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.. . ., 1983.
. . ., 2002.
.. . ., 1985.
. . ., 1939.
. . ., 1997.
. . ., 1984.
.. . ., 1988.
.. .. . . ., 1957.
.. . ., 1983.
. ., 1992.
. , , . ., 2001.
.. . ., 1986.
. . . ., 2002.
.. . ., 1995.
. XVI . ., 1985.
. . ., 1987.
, , . ., 2001.
. ., 1989.
- .. . ., 1980.
. . ., 1998.
.. . ., 1969.
. . . .
. . -. .
.. . .
.. . ., 1972.
.. . ., 1990.
228

XIXIII . ., 1957.
. . . ., 1988.
.. . .
. . .
.. .. . ., 1998.

.. . ., 1978.
. JL, 1959.
.. . ., 1985.
- . . . ., 1992.
/ . .. . . 14. ., 1985.
. . 1 17. .; JL,
, 1950-1 9 6 5 .
. ., 1996.
/ . .. .
., 1967.
. . ., 1995.
.. - . .,
2004.
The C oncise Oxford Dictionary o f Current English. Seventh Edition, Oxford
University Press.
Longman Dictionary o f Contemporary English. Published by Longman Group
Limited.



.
.
229

.
.
.

.
.
.
.

-

Aa

Bb

Ee

. . .
. Abbot, a catholic
priest in France.
. Greed.
. Greed of the utmost degree.
Mezzanine, a low-ceiling floor just below the roof of a
building.
, ( );
, ( ). Nobleman, land-owner
(in relation to peasants), master, owner (in relation to servants).
;
. Godlessness, lack of faith in God, denial of Christian
commandments.
231

,
. Wickedness, behaviour that contradicts or conflicts with the
demands of societys morals.

, ; ,
. Unable to dispute or retort; submissive, meek.
, . Submissively, without complaining.

, . Blessing, approval of a marriage with wishes of good
will and happiness.
, . Brave, courageous, energetic.
(.) , . (Collo
quial) Eccentric, whimsical.
, , . News, message.

, , . Ingratiating, able
to earn the trust of others through calculated behaviour, compli
ments, cunningness.
(.) , (outdated) To listen.
(.) ,
;
. (outdated) A person who is skeptical about the prevailing
religious and political views.
( )
, , (16941778). Voltaire
(real name Francois Marie Arouet), the pseudonym of the French
writer, philosopher and historian.
, . Hottempered, choleric.
(.) , (outdated) severely scold.
, ,
- . Upstart, a person who suddenly
gains access to a position but not by his own efforts or birth
rights.
232

, ,
(: ,
). Hearth, home, (literally nest).
,
. Chambermaid, a female servant
employed to clean the rooms and look after her wealthy masters.
(.) , ,
. (colloquial) argue, battle, squabble.
,
, . Tutor
(usually a foreigner) who was invited into a noble persons home in
order to educate the familys children.
. Butler, the head
servant in a noblemans home.
, , , .
Irritation, insult, grief, displeasure.
, . Priest who ac
cepts (listens to) confessions.
(XVIII );
,
, . Frill, a high collar of a mans shirt (18th
century); lacey trimming found on a mans shirt, womans dress or
blouse.
. bequeath, to make
a will.
(.) , (outdated) To become sick.
, , .
become alienated, aloof, inapproachable.
. Sister-in-law, a husbands sister.
. astonish.
, . Elegantly.
I (17771825).
Emperor Alexander I, Russian czar.
. Giant.
233

, . Severe torment, torture,


suffering.
,
. Doublet, a mans garment for the upper half of the body,
usually without sleeves, worn in former times.
, , ,
. Capricious, fickle, obstinate.
(.) , (high style) Death.
; . Hold ones own, endure,
tolerate.
KpHKu , , ,
. Bawler, a person characterized by loud exclamations,
conflicts and trouble-making.
, . Sneaky, sly, cunning, crafty.
XV (17101774). Louis XV, French
king (1710-1774).
.
Mission, a permanent diplomatic representation.
, . Rumors, hearsay.
, . Swindler, dishonest person,
cheat.

, . Vengeful, vindictive.

, . Drill, train
by using severe or cruel methods in order to achieve obedience or
to ensure that orders are fulfilled.
, ,
. Haughty, arrogant, supercilious, scornful and
disdainful to others.
(.) - , (outdated)
Called by a name.
, . receive
satisfaction from something, enjoy, revel in something.
234

, .
Heir, a person who received inheritance.
.
inherit, to receive property (inheritance) after the property
owners death.
, ,
. Decisive, adamantly achieving ones goals,
demanding.
He . To be unaware of something.
. Daughter-in-law, the wife of ones son.
He (.) , .
(Colloquial) dislike.
, .
Sissy, a spoiled and pampered person who is not used to the
difficulties in life.
He ()
, ; , (here)
remember ones low position in society; to know ones place (in
general); to be submissive.
. Simple, plain.
He , . fail to understand or
know.
. Character, disposition, temper.
, , ,
. Uncontrollable, crazy, frenzied character.
(.) , . (Outdated)
Current, present.
. be married
according to the Churchs traditions and rules.
. A small icon.
, . To be saddened, to
be dispirited, to be distressed.
. come to ones senses.
235

, ; . seek
information; to ask a question, to inquire about.
, . To defame, damage ones good
name or reputation.
, .
give a positive recommendation of a person.
() , . (Here) Family line or origin.

. Stick or lash with straps or cords attached on
the end used for inflicting punishment.
, . Physical strikes that cause pain.
(.) , (outdated) Cemetery, graveyard.
. Chambers in a manor-house.
, ,
. That which belongs to a land-owner,
a nobleman who owns the land and peasants.
; . forgive; to pardon,
to annul punishment.
. Against ones own will.
, . Downcast.
, .
History that is passed on from generation to generation.
, ,
-. Prejudice, a common but false
and irrational impression of something.
(.) ,
, . (Colloquial) be overly picky, deman
ding, capricious.
() , (here) take a liking to someone.
. To be pleasing, to catch somebodys
eye.
, ,
. Dowry, money and
goods that parents or relatives give to a girl when she gets married.
236

(.) ,
, (outdated) Sponger, a poor person
who lives in another persons wealthy home thanks to the owners
charity.
. Whim, caprice.
. allow someone to live
in your house.
; ,
. condemn; cut off all relations with someone, reject.
. To say, speak.
,
; , . A person who is able to be cunning
with a degree of deftness and dexterity; swindler.
, - ,
; . Behavior or activity that violates
tradition or generally accepted norms or rules; offence.
. Having bulging eyes.
. Hospitably.
, . Conflicts, disputes, quarrels.
, .
about, occur suddenly.
(.) , , (outdated) Soldier.
, . Recruit, soldier.
, .
Family line, a number of generations in a family, all descendants of
one person.
, , . Thin twigs or
rods used for inflicting corporal punishment on someone.
(.) , ;
. (outdated) express dissatisfaction, to express feelings of being
offended or insulted; to complain.
, . Lawlessness, arbitrariness.
237

( , -. Selfwilled, capricious, wayward.


(.) , (outdated) Shade, shelter.
() , ,
, (here) grow up without a father, to grow up
deprived; deserving sympathy.
. Bent.
(.) , ,
. (outdated) A very modest, mild, submissive, obedient woman.
. Dark-skinned.
, . stop being angry,
to become kinder.
(.) , , (outdated) sadden, upset
or cause others to suffer.
- ,
. exile, resettle a person to a distant
place as a punishment.
, , . Property, wealth.
. Snuff box.
. repeat over and over again.
. A carriage on wheels
used by peasants.

1807 , .
I. Peace agreement between Russia and
France, concluded in 1807 in the city of Tilzit after negotiations
between Napoleon and Alexander I.
, , , . Tyranny,
despotism, oppressive domination.
, , . experience fear
or terror.

1812 . The war between Russia and
Napoleon in 1812.
238

. fade away, to die.


. Clumsy, awkward.
. leave.
. condemn, reproach.
. put at ease, to calm.
, . Secretly.
. become silent.
. exhaust somebody to death.
. Courteous, polite.
. Tailcoat,
mans formal evening coat.
, . Dandy, a person
who dresses fashionably.
. Hospitable host.
,
. A female gypsy, a member of a wandering race.
. A chapel,
small church with icons but without an altar.
, . Sick, weak, feeble.
(.) . (outdated) Forehead.
. Small, light noise.

, . Generosity, willingness to share property or
money with others.
() , (here) Foolish young boy.
, , . Caustically, sarcastically.
. Hawk.
, ,
. A short, hooked nose that curves like the beak of a hawk.
239

.. . .
(
), ,
. Pot made of plaster in which Christians held religious chrism,
aromatic oil.
& ;
. spoil, fulfill ones or someones desires, whims and
caprices.
; . Lawlessness,
breach or violation of G ods commandments; sin.
, ( ). Over
come by evil spririts or evil forces.
. Carefree, unburdened by worries.
, ; . Evil
spirits that tempt a person.
,
. Having good manners and inner-culture.
(.) , , (outdated)
Harlot, a dissolute woman.
, . Shoe-less, barefoot.
. Long piece of wood.
, . Existence, life.
. Having the ability to
predict the future.
. To inculcate, to be imbued, to penetrate.
, . Unexpectedly, all of a sudden.
. Express.
(.) : ,
, , .. lead a social life by
paying visits to others, attending balls and going to the theater,
etc.

240

, , . Firmly
stand ones ground, have a firm base of existence.
, .
Chambermaid.
, ;
, . Demon, an evil spirit, fallen angel, personification of
a dark passion or sin.
: ,

; ,
. Gentleman, (in Great
Britain) a person who belongs to the upper class of society and
who strictly adheres to the rules and laws of society; very well
brought-up person, who distinguishes himself by his noble and
righteous manners.
, , . Irritation, dis
pleasure, grief, chagrin.
, ,
. fool around, play the fool, act in an unserious
manner.
, , . Irritable,
cynical, down-spirited, gloomy, dreary.
, . shun, to avoid
meeting someone.
, , . Elegantly,
with grace or finesse.
. To cure.
, ,
, , .
Coquette; a woman who attempts to attract a mans attention by
displaying her manners, appearance, dress.
, , ;
. speak incoherenly, irrationally,
like a small child.

'/ 216-2003

241

, . In a very pleasant, flattering manner.


. Linen, silk-like fabric.
. Liberal, free-thinking.
, ,
. act unnaturally, put on airs, act affectedly, to be capricious.
. Mazurka, a ball dance.
, . Cowardice, lack of will.
, , ;
. Mercy, compassion, kindness, lenience, benefaction.
,
. Myrrh, a sweet-smelling oil used in Christian rituals.
,
, .
. One of the holy myrrh bearers
(including Mary Magdalene) who came to Christs grave in order
to wipe his body with myrrh.
. Naked body.
, (
) . Person who loves to joke, who is
inclined to ill-spirited jokes at the expense of others.
, , . be
indignant, displeased, angry.
, . Surprise, astonishment,
misunderstanding, bewilderment.
. Nagging, constantly
persuing, haunting.
,
. Charming, possessing an attractive and magnetic
power.
. Appearance.
. severely condemn.
.
Overcome by evil spirits.
242

, . come to ones senses,


gather ones wits.

, ( ). The ability
to deeply penetrate into the essence of things, an ability that is
particular to spirits.
, , ,
. Fall out of love, lose interest, to become
indifferent.

- 1917 . Privileged inter
mediate-level military educational establishment for the nobility
in Russia before 1917.
(.) , (outdated) Finger.
; . Young stem, plant,
sprout.
, . Burial, laying
the dead to rest.
, . Gout,
a disease which makes the smaller joints swell and pain.
, . Loss of rationale
or common sense; madness.
-; , . The beginning of some
thing, dividing line, border, threshold.
;
. Thoroughbred, aristocratic, typical of the upper levels
of society.
, , , -. fall down before another person or something
and to press oneself against somebody or something.
. Oblong.
, ,
-. Prophetical, having in itself a prediction
of the future.
243

, . Caprice, whim.
() , (here) A place where someone
lives.
, . The Psalms, abookof
the Holy Bible.
, , , .
Efficient, business-like, rational, intelligible, clear, deserving
attention.
() , , (here) inquire, to find
out, to ask about.
, , .
Moral depravity, debauchery, dissolute lifestyle.
,
. Repentance, remorse.
, .
Sharp, cutting instrument used by a sculptor or artist.
; () , . Trade; (here) fornication,
malice.
, , , ;
. Fatal; something that brings
suffering, unhappiness, distress, disaster.
, .
Russian person to the fullest extent, from head to toe.
,
, , . Overly selfassured in ones strengths, abilities, personal qualities.
. High society.
-,
. be known as, to enjoy a certain reputation.
, . To become sad, sullen; to
grieve, mourn.
, . Enshroud, wrap.
. Foot.
244

() , ;
. Sphynx. (here) Someone who is not understood by those
around him, mysterious personage.
. This serves me right,
I deserve such a fate.
, . To suffer.
; , ,
. Force to suffer, disturb in an agonizing manner, bother,
to burden.
, ,
. Jubilation, a feeling of happiness, exultation after a victory or
success, triumph.
,
. Unrestrained courage, contempt for societys
conventions and rules.
, , , ,
. Despondency, low spirits, depression.
, ,
, . Superficial, self-absorbed, self-loving and
empty person.
, ,
, ; . Fashionable, elegant,
refined.
, . Bachelor, unmarried.
. Fury, rage.

JI.H. .
. Happiness, delight,
enjoyment.
,

. Grandiose ball where high society
and emperors family are present.
245

, . Riding, ability
to ride a horse.
(10531125).
Vladimir Monomakh, the great prince of Kievan Russia.
, . Lord, ruler, sovereign.
185455 ,

. . The Crimean War of 18541855,
the war between Russia and Turkey which was supported by Great
Britain and France. Russia lost the war.
,
, . At whatever cost,
under any circumstances, by all means.
XIX
. In the 1840s.
,
. Quick temper, irritable nature, inability to control anger.
. To push forward, place forward,
push out and forward.
, ,
. Aristocracy, nobility
connected with the emperors court and service to the court.
, . Guards, the best, elite
troops.
(.) , ,
(religious) Excessive pride, feeling of self-importance.
. make a will; express
ones desire before death.
, , .
Monk, hermit who gives a vow not to abandon his cell.


. Privileged private educational establishment for girls belonging
to well-to-do families.
246

, ,
. cure, to return health to others.
. Cadet, a pupil studying
in a private military school.
.
Helmet, military metal head gear.
,
(). Cuirassier regiment,
a heavy cavalry division defended by steel armor.
. Cuirassier, a horseman
belonging to heavy cavalry.
(
). Dress made of muslin (transparent, thin, delicate fabric).
. Prince, one of the
highest titles of nobility.
,
1917 . Cadet corps, a private
intermediate-level military school in Russia before 1917.
1. , ; 2. ,
, .
(1) Statue of a pagan god; (2) Idol.
- ;
. The Emperors guard, privileged troops
serving the emperor; personal guard to the Czars family.
- ,
; . A cavalry squadron which
existed under the emperors reign; an elite military unit.
, ,
(, ,
, ). Mascarade, a ball where people
arrive in masks and unique costumes (fairy-tale, historical, fantasy).
, ,
. Mask is a device that covers the face; also refers to the person
wearing the mask.
247

, , .
Benevolence, favor, grace, kindness.
, ,

() ; ,
. Monastery, a religious community
which unites people who completely devoted their lives to serving
God and who gave up secular life; building, church or territory
of the religious community.
, ,
( )
,
. Monk,
member of the religious community united by a solemn promise to
give their lives to the service of God and leading a strict and ascetic
lifestyle in a monastery in agreement with the demands of its charter.
, . With personal be
nefit or interest.
() -. Nevsky
Prospect, the main street in St. Petersburg.
() , ;
, (here) Not evoking respect, approval.
& I , (1796 1855). Nicholas I,
the Russian emperor.
,
; . Charming; having
magnetic force that attracts others.
. To desecrate, to violate cleanliness
or purity.
, : ,
, ,
. (here) petrify, to stop or freeze because of emotional
commotion or shock.
, ,
,
. Retired colonel, a retired regiment commander.
248

, ; . Relating to the body;


carnal; non-spiritual; coarse, rude.
& , . Sloping
downward.
() . Calling, vocation, mission.
-. occur to
someone, to come to mind.
. To predict.
, .
Lewdness, an immoral way of life.
. Saber.
,
. Czar, monarch.
,
. Vanity, a high opinion of oneself; feeling of personal
dignity.
, ,
, , (here) high society, privileged layer of
society, aristocracy, nobility.
(
)
. The Holy Synod (official name The Holy
Governing Synod), the supreme body which oversaw the operations
of the Russian Orthodox Church.
, , ,
. Body build.
, , . Personal property,
capital.
, , . Torso, body frame.
, , .
Monk, spiritual leader, mentor for religious believers.
(.) , ,
, (outdated) Pilgrim, a person who goes by foot on
a pilgrimage to visit holy sights.
17~20113

249

.
Frock coat, a long mans outer double-breasted coat fitted at the
waist.
, -. make
fun, ridicule, mock.
, . Vain, vainglorious,
conceited.
, , . Affection,
tender, warm, or moving feeling.
, ,
. Outlook, a range of knowledge, interests and concepts.
-
; , ,
. Aide-de-camp, an aid to the
emperor in the days of Czarist Russia; honorable title conferred to
officers of the emperors retinue.
,
;
. Maid-of-honor, a court title given to repre
sentatives of distinguished noble families; maids-of-honor made
up the empress retinue.
() . Drill
exercises in a military school.

, , , . Ambition, aspiration
to achieve a high, honorable position, reputation and honor; to
build a career.
, -,

, . Epigraph, an aphorism, saying
or short phrase that explains the main idea or authors intention
or literary conception

. Epaulettes, ceremonial shoulder straps on the uniforms of high
offers and generals.
250

.. .
( ) , . Rich, mellow voice.
. Disgrace,
loss of respect from others.
(.) , (outdated) Very.
,
. Vesper service, one of Christian Church services
fulfilled after midday
, . To express itself, to be
realized, to be personalized.
-,
-. rebel, to rise in revolt.
() , (here) creations, pieces of work.
: ,
. (Among Christian believers)
fast and go to Church services in preparation for confession
and communion.
. Count, one
of the highest aristocratic titles.
, ,
-. Tact, politeness.
,
, . Morning prayer, one of Christian
Church services which is completed in the early morning prior to
Eucharist.
, ,
;
, . Icon, a painting that depicts God, Mary and images
which are considered holy by Christians; image on an icon.
, ; ,
. Instinct.
, ,
. bow.
17*

251

, ;
. Coquetry, yearning or urge to be pleasing to others,
light flirt.
, . Foster
mother.
:
( )
, .
cross oneself.
,
, -. Blasphemy.
. Face, depiction of
holy face on an icon.
, . Manners, behavior.

XIX . Mantilla, a short cape without sleeves that was worn by
women in the 19th century.
, . Meanness.
, ,
. Imaginary, seeming.
,
; ,
. Prayer.
, ,
. Pious, a religious person who fulfills all the religious
customs and rites.
, , . Amiss.
,
. Anomaly, violation of the laws of nature.
, ,
, . Inconceivable, something that is impossible
to understand, comprehend or imagine.
, . Inseparably.
, , .
Unheard of.
252

,
; . Eucharist, the main
Christian Church service which is fulfilled in the morning; liturgy.
,
. Go down in the world.
, . In a pleasing or gratifying manner.
, . Charm, enchantment.
,
, . Fasting named
after the apostles Peter and Pavel.
, -.
Dependency.
, . Authentic, real.
,
. Fasting, abstention from
meat and also from all pleasures and entertainment according to
the instructions or orders of the Church.
. To fast, to observe or maintain fasting.
, .
adore, to express deep respect and admiration.
, , -.
charm, attract, seduce.
, ,
, . Exemplary, model.
(.)
,
( ),
, (religious) receive
communion.
-,
-. Predilection, fancy, leaning towards something.

. Parish, church including clergy and members
of the Church commune.
253

, , .
Resistance, opposition.
, , ,
. Anger, annoyance.
, ,
. Repentance, awareness of ones guilt, sins,
regret, pity concerning an action that was committed.
. Uncombed.
- , ,
(17121778). Roussot, the French philosopher, writer and
educationalist.
,
. Religious service, fulfillment of Church ceremonies and
rites, public worship.
, . Meekness, obedience, sub
missiveness.
& . Creative.
,
. Saint who led a sinless life and
accomplished a great feat in the name of God.
. Zeal, eagerness.
, . State of being tired;
exhaustion.
,
. court a woman trying to win her affec
tion.
, JI. ,
. Yasnaya Polyana, the estate of Leo
Tolstoy where he lived most of his life.

H.C.
, , ,
. Barn, granary; place to store grain and goods.
254

^ (., .) , (outdated, simple)


Love adventure, love affair.
- .
Crimson; deep red color with a slight tinge of blue.
, ,
. Blessed.
& () , (here)
move in different directions.
. Bare-footed.
() , ,
(here) Delirium, a sick, half-subconscious state of mind.
. High wave.
, ; . Widower,
the man whose wife died.
() , (here) Uppermost reward.

( ). Spindle.
, . Retribution,
punishment.
(: .) , , (here: outdated) Thief,
criminal.
, , . exclaim, to pronounce something loudly, with feeling,
with emotion, with agitation.
() , (here)
redden in the face, to blush suddenly and very strongly.
, . Strongly shudder,
twitch, come to life.
() , ,
. (here) absolutely closed, inaccessible, not penetrable.
(.) , (jargon) Dear,
a tender, affectionate way of addressing a man.
255

, . threaten.
() , , ,
(here) become sick, to feel pain in the bones and muscles.
, . Evil spirit, demon.
; , . Brave, defiant,
provocative, disrespectful.
(.) - , , (outdated)
Something extraordinary, amazing.
, .
Virtue, high morality, moral cleanliness or purity.
, ;
. Virtuous, righteous.
(.) , , (outdated)
Honest, decent.
1. () , ; 2. ,
. 1. (here) Bright,
expressive; 2. Full of life.
, . Well-to-do,
wealthy.
, . court, woo, flirt, to make
advances.
(.) ,
(simple) Adamantly (stubbornly) refuse to admit ones guilt.
. To defend.
(.) , , , (invective
language) An insidious, tricky, sneaky, cunning and mean person
(snake).

1917 ,
(,
). Hard labor in exile, a particular form of punishment for
criminals before 1917, which consisted of hard physical work in
severe climates (as in Siberia).
256

, . Closet;
place to store food or objects.
( , , , ). Bed
(in a hospital, barracks, prison, dormitory).
. If it is so; if it is that way.
(.) , , (outdated) die.
. Stable; place
where horses are kept.
, ,
. Merchant, a person who owns a trade enterprise
and is involved in trading.
, ; . Cook.
. Military or prison
hospital.
,
. Small oil lamp, which is lighted in front of an icon.
. A small town in the Orlov
province.
) (: .) , (here: outdated) Servants.
, , ,
; , . Fellow, a young
man in the prime of his life; strong, able, courageous; young servant,
shop assistant of a merchant.
, . Misfortune, trouble.
(.) , (simple) Probably.
(.) , ;
, (colloquial) Something that cannot be guessed or imaged;
it never occurred (to somebody).
. Daughter-in-law, the sons wife.
, , .
Impossible to accomplish because of a lack of strength; too difficult.
, .
Outstanding; standing out from the others.
257

()
, . (Here) Having a low position in society.
. Lack of common sense,
absurdity, nonsense.
(He) 16 6 0 (., .) () , (outdated, jargon)
like (or dislike) something.
, . Rainy, cloudy, overcast.
He (.) , (outdated) Not to be
fond of something.
, , ;
, . Beggar, pauper.
. Icon.
( , ) , (concerning
feelings or condition of aperson) To grip or seize.
, . A sleepy, cloudy state.
. Environs, neighborhood.
, -
. explain ones actions, citing some
reasons and arguments in ones defense.
(.) , (outdated) Prison, jail.
( ). Relating to a prison.
, ,
. A ferry, a boat or raft for transportation of
people or goods across a river, lake or bay.
() , (here) A group of prisoners.
. Nephew.
. A whip or lash
made of interweaved straps or rope;
.Punishment by lashing or whipping.
, . Roach, a small
freshwater fish.
258

() -, ,
(here) Free-and-easy, playful, frolicsome
woman.
( ) ; ,
(regarding the face) fill with blood; to blush in the face, showing
a crimson color.
, ,
, ; . Alms, money which is given to
the poor, sick, suffering; charity.
,
, , . bribe,
to attract to ones side, to receive what you want with the help of
money, gifts, services.
, ; . Scoundrel,
dishonest, ill-willed, mean, base person.
, .. Half of a coat,
jacket, flap.
(.) , (outdated) die.
, , . Amusement, merriment.
, . Praise, acceptance.
. Slap in the face.
. Halt, a stop along the way.
(.) ,
, (outdated) Steward,
an employee in a trade enterprise who fulfills certain tasks.
(.) , (outdated) To pester, tire, to get
sick of something.
(
). Spinning wheel.
(16,3 ). Old Russian weight
measure (16,3 kg).
, . Passionate, hot, heated, ardent,
fervent.
259

, . Without ceremony, in an
excessively familiar manner.
() , , ,
(here) Love, good (warm) relations or feelings.
(., ) , ,
, (simple, invective) A crude,
condescending, insulting way of describing a persons face, mug.
. Search for a missing person.
, . Scar
or other mark (trace) as aresult of being beaten or whipped by a
belt or lash.

. ask a woman or her relatives for agreement to
marry.
. Lamp
. Father-in-law, the husbands father.
(.) , , (outdated) speak,
tell.
,
. Maidservant.

, . As a form of punishment,
to send someone (usually to a far-away place) for resettlement.
, ; forcefully send
away, drive away, expel, .
kill.
, , , . beat, to lash
with a birch-rod or whip.
(.)
, (outdated) Madam, a polite or ironic style or
manner of addressing a woman.

,
260

. Plot, an event or a series of developing successive events,


which constitute the substance of literary work
(.) , (outdated) Prison.
(.)
, (outdated) Residential premises in the upper part
of a wealthy home in old Russia.
-. Containing
a small quantity of something; ,
. Refers to a lack of or insufficient amount of money.
(.) , (outdated) A major
public road.
(, .) , (here, outdated) Pregnancy.
, (., .) , (outdated) Father.
, , , . Needy,
poor, miserable.
. hang oneself.
,
. In pre-revolutionary
Russia part of a province that would be close to the modern-day
district.
-
1917 ; ,
. Non-commissioned officer, a rank used for junior
officers promoted from soldiers in pre-revolutionary Russia.
;
, . Falcetto, a very
high sound of a singers voice; very fine, delicate male voice, similar
in timbre to a womans voice.
(409,5 ). Old Russian weight
measure (409,5 g.).
(.) , (jargon) grab, catch, seize.
() , (here) Bad.
() , (here)
feel in control, to act as if one owned the place, to reign.
261

( ) ; (regarding
certain animals) Placed on a chain;
, . Large dogs which guard a house
or territory around the home.

. A local police department in pre-revolutionary Russia.
, . Credit, respect, esteem.
(., .) , 25
, (outdated, simple) 25 kopeks; a quarter of a ruble.
. Pike, a predatory freshwater
fish.

. A place of temporary lodging organized
for convicts when transporting them from prison to prison in pre
revolutionary Russia.
, . creep or slip away with quick, deft movements.

..
II (18181881). Alexander II, Russian
Czar.
-. Scarlet, bright red.
. Whiskers, the
part of ones beard starting from the temples and continuing along
the cheeks.
, , . Lawlessness,
violation of the laws, tradition, and habits
- ; , . Nonsense, rub
bish, garbage, absurdity, something that is not serious.
(.) , ,
, (outdated)
Room; clean half of a peasants hut which is not used for household
purposes.
() , (here) Passion.
262

. Valley.
, . Iron
sheet that covers the opening in a oven.
, ,
. Aphorism, a deep thought, opinion or judgment which is
expressed succinctly and clearly.
. Mens headwear
with a beak on the cap (a peaked cap).
( ). The Book of
Job, one of the books from the Bible (the Old Testament).
, . Track or rut created
on the road by wheels when they pass over and over along the
same road.
, , ; . Very
strict, severe, decisive and sharp.
( ) , (of hair) To curl, meander,
wind.
, ; . Coachman, one
who drives a horse-drawn carriage.
. Bench.
& ,
, ,
. Metaphor; a word or expression that is used in a figurative
sense based on a similarity, comparison or analogy.
, . In passing, cursorily.
, ,
; .
Spendthrift, a person who irrationally and uncontrollably spends
money and loses money and property in card games; squanderer.
. Military and
civil uniform.
, . Insolent, rude, impertinent and
crude person.
263

, , . Ill-spirited,
malicious and base person who has no conscience or morality.
, , . Rainy,
overcast and cold weather.
, . In an
unfriendly, spiteful manner.
. Hostile.
, , . be, exist, live.
. Icon.
, .
Smallpox.
(.) , , (outdated)
Unusual, exclusively.
, , . Force to quicken
and movement.
. Rural cemetery.
(.) , , ,
(outdated) Immoral behaviour, sin, debauchery.
, , . Unoriginal,
trite, banal, trivial.
, , . Betrayal,
breach of ones oath, lie, deception.
,
. Repentance, acknowledgement of ones guilt or regret
regarding an action or deed.
( ). Quickly (in relation to the pace
of a horses trot).


. A small space or passage between the porch and the habitable
place of a rural hut or a traditional town house.
264

, , . Quickly, hastily,
indistinctly.
. Figure, torso.
& . Four-wheeled cart
or carriage.
(.) , (outdated) reproach.
. Tent, living quarters of a nomad.
. Wild rose.
. hit something and to make a sound
upon impact.
, . squint, to cover
ones eyes by compressing or closing ones eyelids.

..
, , . Precious brooch,
buckle, clasp.
. Light-haired, blond, fair-haired.
. Wild grass growing in the steppes.
, . The past, bygone days.
,
,
. Venetian beret, headwear decorated with
jewels and precious gems, which became fashionable in the Italian
city of Venice during the Renaissance.
-
,
(XVI ). Stand-up collar of a luxurious dress
similar to that of the Scottish queen Mary Stuart (16th century).
(.) , (outdated) To return.
i r 2003

265

-
XIX XX . Province; the main
administrative and territorial district in Russia in the 19,h and early
2 0 th centuries.
,
. Governor, a seniour government official who was the head
of a province.
. The main city in a
province.
,
. Toll, tax which was collected
from the conquered nation by a prince or a military leader in former
times.
, .
Low cut of a womans dress, which shows her shoulders and neck.
; . Pathetic, evoking sym
pathy; shy, timid, miserable.
, (here) Frightened, scared.

. corrode, to be covered by a thin coating of rust
formed as a result of the air and moisture.
() ; :
. Estate, property, house with land.
,
; . Lyon
velvet, expensive fabric manufactured in the French city of Lyon,
a symbol of wealth and luxury.
, . To seduce.
, . Courageously, boldly.

. So
litaire.

,
266

. Peplos, luxurious
evening dress in the ancient Greek and Roman style, which was
worn exclusively by wealthy women belonging to the nobility.
: . Here: to go.
. , ,

. sell ones soul to the devil, commit a sin by giving up
ones conscience and honor for the sake of monetary gain.
-, . Bright red; the color of
blood.
,
, -. experience embarrassment or
confusion as a result of lack of self-confidence; to be afraid, to
be shy.
; , ,
. Fatal, something that determines ones destiny;
destructive; deadly; inevitable.

. Ruby cross, jewelry made of
rubies (precious red stone).
: , , ..
Manual labor, knitting, sewing, embroidery.

(
). Christmas time, holiday time in the winter
from Christmas to Epiphany (in honor of Jesuss birth and baptism
in the Jordan river).
(.) , ,
, (outdated) flake out, to faint, to weaken.
,
. Tail coat, a suit (usually in black) especially
tailored for ceremonial functions.
, . Deco
rous, observing a specific ritual, order or custom.
18*

267


. Shield used as a defensive weapon in ancient warfare.

..
. Gully, ravine.
, . Chasm or abyss which
seems endless or bottomless.
, ,
. Nonsense; incoherent and disjointed
speech of a sick person in a state of delirium.
,
; , ( ,
). Snow storm, blizzard (usually in the steppe in large
open spaces or stretches of land).
, .
rage, to swiftly manifest\show destructive strength.
, , . Felt boots,
winter shoes made from wool or thick felt.
() , (here) Probably.
, 1,06 . Russian measure of
distance, approximately 1.06 km.
,
, . Landmark or surveying rod, which is
thrust in the ground and used to show a certain direction, road or
border.
. Look, gaze.
,
, , . Apparition, something
that a person imagines during ones sleep, sickness or religious trance.
. Strong snowstorm; blizzard.
. Boom, unclear monotonous buzz
or rumbling.
268

, -,
. get, achieve something by exercising effort.

. rattle, to make a lot of intermittent noises as a result of
shaking or on impact.
. Drowsiness, being half asleep.
, ;
, . Ominous, suggesting that something
disastrous will happen; instilling fear or anxiety.
, ,
. Irrationality, something that cannot
be understood by the rational mind or explained by logic.
(), ,
. Whip, lash used to drive horses.
. Small store.
,
. Old-fashioned, traditional peasants shoes, made by
weaving strands of the bark of a lime-tree.
, . To seem, to appear.
, ;
. shed uneven, vacillating light; to shine poorly or
weakly.
, , ;
.
Mystical, unexplainable, incomprehensible, mysterious; related to
secret and supernatural powers.
. On ones back, facing upwards.
, . Pitch
dark, so dark that it is impossible to see anything.
He . To not close.
; . lose hope, to
become despondent.
269

, ; . stray, to move
not knowing the road; to roam or wander.
. Parable, an allegorical story.
() , , (here) Snow
dust, very small, fine snow.
. A low and wide sled.
. Childish.
, .
rage; to reveal itself with enormous strength.
( ) . get dark (as it is getting
close to twilight).
. Straw.

. From the noun steppe an area of land
without trees in the south of Russia.
, ,
;
: , , , . Natural phe
nomenon that is distinguished by its destructive power; according
to ancient people, one of the four major elements of nature: fire,
water, air and the earth.
, . Twilight, a period of faint light when it is still possible to see.
. Snowpile created by
sweeping wind.
. Marmot, a small animal of the
steppe.
, .
From the verb to heat to support a fire, warm up.
. Hurricane; destructive wind.

; . Farm, an isolated piece
of land with a home; a small settlement.
270

. Gust, a sudden,
sharp and strong rush of air carried by wind.
, . Clearly, distinctly.

JI.H. .
, . Disgusting, terrible,
disgraceful, shocking, outrageous.
(.) ,
, (outdated) Person who is ready to fight in a duel for any
reason.
& , , . Barbarity,
savageness.
(.) ,
, ,
II. (outdated) A rich noble aristocrat, courtier, high official
at the court of the Russian empress Catherine II.
,
; . Will, testament; document which
contains instructions in the event of a death; pre-death wishes.
. close ones eyes with
strength/force.
. To hide away.
() , , (of snow) melted, wet.
,
. Cantata, a poem written for a particular ceremony
or important occasion.
, ,
. Debauchee, person who likes gatherings and loud parties
(often accompanied by excessive drinking bouts).
, . Massive, bulky, corpulant.
. A person who hunts bears.
271

, . make
a grimace, wrinkle ones face.
; . Gloomy,
immersed in heavy and serious thoughts.
, ,
; ; , . Gloomy,
to sullenly knit ones brow.
, , . Scoundrel,
mean, base, ill-spirited person who has no conscience.
, . Unintentionally, by chance.
, .
Duel which cannot be taken seriously.
( ). Haggard, peaky, having
lost a lot of weight in a short time.
. regain consciousness, to come to
ones senses.
. Bridge of nose,
the upper part of the nose between the eyes.
(.) , , (outdated) Singer, mem
ber of the choir.
(.) ,
, , , (out
dated) Person who belongs to high society, who leads an idle and
superficial lifestyle.
, ,
. get excited, to show a lack of patience or
tolerance; to get heated up; to get overly angry.
(.) ; , , ,
(outdated) Relax! Settle down! Stop that! That is not necessary!
. Open
space in a forest or on the edge of a forest, glade.
272

; -.
declare, to pronounce in a ceremonious fashion; to announce
something.
, . Carelessness,
forgetfu 1ness, absent - m inded ness.

-. Ritual; established custom.
, . Chivalrous, noble,
righteous.
(.) , , (out
dated) A exclusive circle of chosen people, high society.
. Winter sled, carriage on a
sledge runner.

. Second, a witness and assistant to a person fighting in a duel.
, , , . Sad,
sullen, depressed, dispirited.
. aim, to direct a gunshot
to its target.
, . squint ones eyes,
pressing ones eyelids.

A.C.
. Adventuresome, risky.

; . Free-and-easy, light-hearted.
, . Excessive,
active, stormy.
() , (here) A small scrap
of paper.
(.) ,
; , (outdated) A person who is prepared to fight in
a duel for any possible reason.
273

;
, . Frenzy, uncontrollable and active
desire and feelings; rage.
, ; . Brawler, a person
who is inclined to scandals, disorders, violence.
() , (here) Vodka.
; . stop
obeying, to become unruly, to be obstinate, to resist.
,
; -. bear malice,
to experience ill feelings or hostility towards someone.
( ) , , ,
. (about the character of a person) caustic, acrid,
sarcastic, ironic, ill-willed, spiteful, malevolent.
(.)
XVIIIXIX : 1)
( ); 2 ) (
), (outdated) Used in the Russian verbal etiquette
of the 18th19th centuries: 1) To show respect for the person in
question; 2 ) to express an order.
; , . Having settled terms;
to be on even terms with someone.
. To call.
, . Severe, strict, stubborn
character.
; , .
Favor, courtesy, willingness to assist, politeness.
-
, . Vengeance, an intention to cause
harm to someone as a way of paying him back for an insult.
,
. Horseman.
. Hard crust of ice on the
snow.
274

, . Excessively, incredibly.
, . In one go, without
stopping.
. come to ones senses.
. disgrace, defame oneself.
; . calm
down, to come to a normal state.
, , .
Desperation, depression, sadness.
, ,
-. be first, to be the leader, to outdo
others in something.
. Slap in the face.
. Whim.
; . Prototype.
, . Lack of self-confidence,
lack of courage.
. Saber.
() , (here) A love affair.
(.) ,

. (outdated) Memorial book used to enter the names of deceased
for the purposes of prayer and remembrances during Church
services.
, ,
, , . Strong concern, state of panic, agitation,
alarm, nervousness, fear, confusion.
. Pipe, an instrument for smoking
tobacco.
, . Severity, sullenness, gloominess.
() -,
-, (here) be proud of something, to boast.
275

;
. Hut, a temporary shelter made of branches; military
tent.
, , ,
. Prank, a trick committed for the sake of amusement and fun.
(.) , , ;
, (outdated) Epigram, a caustic, witty comment; mockery,
sneer.

..
, . Absurdity, nonsense, rubbish,
. glimmer, to be dimly lit.
. Crude joke or buffoonery.
() , , (here)
consider (weigh) from alL sides and positions.
, , . Very bad, nasty,
vile, foul.
,
. Garrison, a military unit stationed in a town or
fort.
. Tremble, shiver,
quiver, tremor.
, . Small, petty fights or
disputes.
, . Meagre
means, small salary.
( ) , (about the heart)
sudden stoppage.

. Remote place which is far from large cities or cultural centers.
.
study by heart (by rote) by repeating over and over.
276

, , . Action taken in order to confuse,


mislead or trick someone.
,
- , ,
-. plot, to secretly do something to achieve some
goal, intentionally causing harm or unpleasantness to someone.
. Hae
morrhage; accumulation of blood in an organisms tissue.
, , . Small,
limited, average, narrow-minded.
. Full darkness.
, . Doubt, bewilderment,
perplexity.
, , . Grief, insult,
emotional pain, distress.
-,
-. Obsessed by a dream about something or by a
desire to achieve something.
. go down
in the world, to stop being concerned about ones image.
() . Intoxication; rapture
of self-oblivion.
. Imperative, expressing an
order.
. Duty, obligation.
. Cellar, cold space,
premises located underground.
- , .
encourage, to prompt someone to do something more swiftly or
better.
. Admiration.
277

, , -
1917 . Lieutenant, 2nd
Lieutenant, Captain officers ranks in the Russian army before
1917.
- ,
. Platitude, something not worthy of respect, not worthy of
serious attention.
-, -
, . despise, to disdain, to relate to someone
or something without respect.
-. achieve success in
something.
. Chatterer, windbag.
,
; , , . Outlaw, a person who
attacks another with a weapon in order to rob; killer; violent person.
, . Disappointment as a result of unmet
expectations.
,
. Official
report that is submitted when military personnel approach their
commanding officers.
, . Calculating, looking for
personal gain.
, -.
re-instate the honor or reputation of someone.

-. Reputation; general opinion in society
about ones merits and shortcomings.
,
. Vanity, a high opinion of oneself.
, . be
shy, to feel embarrassed.
, . In a dry, reserved manner.
278

, . Dull, dim-witted.
, .
Coward; person who easily succumbs to fear.
, , ,
. Slum, a poor, dirty, squalid,
godforsaken city or district where the lower classes of society live.

, . Vain, conceited, striving towards a high position
in society, striving towards glory.
, . Despondency,
sadness, depressed state, low spirits.
, ,
; . Rubbish, nonsense, trifle; something that does
not have any meaning and does not deserve any attention.
-. Carefully, thoroughly
study something.






26-.07.2006. 60x88/16. .
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2000 . 2003. . 1293.
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