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(N=, H=)


(
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1 126*

N.H.H.H

255.0.0.0

126 (27 2)

16,777,214 (224 2)

128 191

10

N.N.H.H

255.255.0.0

16,382 (214
2)

65,534 (216 2)

192 223

110

N.N.N.H

255.255.255.0

2,097,150
(221 2)

254 (28 2)

224 239

1110

240 254

1111

: A 127.0.0.0 127.255.255.255 ,
loopback .

IP

10.0.0.0

255.0.0.0

10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255

172.16.0.0 - 172.31.0.0

255.240.0.0

172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255

192.168.0.0

255.255.0.0

192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255

Windows
[ | -]

Windows

Windows

Windows XP
Windows Server 2003
Windows Vista
Windows Server 2008
Windows 7
Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows 8
Windows Server 2012

Windows RT

svchost.exe -k netsvcs

Security Center

Windows Microsoft Windows . Windows XP SP2.


(Internet Connection Firewall) . Windows
Windows.

[]

2
o

2.1 Windows XP

2.2 Windows Server 2003

2.3 Windows Vista

2.4 Windows Server 2008

3 .

[ | -]
Windows XP ("Internet Connection Firewall"), ( ) - .
"Internet Connection Firewall" , .
2003 Blaster Windows,
.[1] Sasser . 2004
, .[1] Microsoft ,
Internet Connection Firewall "
Windows".
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. , .
, , , web-. (
). [2]

[ | -]

Windows XP[ | -]

Windows Windows XP Service Pack 2

Windows Windows XP Service Pack 2. , ,


, VPN FireWire ( ,
). ,
, .[3] , .
Windows XP ( ).
Windows SP2 - ( DCOM activation security)[4],
Service Pack 2. SP2 web-
( ).

Windows Server 2003[ | -]


2005 Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1,
.

Windows Vista[ | -]

Windows Windows Vista

Windows Vista , : [5]

Windows ,
, . -> ->
-> Windows "wf.msc".

IPv6.

, . ,
MMC.

, IP- .

, .

IPsec, , ,
Kerberos .. .

( , ).
, .

Windows Server 2008[ | -]


Windows Server 2008 , Windows Vista.

- ( . proxy , ) ( ) ,
. -
- (, e-mail), . -
, ( , ).
- . -
.

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2 -

4 -

6 .

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.

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-[ | -]

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-, ,
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[ | -]
( ),
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( ) -.
, - (
) , .
, , -, ,
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,
.
- .
:

HTTP, ;

( );

- ( TCP/IP);

, , HTTP
SOCKS- , ;

() .

, , ,
NAT, - ,
NAT ( ,
).

-[ | -]

3proxy (BSD, )

CoolProxy (, Windows)

Eserv (shareware, Windows)

HandyCache (shareware, Windows)

Kerio Control (, Windows, Linux)

Microsoft Forefront Threat Management Gateway, Microsoft ISA Server (proprietary, Windows)

Blue Coat Proxy SG (/ appliance)

nginx (-, reverse proxy )

Squid (GPL, )

Traffic Inspector (, Windows)

UserGate (, Windows)

(shareware, FreeBSD)

TOR (BSD, )

Ideco ICS (, Linux)

WinGate (, Windows)

Cntlm ( )

[ | -]
, -.
-, -.