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2012


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e-mail: parfenm@gmx.de
(23.02.2015)
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- , . (3)) 1752 .
[4] .
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(1)

(p)/p p 0,

(p) - (p),
p p,
: .

, , .. (
, . [2], . 99)
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(1),
,
(
), [6,7] (p) = 1(a, b) + 2(a, b)j
:
1) 1/a =2*/b* ,
(2)

2) 2/a = - 1*/b*

( a = a*)
3) 1/a = 2/b ,

4) 2/a* = - 1/b*.

a = (x + yi), b = (z + ui) - a* = (x - yi), b* = (z ui) - ,


"" - [8] p = a + bj = x + yi + zj + uk
5

. . , , . 2012

p* = a* - bj = x - yi - zj - uk ,

x, y, z, u - ,

i, j, k -

"" . ""

(p)

1(x,y,z,u) + 2(x,y,z,u)i + 3(x,y,z,u)j + 4(x,y,z,u)k (a,b) = 1(a,b) +


2(a,b)j, 1, 2, 3, 4 - 1(a,b) = 1 + 2i, 2(a,b) =
3 + 4i - .

(2) 1) 2)
, 3) 4)
[6,7]. (1)
. a = a* = x (
1 = 1*)
,
.
.

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(2)

"" - (. (3)) ,
. . ""
, . . (2)
" a = a*", .
: 2) 3)
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, . .
, [8]
. ,
(2) , a = a*
(2)
.
,

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.

a = a*

,
p
(p).

, (2)
,
(H- )
(H- ), H .
, (2)
[6,7]
.

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,
.

( ). ,
G2 C (C) C-
C() ("")

H-

H(p) G4 H
H
= x + zj G2 p = x+ yi + (z+ ui)j =
a+bj G4, G2 G3 G4 , G3 G4 a = a* G2
G3 b = b* .

.
H- (
1 2) (2),
a = a* = x.
b = b* = z (.. u =
0), a = a* = x ( y = 0)
(2). /a = (/x - i/y), /a* = (/x +
i/y), /b

= (/z - i/u), /b* = (/z + i/u),

(2),
y = 0 u = 0 /y =
/u = 0 , , /a = /a* = /x, /b = /b* = /z.
,
p = a + bj = x + yi + zj + uk
i k, ,
(p) = (a,b) = 1 + 2j =

. . , , . 2012

1 + 2i + 3j + 4k, 2 = 4 = 0
1 = 1* = 1(x, z) 2 = 2*= 3(x, z).

, ,
p = x + yi + zj + uk H-
H(p) = x + zj
/a = /a* = /x, /b = /b* = /z, 1 = 1* =
1(x, z) 2 = 2*= 3(x, z), , . .
1 3
x z, 1 2 a b.

(2)

p :
1) 1(x, z) /x= 3(x, z)/z,

2) 3(x, z) /x = - 1(x, z)/z,

3) 1(x, z) /x = 3(x, z)/z, 4) 3(x, z)/x = - 1(x, z)/z,



- :
(3)

1/x = 3/z ,

1/z = - 3/x

= x + zj
j, j2 = -1.
, p H (2)
C- (3),
. , H- H(p)
- C()
,

H-

. , H(p) =

. . , , . 2012

p2 C() = 2. -
- (3),
H- (2)
, , -
H- ,

.
, ,
H- H(p) = 1 + 2j
C- C()
p .
, , p
C()
(p), (2),
, - C()
H .
p .
.
H- H(p) = 1 + 2j
:
(4)

H(p)' = 1(') + 2(')j = (1/a + 1/a*) + (2/a + 2/a*)j,


[9]
(4)
:

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()' = (1/a + 1/a*) + (3/a + 3/a*)j = 1/x + (3/x)j.



.
(4) H

H(p)

H- , . .
1(') = 1/a + 1/a* 2(') = 2/a + 2/a*
- (2),
1 2 1(') 2('). (4)
1(') 2(')
H(p)' "",
1('') 2('') H(p)'' . .
H-
, (4), . ,

(4a)

H(p)' = 1(') + 2(')j = (1/a + 1/a*) - (1/b* + 1*/b*)j,

(4b)

H(p)' = 1(') + 2(')j = (1/a + 1*/a) + (2/a + 2/a*)j,

(4c)

H(p)' = 1(') + 2(')j = (1/a + 1*/a) - (1/b* + 1*/b*)j,


[5]. H(p)'', H(p)''',...
H- H(p), (4), H H-


.

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,
. , C
- C() = n (n)' = = nn-1, n , H-
H(p) = pn ( C() p)
(pn)' = npn-1. , ,
- .

,

( ), () (
) .
3.
H, .

1. H(p) =
1 + 2j = p4 = (a + bj)4, 1 = a4 - (3a2 + 2aa*
+ a*2)bb* + b2b*2, 2 = (a3+a2a*+aa*2+a*3)b - 2(a+a*)b2b* 1* = a*4 (3a*2 + 2aa* + a2)bb* + b2b*2, 2* = (a*3+a*2a+a*a2+a3)b* - 2(a+a*)b*2b.
(2-1)
(2-3): 1/a = 4a3 - (6a + 2a*)bb*, 2/b = (a3 + a2a* + aa*2 + a*3) - 4(a +
a*)bb*, 2*/b* = (a*3 +a*2a +a*a2 +a3) - 4(a+ a*)bb* (2-2)

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(2-4): 2/a = (3a2+2aa* + a*2)b - 2b2b*, - 1*/b* = (3a*2+2aa*+a2)b - 2b2b*,


2/a* = (a2+2aa*+3a*2)b - 2b2b*, - 1/b* = (3a2+2aa*+ a*2)b - 2b2b*.
a = a* = x (..|,
,
a = a* = x, , H (2) p4 : 1) (1/a| = 4x3 (6x+2x)bb* = (2*/b*| = (x3+x3+x3+x3) - 8xbb* = 4x3 - 8xbb*; 2) (2/a| = (1*/b*| = 6x2b - 2b2b*; 3) (1/a| = (2/b| = 4x3 - 8xbb*,
4) (2/a*| = - (1/b*| = 6x2b - 2b2b*.
a = a*, 1/a* =
-2(a+a*)bb* (4),
H(p) = p4:
(p4)' = 1(') + 2(')j = [4a3 - (6a+2a*)bb* - 2(a+a*)bb*] +
[(3a2+2aa* + a*2)b - 2b2b* + (a2+2aa*+ 3a*2)b - 2b2b*]j =
4[a3 - (2a + a*)bb*] + 4[(a2 + aa* + a*2)b - b2b*]j = 4p3,

p3 = (a + bj)3 = [a3 - (2a + a*)bb*] + [(a2 + a*a+ a*2)b - b2b*]j
-
j s:

js = s*j.


. a = a*

[(p4)'| = (1(')| + (2(')|j = (4p3| = 4[x3 - 3xbb*] + 4[3x2b - b2b*]j,
, , .


(p4)' 1(') 2(') : 1(') = 4[a3 - (2a +

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a*)bb*], 2(') = 4[(a2 + aa*+ a*2)b - b2b*]. ,


H- (p4)' =
1(') + 2(')j, : 1(')/a = 4(3a2-2bb*), 2(')/b = 4[(a2+aa*+a*2) - 2bb*],
2(')*/b* = 4[(a*2+ aa* +a2) - 2bb*], 2(')/a = 4(2a+a*)b, -1(')*/b* =
4(2a*+a)b, 2(')/a* = 4(a+2a*)b, - 1(')/b* = 4(2a+ a*)b.
a = a* = x , H- (2)
H(p)' = (p4)' :
1) (1(')/a| = 4(3x2-2bb*) = (2(')*/b*|; 2) (2(')/a| = - (1(')*/b*| = 12xb;
3) (1(')/a| = (2(')/b| = 4(3x2-2bb*), 4) (2(')/a*| = - (1(')/b*| = 12xb.
, H(p) = p4 H- .
1(')
2(') , (4) 1(')/a* = - 4bb*,
H(p) = p4 :
(p4)'' = 1('') + 2('')j = (1(')/a + 1(')/a*) + (2(')/a + 2(')/a*)j = [4(3a22bb*) - 4bb*] + [4(2a+a*)b + 4(a+2a*)b]j = 4(3a2-3bb*) + 4b(3a+3a*)j =
43p2 = 12p2,
p2 = (a + bj)2 = (a2 - bb*) + b(a+a*)j.

: (4)'' = 4(3)' = 432 = 122.
a = a*
[(p4)''| = (1('')| + (2('')|j = 43(p2| = 12[(x2 - bb*) + 2xbj]
,
.

1('') 2('') H(p) =


p4 : 1('') =
12(a2-bb*) 2('') = 12b(a+a*), 1('')* = 12(a*2-bb*) 2('')* =
12b*(a+a*). ,

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H- (p4)'' = 1('') + 2('')j,


1('')/a = 24a, 2('')/b = 12(a+a*), 2('')*/b* = 12(a+a*),
2('')/a = 12b, - 1('')*/b* = 12b, 2('')/a* =

12b, - 1('')/b* = 12b.

"" a = a* = x
, 1) (1('')/a| = (2('')*/b*|= 24x; 2) (2('')/a| = (1('')*/b*| = 12b; 3) (1('')/a| = (2('')/b| = 24x,

4) (2('')/a*| = -

(1('')/b*| = 12b. (2) , ,


H(p) = p4 H- .

(p4)''' (4)
, 1('')/a* = 0, :
(p4)''' = 1(''') + 2(''')j = (1('')/a + 1('')/a*) + (2('')/a + 2('')/a*)j = 24(a
+ b)j = 24p,
: (4)''' = 24.

[(p4)'''|= 24(p| = 24(x + b)j.


1(''') = 24a 2(''') = 24b

1(''')/a = 24;

2(''')/b = 24; 2(''')*/b* = 24; 2(''')/a = 0; - 1(''')*/b* = 0; 2(''')/a* = 0;


- 1(''')/b* = 0. a = a* = x
(2) : 1) (1(''')/a| = (2(''')*/b*|= 24; 2)
(2(''')/a| = - (1(''')*/b*| =0; 3) (1(''')/a| = (2(''')/b| = 24; 4) (2(''')/a*|
= - (1(''')/b*| = 0. , H(p)
= p4 H- .
H(p) = p4 (4)
:
(p4)'''' = 1('''') + 2('''')j = (1(''')/a + 1(''')/a*) + (2(''')/a + 2(''')/a*)=
24(p)' = 24,
: (4)'''' = 24.

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. ,
p.
[2]
(a)-n.
[10], -
-
, ,
( )
.
H-
.

H-

.
2. (p) = 1 + 2j = exp(p) = exp(a + bj), exp(p)
p.
() = exp() ,
p = x + yi + (z + ui)j = a + bj
H- (p) = exp(p)
G4 . ,
, (p) = exp(p) = 1 + 2j
(2) a = a*.
(p) = exp(p) ,
1 2,
16

a, b, a*, b*.

. . , , . 2012

p = x + iy + jz +
ku = pscal + pvect [2], pscal = x p vect = iy + jz + ku
p. p = x + ve,
v = |pvect| = (y2 + z2 + u2)1/2 - pvect

e = (iy + jz + ku)v

"" (e2 = ee = - 1) . ,

" " p = x + ve
"1" "e", x ve
" ".

[5]
:
(p) = exp(x + ve) = exp(x)exp(ve) =
exp(x)[ cos(v) + esin(v)] = exp(x)[cosv + esinv],
:

cos(v) : sin(v)

cosv sinv.
e = v

(iy + jz + ku)

ij = k,

(p)

:
(p) = 1 + 2j = exp(x)[ cosv + yv 1(sinv)i] + [v-1exp (x)(sinv)(z + ui)]j,
1 2:
1 = exp(x)[ cosv + yv1(sinv)i],
2 = exp (x)v-1(sinv)(z + ui).
a = (x + yi), b = (z + ui), a* = (x - yi), b* = (z - ui),
x, y, z, u
a, a*, b, b*: x = 2 -1(a + a*), y = (2i)-1(a - a*), z = 2-1(b + b*), u =
(2i)-1(b - b*), 1 2

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1 = 2[cosv + (2v)-1(a - a*)sinv],


2 = 2v-1b(sinv),
v = 2-1[4|p|2 - (a + a*)2 ]1/2, |p| = (aa* + bb*)1/2 = 2-1exp [2-1(a + a*)] . ,
H- , 1 = 1* a = a*.
1 2 a, b, a*
b* :
1/a = [cosv + v-1(a - a*) sinv + v-1sinv - 4-1v-3 (a - a*)2 (v cosv - sinv)],
2/b = [2v-1 sinv + bb* v-3(vcosv - sinv)],
2*/b*= [2v-1 sinv + b*bv-3(vcosv - sinv)],
2/a = b[v-1 sinv - 2-1v-3(a - a*)(vcosv - sinv)],
-1*/b* = b[v-1 sinv + 2-1v-3(a - a*)(vcosv - sinv)],
2/a* = b[v-1 sinv + 2-1v-3(a - a*)(vcosv - sinv)],
-1/b* = b[v-1 sinv - 2-1v-3(a - a*)(vcosv - sinv)].
, (p) = exp(p) H-
, v , ..
a = a* (2):
1) ( 1/a| = (2*/b*| = 2-1exp(x)( cos|b| + |b|-1 sin|b|) ,
2) (2/a| = - (1*/b*| = 2-1b|b|-1exp(x)sin|b|,
3) (1/a| = (2/b| = 2-1 exp (x)(cos|b| + |b|-1 sin|b|)
4) (2/a*| = - (1/b*| = 2-1b|b|-1exp(x) sin|b|.
, bb* = |b|2, a = a* = x v = |b|
= 2-1exp(x).

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, 1/a* = [cosv + 4-1v-2(a - a*)2cosv - v-1sinv - 4-1v-3(a a*)2sinv], (p) = exp(p) (4)
:
exp(p)' = (1/a + 1/a*) + (2/a + 2/a*)j =
2[cosv + (2v)-1(a - a*)sinv] + 2v-1b(sinv)j = exp(p),
(p) = exp(p) = 1 +
2j = 2[cosv + (2v)-1(a - a*)sinv] + 2v-1b(sinv)j.
, (p) = exp(p)

exp(p)' = exp(p),


. , (p) =
exp(p) H- ,
exp(p),
. a = a*
exp(p):
[exp(p)]/p = [exp(p)|.
4.

""

[1,2].
,
.
( )

, ,

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. , , ,
- [2.3,11] ( )
. [11],

1 2 .
- [11],
-
-,
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,
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.
5.
[1] . . , , .
, LIX, 3, 1948.
[2] K. Grlebeck, K. Habetta, W. Sprig, Funktionentheorie in der Ebene
und im Raum, Basel [u.a.]: Birkhuser Verlag, 2006. // online:
http://www.ebooks-share.net/funktionentheorie-in-der-ebene-und-im-raum
grundstudium-mathematik-german-edition/

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[3] A. Sudbery, Quaternionic Analysis, Math. Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc., 85, 199225,1979 // . ,
2, 2004, 130-157, online:
http://www.polynumbers.ru/articles/181/ru/pdf/02-09.pdf
[4] R. Remmert, Funktionentheorie 1, Springer Lehrbuch, Ser. Grundwissen
Math., 4. Aufl., Berlin [u.a.]: Springer, 1991.
[5] . . , , : , 1969.
[6] . . , (.), 2007 // Michail
Parfenov, Zur Quaternionenanalysis, , :
http://www.4-1dimwelt-mwparf.de/ft_gesamt.html
[7] . . ,
(.), 2007. // Michael Parfenov, Zur
quaternionischen Differenzierbarkeitsdefinition, - Scribd,
: http://ru.scribd.com/doc/6243890/Quat-Analysis
[8] .. , .. , , :
, 1973.
[9] M. R. Spiegel, Komplexe Variablen, London [u.a.]: McGraw-Hill, 1991.
[10] . . ,
, , . 3, 7,
, ., 2003, 126135, . . Math-Net.Ru:
http://www.mathnet.ru/links/263f9a98e39753896e28ca35500fe509/mp122.pdf
[11] S. Rnn, Bicomplex algebra and function theory, Cornell University
Library e-prints, http://arxiv.org/pdf/math/0101200.pdf, 2008.
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[12] Khaled Abdel-Khalek, Quaternion Analysis, Cornell University Library eprints, http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-th/9607152.pdf , 1996.

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