Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 63

!

. .

Bb

Cc

Dd

[ei]

[bi:]

[si:]

[di:]

Ff

Hh

[]

[ef]

Gg
[ ]

[eitj]

Ii

Jj

[ai]

[cfeei]

[kei]

[el]

Mm

Nn

Oo

Pp

[em]

[en]

[]

[pid

Qq

Rr
[a:]

Ss

Tt

[es]

[tk]

[kju:]

Uu
[ju:]

[Vi:]

Ww

Xx

['dAblju:]

[eks]

Yy

Zz

[wai]

[zed]


.
.
.
.
. .
.
.

.
.
. ()
.
. .
.,
. ()


(C O N S O N A N T S )

[] back = [6]
day = [],

jam =
[f] five, =
photo
=
[g] girl
[h] hand =
yellow =
ffl
[k] kiss =
[1] ady =

[]

[]

, (

[]!)

[]

[]
[], ,

[m] man = []
[n] night [],

to]

sing

[],
, ,

Pig = []
M rabbit = [],
[p]

[S] son
ship

[t] tea

=
=
=

cheese
[V] vase
[w] water,
one

[]

=
=

[]

[tf]

=
zebra
[3 ] measure =
=
[8 ] they
=
[ ] thing
[Z]

[c]
[m]
[], ,

[],

:
,

[3]

[]

-
:
^ j:
]<
g:

job [<5]
geography [dji'ogrofi]

<

frog [frog]
ph: phrase [freiz] ;
elephant fehfont]

[h] <

^ h: hole [houl]
wh: whole [houl] ,

^ f:

-j
5

:
:
ck:
ch:

key [ki:]
cat [kaet]
clock [klok]
school [sku:l]

n: night [nait]
kn: knight [nait]
: rose [rouz]
wr: write [rait]
s:
c:

smile [small]
city ['siti] ;
ceiling [ skill)]
sc: scene [si:n]

[J]< c

sh: shock [Jok]


c: ocean [ oujon]

w: water ['wo:to]
< wh: what [wot] , ;
when [wen]

<

z:
s:

zoo [zu:]
visit ['vizit]
6


(V O W E LS )

[] cut

,
[] []
;

[as] bag

[] bed

[]

[],

,
, ,

[] about

[]

[]

,
[] ,

[]

[0] pot

,
[]

[i] pit

,
[]

[u] put

, []
, ,
1

[a:] ask
[:] fur

[a]

[:] short
[i:] tree

[u:] boot

[] []

[]

,
,

[]

[],

,
(
: ,
)

[ai] high, my
[ou] , []
boat, flow
[oi] coin, toy
[au] found, down

= []

[ei] may, sake


[], []
fare, there
[is] hear, here
[] poor, tour

= []
= []
= [ay]

= []
= []
= []
= [ya]

(
: , ,
, )

[] tire, fire = []
[] tower = []
[] goer = []
8

:
:
:
:

love [Iav]
blood [bLvd]
country fkAntri]
but [bAt] ,
panther ['] ;
Africa ['asfriko] ;
bat [bast]
nettle [netl]
pleasant [pleznt]
again [o'gen]
serpent ['so:pont]
leather ['1]
nature ['neitjo]
wash [woj]
pot [pot]
cough [kof]
print [print]
pity [ piti]
cinema ['sinimo]
bargain ['ba:gin]
9

wolf [wulf ]
wood [wild]
should [Jud] .
put [put]

a + r: dark [da:k]
- If: half [ha:f]
+ lm: palm [pa:m] ;
+ nt: plant [pla:nt]
+ sk: task [ta:sk]
+ sp: grasp [grcusp]
a + ss: grass [gra:s]
+ st: past [pa:st]
+ r: heart [ha:t]
e + :
+ :
i + :
u + :

her [ho:] ,
learn [1:] ()
dirt [do:t]
turn [to:n] ()
he [hi:]
tree [tri:]
speak [spi:k]
chief [tfi:f]
receive [ri'si:v]
10

+1: fall [fo:l]


au:
autumn ['odom]
aw:
draw [dro:] ;
augh: daughter ['dodo]
ough: thought [God]
+ r: horse [ho:s]
wa + r: warm [worn]
write [rait]
die [dai]
sky [skai]
buy [bai]
right [rait] ;
sign [sain]
child [tjaild]
mind [maind]
oi:
oy:

boil [boil]
toy [toi]
photo ['foutou]
road [roud]
slow [slou]
cold [kould]
roll [roul] ()
11

[ ]< <

:
oe:
oo:
ou:

move [mu:v]
shoe [Ju:]
spoon [spu:n]
soup [su:p]

ou:
ow:

count [kaunt]
down [daun] ()

a:
ai:
ay:
ey:
eigh:

take [teik]
rain [rein]
day [dei]
they [5ei]
neighbour ['neiba]

a + re: []
e + re: where [wea] ,

e + re: here [hia]


N < < ea + r: hear [hia]
oo + r: poor []
[ ] < ^ our: tour [tua]
[a is ]< :'

ia:
ire:

diamond ['daiamand]
retire [ri'taia]
12

[]

our: []
ower: flower [flaua]
owar: coward [kauad]

[ ]< < ^

oer: Boer []
ower: lower [1]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------

!
,
, ,
, :

field [fidd] i ,
society [sa saiati] i

gloomy ['glu:mi] ,
zoology [zou olad^i]
potatoes [pa teitouz] ,
[ ]
green [gri: ] ,
re-echo [ri: ekou]

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(
/

---------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------->

:
() :

dis + order = disorder

visit + or = visitor

strength + en = strengthen

()

un + happy + ness = unhappiness

:
pin > , .
pin > ,
:

>
tra nsport d
^
transport >
:

woman fwuman] women [wimm]


use [ju:s] use [ju:z]
close [klous] close [klouz]
s______________________________________________________ )
14


:
rain + bow = rainbow

snow + man = snowman


after + noon = afternoon

fire + place = fire-place

thought + less = thoughtless


empty-headed

chimney-sweeper

counting-out-rhyme

merry-go-round

!
,
:
happy, . Minhappy, .

:
use, . - useless, . > uselessness, .

15

anti-

-, -:

social antisocial

author co-author

Counter-

-, -:

action > counteraction

de-

merit > demerit

dis-

,
:

honest > dishonest

to appear to disappear

large > to enlarge

(. . )

, -:

champion > ex-champion

-
16

1- ;
1, , , :

in + 1-^, in + , in + m >imm, in + p :
capable > incapable

legal > illegal

responsible irresponsible

modest immodest

possible > impossible

in ter- , :

action > interaction

m is- :

to understand > to misunderstand

content > non- content

, :

to feed > to overfeed

p o st- :

war > post-war

V_________________________

17

/ ----------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------\
- , ; -:

historic prehistoric

- , ;
-:

to open >to reopen


Sllb-

to read to re-read

-:

marine submarine

Super-

-:

natural supernatural

trans- , ; -, -:

to plant > to transplant

ultra-

-, -:

violet ultra-violet

1- ;
:

pleasant unpleasant

under-

to lock to unlock

to value to undervalue


-ability, -ibility
-able, -ible:

probable > probability

-age:
-at:

to break > breakage

to arrive > arrival

-ance, -ence ( -ancy, -ency)


-ant, -ent:

constant constancy

-dom:

different > difference

king > kingdom

-:

to adress > adressee

-, -or

to invent > inventor

-hood:

child > childhood

-ian:

history > historian

.i

V__________
19

-ion (-ation, -tion, -sion, -ssion):

to collect collection

to produce > production

-ism:

tour > tourism

-ist:

art

artist

-ment:

to agree > agreement

kind > kindness

-ness:

-our ( -or): colour ( color)

-ship:

friend

friendship

-th:

deep > depth

to grow > growth

-ty (-ity):

safe > safety

-ure (-ture):

to mix > mixture

to press pressure

20

-able, -iblei:

to eat

>

-al:

centre

>

to differ

>

-ant, -ent:

eatable

central

different

-ary, -ory:

second > secondary

-en:

w ood > wooden

-fill:

care

>

-ic:

hero

->

-ish:

Scott

-ive:

to act

>

hom e

>

-less:

heroic

Scottish

active

homeless

-ous:

careful

danger

>

dirt

>

sun

>

dangerous

dirty

sunny

21

-ate, -ute:

to indicate, to execute

-en:

sharp to sharpen

-ify:

pure > to purify

-ise, -ize:

sym pathy

to sym pathize

-ly:

easy > easily,

first > firstly

-1
, :

,
-.
. , -.
daily ?
weekly ^
^
^
friendly ; lovely . .
-ward(s):

home > homeward(s)

north > northward(s)

,
22

(N O U N S)

/

--------------- - - --------------\

snow

girl

school

ball


- :

snowball

schoolgirl



() :

to sail + or = sailor

free + doffl = freedom

dis + honest + ty = dishonesty

en + chant + er = enchanter
;

23


;
, ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
. .:

a picture

a fam ily

a train

an island

a pupil

wisper

water

bravery

'


;
, ,
, , . .:

Charlie

Space

Englishman

L ondon

E quator

the English

Saturday

M oon

M agi

January

Earth

Christmas

24


?,
he she :

teacher

(he )

(she )

neighbour

(he )

(she )

/... ....

-ess, -ine, he-, she-, boy-, girl-, -man, -woman:

hero heroine

actor actress

host hostess

tiger tigress

lion lioness

_______

boy-friend girl-friend

Frenchman Frenchwoman

he-wolf she -wolf

25

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ .


ship ,
(

she),

____________________ ___________________________________ /


?,
it , , :

river
(it )
island
(it )
lake
(it )

shelf
(it )
bridge
(it )
window
(it )

<

,
, ,
:

Where is the cat? It is under the table.


?

!
,
he she:

is under the table.


() .
26

>

' )
\

. .


, ,
,
.

. + s = .
a table tables [teiblz] a pear -> pears [peaz]

a cow cows [kauz]

a book > books [buks]

ahorse > horses ['ho:siz]


, ,
, , , ,
, , . .
:

tea

sugar

independence

glass

.
27

ink



-s, -, -sh, -ch, -tch > + e s [iz]:

a box > boxes fboksiz]

- -> + es [z]:

a hero ['hiorou] > heroes fhiorouz]

a potato [pa'teitou] potatoes [po'teitouz]

( :

a piano > pianos; a photo -

i + es:

a f ly > flie s

-I- > + s: a monkey monkeys

-f - v + es: a leaf > leaves; a wolf >wolves

( : a handkerchief >handkerchiefs; a roof > roofs \


V )
-fe -> ve + s:

a knife >knives; a wife - wives

(:

a safe > safes ^

28

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -

a man [] > []
a woman [wuman] women ['wimin]
a foot [fut] - feet [fbt]
a tooth [tu:0] > teeth [ti:0]
a goose [gu:s] >geese [gi;s]
a mouse [maus] >mice [mais]
a child [tfaild] > children ['tfildran]
an ox [aks] > oxen ['aks an]
a deer [dia] >
a sheep [Ji:p] >
s_______________________________________________________ /

,
:

schoolboy schoolboys

postman >postmen

money-box > money-boxes, passer-by >passers-by

, man- woman-,
:

woman-doctor women-doctors
-
-
V_______________________________________________________
29

/ ------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -


,

!
____ ___________________________________________________________ >

----------------------------- --------------------- ----------------------------------

.
sugar
milk
happiness
friendship
mathematics
.
advice
progress
knowledge
news

h o

Ed.

. .
,
,
,
,

.
.
money
vacation
hair
a hair , hairs )
30

spectacles, glasses
trousers
scissors
scales
tongs

. .

goods
stairs
clothes

,
,
,
.

arms
wages
contents
carrots
(: a carrot , . . )
.

. .

a gate, gates
a sled, sleds
a watch, watches

(,
)

a clock, clocks

V ________________________________________

31

(,
, )


(Possessive Case)
[ . |s
[ . ]

whose? ?
:

the dogs tail

the dogs' tails

:
0

:
city (), country (), world (), ship
(); , ;
: the Earth (), the Moon (), the
Sun (), ,
:

the ships crew


a months holiday

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -

!
. -s,
[ . :

the childrens toys


______________________________________________________ /
32


house , office
, , shop :

I went to the bakers (m.

e.

bakers shop).

.

s:

sugar cane

a silk dress


0 , ,
0

, the

(), his (), her
(), its (, ), our (), your (), their ()
this
(), those ()

(),

these (), that

much, many (), little,


few (), some (, ), any (
, -), each, every (), either
( ), neither ( )
what (), which (
), whose ()
33

(A R TIC LES )

jl

:------

. .

. .

1
1

book

books

butter

cities

cheese

tooth

teeth

sugar

city

honesty

darkness

botany

, !

,
some, any

,
the

the

( )

( )

..

the
34

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

,
[]

,
, Du:] h, h :

table [a'teibl]
a union [a'jumjan]
a house [ haus]
a

[]

,
, U [] h, h :

arm [']
an umbrella [ ' ]
an hour [']
an

S____________________________________________ ______________________ ___________________________________

the
the

,
-:

[ju:] h, h :
the table [cta'teibl]
the union [bo'jumjan]
the house [cte'haus]
the [81] - , [] h, h :
the arm [61 'cum]
the umbrella [9i ' ]
the hour [61 ']

the [8] - -

V___________
35

t h e


. . :

0 - , :

Where is the key? ( ) ?


I bought a hat yesterday; the hat is pretty.
(-) ; () .
-
: the Earth () .
, ,
. . ( ):

The pine grows in nothern countries.


.
0 the + . + .:

The highest mountains are in Asia.


.
0 the + . + .:

I am on the second floor

{:

a second ).

.
the { ) + . + .:

The two men entered the room.


.
S______________________________________________________________________________________________________

36

,


. . :

0 -, -,
; there is
, , (there was
, there will be ) to
have :

There is a pencil in the box.


(-) .

Give me a fiber pen.


(-) .

I read it in a magazine.
( -) .
.
,
some ( . .) any ( . . .):

There are some pencils in the box.


(-, ) .

Are there any pencils in the box?


(-) ?

There arent any pencils in the box.


() .
S,___________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

37

/ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------- \

. . ( ):

@ , , { . ):

A child can understand it.


() .

Children can understand it.


() .

(D ,
( . ):

father is an engineer. Our fathers are engineers.


.

(4) what , ( .
):

What a clever child!

What clever children!

one :

Ill come in an hour.

A (one) hundred.

() .

() .

. hundred , thousand ,
million :

hundreds of people


s._______________________________ ________________________/
38


. . :
0

Will of ] iron.

Knowledge is power.

I like music.

Water is necessary for life.

Water from a well is always cold.


() .
@ the, :

I like the music of this ballet.


.

The water in this river is very cold.


.
0 some (
. .) any -, ( .
. .), :

Give me some milk.


( ) .

Is there any hope that hell fall asleep?


- , ?
0 ,
:

It is a very good tea.


(m. e. ) .
_________________________________ __ _____ ______________ /
39


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ >

Europe,

Brazil,

Paris,

Baker Street, John Smith,

the United States

the Pacific (Ocean)

the Black (Sea)

the Persian Gulf

the Potomac (River)

the Suez Canal

the Sahara (Desert)

the Bahamas,

the Faroe Isis

the Rockies

:
Montblanc,

Everest
/

the Titanic

the Metropol

the Petrovs

the Tower,

the Louvre,

the Kremlin, the Alhambra

______________________________________________________
40

,
the Crimea
the Congo
the Ukraine the Sudan
the Caucasus
the Hague .
________________________________ _______________________________ /

()
a good deal of
a great deal of
a good many

a great many
a great number of
a lot of
a few
a little
it is a pity
to go for a walk
to have a cold

at a time ,

at a time when ,

in a hurry
to have a good time

to have a headache
(I have a headache.
.)
to have a mind

(The)
in the morning (evening, night)
(, )
in the country ,

in the spring (summer,
automn, winter)
(, , )
in the street
in the sun

the day before yesterday

the day after tomorrow

the other day


to pass the time

What is the time?


?
V

v
41


from morning to (till) night
(, )
at first sight
from time to time


in fact
at heart
at home
in return
at night
in sight
at school ,
in time

on behalf of
at sunset
-
at table
on business
at work
on board a (the) ship
by tram (train, bus)
(, )
on foot
by air ,
on land
, ,
on purpose

on sale
on sea
by land ,
side by side

to go to bed
by sea

by water ,
,
to go to school
by day

by heart
to take care of
by mistake
to take (close) to heart
by name
()
to take part in
for instance 1
l
for example J

at dinner (breakfast, supper)

v._____ _ _ _______________
42

43

(A D JE C T IV E S )

,

:

Give me a red pencil.


.

I brought the newspapers necessary for my work.


, .
-able, -ible,
enough
:
t

We have enough time. = We have time enough.

.
(I) , some, any,
no, every:

Tell me something interesting.


- .
0

-:

The pencil is yellow.


.

44

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

, well , glad
, sorry , alone ,
:

afraid , alive , asleep


:

The child is ill. {H o : th eT h d rik T the sick child.)


.
&
The girl is asleep. ( H o : th e ^ sk p > g r fl > the sleeping girl.)
.
1

S______________________________________________________________________________________________________

------------------------------------------------------------------------ -------------------------------- V

to be absent
to be afraid
to be angry
to be asleep
to be awake
to be ill
to be late
to be proud
to be sorry
to be tired
S___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________ /

45

(Positive)

(Comparative)

(Superlative)

: [] + er, est

shorter

(the) shortest

deep

deeper

(the) deepest

short

, -, -,
: [] + er, est

dirty

dirtier

(the) dirtiest

simple

simpler

(the) simplest


: more, most + []

famous

more famous

(the) most famous

difficult

more difficult

(the) most
difficult

46



+ > X + er, est:

large: + er = larger

large: + est = largest

+ > i + , est:

dry + er = drier

dry + est = driest

+ -> + , est:

gay + er = gayer

gay + est = gayest


, ,
:

thin + n + er = thinner thin + n + est = thinnest

------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -


than ,
much, far, a great deal (,
, ) still, yet ():

The Nile is much longer than the Thames.


, .
.______________________________________________________________ _________

47

>



(by) far, much (, ),
that (), of ():

It is the best of my books.


.
____________ ___________________________________________

:

good

->

better

best

()

bad

worse

worst

()

little

less

least

much, many

more

most

far
,

late
,

farther

farthest

further

furthest

later

latest

latter

last

(
)

48

(A D V E R B S )

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- \

late

where

very

soon

s__ ____________________________________________ _______ )

>

sometimes
somewhere

nowhere

V__


-1:

bad + Iy = badly

first + ly = firstly

before long

since then

49

just when

The house is very low.


(?) .

The plane flew very low.


(?) .

-----------------

early: [] + , est

late

later

(the) latest

()

soon

sooner

(the) soonest

()

early

earlier

(the) earliest

()

,
-ly: more, most + []

bravely

more bravely

(the) most bravely


()

50

------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------ -----------------------------------------


much,
far, a great deal (, ) still, yet ():

She can work still (yet) faster.


,
v________________________________________ ______________
-----------------------------------------------------------------

>



(by) far, much (, ):

She works much the fastest.


,
v_____________________________________ _________________ /

well

>

better

badly

worse

little

>
>

far

most
()

farther

least
()

more

worst
()

less

best
()

much

farthest
()

further

furthest
()

V___________
51

(N U M E R A L S )

Ten (minutes) past seven 10 (7.10).


A quarter past seven (7.15).
Half past seven (7.30).
Ten (minutes) to eight 10 (7.50).
at 9 a. m. 9 ; at noon
at 7 p. m.* 7 ; by 3 oclock 3
---

.. ........--------- ---------

......... .............. ...

1894 eighteen (hundred and) ninety-four


1900 nineteen hundred
2005 two thousand and five, twenty oh five
in April
in the morning

on Friday
in 2004 2004

; . m. post

* a. m. ante meridiem
meridiem .
52

1 one [waii]
2 two [tu:]
3 three [0ri:]
4 four [fo:]
5 five [faiv]
6 six [siks]
7 seven [sevn]
8 eight [eit]
9 nine [nain]
10 ten [ten]
11 eleven [I'levn]
12 twelve [twelv]
13 thirteen [,0a:'ti:n]
14 fourteen [,fo:'ti:n]
15 fifteen [fif ti:n]
16 sixteen [,siks'ti:n]
17 seventeen [,sevn'ti:n]
18 eighteen [ei'tirn]
19 nineteen [,nain'ti:n]
20 twenty ['twenti]
21 twenty-one
22 twenty-two . .
30 thirty ['0:]
40 forty ['fo:ti]
50
60
70
80
90
100
101

fifty ['fifti]
sixty ['siksti]
seventy ['sevnti]
eighty ['em]
ninety ['nainti]
a (one) hundred ['hAndrad]
a (one) hundred and one

200 two hundred


500 five hundred m. d.

53

1st first [fa:st]


2nd second ['seksnd]
3rd third [0a:d] 3-
4th fourth [fo:0] 4-
5th fifth [fif0] 5-
6th sixth [siks0] 6-
7th seventh [sevn0] 7-
8th eighth [eit0] 8-
9th ninth [nain0] 9-
10th tenth [ten0] 10-
11th eleventh [i'levn] 11-
12th twelfth [twelf0] 12-
13th thirteenth 13-
14th fourteenth 14-
15th fifteenth 15-
16th sixteenth 16-
17th seventeenth 17-
18th eighteenth 18-
19th nineteenth 19-
20th twentieth ['twentnO] 20-
21st twenty-first 21-
22nd twenty-second 22- m. d.
30th thirtieth ['] 30-
40th fortieth ['fo:ti30] 40-
50th fiftieth ['fiftnO] 50-
60th sixtieth ['sikstnO] 60-
70th seventieth ['sevntiO] 70-
80th eightieth ['eiti30] 80-
90th ninetieth ['naintiaO] 90-
100th (one) hundredth
101st (one) hundredth and first

200th two hundredth


500th five hundredth

(V E R B S )

go + away = to go away

(the Infinitive)
: to open
(1) (Past Simple) opened
0 (Past Participle)
opened
@ (Present Participle)
opening
54

Past Simple Past Participle


:
, (to open):
Past Simple Past Participle :

+ ed: opened
, (to write):
Past Simple Past Participle :
write - wrote, written


:
:

speaks English.

lives in London.

-.

to be, to have, to do, shall, will


:

is writing a letter.

I do not know it.

- to be, to become, to grow, to get dp.


:

sister is a doctor.

She looks ill.

@ can, may, must, ought, need +


, ,
, :

I must do it at once.

He can read Russian.

. -.
55

(Tenses)
0

Simple { Indefinite) Tenses (

) . :
,

:

Present Simple

Past Simple

Future Simple

I write letters
every day.

I wrote a letter
yesterday.

I shall/will write
a letter tomorrow.

()
.


()
.

(2) Progressive { Continuous) Tenses


. ( ) ,
, :

Present Progressive

Past Progressive

Future Progressive

I was writing
I am writing
a letter at six
a letter (at the
present moment). oclock.

I shall/will be
writing a letter
at eight oclock.

(
).


.
56

Present Simple Tense

( )

Do I ask?

I ask

He
She asks
It

he
Does she ask?
it

We
You ask
They

we
Do you ask?
they

I do not (dont)
ask
He
does not ask
S h e f (doesnt)
It
You
They

do not ask
(dont)

3- . -s :
N : he sees [si:z]
[s] : he speaks [spi:ks]

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -

3-
-ss, -ch, -sh, - -> + es [iz]:

to wash + es he washes ['wojiz]


-s, -c, -g + e > + s [iz]:

to change + s > he changes [tJ'emdjiz]


+ > i + es [iz]:
to study + es > he studies ['stAdiz]
+ + s [z]:

to play + s > he plays [pleiz]


to go, to do -> + es: goes [ g o u z ] , does [dAz]
v_______________________________________________________ /
57

to be , ,
Present Simple

I am (Pm [aim])
is (hes [hi:z])
She is (shes [Ji:z])
It is (its [its])
We are (were [wig])
You are (youre [jug])
They are (theyre
[Seia])

Am

Is

I?
he
she ?
it

we
Are you ?
they

I am (m) not
He
She
It
We
You
They

is not
(isnt)
[iznt]
are not
(arent)
[a:nt]

to have (),
Present Simple

I have (Ive [aiv])


I have not (havent)
Have I?
He has (hes [hi:z])
he
She has (shes [Ji:z])
(^e 1 has not
Has

she

?
It has (its [its])
, f [ (hasnt)
it
We have (weve [wi:v])
You have (youve [ju:v])
we
We
YoU
have not
They have (theyve
Have you ?
They (havent)
they
[deiv])
58

Past Simple Tense

( )

She
It
We
You
They

asked

Did

I
he
she
ask?
it
we
you
they

I
He
She
It
We
You
They

did not
ask

-ed :
[d] : lived [livd]
[t] ( t): asked [a:skt]

[id] d t: wanted fw ontid]


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Past Simple
+ e X + ed:

to live + ed lived
+ > i + ed:

to study + ed studied
+ + ed:

to play + ed > played



, ,
:

to stop + + ed
59

>

stopped


,
:
to refer [ri'fo:] + + ed > referred,

to order [o:do] + ed ordered


-1 :

to trave + 1 + ed > trave led

v___________ ___________________________________________/

to be Past Simple

I
He
She, it
We
You
They

was

were

Was

[I
.?
he
she, it

we
Were you
they

.?

I
was not
He
(wasnt)
She, it
We
You
They

were not
(werent)

to have Past Simple

I
He
She, it
We
You
They

had ( d)

Had

I
he
she, it . ?
we
you
they
60

I
He
She, it
We
You
They

had not
(hadnt)

Future Simple Tense

( )

Shall
11 ask?
Will

shall not (shant)!


4 will not (wont)*!asR-

he
she ask?
It
it

He
She will (ll) ask Will
It

will not (wont)


ask

Shall
We< " ' } ( ) ask Will we ask?

Wp [shall not (shant)l ,


We{will not (wont)| aSR

You 1 will (ll)


The; J
ask

You 1 will not (wont)


They J
ask?

Will |

Present Progressive Tense


( )

I am (m) asking
He
is (s)
She
asking
It
We
You
They

are (re)
asking

Am I asking?

Is

he
she asking?
it

I am (m) not
asking
He
is not (isnt)
She
asking
It

Are

we
you asking?
they

are not
We

(arent)
You
asking
They

* shant [Ja:nt], wont [wount].


61

Past Progressive Tense


( )

I
was not

He
asking
She, it

I
He
She, it

was
asking

I
Was he asking?
she, it

We
You
They

were
asking

we
you asking?
they

Were*

We
You
They

were not
asking

Future Progressive Tense


( )

shall not
(shant)
will not
(wont)

shall 1 (ll) be Shall 1 I be


will I asking Will /asking?
He
She
It
We

will (ll)
be asking

Will

he
she
it

will not
He
be
She (wont)
asking?
be asking
It

Jshalll (ll) be Shall 1 we be


1 will J asking Will /asking?

You 1 will (ll)


They j be asking

Will

be
asking

We

shall not
(shant)
be
will not asking
(wont)

you 1 be
You 1will not (wont)
be asking
they] asking? They/
62


.................................................................... 3
.................................................................................4
.........................................................................5
............................................................................ 7
........................................................................ 14
..................................................................................... 23
.................................................................... 23
...................................................................................... 34
........................................................................43
...................................................................................... 49
........................................................................... 52
........................................................................................54