT[l, an[ s[vk, 2008

uprni l[Kki[ni[ (nd[<S n)c[ dSi<yi m&jb YS[.


ai(hr, kisr, Kin, jin), an[

ay. {2008}

ai(hr, kisr, Kin, ci]hiN, an[ ay. {2008}


1

3.3 l[Kk tr)k[ j*Y


yir[ j*Yni nimi[ l[Kk tr)k[ m*L lKiNni (nd[<Smi> GN) vir ji[vi
mL[ C[

{ di.t., ki[pi[<r[Sn, a[si[(Sa[Sn, srkir) s>AYi an[ ayis j*Yi[}.

33

34

k[Tlik j*Yni aiKi nimi[ p\|Ym (nd[<Smi> ji[vi mL[ C[ an[ Ryirbid T*>ki
nimi[ ji[vi mL[ C[. j*Yni nimi[n[ T*>kivt) vKt[ T*>ki nimi[ni simiy
(nymi[n[ k[Wmi> riK)n[ vickn[ s>dB<s*(cmi> m*L s\i[tn[ Si[Fvimi> m&k[l) n
pD[ t[n) kiLJ riKvin) rh[. ji[ m*L nim K*b j li>b& an[ jT)l hi[y an[ t[n&>
T*>k&>nim jiN)t&> hi[y, aYvi srLtiY) smJ Skiy a[m hi[y ti[ t[ nim
n[ Ryirbid (nd[<S)t kr) Skiy C[. ji[ nim T*>k&> hi[y aYvi ji[ T*>k&>nim srLtiY)
smJ Skiy a[m n hi[y ti[ t[ nimn[ dr vKt[ t[ni m*L Av$p[ j lKv&>.

3.4 a[k j aTk viLi vF& l[Kki[


ji[ s>dB<yid)mi> b[ k[ t[Y) vF& l[Kki[ni smiv[S Yti[ hi[y an[ vP< j*di pDti hi[y
ti[ p\Ym l[Kkni T*ki nimni[ ul[K krvi[. nimni T*>kixr vD[ vick s>dB<s*(cmi>Y)
srLtiY) m*L s\i[tn[ Si[F) SkS[ an[ ai bibt[ m&zvN ud`BvS[ nh)>.
di.t.,
pT[l, r. {1999}
pT[l, v. {1998}
3.5 l[Kkn) ai[LK (vnin&> aYvi aXit l[Kkn&> kiy<
yir[ ki[e kiy<ni l[Kkn) ai[LK Sy n hi[y aYvi ti[ l[Kk aXit hi[y
Ryir[ lKiNni p|\Ym Yi[Di Sdi[ni[ { simiy r)t[ S)P<kni[} s>dB<mi> ul[K krvi[,

Error! No text of specified style in document.

an[ v[bp[j, p\krN k[ l[Kni S)P<kn[ b[vDi avtrN (ch`n { } mi> m*kv&> tYi
(rpi[T<, p&Atk, simi(yk k[ mi(ht)p#ikni S)P<kn[ eTi(lk krv&>.
di.t.,
aiF&(nk (SxNn) g(t { (SxNni p\ni[ , 2008}
kiydik)y si(hRyni s>dB<n[ nim vgrni l[Kkni kiy<n) j[mj dSi<vv&>. ki[T< k[s
k[ kiydik)y (vgti[n[ dSi<vvi miT[ s>dB<mi> ph[li Yi[Di> Sdi[ an[ pC)
vP<ni[ ul[K krvi[.
di.t.,
g&jrit riyn) b).a[D`. ki[l[ji[ {2009}
yir[ kiy<ni l[Kkn&> nim aXit ly&> hi[y Ryir[ t[ni (nd[<Smi> aXit lK)
ap(vrim an[ Ryirbid vP< lKv&>.
di.t.,
{aXit, 2011}
s>dB<s*(cmi> aXit kiy<n[ aXit nim siY[ kivir) p\miN[ dSi<vv&>.

35

36

3.6 a[k j ki]>smi> b[ aYvi vF& kiyi[<


ki]>smi> b[ k[ t[Y) vF& l[Kki[ni[ ul[K hi[y Ryir[ s>d<Bs*(cmi> hi[y t[m kivir)
p\miN[ t[n) gi[qvN krv).
di.t.,
{ ai(hr an[ ay, 2001; pT[l an[ BiT, 2001}

a[k j l[Kkni b[ k[ t[Y) vF& kiyi[< hi[y ti[ t[n[ p\kiSnni vP< p\miN[ gi[qvv&>.
a[kvir l[Kkn) aTk dSi<vv), Ryirbid mi#i p\kiSnni vP<ni[ j ul[K
krvi[. p\[smi> hi[y t[ kiy<n[ a>tmi> dSi<vv&> an[ Ryi> p\[smi> a[m lKv&>.
di.t.,
s>Si[Fnn) p(tai[ j[ie Skiy C[ { uciT, 1999, 2001}
s>Si[Fnn) p(tai[ j[ie Skiy C[ { uciT, 1999, 2001, 2011, p\[smi>}

a[k j l[Kk oiri a[k j p\kirn&> p\kiSn j*di-j*di vP<mi> Yy&> hi[y
Ryir[ l[Kkn&> nim dSi<v) vP<n[ a>t[ a, b, c, d. a>g\[Jmi> dSi<vvi.
ji[ s>dB<ni[>F g&jrit)mi> hi[y ti[ k, K, g . . . ai m&jb dSi<v) Skiy.
a,b,c,d. k[ k, K, g, G ni[ k\m s>dBi[<n) s>yin[ aiFir[ aigLni k\m
an&sir ni[>F Ye Sk[. j[m k[ a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, . . . . vg[r[. a[ m&jb

Error! No text of specified style in document.

j g&jrit)mi> YS[. ai p\kirni an&gi[viLi s>dBi[<n[ s>dB<s*(cmi> pN


(nd[<Sni k\mmi> j dSi<vvi.
di.t.,
g&jrit)mi>: GNi ayisi[ { kisr an[ Kin, 2001a, 2004b, p\[smi>, gi>F),
2002a, 2008b}
a>g\[Jmi> : Many studies ( Kasar & Khan, 2001a, 2004b, in
press, Gandhi, 2002a, 2008b)

b[ k[ t[Y) vF& l[Kki[ni j&di-j&di kiyi[<n[ a[k j ki]>smi> kivir)


p\miN[ gi[qvvi an[ ap(vrim oiri (nd[<Si[n[ j*di piDvi.
di.t.,
GNi ayisi[ { kisr an[ Kin, 2001; gi>F), 2002; Sih, 2001}

apvid: tm[ m&y (nd[<Sn[ ki]>sni ay (nd[< Si[Y) j*di piDvi eCti hi[v
ti[ ay j*ai[ j[vi Sdi[ni[ upyi[g kr) Ski[. ai m&jbni[ ul[K
a>(tm (nd[<S ph[li krv&>. a>g\[J miT[ see also lKv&>.
di.t.,

37

38
{ kisr an[ Kin, 2001; ay j*ai[, gi>F), 2002; Sih, 2001}
( Kasar & Khan, 2001; see also Gandhi, 2002; Shah, 2001)

Error! No text of specified style in document.

39

sirN) 3.1 lKiNmi> (nd[<Sn&> miLK&>


(nd[<Sni[ p\kir

lKiNmi> p\Ym (nd[<S

a[k l[Kk oiri a[k pT[l {2010}

lKiNmi> an&gim) (nd[<S lKiNmi> p\Ym

lKiNmi> an&gim)

(nd[<S {ki]>smi>}

(nd[<S{ki]>smi>}

pT[l {2010}

{pT[l,2010}

{pT[l, 2010}

pT[l an[ riv {2005}

{pT[l an[

{pT[l an[ riv, 2005}

kiy<
b[ l[Kki[ oiri a[k

pT[l an[ riv {2005}

kiy<
#iN l[Kki[ oiri

riv,2005}
pT[l, BiT, an[ Sih {2007}

a[k kiy<

pT[l an[ ay {2007} {pT[l, BiT, an[


Sih, 2007}

cir l[Kki[ oiri

pT[l, BiT, mhijn, an[ yi(Xk

a[k kiy<

{2009}

{ pT[l an[ ay,


2007}

pT[l an[ ay {2009} {pT[l, BiT, mhijn, {pT[l an[ ay,2009}


an[ yi(Xk,2009}

40

pi>c l[Kki[ oiri

pT[l, BiT, mhijn, Sih an[

a[k kiy<

yi(Xk {2010}

pT[l an[ ay {2010} {pT[l, BiT, mhijn, pT[l an[ ay {2010}


Sih an[ yi(Xk,
2010}

C k[ t[Y) vF& l[Kki[ mhijn an[ ay {2005}

mhijn an[ ay

{mhijn an[ ay,

{mhijn an[ ay,

oiri a[k kiy<

{2005}

2005}

2005}

a[n s) T) e, {2010}

{n[Snl kius)l

{a[n s) T) e, 2010}

j*Y {j[ srLtiY)

n[Snl kius)l fi[r T)cr

T*kinim oiri

a[y&kS
[ n {a[n s) T) e, 2010}

fi[r T)cr a[y&kS


[ n

ai[LK) Skiy}

a[n s) T) e,

l[Kk tr)k[

{2010}

j*Y { T*>knim
vgr} l[Kk tr)k[

Bivngr y&(nv(s<T) {2011}

Bivngr y&(nv(s<T)

{Bivngr

{Bivngr y&(nv(s<T),

{2011}

y&(nv(s<T), 2011}

2011}

Error! No text of specified style in document.

3.7 (t)y {gi]N} s\i[t


yir[ m*L kiy< p\kiSn Av$p[ anuplF (out of print) hi[y aYvi
simiy/ (ny(mt (regular) si\[tmi> uplF n hi[y Ryir[ (t)y
s\i[tni[ upyi[g p*rt) kiLJ len[ Ye Sk[. s>dB<s*(cmi> (t)y s\i[tni[ ul[K
krvi[ an[ lKiNmi> m*L l[Kn&> nim an[ (t)y s\i[tni[ (nd[<S krvi[.
di.t., pT[ln&> kiy< Sihni l[Kmi> (nd[<(St C[. tm[ pT[ln&> kiy< vi>y&> nY)
ti[ Sihni s>dB<ni[ s>dB<s*(cmi> upyi[g krvi[ an[ lKiNmi> n)c[ m&jbni
(nd[<Sn[ an&srv&>.
pT[ln) Diyr) {Sih, 2003 mi> (nd[<(St}.

3.8 p\(SOT kiyi[<


yir[ K*b p\ic)n a[vi kiyi[<n) tir)K uplF n hi[y Ryir[ an&vidni[ an&.
a[vi T&>kixr vD[ ul[K Ye Sk[ aYvi aivZ(_ini vP<ni[ pN ai. a[vi
T&>kixr vD[ ul[K Ye Sk[. yir[ tm[ m*L kiy<n) m*L tir)K/ vP< jiNti hi[v
ti[ t[ni[ j ul[K Yvi[ GT[, pr>t& t[n) av[Jmi> j[ t[ kiy<ni an&vidni
vP<ni[ ul[K Ye Sk[.

41

42

di.t.,
{ pT[l, an&. 1931}
{Sih, 1890/1983}
SiA#i)ykiyi[< k[ p\ic)n, Fi(m<k lKiNi[ j[vik[ g\)k, ri[mnni kiyi[<, Bgvd` g)ti
vg[r[ni li[ki[, eRyid)ni[ s>dB<s*(cmi> smiv[S krvi[ j$r) nY). SiA#i)y
kiyi[<ni Bigi[ j[mk[ p&Atk, p\krN, viyi[- vg[r[mi> (vPyvAt&n[

k\mb

r)t[ p\Ry[k aivZ(_imi> dSi<v[l hi[y C[. ai k\mni[ pin s>yin[ bdl[ upyi[g Ye
Sk[.
di.t.,
~)md` Bgvd` g)ti 2:12

3.9 s\i[tni ki[e ci[s Bigni[ (nd[<S


s\i[tni ki[e ci[ks Bigni[ (nd[<S krvi, pin n>br, p\krN, aikZ(t,
sirN)ni[ yi[y AYin[ (nd[<S krvi[. avtrN miT[ h>m[Si pin n>brni[ ul[K
krvi[. aivi lKiNni (nd[<Smi> pin s>yini[ upyi[g Ye Sk[, pN p\krNni
T*>kixrni[ upyi[g n krvi[.

Error! No text of specified style in document.

di.t.,
{S]x(Nk smAyiai[n) cci<, 2010, pZ.10}
{stt (SxN, 2009, p\krN 3}

3.10 y(tgt p\Ryiyn


y(tgt p\Ryiynmi> King)p#ii[, m[mi[, (vjiN&> p\Ryiyn { j[vik[ e m[el,
el[T^i[(nk b&l[(Tn bi[D<, p&n: ap\iy cci<j*Yi[}, y(tgt m&likit, T[(lfi[(nk
cci< vg[r[ni[ smiv[S Yiy C[. kirN k[ t[ fr)Y) m[Lv) Skiy t[v) mi(ht) aip)
Skti nY), t[Y) y(tgt p\Ryiynni[ mi#i m&y lKiNmi> j (nd[<S krvi[.
(nd[<S a>tg<t p\Ryiyn krnirni nimni p\Ymixr tYi t[n) aTkni[ ul[K
krvi[ an[ p\Ryiynn) ci[ks tir)Kni[ ul[K krvi[.
di.t.,
uciT, D). a[. { y(tgt p\Ryiyn, 25 a[(p\l, 2010}
{uciT, D). a[., y(tgt p\Ryiyn, 25 a[(p\l, 2010}

ay (vjiN&> Av$pni[ y(tgt p\Ryiyn a>tg<t (nd[<S krvimi> l[Kk[ (nN<y


krvi[. ai[n lien n[Tvk< p\Ryiyn miT[ p\s>gi[pit m>c p*ri[ piD[ C[. tmiri
lKiNmi> j[ k>e (nd[<S)t hi[y t[ s&s>gt hi[v&> ji[ea[.

43

44

y(tgt p\Ryiynni k[Tlik Av$pi[ p&n: p\iy C[ an[ t[n[ s>dB<s*(c a>tg<t
p&n: p\iy simg\)mi> smiv[S krvi[ ji[ea[.

3.11 ki]>sn) simg\)mi> (nd[<S


ki]>smi> rj* Yt) mi(ht)ni (nd[<Smi dSi<vit) tir)K miT[ ap(vrimni[ upyi[g
krvi[, D[Sni[ nh).
di.t.,
{ j&ai[, a[n s) e air T) ni[ vi(P<k r)pi[T<, 2011}

Error! No text of specified style in document.

(vBig-4
s>dB<s*(c

45

46

(vBig-4 s>dB<s*(c
s>dB<s*(c s>Si[Fn ah[viln[ a>>t[ rj& Yiy C[. SdS: ji[ea[ ti[ s>Si[Fn ah[vil,
Si[F(nb>F k[ (rsc< p\i[j[Tni (rpi[T<ni (vBigi[ k[ p\krNi[ni piqyvAt& (text) mi>
uZt (cited) a[Tl[ k[ ul[Kiy[li s\i[tin) yid) t[ s>dB<s*(c. References
are those sources which are referred in the text of the
research report.
s>dB<s*(c smi(vOT s\i[ti[n) ai[LK miT[n) tYi t[mn[ g\>Yily eRyi(dmi>Y)
m[Lvvi miT[n) j$r) mi(ht) aip[ C[. APA oiri p\ki(St Yti> sim(yki[ tYi
ay GNi> sim(yki[ni l[Ki[n[ a>t[ s>dB<s*(c (List of References) aipvimi>
aiv[ C[, Bibliography2 n(h.
APA S]l) an&sir s>dB<s*(c nvi pZOq pr S$ Yiy C[. References
k[ s>dB<s*(c Sd mymi> lKiy/ Tiep Yiy C[. t[mi> dr[k s>dB< Dbl Ap[smi>
hi[y C[ an[ hanging indent format mi> hi[y C[, a[Tl[ k[ p\Ym p>(t Dibi
hi>(syi Bri[Br Tiep Yiy C[ an[ pC)n) p>(tai[ eD[T kriy C[.

Reference list { s>dB<s*(c} mi> ci[s l[Kni[ aiFir p*ri piDti an[ ul[K Yyi hi[y t[vi
j kiyi[<ni[ smiv[S Yiy C[. yir[ Bibliography mi> l[Kn) pcidB*(mki aYvi vF& vicn
miT[ni s>dBi[<ni[ pN ul[K Yyi[ hi[e Sk[.

Error! No text of specified style in document.

s>dB<s*(cmi> mi#i uZt s>dBi[< j hi[viY) p#i[ j[vi> y(tgt p\Ryiyni[ tYi
ay ani]pci(rk p\Ryiynni[ ul[K TiLvi[.

4.1 ci[ks an[ s>p*N< s>dB<s*(cn) rcni


s>dB<s*(cni[ h[t& vickn[ s\i[t a>g[ s>d(B<t simg\)n) p&n:p\i(t miT[ sxm
bnivvini[ hi[viY) t[ ci[ks an[ s>p*N< hi[v) GT[. p\Ry[k ni[>Fmi> ai m&jbni GTki[
hi[vi ji[ea[:
l[Kk
p\kiSnn&> vP<
S)P<k
p\kiSnn) mi(ht)
a[v) bF) mi(ht) j[ p&Atkilymi> s\i[tn) Si[F miT[ upyi[g) hi[y. mi(ht)n)
ci[ksie miT[ni[ si]Y) siri[ mig< a[ C[ k[ p\Ry[k s>dB<ni[>Fn[ m*L lKiN siY[
tpisvimi> aiv[. ji[DN) an[ yi[y nim, (vd[Sni nimi[, ci[ks (ch`ni[ an[
jn<lni l[Kni S)P<k miT[ vP<, vi[y&m, ey& n>br, pin n>br an[ el[kT^i[(nk p&n:
p\i(t mi(ht) dSi<v[l hi[y. l[Kmi> dSi<v[l s>dBi[< miT[ l[Kk pi[t[ s>p*N< jvibdir
hi[y C[. s>dB<s*(cmi> yi[y ni[>F s>Si[Fk tr)k[n) tmir) aigv) ai[LK UB) kr[
C[.

47

48

s>x[p
Av)kZt s>x[p j[mk[ p&Atkni[ Big k[ ay p\kiSnn[ n)c[ m&jb dSi<v) Skiy.
di.t., ji[ (vgt a>g\[Jmi> hi[y ti[-

Abbreviation

Book or publication

Ed

Edition

Rev. ed.

Revised edition

2nd ed.

second

Ed. (Eds.)

Editor (Editors)

Trans.

Translator(s)

n.d.

no date

p.(pp.)

page (pages)

Vol.

Volume ( as in Vol. 4)

Vols.

Volumes ( as in Vols. 1-4)

No.

Number

Pt.

Part

Tech. Rep.

Technical Report

Suppl.

Supplement

Error! No text of specified style in document.

ar[(bk n>br
ji[ k[ k[Tlik p&Atki[ni vi[y&m n>brn[ ri[mn ai>kDimi> dSi<vvimi> aiyi hi[y pr>t&
APA ar[(bk ai>kDini[ upyi[g kr[ C[ {di.t., Vol-3, Vol-III nh)>}. kirNk[
ri[mn a>k vF& jyi ri[k[ C[. ji[ ri[mn a>k S)P<kni[ a[k Big hi[y ti[ tn[ ri[mn
a>k tr)k[ j riKvi.
4.2 a[k$pti
s>dB<S]l)mi> a[k$pti j$r) C[. simiy r)t[ T[kni[l(jni[ upyi[g Yyi[ hi[y Ryir[
ky*Tr p\i[g\im oiri t]yir Yy[l yid)n[ m*L yid) siY[ tpis) jv&> an[ vickn[
srLtiY) an[ yi[y r)t[ s\i[t mL[ t[ ji[v&>.

4.3 a(FkZt s>g\hn) nkl k[ s>g\hn&> s>AkrN


yir[ ai[n lien mi(ht)ni[ (nd[<S kriti hi[v Ryir[ Kis ji[v&> k[ tm[ yi[y
aivZZ(_ini[ ul[K kyi[< C[ k[ nh)>. p\(k\yimi> hi[y t[ aYvi ti[ a>(tm Av$pmi>Y) ke
aivZ(_i nv)ntm C[ t[ tpisv&>. simiy r)t[ a(FkZt s>g\hn) nkl k[ s>g\hni
s>AkrNn&> urN krv&> si]Y) vF& yi[y C[. t[ (voin siY)dir oiri sm)(xt[ Peer
Reviewed hi[y an[ t[n) siY[ ay ji[DiN pN Yy[l&> hi[y ti[ t[ni[ upyi[g
eCn)y C[. tmiri kiy<ni p\kiSnn) tir)K ji[en[ j[ si]Y) vF& nJk hi[y t[ni[
ul[K krvi[.

49

50

4.5 s>dB<s*(cmi> s>dBi[<ni[ k\m


aTkn[ kkivir) p\miN[. dr[k ni[>Fn[ kkivir) p\miN[ gi[qvv). l[Kkn)
aTkni p\Ym axrn[ yinmi> len[ ni[>F krv).
l[Kkn) aTkni p\Ymixr p\miN[n) gi[qvN mi[T[ Big[ bFi j d[Si[ oiri
an&srvimi> aiv[ C[. pr>t&, p*v<ni GNi> d[Si[mi> t[n&> an&srN nY) Yt&> . ji[
tm[ nim an[ aTk bibt[ ci[ks n hi[v ti[ p(mmi> p\ki(St Yy[l p*v[<ni
s\i[ti[[ ji[vi.
di.t.,
Chen Zhe am[(rki an[ ay d[Si[mi> Zhe Chen nim[ ul[(Kt hi[y.
kkivir) p\miN[ s>dB<ni[>Fn) gi[qvN YS[.
j[mk[, yi> k>e n hS[ t[ k>ek hi[y t[n) p*v[< hS[ .
di.t., K&Sil, j. r. a[ K&Silkr, a. b. n) p*v[< hS[.

upr dSi<v[l udihrNmi> K&Sil aTk #iN axrn) C[ , Ryirbidni b)ji


udihrNmi> #iN axr K& - Si - l smin C[ pr>t& Ryirbid kr Sd
ji[Diy[l C[. p(rNim[ K&Sil bid nimni j. r. krti a. b. kkivir) p\miN[

Error! No text of specified style in document.

aigL hi[vi Cti> K&Silkr krti> K&Sil aTkviLi s>dB<n) ni[>F aigL
krvimi> aivS[.
p*v<gi[ (Prefix) n[ pN kkivir) p\miN[ gi[qvvi. g&jrit)mi> ai j$(ryit
nY) rh[t). pr>t& a>g\[Jmi> M, Mc an[ Mac j[vi p*v<gi[ hi[y C[. ah)>
bFi p*v<gi[n[ ji[DN) an&sir gN) t[n[ kkivir) p\miN[ gi[qvvi.
j[mk[, Mc Arthur

a[ Mc Allister n) p*v[< hS[. a[ j r)t[ Mac

Neil a[ Mac Arthur n) p*v[< hS[.

smin p\Ym l[Kk oiri an[k kiyi[<


yir[ a[k j l[Kk oiri GNi>bFi kiyi[< krvimi> aiyi hi[y Ryir[ ph[li l[Kkn)
aTk lKv) an[ pC) ay s>dB[< n)c[ni (nymi[n[ an&srvi yi[y rh[.
a[k j l[Kkni GNi>bFi> kiyi[<n) ni[>F vP<n) gi[qvN p\miN[ kr) Skiy.
di.t., pT[l, r. {2001}
pT[l, r. {2002}
a[k smin aTkY) S$ Yti GNi bFi l[Kki[n) p*v[< a[k l[Kkn) ni[>F YS[.
{ a[k l[Kkni kiy<n&> vP< piCLn&> hi[y ti[ pN}

51

52

di.t., pT[l, r. n. {2001}


pT[l, r.n an[ zi, a. b. {1999}
uprni WOTi>tmi> p\Ym udihrNn&> ul[(Kt vP< 2001 C[ vP<ni k\mn[
yinmi> l[ti 1999 p\Ym aivv&> ji[et&> ht&>. pr>t& ah)> smin aTkviLi
(nd[<Smi> p\Ym udihrNmi> a[k j l[Kk C[ yir[ b)ji udihrNmi> a[kY) vF&
l[Kk hi[viY) upr m&jbni[ k\\m nk) YS[.
yir[ p\Ym l[Kkn) aTk smin hi[y an[ b)ji l[Kkn) aTk j*d) hi[y
Ryir[ b)ji an[ #i)ji l[Kkn[ kkivir) p\miN[ gi[qvvi. ji[ b)ji l[Kkn)
aTk pN smin hi[y Ryir[ #i)ji l[Kk an[ a[j r)t[ ay aigLni
l[Kki[n) pN gi[qvN krv).
di.t.,
ahlivt, m. t. an[ pT[l, j. B. {2007}
ahlivm. m. t. an[ b[d), j. B. {2007}
pT[l, r. m., b[d), k. b. an[ Bi[giyti, c. k. {1999}
pT[l, r. m., b[d), k. b. an[ s[vk, v. k. {1999}

53

s>dB<mi> l[Kki[ni nimi[ srKi hi[y Ryir[ p\kiSnni vP< an&sir t[mn)
gi[qvN krv).
di.t.,
ai(hr, r. t. an[ pT[l, j. l. {2001}
ai(hr, r. t. an[ pT[l, j. l. {2004}
jyir[ l[Kki[ni nimi[, t[mni[ k\m tYi p\kiSnni vP< pN smin hi[y Ryir[
S)P<k an&sir gi[qvv&>.

{ ji[ nim a>g \[Jmi> hi[y ti[ A k[ The n[ bid

kr)n[ S)P<k gNv&>. tYi ki[>smi> vP< dSi<yi bid t&r>t a, b, k... a[m k\mS:
dSi<vv&>.}
di.t., si[nvN[, j.r. {2005a} (k\yiRmk s>Si[Fnmi>. . . . .
si[nvN[, j. r. {2005b} (SxNmi> . . . .
uprni udihrNmi> b>n[ s>dBi[<ni l[Kki[ni> nimi[ smin C[, p\kiSnn&> vP< pN
smin C[. aiY) S)P<kni p\Ym Sdni p\Ym axr an&sir (k\yiRmk

s>Si[Fnmi> . . .l[Kn[ (SxNmi> . . .l[Kn) p*v[< m*kvimi> aiy&> C[. vL),


p\kiSnn&> vP< smin hi[viY) vP<n) siY[ a an[ b dSi<vvimi> aiyi C[.
apvid: ji[ s>dB<mi> ki[e l[KmiLimi> l[Kkni nimi[, p\kiSnn&> vP< smin hi[y
ti[ s>dB<ni[>Fn[ kkivir) p\miN[ nh)>, pr>t&> l[Kni k\m p\miN[ gi[qvv&>.

54

smin aTkviLi j&di j&di p\Ym l[Kki[n>i j&d) j&d) kZ(tai[ni[ k\m:
yir[ j&d) j&d) kZ(tai[ni p\Ym l[Kki[n) aTk smin hi[y t[v) (AY(tmi>
l[Kki[ni nimni p\Ymixr an&sir gi[qvN krv).
di.t., a>bisNi, a. a., an[ pT[l, r. m. {1998}.
a>bisNi, r. m., an[ birD, k. l. {1998}.
ah)>, b>n[ s>dBi[<ni l[Kki[ j&di j&di C[, pr>t& t[mn) aTk smin C[. aiY)
ah)> l[Kki[ni nimni p\Ymixrn[ yinmi> l[vimi> aiyi C[. p(rNim[

a>bisNi, a. a. n[ a>bisNi, r. m. n) p*v[< m*kvimi> aiyi C[.


ni[>F: ai p\kirn) (AY(tmi> yir[ piqyvAt&mi> urNn) ni[>F krvin) hi[y
Ryir[ p\Ym l[Kkn) aTkn) siY[ t[ni nimni p\Ymixrni[ pN ul[K
krvi[.

l[Kki[n&> j*Y aYvi l[Kkni nim (vnini kiyi[<ni[ k\m:


p\s>gi[pit a[v&> ji[vi mL[ C[ k[ ki[e kiy<ni l[Kk tr)k[ ki[e s>AYi, a[js),
j*Y hi[y, j[mi ki[e vir l[Kkn&> nim pN nY) hi[t&>. aiv) (AYt)mi> j[ t[
a[si[(Sa[Sn k[ srkir) s>AYini j*Yni nimni p\Ym Sdni[ upyi[g krvi[
an[ t[ an&sir kkivir) p\miN[ gi[qvN krv). s>AYini aiKi nimni[
upyi[g krvi[. { di.t., minv s>siFn (vkis m>#iily, nh)> k[ MHRD }.

55

m&y s>AYini[ k\m t[n) upSiKiai[ni k\m krti ph[li aivS[. { di.t., minv
s>siFn (vkis m>#iily, uc (SxN (vBig}.
ji[ kiy<ni l[Kk tr)k[ ApOT r)t[ aXit a[m ly&> hi[y - mi#i t[ an[
t[ j (kAsimi> - aXit a[ sic&> nim hi[y a[ r)t[ t[n[ kivir) p\miN[
gi[qvv&>.
yi> l[Kkn&> nim aipvimi> n aiy&> hi[y t[v) (AYt)mi> S)P<kn[
l[Kkni nimn[ AYin[ le jv&> an[ l[Kni S)P<kni p\Ym Sdn[ le t[n[
kkivir)ni k\mmi> gi[qvv&>.

4.5 a(F(vl[PNmi> smi(vOT s>dB<


ji[ a(F(vl[PNmi> smi(vOT ayisi[n) s>yi p\miNmi> ai[C) { 50 k[ t[Y)
ai[C)} hi[y ti[ t[mni[ ul[K s>dB<s*(cmi> n) (nSin) siY[ krvi[. ji[
a(F(vl[PNmi> l[Ki[n) s>yi 50 Y) vF& hi[y ti[ l[Kni s>dBi[<ni[ ul[K
s>dB<s*(cmi> krvi[ an[ t[n[ ai[nlien p&n: p\iy si(hRy tr)k[ uplF
krivv&>. ai b)ji (kAsimi>, ji[ l[Kni[ ul[K lKiNmi> Yyi[ hi[y an[ t[ni[
smiv[S a(F(vl[PNmi> pN Yyi[ hi[y, ti[ t[ni[ s>dB<s*(c an[ p*rk si(hRy
a[m b>n[ AYL[ ul[K Yvi[ j$r) C[.
p\Ym s>dB<n) ni[>F ph[li n)c[n&> viy um[rv&>

56

n) (nSin) siY[ ul[(Kt s>dBi[<ni[ smiv[S a(F(vl[PNmi> smi(vOT C[.


a(F(vl[PN miT[ ps>d Yy[l ayisi[mi> smi(vOT urNi[n) p*v[< n)
(nSin) krv) n(h.
pT[l, a.l. {1996}. ayyn p(t. Bivngr: (SxN p\kiSn.
birD, a. b., an[ qikr, k.l. {1991}. ayyn p(tmi>
siFni[ni[ upyi[g. (SxN p(t ni[ a(FkZt s>g\h, 15, 245-260.
s>dB<ni GTki[:
s>dB<mi> l[Kkn&> nim, p\kiSnn&> vP<, kiy<n&> S)P<k an[ p\kiSnn) (vgtni[
smiv[S Yiy C[. hv[ pC) ai m&iai[n) cci< krvimi> aiv) C[.

57

(vBig-5
s>dB<ni GTki[

58

(vBig-5 s>dB<ni GTki[

5.1 l[Kk an[ s>pidkn) (vgt


l[Kk.
l[Kki[ni nimi[n[ aTk an[ nimi[n[ k\mmi> gi[qvi[ { sit l[Kki[n)
s>yi s&F)}. di.t., l[Kk, a.a., l[Kk, b.b., an[ l[Kk, k.k.}.
yir[ l[Kki[n) s>yi aiq k[ t[Y) vFir[ h[iy ti[ p\Ym C l[Kki[ni
nimi[ lK) Ryir bid #iN Tpki> m*k) C[li l[Kkn&> nim um[rv&>.

di.t.,
k\m

l[Kkn&> nim

k\m

l[Kkn&> nim

ai(hr, t.B.

ji[S), B.h.

uciT, d.n.

t[r]yi, r.c.

K[r, m.y.

Yi[riT, j.g.

civDi, j.d.

dv[, l.s.

59

ai(hr, t.B.,

uciT, d.n., K[r, m.y., civDi, j.d.,

6
t[r]yi, r.c., . . .

5
ji[S), B.h.,

8
dv[, l. s.

{2010}. (SxNmi> s>Si[Fnn)

aiF&(nk p\y&(tai[. (SxNni vt<min p\ni[,6, 214-221.

uprni udihrNn[ ji[ti jNiS[ k[ l[Kni k&l aiq l[Kki[ C[. pr>t& uprni
(nymin&sir C l[Kki[n) ni[>F bid #iN Tpki> krvimi> aiyi C[, Ryirbid
sitmi l[Kkni nimni[ ul[K TiL)n[ s)Fi aiqmi l[Kkni[ ul[K krvimi>
aiyi[ C[.

ji[ s>dB<ni[>Fmi> a[kj aTk an[ nimni smin p\Ymixr Frivti a[kY) vF&
l[Kki[ hi[y Ryir[ l[Kkn&> nim ki]>smi> aip) Skiy.
di.t.,
s>dB<ni[>F miT[:
pT[l, r. rm[S. {1986}.

60

pT[l, r. r(sk. {1987}.


lKiNmi> urN miT[:
{rm[S pT[l, 1986}
{r(sk pT[l, 1987}
ji[ l[Kkn&> p\Ym nim hiefn y&t hi[y ti[ hiefnn[ nimn) vc[ j[mn&> t[m
riKv&> an[ p\Ry[k Sd pC) p*N<(vrim m*kv&>.
di.t.,
Jn-bipT)AT bi[mrn) ni[>F ai m&jb lKiS[ bi[mr j[.-b).
{ simiyt: g&jrit) lKiNmi> ai m&jbni p(r(AY(t n(hvt` hi[y C[}.

l[Kkni nimn[ j&di piDvi, aTk an[ nimni p\Ymixrn[ j&di piDvi miT[
ap (vrim (Comma) ni[ upyi[g krvi[. b[ Y) sit l[Kki[n) ni[>Fmi>
a>(tm l[Kkni nimn) ni[>F p*v[< g&jrit)mi> n[ lKv&>, a>g\[J s>dB<mi> & n)
(nSin) m*kvimi> aiv[ C[.

61

di.t.,
ai(hr, t.B.{2010}.
ai(hr, t.B., uciT, d.n. n[ K[r, m.y.{2010}.

j*Y l[Kk tr)k[ hi[y Ryir[ j*Yni aiKi nimni[ ul[K krvi[.
di.t.,
Bivngr y&(nv(s<T), (SxNSiA#i Bvn, S]x(Nk T[knil(j. {2011}.

ji[ l[Kki[ni nim siY[ k[ with siY[ ul[(Kt hi[y, ti[ lKiNni urNmi>
mi#i m&y l[Kkni[ j ul[K krvi[ an[ s>dB<ni[>Fmi> m*L l[Kkni nim siY[
k[ with siY[ ul[(Kt hi[y t[vi nimi[n[ ki]>smi> dSi<vvi.
di.t.,
pT[l, r.t. { niyk, n. m. siY[}.
ji[ ki[e l[Kni l[Kkn&> nim n hi[y ti[ l[Kni S)P<kn[ l[Kkni nimn[ AYin[
{ a[Tl[ k[ p\kiSnn) (vgtn) p*v[<} dSi<vv&> , Ryirbid p\kiSnn&> vP< lKv&>.
di.t.,

62

ci[pi(nyini l[Kn) ni[>F


Fi[rN dsn) bi[D<n) pr)xini ci[>kivniri tyi[. {2007, nv[br/
(Ds[br}.

(SxN

(c>tn.

p&n:

p\iy

s\i[t

http://www.shikshanchintan.org/board/news-atglance/215546/topstory.html

l[Kk k[ s>pidk (vnini ai[n lien s>dB<kiy<n) ni[>F:


Ellipsis.(n.d). In Websters online dictionary (11th ed.).
Retrieved from
http://www.webster.com/dictionary/ellipsis

Atr)kZt. {ti.n.}. ai[sfi[D<ni[ ai[nlien Sdki[S { 11m) ai.}.


p&n: p\iy s\i[t
http://www.oxford.com/dictionary/starikrut

smicirp#ini[ l[K
t$Ni[mi> ji[vi mL[li asimiy f[rfiri[. {2010, sT[br 14}. (dy

BiAkr smicir p#i.

63

y(tgt s>g\h
pr)xi s>dB[< (SxN (vBig[ l)F[li[ upyi[g) (nN<y. {1992, ai[gOT
21}. a[k vNai[LKiy[l d](nk smicirp#imi>Y). nkl l[Kkn[
hAtk.
s>pidk:
s>pi(dt p&Atkn) s>dB<ni[>F miT[ s>pidkni nimn[ l[Kkni nimn[
AYin[ m*kvi an[ ki]>smi> s>. n[ a>(tm nimn[ a>t[ lKv&>, Ryirbid
p\kiSnni vP<n[ dSi<vv&>
di.t.,
s>pidkn&> nim
niyk, ki. an[ ji[S), h.

ki]>smi> s>. p\kiSnn&>


vP<
{s>.}.

{2010}.

ay (vgti[
(SxNmi> s>Si[Fn.

ji[ ki[e s>pi(dt p&Atkni p\krNni[ s>dB< hi[y ti[ j[-t[ p\krNni
l[Kkni nimn) upr jNiyi m&jb ni[>F krv). ah)>, p&Atkni
s>pidkni nimn) ni[>F S$aitmi> n krv).

64

l[Kkn&> nim

p\kiSn
vP<

l[Kn&> S)P<k

s>pidkn&>
nim

kti(ryi, l. d.

{2010}.

(SxNmi>
nv(vcir

biri[T, c. s. {s>pi.}.

pin k\mi>k

AYL

p\kiSk

123-135,

amdivid:

snitn.

p&Atkn&>
{eTi(lk}

S)P<k mi>

nv(vcir an[ p(rvt<n.

mi>

{s>pi.}.

s>pi(dt p&Atkni p\krNni s>dB<mi> l[Kni l[Kkn) aTk p\Ym lKv)


Ryir bid t[ni nimni[ p\Ymixr lK) p\kiSnni vP<n) (vgt lKv),
Ryirbid l[Kn&> S)P<k lKv&>. s>pidkn) (vgti[, Ryirbid p&Atkn&>
nim, bid trt j mi> lKv&>. pin k\mi>k, p\kiSn AYL tYi p\kiSkn)
(vgti[ lKv).

ji[ s>pidki[n) s>yi vFir[ hi[y ti[ p|\Ym s>pidkn) (vgti[ lK) an[ ay
lKv&>.

l[Kkn&> nim

p\kiSn vP< l[Kn&> S)P<k

s>pidkn&>
nim

{s>pi.}.

65
kti(ryi, l. d.

{2010}.

(SxNmi> nv(vcir

biri[T, c. {s>pi.}.
s.
an[
ay

p&Atkn&> S)P<k mi>


{eTi(lk}

pin k\mi>k

AYL

p\kiSk

nv(vcir
p(rvt<n.

123-135,

amdivid:

snitn.

an[ mi>

yir[ ki[e p&Atkni s>pidkn&> nim aipvimi> n aiy&> hi[y ti[ p&Atkni
nimn) piCL mi> lKv&>.

5.2 p\kiSnni[ smy


yir[ kiy<n&> p\kiSn Yy&> hi[y t[ p\kiSnni vP<n[ ki]>smi> m*kv&>.
{ ap\ki(St aYvi ti[ ani]pci(rk r)t[ p\ki(St Yy[l kiy< yir[ rj*
Yy&> hi[y t[ vP< lKv&>}
pinvili, a. y. {2011}.

sim(yk, smicir p#i k[ y&z l[Tr miT[ p\kiSn vP<, mis tYi ci[ks
tir)K ki]>smi> ap (vrimY) j*d) piD)n[ aipv). ji[ p\kiSnni

66

smygiLin[ ki[e misn) j[m dSi<vvimi> aiy&> hi[y ti[ ki]>smi> vP<
an[ misn[ ap(vrimY) j*d&> piD)n[ dSi<vv&>.
(s>G, k. b. {2008, m[}.
zi, a. y. {1998, sT[br 16}.
yidv, d. s. { 2009, vs>t}.
(mT)>gmi> p[pr an[ pi[ATr rj*ait Ye hi[y t[vi (kAsimi> (mT)>gni[
mis an[ vP<n[ ki[>smi> ap(vrimY) j*d&> piD)n[ dSi<vv&>.
j[ l[K p\kiSn miT[ Av)kiriyi[ hi[y pr>t& hj& p\ki(St n Yyi[[ hi[y,
t[ni miT[ p\[smi> lKv&>. yi> s&F) l[K viAtvmi> p\ki(St n Yyi[ hi[y
Ryi> s&F) ki[e ci[ks tir)K aipv) nh)>. j[ l[K (ry& miT[, p&n:
lKiN k[ p\kiSnn) p\(k\yi a>tg<t hi[y t[ni miT[ n)c[ m&jb rj&ait
krv).

ci]hiN, l. j. {2011}. Fi[rN 12 mi> ayis krti n)c)

b&(kxi Frivti (vwiY)<ai[n) ayyn S]l)ni[ ayis.


hAtp\t p\kiSn miT[ jmi krvimi> aiv) C[.

67

ji[ p\kiSnn) tir)K uplF n hi[y ti[ ki]>smi> {ti. n.} g&jrit)mi>,
aYvi a>g\[J hi[y ti[ ki]>smi> (n.d.) lKv&>.

GNibFi vi[y&mviLi kiy<ni vi[y&m tYi smin s>g\hni k[Tlik


p#ii[ni (kAsimi> vP<n[ j*niY) nvini k\mmi> dSi<vvi.
Sih, d. r. {s>pi.}. {1992-1999}. mni[(vXin: (SxNni

s>dB<mi> a[k ayis {vi[y&m 1-6}. Bivngr: snitn


p\kiSn.
s>g\hiy[li s\i[tmi>Y) l[viy[l s>dB< j[n) tir)K ApOT r)t[ dSi<vvimi>
aiv) n hi[y t[n) ni[>F krvi miT[ ci[rs ki]>smi> a>di. {a>di(jt}
lKv&>.

kil[lkr, a.. a>di. 1942. (hmilyni p\visni miri

an&Bvi[. ap\ki(St hAtp\t. miri p#ii[. syiJ liyb\[r), v)r


nm<d d(xN g&jrit y&nv(s<T), s&rt.

p\kiSnni vP<n) rj*ait krnir ki]>s bid trt j p*N<(vrim m*kv&>.

68

5.3 S)P<k
l[K k[ p\krNn&> S)P<k. ki[e l[K k[ p\krNni S)P<kn[ eTi(lk krv&> nh)>, t[m j
ki[e avtrN (ch`nmi> m*kv&> nh). a>g\[J S)P<kmi> S)P<kni p|\Ym axrn[
k[(pTlmi> lKvi[ aYvi ti[ ki[e upS)P<k hi[y ti[ t[n[ k[(pTlmi> lKv&> pr>t&
bFi j Sdi[n[ k[(pTlmi> lKvi nh)>.
Fi[rN 12 mi> ayis krti uc b&(kxi Frivti (vwiY)<ai[n) ayyn
S]l)ni[ ayis.

jn<l, sim(yk k[ y&z l[Trni S)P<k. j[ t[ jn<l, sim(yk k[ y&z l[Trni


S)P<kn[ s>p*N< tYi eTi(lkmi> lKv&>. ji[ S)P<k a>g\[j)mi> hi[y ti[ S)P<kn[
apr k[s an[ li[ar k[s mi> dSi<vv&>. a[Tl[ k[ (SP<kmi> smi(vOT Sdi[ni
p\Ym axrn[ aprk[smi> an[ ay Sdi[n[ li[ark[smi> dSi<vvi.

Jvn (SxN
Review of Educational Research

p&Atki[ an[ (rpi[T<.


p&Atkni S)P<kn[ eTi(lk krv&>. ji[ p&Atk a>g \[J BiPimi> hi[y ti[
S)P<kni p\Ym Sdni p\Ym axrn[ an[ ji[ ki[e upS)P<k hi[y ti[
t[ni p\Ym axrn[ k[(pTl krv&>.

69

p\kiSnn) ai[LK miT[ aipvimi> aivt) vFirin) mi(ht), j[mk[


aivZ(_i, (rpi[T< n>br, vi[y&m n>br vg[r[n[ S)P<kn) rj*ait bid t&r>t
j ki]>smi> dSi<vv&>. S)P<k an[ ki]>sn) mi(ht)n) vc[ ki[epN
(vrim(ch`nni[ upyi[g n krvi[. upri>t ki]>sn) mi(ht)n[ eTi(lk n
krv).

S]x(Nk s>Si[Fni[mi> ai>kDiSiA#i { 5 m) ai. }.

p&Atkn&> S)P<k eTi(lk

ki]>sn) (vgti[

ji[ ki[e vi[y&m mi[Ti, Avt>#i S)P<kn) hirmiLi k[ s>g\hni[ Big hi[y
ti[ hirmiLi an[ vi[y&mni S)P<kn[ b[ Bigni S)P<k tr)k[ gNv&>.
riqi[D, n. m. an[ yi(Xk, v. t. {1998}. vg<K>Dmi> (c>tniRmkti.
Bi[giyti, D. l. (SxNmi> (c>tniRmkti {s>pi(dt hirmiLi}mi>,
S]x(Nk s>Si[Fn hirmiLi: vi[y&m.1 (c>tniRmk (SxN {pin.
140-156}.

S)P<kmi> (bnpr>prigt mi(ht). ji[ S)P<kmi> (bnpr>prigt mi(ht) s\i[tn)


ai[LK an[ p&n: p\i(tmi> upyi[g) hi[y, ti[ t[ mi(ht)n[ S)P<k k[ ay b)J

70

ki[e pN ki]>sn) mi(ht) pC) t&r>t j ci[rs ki]>smi> m*kv). ci[rs ki]>s a[
S)P<k nh)> pN Av$pn&> vN<n dSi<v[ C[. ah)> kiy<ni Av$pn) ai[LK mL[ t[
miT[n) k[Tl)k ni[>F dSi<v) C[.

s>pidkn[ p#i
(v(SOT a>k
(v(SOT (vBig
mi[ni[g\if
siri>S
~iy p&n: p\sirN
mi(ht) fiel
mi(ht) p#ik
c(lt (c#i
yiyin ni[>F
s)D)
ky*Tr si[f`Tv[r
(vD)yi[ v[bkiAT
p*rk simg\)

71

5.4 p\kiSn mi(ht)


jn<l, y&z l[Tr an[ sim(yk.
sim(ykni S)P<k bid trt j vi[y&m n>br lKvi[. smg\ S)P<kn[
eTi(lsmi> krv&>. vi[y&m n>brn) aigL vi[y&m a[v&> lKv&> nh)>.
ji[ jn<l eAy& oiri Avt>#i r)t[ k\m aipt&> hi[y ti[ vi[y&m n>brn)
siY[ eAy& n>br pN dSi<vvi[ ji[ea[. vi[y&m n>br dSi<yi bid t&r>t
j ki]>smi> eAy& n>br dSi<vvi[ ji[ea[, t[n[ eTi(lk krvi nh)>. yi>
s\i[tn) simg\) uplF hi[y t[ni pin n>brn[ dSi<vvi[ ji[ea[.

v]w, s. v. {2009}. si>v[(gk b&( an[ j*Ykiy<siFkti vc[ni


s>b>Fni[ ayis. jn<l ai[f a[y&k[Snl siyki[li[J,2{2},
38-40.

ai GTkni[ a>t p*N<(vrimY) krvi[.

S]x(Nk s>Si[Fn, 84, 205-221.


sim(ykni p\kiSkn&> nim an[ AYinn[ simiy r)t[ s>dB<s*(cmi> sim[l
krvimi> nY) aivti.

72

p&Atk an[ (rpi[T<


(bn a>kmi> p\ki(St Yt) simg\) j[v) k[ p&Atk, (rpi[T<, ci[pi(nyi an[
ay p\kiSni[ j[mi> p\kiSk an[ p\kiSnni AYinni[ ul[K p\Ym pin
upr krvimi> aiv[ C[ t[ni AYinni[ ul[K krvi[.
ji[ p\kiSk tr)k[ y&(nv(s<T) hi[y, an[ y&(nv(s<T)ni nimmi> riy k[
d[Sn&> nim smi(vOT hi[y ti[ p\kiSnni AYin tr)k[ t[ nimi[n&>
p&nrivt<n krvin) j$r nY).
AYin lyi bid g&$(vrim {:} n) (nSin) krv).
p\kiSkni nimn[ T*>kmi> dSi<vv&>. ki[e j*Y, (ngm k[ y&(nv(s<T) p\[sn[
dSi<vv&> pN vN<niRmk S]l) j[mk[ p(lSs<, k&>pn), vg[r[n[ TiLv&>. ai
Sdi[ vD[ p\kiSkn) ki[e (vS[P ai[LK Yt) nY).
ji[ b[ k[ t[Y) vF& p\kiSn AYLi[ni[ ul[K p&Atkmi> aipvimi> aiyi
hi[y ti[ j[ nim p\Ym hi[y ti[ t[n[ an&srv& aYvi, ji[ p\kiSnn)
m&y ai[(fsni[ ul[K hi[y ti[ t[n[ an&srv&>.
ji[ l[Kk pi[t[ j p\kiSk hi[y ti[ l[Kk ni[ ul[K p\kiSk tr)k[ krvi[.
ai GTkn) p*Ni<h*(t p*N<(vrim oiri krv).

73

(dh): (hmily.
Bivngr: l[Kk.
s&rt: pi[y&lr.
nvsir): v[di>t.

74

(vBig-6
el[kT^i[(nk s\i[t an[ AYinn) (vgt

75

(vBig-6 el[kT^i[(nk s\i[t an[ AYinn) (vgt


APA jNiv[ C[ k[ t[mn&> p\kiSn m[y&al {2010} s>v(F<t krvimi> aiy&>
C[, Cti el[T^i[(nk jn<l (nymi[[Y) pr Yen[ p\ki(St Yyi C[.
El[T^i[(nk p\kiSnn[ kirN[ p\kiSnn) p\(k\yi an[ l[Kki[ni fiLimi>
ni[>Fpi#i s&Firi[ Yyi[ C[. ai p\sirNn[ kirN[ p\kiSn miT[ni k[Tlik nvi
miDl (Model) pN uplF Yyi> C[. hv[, p\kiSn p*v[<ni[ {a[(DT Yvi
ph[lini[} l[K pN eTrn[T upr ji[e Skiy C[. vFirin&> si(hRy j[mk[,
ai(Dyi[, (vD)yi[, (AYr (c#ii[n) fiel vg[r[n[ srLtiY) ainlien ji[D)
Skiy C[.
vL), a[Tl) j srLtiY) vick pN j[ t[ si(hRyni[ upyi[g mi#i
(lk krviY) kr) Sk[ C[. pr>prigt p\kiSn a>tg<t ji[ ki[e x(t rh) gy[l
hi[y ti[ t[n[ an&gim) a[vi b)ji a>kmi> j s&Fir) Skiy C[, yir[
ainlien p\kiSnmi> ki[epN smy[ s&FirivFiri kr) Skiy C[ tYi vicki[
s&F) t[n[ phi[>ciDvimi> pN a[Tl) j srLti rh[l) C[.
ai nvi vitivrNmi> p\kiSnni j*ni miDln[ amlmi> m*k) Skiy a[m
nY). ji[ k[ GN) vir ainlien p\kiSnmi> a>(tm aivZ(_i Si[Fv) m&k[l Ye
pD[ C[. kirNk[ a[k j p\kirni GNi l[K, si(hRy vg[r[ uplF hi[y C[. GN)

76

vir vick pi[t[ pN l[Kmi> s&Firi - vFiri kr) Sk[ C[. ai bibt vickn&> j[
t[ l[K siY[n&> smiyi[jn vFir) d[ C[. aim Cti l[Kmi> GN) vir dSi<v[li>
bFi> ji[DiNi[ t>d&rAt nY) hi[ti>.
ainlien p\kiSnni[ p\kiSnni[ yip an[ lxNi[n[ ji[ti> APA
ainlien p\kiSnn) ai[LK miT[ k[Tli>k s*cni[ dSi<v[ C[; j[Y) vick j[ t[
s\i[t s&F) srLtiY) phi[>c) Sk[ tYi j$r) mi(ht) p&n: p\it kr) Sk[. ai
miT[ APA y&(nfi[m< (rsi[s< li[k[Tr (URLs), (DJTl aij[T
aieD[(Tfiyr (DOIs) an[ ainlien p\kiSnni s\i[tni (nd[<S tYi
s>dB<ni[>Fn) cci< kr[ C[.
6.1 URL n) smj
URL a[ eTrn[T upr (DJTl mi(ht)ni nkSi tr)k[ upyi[gmi> l[viy C[.
URL ni GTki[ n)c[ m&jb C[.
p\i[Ti[ki[l

Di[m[en n[m

dAtiv[jni[ mig<

ci[ks

dAtiv[jn&>

fiel nim

http:

www.apa.org

Monitor/oct00

Workplace.html

j[ t[ sieT upr m*kiy[l mi(ht)n[ fiel sv<r oiri AYini>t(rt krvi miT[
v[b b\iuzr miT[ upyi[g krvi a>g[n) p(tn) (vgt p\i[Ti[ki[l dSi<v[ C[.

77

j[mk[, Hypertext transfer protocol secure (HTTPS) an[ file


transfer protocol (FTP). URL mi> p\i[Ti[ki[l g&@(vrim {:} an[ b[
Al[S (Slash) oiri an&srvimi> aiv[ C[. di.t., http://
yi fiel rh) hi[e t[n[ Di[m[en n[m ai[LK) kiQ[ C[. ki[epN s>AYini
hi[mp[j upr t[n&> a[D^[s hi[y C[.
di.t., http://www.bhavuni.edu
ai a[D^[s Bivngr y&(nv(s<T) miT[ C[.
ji[ k[ GNi> Di[m[en nimi[ www Y) S$ Yiy C[, pN bFi (kAsimi> t[m
nY) hi[t&>.
j[mk[, http://journals.apa.org ai APA ni el[T^i[(nk jn<ln&>
hi[mp[j C[. Di[m[en n[[m h>m[Si li[ark[smi> Tiep Yiy C[.
www.apa.org
Di[m[en n[mn&> (vAtrN tmn[ tmiri h[t& miT[ni s\i[tn) s&s>gtti dSi<v[ C[.
di.t., org
j&di j&di (vAtrN j&di j&di (nd[<S kr[ C[. ai (vAtrNn[ n)c[n) sirN) 6.1
mi> ji[e Skiy C[.

78

sirN) 6.1
(bn Bi]gi[(lk x[#i p\kir
x[#i p\kir

vN<n

.com

F>Fik)y s>AYin&> s*ck. j[mk[, microsoft.com

.net

n[Tvk< s(v<s p\i[vieDr s>AYin&> s*ck. j[mk[, sanchar.net

.edu

S]x(Nk s>AYin&> s*ck. j[mk[, www.bhavuni.edu

.int

ai>trriOT^)y s>AYin&> s*ck. j[mk[, nato.int

.gov

srkir) s>AYin&> s*ck. j[mk[, highereducation.gov

.mil

lkr) s>AYin&> s*ck. j[mk[, ddn.mil


(Defese Data Network)

.org

(bn yipir) s>gqnn&> s*ck. j[mk[, apa.org

ai j r)t[ Bi]gi[(lk x[#i p\kir pN hi[y C[. j[n[ sirN) 6.2 mi> ji[e Skiy
C[.

79

sirN) 6.2
Bi]gi[(lk x[#i p\kir
x[#i p\kir

d[Sn&> s*ck

x[#i p\kir

d[Sn&> s*ck

.in

Birt

.pk

pi(kAtin

.au

ai[AT^[(lyi

.uk

y&nieT[D
e>l[D

.us

y&nieT[D AT[T`s aif .de


am[(rki

jm<n)

.ca

k[n[Di

(AvT`Zl[<D

.ch

(k>gDm/

kim n krt) URL k[ t&T[l) hiepr(l>kni[ upyi[g Yyi[ hi[y t[v) mi(ht)n[
eTrn[T prY) d&r krvimi> aiv[ C[. ai m&k[l)n[ hl krvi miT[ p\kiSki[
jn<l l[K an[ ay si(hRyn[ DOI aipvin&> S$ ky&<>.
6.2 DOI
p\kiSki[ni j**Y oiri t]yir kriy[l DOI eTrn[T si(hRyn[ yvAYipnn)
ai[LK p\din kr[ C[ { j&ai[, http:// www.doi.org}. ai DOI n&>
r(jAT^[Sn crossref j[v) s>AYiai[ oiri Yiy C[ j[ p\kiSn miT[ (nd[<S an[
ji[DiN (link) n) s[vi aipt) s>AYi C[.

80

crossref ni y[yviy an&sir t[ yi[y miLKini[ aml an[


shkir) (vkisni p\i[Rsihn oiri (vVispi#i el[T^i[(nk (vPyvAt&ni[ upyi[g
miT[ p\(tbF C[. { j&ai[, http:// www. Crossref.org}
crossref oiri j[ t>#i (vksiviy&> C[ t[ b[ s[viai[ p*r) piD[ C[: ph[l&>,
t[ p\Ry[k l[Kn[ Avt>#i a(ot)y ai[LK aip[ C[, j[ b[>kni (lar)>g hiusn)
j[m vickn[ s)Fi[ (vPyvAt& siY[ni[ s>pk< kriv[ C[. b)j&>, t[ai[ el[T^i[(nk
l[Kn) s>dB<s*(cmi> DOI m*k[ C[. j[n&> ji[DiN DOI ni j*Y siY[ hi[y C[.
j[Y) vick j[ t[ l)>k upr (lk kr) s)Fi[ j j[ - t[ (vPyvAt& s&F) phi[>c)
Sk[ C[. crossref pis[ hilmi> {2010 s&F) a[m vi>cv&>} 2600 Y) vF&
p\kiSk syi[ C[.

6.3 l[Kn) ai[LK tr)k[ DOI


DOI a[ eTrn[T upr rh[l si(hRyn[ ci[s (vPyvAt&n) ai[LK miT[
r(jATr krvin) s>AYi ( The International DOI Foundation)
oiri aipvimii> aivti[ m*Lixr an[ n>brviLi[ (alphanumeric) s>k[t
C[.
yir[ tmiri[ l[K p\ki(St Yiy an[ el[T^i[(nk r)t[ uplF bn[ Ryir[
p\kiSk DOI fiLv[ C[. bFi j DOI 10 {ds} n>brY) S$ Yiy C[; an[

81

t[mi> Al[S siY[ j*di pDti an&g an[ p*v<g ji[Diy[li hi[y C[. p*v<g
simiyt: cir k[ t[Y) vF& ai>kDini[ hi[y C[ j[ s>AYin) ai[LK aip[ C[.
an&g p\kiSk oiri p\ki\Snn) kxi an&sir aipvimi> aiv[ C[. yir[ DOI
uplF hi[y Ryir[ (p\T an[ el[T^i[(nk, b>n[ Av$pmi> t[ni[ ul[K krvi[
ji[ea[.
DOI El[T^i[(nk jn<lni p\Ym pini upr ki[p)rieT s*cnin) nJk
dSi<v[li[ hi[y C[. {j*ai[ aikZ(t 6.3}. DOI l[Kni D[Tib[z l[(D>g p[j
upr pN uplF hi[y C[. {j*ai[, aikZ(t 6.4}.

6.4 DOI n&> ji[DiN kiy<


DOI sd<Bs*(c j[v&> kim kr[ C[. t[ vickn[ j[ t[ s\i[t s&F) le jiy C[.
DOI ki[ek bTn { j[ ki[e pN nim hi[e Sk[. j[mk[ l[K, s>AYi vg[r[}
a>tg<t pN hi[e Sk[; j[ni upr (lk krviY) m*L simg\) s&F) phi[>c)
Skiy. Ryirbid vick j[ t[ simg\) Kr)dvi eC[ ti[ Kr)d) Sk[ C[. DOI
vickn[ ki[epN AYin[ rh[l el[T^i[(nk mi(ht)n[ Si[F) t[n) siY[ ji[DiN kr)
aipvin&> kiy< kr[ C[.

82

6.5 el[T^i[(nk s\i[t miT[ p\kiSn mi(ht)


m&(Wt s\i[t pr aiFi(rt el[T^i[(nk aivZ(_i { j[mk[ PDF} miT[ j[ l[Kni[
(nd[<S Yyi[ hi[y t[ni[ p[j n>br dSi<vvi[. smicirp#i (News paper) ni
(nd[<Smi> pin n>brn) aigL pp dSi<vv&>.
ji[ (vPyvAt& {l[K} p\ki(St Yyi[ hi[y ti[ t[n[ DOI p\din krvi[
ji[ea[. simiyt: p\kiSki[ DOI n[ p\Ym pin upr dSi<v[ C[, ai
miT[ b[ kirNi[ C[: a[k ti[ l>bie vF& hi[y C[. b)j&>, t[n[ srLtiY) ki[p)
kr) Skiy C[. ji[ k[ ai S]l)n) bibt C[. p&n: p\i(t s>b>(Ft nY).

DOI miT[ ai miLKin[ an&srv&> ji[ea[.


doi: XXXXXXX

ji[ (vPyvAt&n[ DOI uplF n Yyi[ hi[y ti[ jn|<l, p&Atk k[ URL
hi[mp[jn[ dSi<vv&>. ji[ tm[ ki[e King) D[Tib[z prY) l[K m[Lv) rHi
hi[v ti[ tmir[ t[ URL n[ Si[Fvi v[bsc< krv&> pD[. j[ t[ URL n[
ki[p) kr) b\iuzrmi> m*kv&>. { yin riKv&> k[ vD< p\i[s[sr b>F hi[y,
nh)>tr (l>kn&> Av$p bdlie Sk[}.
ji[ tmn[ lienmi> yi>k URLn[ ti[Dvi[ pD[ ti[ yir[y hiefn m*kv&>
nh)>. t[ni bdl[ m&y (vrimn) ph[li URL ti[Dv&>.
{apvid: http://}
p\i(tn) bibt C[.

URL bid p*N<(vrim n m*kv&>. ai p&n:

83

tmiri p\kiSn k[ (vPyvAt&n[ jmi krvini dr[k tbk[ URL n[


tpisvi[. j[Y) tm[ j[ dAtiv[jni[ (nd[<S kyi[< hi[y, t[ d*r Yyi[ h[iy
aYvi t[mi> ki[e s&Firi[ Yyi[ hi[y ti[ tm[ f[rbdl kr) Ski[. ji[ ki[e
(nd[<(St si(hRy li>bi smyY) uplF n hi[y ti[ t[ni bdl[ b)ji
s\i[tni[ ul[K krvi[, aYvi t[ (nd[<Sn[ m&y lKiNmi>Y) d*r krvi[.
simiy r)t[ D[Tib[z mi(ht)ni[ smiv[S krvi[ j$r) nY). jn<l j[
D[Tib[zni[ upyi[g krt&> hi[y t[mi> p(rvt<n aiv) Sk[.
k[Tlik p&n: p\iy dAtiv[ji[ { di.t., b>F Yy[l jn<l, mi[ni[g\if,
(DzT[<Sn k[ p[pr} ft el[T^i[(nk Av$p[ ERIC k[ JSTOR upr
uplF hi[y C[. aivi s\i[tn) p\iY(mk p\kiSn c[nl oiri srLtiY)
ai[LK Yt) n hi[y ti[ ai[nlien p&n: p\i(t miT[ URL ni[ ul[K
krvi[.
s\i[t si(hRy p\i(t tir)Kni[ ul[K krvin) j$r nY), (sviy k[
t[n) (vgti[ (nr>tr bdlit) hi[y
di.t., wikis
yir[ si(hRyni[ (p\T k[ ay miymi[mi> (nd[<S krvini[ hi[y Ryir[
a>(tm aivZ(_ini[ ul[K krvi[.

84

aikZ(t 6.3
jn<lmi> Digital Object Identifier (DOI) n&> AYin
Theme Articles
Journal of Teacher Education
60(5) 443 449
2009 SAGE Publications

jn<lmi> (DOI) n&> AYin

Reprints and permission: http://www.


sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav
DOI: 10.1177/0022487109344433
http://jte.sagepub.com

Back to the Future: How and Why to Revive


the Teachers College Tradition

Wesley Null
Abstract

In this essay, the author argues for a reconsideration of the teachers college tradition within teacher ed curriculum. The author draws upon

85
aikZ(t 6.4
D[Tib[z l[D)g p[j l[K miT[ DOI n&> AYin
Full Record
Display
Unique Identifier

2009-08834-010

Title

Back to the Future: How and Why to Rivive


the Teacher College Tradition

Publication Year

2009

Language

English

Author

Wesley Null

Email

Wesley.null@gmail.com

Correspondence
Address

Wesley Null, Department of Education,


Falmer, Brigton, England

Source

Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 60 (5),


May, 2009, 443-449

ISSN

0278-5262 (Print); 19307612 (Electronic)

Publisher

Sage Publications

Other Publisher

Lawrience erbium Association: US

Format Availability Electronic; Print


Format Covered

Electronic

Publication Type

Journal; Peer Reviewed Journal

Document Type

Journal Article

Digital Object
Identifier

10.1177/0022487109344433

86
Key Words

college tradition, history, future, teacher


education

Index Terms

college tradition; history; future; teacher


education

Classification Code Teacher Education in Higher education


Population Group

Teacher

Methodology

Qualitative Study

Auxiliary Materials Other (Internet Available)


Release Date

20090516

87

pi(rBi(Pk Sdi[

88

pi(rBi(Pk Sdi[
{a>g\[J - g&jrit)}

A
abbreviations

s>x[p, s>x[pixr

accepted

Av)kZt

abstract

siri>S

accuracy

ci[ksie

acknowledgement

Av)kir, Av)kZ(t

acronyms

b)ji Sdi[ni aiwixri[Y) bn[l


Sd

adaptation

an&k*ln

additional link

vFirin) l)>k

89
advance

aigt, ag\)m

adverb

(k\yi(vS[PN

advisory

slihkir)

alignment

r[Ki>kn

alphabetical

kivir) k\m

order
alphabetization

kivir)

alternation

a[ki>tr[

ampersand

an[ an[ & n&> (ch`n

anonymous

anim)

APA

am[(rkn siykil(jkl
asi[(Sa[Sn {a[ p) a[}

appeal

(vn>t)

90
appendices

p&rvN)

arabic numerals

ar[(bk n>br

archival copy

p&n: p\iy nkl

archival function

archival sources

p&n: p\iy s\i[t

article

l[K

article identifier

l[K ai[LK

author

l[Kk

author note

l[Kk ni[>F

91
block quotation

lik avtrN

brackets

b\k\[T

breaks

C
capitalization

mi[Ti axri[mi> Cipkim

citation

(nd[<S p\(k\yi

classical work

SiA#i)y kiyi[<

colon

g&$(vrim

colum

kTir

colum head

kTirn&> mYiL&

comma

ap (vrim

92
comparison

t&lni

copyright

p\kiSnni h

copyright holder

p\kiSn hFirk

DOIs

(DJTl aij[T aieD[(Tfiyrs<

DOI system

(DJTl aij[T aieD[(Tfiyr

t>#i
Domain name

x[#in&> nim

Domain name extension

x[#inimn&> (vAtrN

Duplicate

p\(tkZ(t/ b[vD&>

Ed.

s>pidkni[ T&>kixr

93
Eds.

s>pidki[ni[ T&>kixr

Editor

s>pidk

Editorial

s>pidk)y

Electronic sources

(vjiN&> s\i[ti[

Electronic sources and

(vjiN&> s\i[ti[ an[ AYinn) mi(ht)

locater information
Et. al.

an[ ay

Fair use

yiy) upyi[g

Footnote

pidni[>F

Foreign abbreviation

(vd[S) T&>kixri[

94
Groups

j*Yi[

guideline

mig<d(S<ki

Host name of URL

URL n&> yjmin nim

HTTP (hypertext transfer

hieprT[sT` T^isfr p\i[Ti[kil

protocol)

{ ky*Trn) BiPi}

HTTPS(hypertext transfer

hieprT[sT` T^isfr p\i[Ti[kil

protocol secure)

(syi[r { ky*Trn) BiPi}

Hyphen

yi[jn(ch`n

Indexing

kivir s*(c

95
In press

p\[smi>

Insertion

diKl krv&>

Jargon

(v(SOT vg<n) BiPi {Bir[Km}

Key terms

civ)$p Sdi[

Legal material

kiydik)y si(hRy

96

M
Meta-analysis

a(F-(vl[PN

Multivolume works

an[k K>Di[viLi g\>Yni K>Dn&> kiy<

n.d.

tir)K nh)>

Omission

smiv[S n krvi[

Online archive

ainlien p&n: p\i(t

Online material

ainlien si(hRy

Online network

ainlien jiL&>

97

P
Page number

pin n>br

Para.

gw./ p[r[. { gwK>Dni[ T&>kixr}

Paraphrasing

Sdi>tr

Parts of work

kiy<ni (vBigi[

Permission

m>j*r)

Personal communication

y(tgt p\Ryiyn

Protocol

(SOTicir

Publication data

p\kiSn simg\)

Publication date

p\kiSn tir)K

Publication information

p\kiSn (vgti[

98
Punctuation

(vrim (ch`ni[

Quantity

s>yi

Quotation

avtrN

Quotation mark

avtrN (ch`n

Quoting

avt(rt krv&>

Reference abbreviation

s>dB< T&>kixri[

Reference component

s>dB< GTki[

Reference list

s>dB< yid)

99
Reference section

s>dB< (vBigi[

Reprinting

p&n: m&WN

Retrieval dates

p&n: p\i(t tir)K

Semicolon

ap (vrim

Sic

a[v&>, a[j p\miN[

Slash
Suffixes

an&g

Translation

an&vid

100

U
URLs

y&(nfi[m< (rsi[s< li[k[Tr

Version

aivZ(_i

Version of record

dAtiv[jn) aivZ(_i

Volume number

p&Atk K>D (vBig

Written consent

l[(Kt m>j&r)

101
Year of publication

p\kiSnn&> vP<

102

pi(rBi(Pk Sdi[
{g&jrit) a>g\[J}

a
a(F-(vl[PN

Meta analysis

an&k*ln

Adaptation

anim)

Anonymous

an&g

Suffix

an&vid

Translation

an[k K>Di[viLi g\>Yni K>Dn&>

Multivolume work

kiy<
an[ ay

et. al.

103

an[ an[ & n&> (ch`n

Ampersand

ar[(bk n>br

Arabic numbers

am[(rkn siykil(jkl

American Psychological

a[si[(Sa[Sn

Association (APA)

ap (vrim

semicolon

avtrN

Quotation

avtrN (ch`n

Quotation mark

avt(rt krv&>

Quoting

a[ki>tr[

Alternation

aigt, a(g\m

Advanced

aivZ(_i

Version

a[v&>, a[ j p\miN[

Sic

104

ainlien p&n: p\i(t

Online archive

ainlien si(hRy

Online material

ainlien jiL&>

Online network

kiydik)y si(hRy

Legal material

kiy<ni (vBigi[

Part of work

(k\yi (vS[PN

adverb

gw. / p[r[. {gwK>Dni[ T&>ksir}

Para.

g&$(vrim

colon

civ)$p Sdi[

Key words

ci[ksie

Accuracy

105

j
j*Yi[

Groups

(DJTl aij[T

DOIs

aieD[(Tfiyr
(DJTl aij[T

DOI system

aieD[(Tfiyr t>#i

t
tir)K nh)>

n.d.

t&lni

Comparison

dAtiv[jn) aivZ(_i

Version of record

diKl krv&>

Insertion

106

n
(nd[<S p\(k\yi

Citation

yiy) upyi[g

Fair use

pidni[>F

footnote

pin n>br

Page number

p&n: p\i(t tir)K

Retrieval date

p&n: p\iy nkl

Archival copy

p&n: p\iy s\i[t

Archival sources

p&n: m&WN

Reprint

p&rvN)

appendix

p&Atk K>D/ (vBig

Volume number

107

p\kiSn tir)K

Publication date

p\kiSnn&> vP<

Year of publication

p\kiSn (vgti[

Publication data

p\kiSn h

copyright

p\kiSn h Firk

Copyright holder

p\(tkZ(t/ b[vD&>

Duplicate

p\[smi>

In press

b)ji Sdi[ni aiwxri[Y)

Acronym

bn[l
lik avtrN

Block quotation

b\[k[T

Bracket

108

m
mig<d(S<ki

Guideline

m*Lixrni[ k\m

Alphabetical order

m*Lixr)krN

Alphabetization

mi[Ti axri[mi> Cipkim

Capitalization

m>j*r)

Permission

yi[jn (ch`n

Hyphen

y&(nfi[m< (rsi[s< li[k[Tr

URLs

y&(nfi[m< (rsi[s< li[k[Tr(URL)

Host name of URL

n&> yjmin nim

109

r[Ki>kn

Alignment

l[K

Article

l[K ai[LK

Article identifier

l[Kk

Author

l[Kk ni[>F

Author note

l[(Kt m>j*r)

Written consent

vFirin) l)>k

Additional link

y(tgt p\Ryiyn

Personal communication

(vjiN& s\i[ti[

Electronic sources

(vjiN& s\i[ti[ an[ AYinn)

Electronic sources and

110

mi(ht)

locator information

(vd[S) T&>kixri[

Foreign abbreviation

(vrim (ch`n

Punctuation

(vn>t)

Appeal

(v(SOT vg<n) BiPi {Bir[Km}

Jargon

Sd

Word

Sds*(c

Indexing

SiA#i)y kiyi[<

Classical work

(SOTicir

Protocol

111

smiv[S n krvi[

Omission

slihkir)

Advisory

At>B

Colum

At>Bn&> mYiL&>

Colum head

Av)kir

Acknowledgement

Av)kZt

Accepted

siri>S

Abstract

s>yi/ jYi[

Quantity

s>pidk

Editor

s>pidk {T&>kixr}

Ed.

s>pidki[ {T&>kixr}

Eds.

s>pidk)y

Editorial

112

s>dB< GTki[

Reference component

s>dB< T&>kixri[

Reference abbreviation

s>dB< yid)

Reference list

s>dB< (vBig

Reference section

s>dB<s*(c

Reference

s>x[p

Abbreviation

hiepr T[sT` T^isfr p\i[Ti[ki[l

HTTP (hypertext transfer

protocol)

hiepr T[sT` T^isfr p\i[Ti[ki[l

HTTPS ( hypertext

(syi[r

transfer protocol secure)

113

x[#in&> nim

Domain name

x[#in&> (vAtrN

Domain name extension

114
References
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of
American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC:
Author.
APA Publications and Communications Board Working Group on
Journal Article Reporting Standards. (2008). Reporting standards
for research in psychology: Why do we need them? what might
they be? American Psychologist, 63, 839-851. doi: 10.1037/0003006X.63.9.839
Deshpande, P. G. (2006). Oxford Universal English-Gujarati
Dictionary(25th ed.). New Delhi: Oxford University Press
Modern Language Association. (2009). MLA Handbook for writers of
Research Papers (7th ed.).New Delhi: Author.
http://www.apa.org
http://wwwcrossref.org
http://www.doi.org
http://www.journals.apa.org
http://www.oxford.com/dictionary
http://www.webster.com/dictionary

115

Sd s*(c

u
a,b,k,

uqi>tr)

aTk

um[rN

a(F(vl[PN

a[

ay j*Yi[

a[k$pti

an&gim)

a[k l[Kkn&> a[k kiy<

ani]pci(rk p\Ryiyn

a[k j aTkviLi vF& l[Kk

aprk[S

a[k j ki]>smi> b[ aYvi vF& kiyi[<

ayis j*Yi[
ar[(bk n>br

a[js)

ap(vrim

a[si[(Sa[Sn

avtrn (ch`n

ai[

avFirN

ain lien

av[J

ai[LK (vnin&>

aXit`

aikZ(_i

k, K, g

aivZ(_i

kivir)

116

ki[T<k[s
eTi(lk

kip)rieT

ED[T

kipi[<r[Sn

El[T^i[(nk

ky*Tr

El[T^i[(nk b&l[(Tn bi[D<

k\m

ey& n>br

ki]>s

ki]>sn) simg\)

dAtiv[j
King) p#i

(ot)y {gi]N} s\i[t

F
g&$(vrim

Fi(m<k

n
civ)$p GTk

nkl

(ch`n

(nd[<S

ci[ksie

(nd[<(St

ci[pi(nyi

y&z l[Tr

117

p
C k[ vF& l[Kki[

p(t

pidni[>F
j(Tl

p&n: ap\iy

p&n: m&WN
Tpki>

p&rivi

T*>ki nimi[

p&Atk

T[(lfi[(nk cci<

p*rk simg\)

p*N< (vrim
Di[Tr

p*v<g

p[pr
tir)K

pi[OTr

#iNY) vFir[ aTk

p\krN

p\kiSn

m[mi[

p\(k\yi

mini[g\if

p\(t(n(F

118

p\mi(NkrN

yid)

p\mi(Nt

y&(nv(s<T)

p\[sni[T

p\ic)n
(p\T

(ry&
rimn

p\i[f[sr

lKiNi[

lG&Si[F (nb>F
li[k

l[Kk tr)k[ j*Y

b[ l[Kki[

l[Kk - tir)K p(t

(bn pr>prigt

l[(Kt m>j*r)

b\[k[T

li[ark[s

li[p
Bir um[rvi[

v
vN<n

mhi(nb>F

vN<nni[ Big

mi(j<n

vP<

mi(ht) p#ik

viyi[

m&y s>AYi

(vjiN& p\Ryiyn

119

m&likit

(vd[Sni> nimi[

m[en

(vrim(ch`ni[

(v(SOT a>k

Av si(h(Ryk ci[r)

(vPyvAt&

s\i[t

(vVsn)y

s>dB<s*(c

viy*m

s>pidk

y(tgt p\Ryiyn

s>pi(dt

y(tgt s>g\h

s>Si[Fn p#i

yiyi

s>AYi

yiyinni[>F

s>x[p

yip

hAtp\t
SiA#i)y kiyi[<

hiefn

S)P<k
S]l)

120

smicirp#i

smili[cn

a,b,c,d

srkir) s>AYi

APA

siBir Av)kir

Author-date method

sirN)

Auxiliary material

siri>S

AYin
ApOT)krN

Bibliography
C

Ap[s

Comma
Classification code

T
Digital object

Technical term

Display

The
Translator

E
Edition

Editor
I

Volume
W

Identifier

With

121
Index term
ISSN
N
No date
Number part
P
Page
Peer reviewed
Prefix
R
Reference list
Revised edition
S
See also

Оценить