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# Structural Dynamics of Linear Elastic

u1

u2

u3

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 1

MDOF Systems

## Equations of motion for MDOF systems

Uncoupling of equations through use of natural

mode shapes
Solution of uncoupled equations
Recombination of computed response
Modal response history analysis
Modal response spectrum analysis
Equivalent lateral force procedure

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 2

M
U

m
u

W
g

Scalars

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 3

## Relevance to ASCE 7-05

ASCE 7-05 provides guidance for three specific
analysis procedures:

## Equivalent lateral force (ELF) analysis

Modal superposition analysis (MSA)
Response history analysis (RHA)
ELF usually allowed

Cs
See ASCE 7-05
Table 12.6-1

Ts

3.5Ts

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 4

uy
rz Typical nodal

Majority of mass
is in floors
9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

ux

DOF

Motion is
predominantly
lateral

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 5

## Planar Frame with 36 Static Degrees of Freedom

But with Only THREE Dynamic DOF

u1
u2

u1

U = u2
u
3

u3

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 6

f1 = 1 kip
d1,1
d2,1

d1,1
d2,1

d3,1

d3,1

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 7

(continued)
d1,2

f2=1 kip
d2,2

d1,1 d1,2
d2,1 d2,2
d3,1 d3,2

d3,2

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 8

(continued)
d1,3

d2,3

d2,1 d2,2 d2,3

f3 = 1 kip

d3,3

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 9

(Flexibility)

## d1,1 d1,2 d1,3 f1

U = d2,1 d2,2 d2,3 f2
d3,1 d3,2 d3,3 f3

d1,1
d1,2
d1,3

U = d2,1 f1 + d2,2 f2 + d2,3 f3
d
d
d
3,1
3,2
3,3
DF=U

K = D-1

KU=F

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 10

Static Condensation

K m,n Um Fm
=

K n,n Un {0}

K m,m
K
n,m

## DOF with mass

Massless DOF

K m,mUm + K m,nUn = Fm

## K n,mUm + K n,nUn = {0}

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 11

Static Condensation
(continued)
Rearrange
Plug into
Simplify

1
n ,n

Un = K K n,mUm

1
n,n

1
n,n

## Condensed stiffness matrix

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 12

m1

f1(t), u1(t)

k1
m2

f2(t), u2(t)

k2
m3
k3

f3(t), u3(t)

-k1
0
k1
K = -k1 k1+ k 2
-k 2
0
-k 2
k 2 + k 3

0
m1 0
M = 0 m2 0
0
0 m3

f1(t )

F(t ) = f2 (t )
f (t )
3

u1(t )

U(t ) = u2 (t )
u (t )
3

## Note: Damping to be shown later

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 13

## Coupled Equations of Motion

for Undamped Forced Vibration

## &&(t ) + KU(t ) = F(t )

MU
m1
0

0
m2
0

&&1 ( t )
0 u
&&

0 u
(
t
)
+
2
&& 3 ( t )
m 3 u

k1
k1

k1
k1 + k 2
k 3

0
u 1 ( t ) f1 ( t )

k 2 u 2 ( t ) = f 2 ( t )
k 2 + k 3 u 3 ( t ) f3 ( t )

DOF 2

## &&1(t ) + k1u1(t ) k1u2 (t ) = f1(t )

m1u
&&2 (t ) k1u1(t ) + k1u2 (t ) + k 2u2 (t ) k 2u3 (t ) = f2 (t )
m 2u

DOF 3

m3u

DOF 1

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 14

## Developing a Way To Solve

the Equations of Motion

## This will be done by a transformation of coordinates

from normal coordinates (displacements at the nodes)
To modal coordinates (amplitudes of the natural
Mode shapes).

## Because of the orthogonality property of the natural mode

shapes, the equations of motion become uncoupled,
allowing them to be solved as SDOF equations.

coordinates.

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 15

## Solutions for System in Undamped Free Vibration

(Natural Mode Shapes and Frequencies)

MU
&& t ) = 2 sint
U(t ) = sin t U(
2
K

## M = {0} has three (n) solutions:

Then

Assume

1,1

1 = 2,1 , 1

3,1

1,2

2 = 2,2 , 2

3,2

1,3

3 = 2,3 , 3

3,3

Natural frequency
Natural mode shape
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 16

## Solutions for System in Undamped Free Vibration

(continued)
For a SINGLE Mode

K = M2

## For ALL Modes

Where: = [1 2 3 ]

12

2
2
2
2
K

=
=

## Note: Mode shape has arbitrary scale; usually

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

1,i = 1.0
or

T M = I
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 17

## Mode Shapes for Idealized 3-Story Frame

1,2

1,1

1,3
Node
2,3

2,2

2,1

Node

Node

3,1

3,2

MODE 1

3,3

MODE 2
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MODE 3
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 18

## Concept of Linear Combination of Mode Shapes

(Transformation of Coordinates)

U =Y
Mode shape

## 1,1 1,2 1,3 y1

1,1
1,2
1,3

U = 2,1 2,2 2,3 y2 U = 2,1 y1 + 2,2 y2 + 2,3 y3

3,1 3,2 3,3 y3
3,1
3,2
3,3
Modal coordinate =
amplitude of mode
shape
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 19

Orthogonality Conditions

= [1 2 3 ]
Generalized mass

m1*

T
*
M =
m2

m
3

Generalized stiffness

k1*

T
*
k2
K =

k
3

Generalized damping

Generalized force

c1*

T
*
c2
C =

c
3

f1* (t )
*
T
F(t ) = f2 (t )
f * (t )
3

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 20

## Development of Uncoupled Equations of Motion

MDOF equation of motion:
Transformation of coordinates:
Substitution:

&&
&
MU+CU+KU
= F(t )
U = Y
&& C Y+K
&
M Y+
Y = F(t )

## && + TCY& + T KY = T F(t )

Premultiply by T : T MY
Using orthogonality conditions, uncoupled equations of motion are:

m1*

m *2

&&
y1 c 1*
&&
y2 +
m 3* &&
y 3

c 2*

y& 1 k 1*
&
y2 +
c 3* y& 3

k 2*

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y1 f1* (t )
*
y 2 = f2 (t )
k 3* y 3 f3* (t )

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 21

## Development of Uncoupled Equations of Motion

(Explicit Form)

Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 3

*
1 1

*
*
*
&&
&
m y +c1y1+k1y1 = f1 (t )

*
2 2

*
*
*
&&
&
m y +c2 y2 +k2 y2 = f2 (t )

*
3 3

*
*
*
&&
&
m y +c3 y3 +k3 y3 = f3 (t )

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 22

## Development of Uncoupled Equations of Motion

(Explicit Form)
*
ci
Simplify by dividing through by m* and defining i =
2mi*i

Mode 1

## y&&1 + 211y&1 + 12 y1 = f1* (t )/ m1*

Mode 2

2
*
*
&&
&
y 2 + 222 y 2 + 2 y 2 = f2 (t ) / m2

Mode 3

## y&&3 + 233 y& 3 + 32 y 3 = f3* (t ) / m3*

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 23

u&&g U&&r ,1
&&r ,1(t )
u&&g (t ) + u

&&r ,2 (t ) =
FI (t ) = M u&&g (t ) + u
u&& (t ) + u

&&
(
t
)
r ,3
g

&&r ,1(t )
u
1.0
&&
&&

M 1.0 ug (t ) + M ur ,2 (t )
1.0
u

&&
(
t
)

r ,3
Move to RHS as

FEFF (t ) = - M Ru&&g (t )

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 24

m1 = 2
m2 = 3
m3 = 1

u1
u2
u3

u&&g (t )
m3 = 1
m1 = 2

m2 = 3

u1

u3
u2

u&&g (t )

F (t ) = MRu&&g (t )
*

M= 3

1

R = 1
1

1
2 + 1

M=
3 R= 1

0
1

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 25

&&g (t )
fi (t ) = MRu
*

For earthquakes:

T
i

## Typical modal equation:

fi (t )

MR
&&
y&&i + 2 i i y& i + y i =
u
=

g (t )
*
*
mi
mi
2
i

T
i

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 26

pi =

MR
T
i

*
i

Mi
T
i

## Its value is dependent on the (arbitrary) method

used to scale the mode shapes.
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 27

## Variation of First Mode Participation Factor

with First Mode Shape
p1 = 1.0
1.0

p1 =1.4

p1 =1.6

1.0

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

1.0

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 28

For each Mode I,

mi = pi mi
2

## The sum of the effective modal mass for all

modes is
equal to the total structural mass.

## The value of effective modal mass is

independent of mode shape scaling.

## Use enough modes in the analysis to provide

a total effective mass not less than 90% of the
total structural mass.
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 29

## Variation of First Mode Effective Mass

with First Mode Shape

m1 / M = 1.0
1.0

m1 / M= 0.9 m1 / M= 0.7
1.0

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

1.0

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 30

For each mode:

(continued)

## y&&i + 2i i y& i + y i = pi u&&g

2
i

SDOF system:
2
&&
&
qi + 2 i i qi + i qi = u&&g

## Modal response history, qi(t) is obtained by first

solving the SDOF system.

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 31

(continued)

## From previous slide

y i (t ) = pi qi (t )

Recall

ui (t ) = i y i (t )

Substitute

ui (t ) = pi i qi (t )

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 32

(continued)

## Applied static forces required to produce ui(t):

Vi (t ) = Kui (t ) = Pi Ki qi (t )
Recall:

Ki = i Mi
2

Substitute:

Vi (t ) = Mi Pi i qi (t )
2

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 33

(continued)

## Vi = (Mi ) RPi qi (t ) = i MRPi qi (t )

T

Acceleration in mode

Mi = MRPi
T
i

and

Vi = Mi qi (t )
2

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 34

(continued)
T

i MR T
T
Mi = i MRPi = T
i Mi Pi
i Mi i

Mi = Pi mi
2

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 35

## Development of a Modal Damping Matrix

In previous development, we have assumed:

c1*

T
*
c2
C =

c3

## Two methods described herein:

Rayleigh proportional damping
Wilson discrete modal damping
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 36

(continued)

MASS
PROPORTIONAL
DAMPER
STIFFNESS
PROPORTIONAL
DAMPER

C = M + K

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 37

## Rayleigh Proportional Damping

(continued)

C = M + K
For modal equations to be uncoupled:

Assumes
T M = I

2nn = Cn
T
n

## Using orthogonality conditions:

2nn = +

2
n

1
n
n =
+
2n
2
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 38

(continued)

## Select damping value in two modes, m and n

Compute coefficients and :

m n
=2 2
2
n m

m m
n
1/ 1/
n
m n

C = M + K

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 39

## Rayleigh Proportional Damping (Example)

5% critical in Modes 1 and 3
Structural frequencies
Mode
1
2
3
4
5

4.94
14.6
25.9
39.2
52.8

0.15

TYPE
MASS
STIFFNESS
TOTAL

= 0.41487
= 0.00324

0.10

0.05

0.00
0

20
40

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

60

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 40

## Rayleigh Proportional Damping (Example)

5% Damping in Modes 1 & 2, 1 & 3, 1 & 4, or 1 & 5
0.15

Modes
1&2
1&3
1&4
1&5

.36892
.41487
.43871
.45174

0.00513
0.00324
0.00227
0.00173

1,2

## Modal Damping Ratio

Proportionality factors
(5% each indicated mode)

MODES
1,3
1,4
1,5

0.10

0.05

0.00
0

20

40

60

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 41

Wilson Damping
*

2m1*11*
c1*

*
*
*
T
c2
2m222
C =

=
*
*
*

c3
2m333

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 42

## Formation of Explicit Damping Matrix

From Wilson Modal Damping
(NOT Usually Required)

211

2 22

T C =

2 n 1n 1

( )

=c

2 nn

T 1

c1 = C

n
T
C = M 2i i i i M

i =1
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 43

## Wilson Damping (Example)

5% Damping in Modes 1 and 2, 3
10% in Mode 5, Zero in Mode 4
12
10

## Modal Damping Ratio

10
8
6

4
2
0

0
4.94

14.57

25.9

39.2

52.8

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 44

## Wilson Damping (Example)

5% Damping in all Modes
12

## Modal Damping Ratio

10
8
6

4.94

14.57

25.9

39.2

52.8

4
2
0

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 45

## Explicit integration of PARTIAL SET of uncoupled

Equations (approximate)

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 46

Force, V(t)

Vt2

Vt1
t0

Vt 2 Vt 2
=
t2 t1

t1

t2 t3

Time, t

Time

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 47

## Example of MDOF Response of Structure

Responding to 1940 El Centro Earthquake
m1=1.0 k-s2/in
10 ft

u1(t)
k1=60 k/in

m2=1.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

Example 1
Assume Wilson
damping with 5%
critical in each mode.

k2=120 k/in

10 ft

u3(t)
m3=2.0 k-s2/in
10 ft

k3=180 k/in
N-S component of 1940 El Centro earthquake
Maximum acceleration = 0.35 g
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 48

Example 1 (continued)
Form property matrices:
m1=1.0 k-s2/in

u1(t)
k1=60 k/in
m2=1.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

m3=2.0 k-s2/in

1.0

kip s2/in
M =
1.5

2.0

k2=120 k/in

u3(t)
k3=180 k/in

60
0
60
K = 60 180 120kip/in
0
120 300

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 49

Example 1 (continued)
Solve eigenvalue problem:
m1=1.0 k-s2/in

u1(t)
k1=60 k/in
m2=1.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

m3=2.0 k-s2/in

k2=120 k/in

u3(t)
k3=180 k/in

K = M2

21.0

2
2
=
96.6
sec

212.4
1.000 1.000 1.000
= 0.644 0.601 2.57

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 50

## 0.749 0.638 0.208

= 0.478 0.384 0.534
0.223 0.431 0.514

vs

M = I
T

0.644 0.601 2.57

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 51

Example 1 (continued)
Mode Shapes and Periods of Vibration

MODE 1
T = 1.37 sec

MODE 2
T = 0.639 sec

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MODE 3
T = 0.431 sec
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 52

Example 1 (continued)

m1=1.0 k-s2/in

u1(t)
k1=60 k/in
m2=1.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)
k2=120 k/in

m3=2.0 k-s2/in

u3(t)
k3=180 k/in

4.58

14.57

1.37

Tn = 0.639sec
0.431

1 . 801
M * = T M =

2 . 455

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

kip sec 2 / in

23 . 10

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 53

Example 1 (continued)

m1=1.0 k-s2/in

u1(t)
k1=60 k/in
m2=1.5

k-s2/in

V * (t ) = T MR v&&g (t )

u2(t)
k2=120 k/in

m3=2.0 k-s2/in

u3(t)
k3=180 k/in

2.566

&&
*
Vn = 1.254 vg (t )
2.080

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 54

Example 1 (continued)
Write uncoupled (modal) equations of motion:
m1=1.0 k-s2/in

u1(t)
k1=60 k/in
m2=1.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)
k2=120 k/in

m3=2.0 k-s2/in

u3(t)
k3=180 k/in

## y&&1 + 211y&1 + 12 y1 = V1* (t )/ m1*

y&&2 + 222 y& 2 + 22 y 2 = V2* (t ) / m2*
y&&3 + 233 y& 3 + 32 y 3 = V3* (t ) / m3*
y&&1 + 0.458y&1 + 21.0y1 = 1.425v&&g (t )
y&&2 + 0.983y&2 + 96.6y2 = 0.511v&&g (t )
y&&3 + 1.457y&3 + 212.4y3 = 0.090v&&g (t )

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 55

Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
Modal scaling

1 .4 2 5

1 .9 1 1

0 .5 1 1

0 .7 9 9

0 .0 9 0

0 .4 3 5

i,1 = 10
.

i Mi =10
.
T

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 56

(continued)

1.000
0.744

0.300
0.223

using 1,1

=1

using T M
1

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

=1

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 57

Mn

Mn = Pn m
2

*
n

Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3

Accum%

3.66 81
81
0.64 14
95
0.20 5 100%
4.50 100%

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 58

Example 1 (continued)
Solving modal equation via NONLIN:
For Mode 1:
&y&1 + 211y&1 + 12 y1 = V1* (t ) / m1*

## 1.00y&&1 + 0.458y&1 + 21.0y1 = 1.425v&&g (t )

M = 1.00 kip-sec2/in
C = 0.458 kip-sec/in
K1 = 21.0 kips/inch
Scale ground acceleration by factor 1.425

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 59

Example 1 (continued)
Modal Displacement Response Histories (from NONLIN)
6.00
3.00

T1 = 1.37 sec

0.00
-3.00
-6.00
0

MODE 1

10

11

12

2.00
1.00

T2 = 0.64

0.00
-1.00
-2.00

MODE 2

10

11

12

0.20
0.10

T3 = 0.43

0.00
-0.10
-0.20

MODE 3

10

Time, Seconds

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

11

12

Maxima
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 60

Example 1 (continued)
Modal Response Histories:
5

4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
MODE 1
MODE 2
MODE 3

-3
-4
-5
0

10

12

Time, Seconds

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 61

Example 1 (continued)
u(t ) = y (t )

u1(t)

u2(t)

u3(t)

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
0

10

11

12

10

11

12

10

11

12

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
0

Time, Seconds

## = 0.300 x Mode 1 - 0.676 x Mode 2 + 2.47 x Mode 3

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 62

Example 1 (continued)
Compute story shear response histories:

u1(t)

u2(t)

u3(t)

400
200
0
-200
-400
0

10

11

12

10

11

12

10

11

12

400
200
0
-200
-400

400
200
0
-200
-400
Time, Seconds

= k2[u2(t) - u3(t)]
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 63

Example 1 (continued)
Displacements and forces at time of maximum displacements
(t = 6.04 sec)
0

134.8 k
5.11
134.8
62.1 k

1348

2.86
196.9
1.22

23.5 k

3317
220.4
Story Shear (k)

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

5521
Story OTM (ft-k)
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 64

Example 1 (continued)
Displacements and forces at time of maximum shear
(t = 3.18 sec)
38.2 k

3.91
38.2
124.7 k

382

3.28
182.7 k

162.9
2111

1.92
345.6
Story Shear (k)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

5567
Story OTM (ft-k)
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 65

## Instead of solving the time history problem for each

mode, use a response spectrum to compute the
maximum response in each mode.

## Combine the maximum modal responses using some

statistical technique, such as square root of the sum of
(CQC).

## It is the basis for the equivalent lateral force (ELF) method.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 66

## Example 1 (Response Spectrum Method)

Displacement Response Spectrum
1940 El Centro, 0.35g, 5% Damping

7.00
6.00

Modal response

5.00
4.00

3.47

3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
0.00

3.04
1.20
0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds

Mode 3
T = 0.431 sec

Mode 2
T = 0.639 sec

Mode 1
T = 1.37 sec

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 67

Example 1 (continued)
Spectral Displacement, Inches

7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00

3.47

3.00

3.04
2.00

1.20

1.00
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds

## Modal Equations of Motion

y&&1 + 0.458 y&1 + 21.0 y1 = 1.425v&&g (t )

Modal Maxima

## y 2 = 0.511* 3.04 = 1.55"

y&&3 + 1.457 y& 3 + 212.4 y 3 = 0.090v&&g (t ) y 3 = 0.090 * 1.20 = 0.108"
y&&2 + 0.983 y& 2 + 96.6 y 2 = 0.511v&&g (t )

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 68

Example 1 (continued)

7.00
6.00
5.00

## The scaled response

spectrum values give
the same modal maxima
as the previous time
Histories.

3.47x 1.425

4.00
3.00

3.04 x 0.511
2.00

1.20 x 0.090

1.00
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds
6.00

Mode 1
T = 1.37

3.00
0.00
-3.00
-6.00
0

10

11

12

10

11

12

10

11

12

2.00

Mode 2
T = 0.64

1.00
0.00
-1.00
-2.00

0.20

Mode 3
T = 0.43

0.10
0.00
-0.10
-0.20
Time, Seconds

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 69

Example 1 (continued)
Computing Nonconcurrent Story Displacements
Mode 1

1.000
4.940

=
0.644
4.940
3.181

0.300
1.482

Mode 2

1.000
1.550

0.601
1.550
0.931

0.676
1.048

Mode 3

0.108
1.000

2.5700.108 = 0.278
0.267
2.470

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 70

Example 1 (continued)
Modal Combination Techniques (for Displacement)
Sum of Absolute Values:

Exact
5.15

## 3.181+ 0.931+ 0.278 = 4.39

1.482 + 1.048 + 0.267 2.80

## 4.9402 + 1.5502 + 0.1082

5.18

2
2
2
3.181 + 0.931 + 0.278 = 3.33

2
2
2 1.84

## 1.482 + 1.048 + 0.267

2.86
1.22
Envelope of story displacement

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

5.15

3.18

1.93
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 71

Example 1 (continued)
Computing Interstory Drifts

Mode 1

## 3.181 1.482 = 1.699

1.482 0 1.482

Mode 2

1.550(0.931) 2.481

0
.
117
0
.
931
(
1
.
048
)

1.0480 1.048

Mode 3

0.267 0 0.267

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 72

Example 1 (continued)
Computing Interstory Shears (Using Drift)

Mode 1

1.759(60) 105.5

1.699(120) = 203.9

1.482(180) 266.8

Mode 2

2.481(60) 148.9

=
0.117(120)
14.0

1.048(180) 188.6

Mode 3

0.386(60) 23.2

0.545(120)
65.4

0.267(180) 48.1

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 73

Example 1 (continued)
106 2 + 149 2 + 23.22 220

2
2
2
+
+
215
=
204
14
65
.
4

267 2 + 189 2 + 48.12 331

Exact

Exact

Exact

38.2

163
346

135

197
220

207

203
346

At time of
max. shear

At time of max.
displacement

Envelope = maximum
per story

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 74

Caution:
Do NOT compute story shears from the story
drifts derived from the SRSS of the story
displacements.
Calculate the story shears in each mode
(using modal drifts) and then SRSS
the results.

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 75

## Using Less than Full (Possible)

Number of Natural Modes
Modal Response Histories:
5

4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
MODE 1
MODE 2
MODE 3

-3
-4
-5
0

10

12

Time, Seconds

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 76

## Using Less than Full Number of Natural Modes

Time-History for Mode 1
y1(t1) y1(t 2) y1(t 3) y1(t 4) y1(t 5) y1(t 6) y1(t 7) y1(t 8) .... y1(tn)
y (t ) = y 2 (t1) y 2 (t 2) y 2 (t 3) y 2 (t 4) y 2 (t 5) y 2 (t 6) y 2 (t 7) y 2 (t 8) .... y 2 (tn)
y3 (t1) y3 (t 2) y3 (t 3) y3 (t 4) y3 (t 5) y3 (t 6) y3 (t 7) y3 (t 8) .... y3 (tn)

u(t ) = [1 2 3 ]y (t )

Transformation:

3 x nt

3x3

3 x nt

3 x nt

## Time History for DOF 1

u1(t1) u1(t 2) u1(t 3) u1(t 4) u1(t 5) u1(t 6) u1(t 7) u1(t 8) .... u1(tn)
u(t ) = u2 (t1) u2 (t 2) u2 (t 3) u2 (t 4) u2 (t 5) u2 (t 6) u2 (t 7) u2 (t 8) .... u2 (tn)
u3 (t1) u3 (t 2) u3 (t 3) u3 (t 4) u3 (t 5) u3 (t 6) u3 (t 7) u3 (t 8) .... u3 (tn)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 77

## Using Less than Full Number of Natural Modes

Time History for Mode 1
y (t1) y1(t 2) y1(t 3) y1(t 4) y1(t 5) y1(t 6) y1(t 7) y1(t 8) .... y1(tn)
y (t ) = 1

y
(
t
1)
y
(
t
2)
y
(
t
3)
y
(
t
4)
y
(
t
5)
y
(
t
6)
y
(
t
7)
y
(
t
8)
....
y
(
tn
)
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

## NOTE: Mode 3 NOT Analyzed

u(t ) = 1 2 y (t )

Transformation:

3 x nt

3x2

2 x nt

3 x nt

## Time history for DOF 1

u1(t1) u1(t 2) u1(t 3) u1(t 4) u1(t 5) u1(t 6) u1(t 7) u1(t 8) .... u1(tn)
u(t ) = u2 (t1) u2 (t 2) u2 (t 3) u2 (t 4) u2 (t 5) u2 (t 6) u2 (t 7) u2 (t 8) .... u2 (tn)
u3 (t1) u3 (t 2) u3 (t 3) u3 (t 4) u3 (t 5) u3 (t 6) u3 (t 7) u3 (t 8) .... u3 (tn)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 78

## Using Less than Full Number of Natural Modes

(Modal Response Spectrum Technique)
Sum of absolute values:
4.940 + 1.550 + 0.108 6.60

## 3.181 + 0.931 + 0.278 = 4.39

1.482 + 1.048 + 0.267 2.80

6.49

4.112
2.53

## 4.9402 + 1.5502 + 0.1082

5.18

2
2
2
3.181 + 0.931 + 0.278 = 3.33

2
2
2 1.84

## 1.482 + 1.048 + 0.267

5.18

3.31
1.82

At time of maximum
displacement

Exact:

5.15

2.86

1.22

3 modes 2 modes

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 79

## Example of MDOF Response of Structure

Responding to 1940 El Centro Earthquake
m1=2.5 k-s2/in
10 ft

u1(t)
k1=150 k/in

m2=2.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

Example 2
Assume Wilson
damping with 5%
critical in each mode.

k2=150 k/in

10 ft

u3(t)
m3=2.5 k-s2/in
10 ft

k3=150 k/in
N-S component of 1940 El Centro earthquake
Maximum acceleration = 0.35 g
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 80

Example 2 (continued)
Form property matrices:
m1=2.5 k-s2/in

u1(t)
k1=150 k/in
m2=2.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

m3=2.5 k-s2/in

2.5

kip s2/in
M =
2.5

2.5

k2=150 k/in

u3(t)
k3=150 k/in

0
150 150
K = 150 300 150 kip/in
0
150 300

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 81

Example 2 (continued)
Solve = eigenvalue problem:
m1=2.5 k-s2/in

u1(t)
k1=150 k/in
m2=2.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

m3=2.5 k-s2/in

k2=150 k/in

u3(t)
k3=150 k/in

K = M2

11.9

2
2
=
93.3
sec

194.8
1.000 1.000 1.000
= 0.802 0.555 2.247
0.445 1.247 1.802

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 82

M = I
T

## 0.466 0.373 0.207

1.000 1.000 1.000
= 0.373 0.207 0.465 vs 0.802 0.555 2.247

## 0.207 0.465 0.373

0.445 1.247 1.802

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 83

Example 2 (continued)
Mode Shapes and Periods of Vibration

Mode 1
T = 1.82 sec

Mode 2
T = 0.65 sec

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Mode 3
T = 0.45 sec
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 84

Example 2 (continued)

m1=2.5 k-s2/in

u1(t)
k1=150 k/in
m2=2.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)
k2=150 k/in

m3=2.5 k-s2/in

u3(t)
k3=150 k/in

3.44

13.96

1.82

Tn = 0.65sec
0.45

4 .6 0 3
M * = T M =

7 .1 5 8

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

k ip se c 2 / in

2 3 .2 4 1

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 85

Example 2 (continued)

m1=2.5 k-s2/in

m2=2.5

k-s2/in

u1(t)

k1=150 k/in

V * (t ) = T MR v&&g (t )

u2(t)
k2=150 k/in

m3=2.5 k-s2/in

u3(t)
k3=150 k/in

5.617

&&
*
Vn = 2.005 vg (t )
1.388

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 86

Example 2 (continued)
Write uncoupled (modal) equations of motion:
m1=2.5 k-s2/in

u1(t)
m2=2.5 k-s2/in

k1=150 k/in

u2(t)

k2=150 k/in
m3=2.5 k-s2/in

u3(t)
k3=150 k/in

## y&&1 + 0.345y&1 + 11.88y1 = 1.22v&&g (t )

y&&2 + 0.966y&2 + 93.29y2 = 0.280v&&g (t )
y&&3 + 1.395y&3 + 194.83y3 = 0.06v&&g (t )

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 87

## Modal Participation Factors

Mode 1 1 .2 2 2 .6 1 5
Mode 2 0 .2 8
0 .7 4 8
Mode 3 0 .0 6 0 0 .2 8 7
Modal scaling

i,1 = 10
.

i Mi =10
.
T

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 88

## Effective Modal Mass

Mn

Mn = Pn mn
2

% Accum%
Mode 1 6.856 91.40 91.40
Mode 2 0.562 7.50 98.90
Mode 3 0.083 1.10

100.0

7.50 100%

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 89

Example 2 (continued)
Solving modal equation via NONLIN:
For Mode 1:
&y&1 + 211y&1 + 12 y1 = V1* (t ) / m1*

## 1.00y&&1 + 0.345y&1 + 11.88 y1 = 1.22v&&g (t )

M = 1.00 kip-sec2/in
C = 0.345 kip-sec/in
K1 = 11.88 kips/inch
Scale ground acceleration by factor 1.22

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 90

Example 2 (continued)
Modal Displacement Response Histories (from NONLIN)
10.00
5.00

T=1.82

0.00
-5.00
-10.00
0

Mode 1

10

11

12

1.00
0.50

T=0.65

0.00
-0.50

Mode 2

-1.00
0

10

11

12

0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00

T=0.45

-0.05
-0.10

Mode 3

10

11

12

Maxima
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 91

Example 2 (continued)
Modal Response Histories
8
MODE 1
MODE 2
MODE 3

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
0

10

12

Time, Seconds

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 92

Example 2 (continued)
Compute story displacement response histories:

u1(t)

u2(t)

u3(t)

u(t ) = y (t )

8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
-2.00
-4.00
-6.00
-8.00
0

10

11

12

10

11

12

10

11

12

8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
-2.00
-4.00
-6.00
-8.00

8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
-2.00
-4.00
-6.00
-8.00

## = 0.445 x Mode 1 1.247 x Mode 2 + 1.802 x Mode 3

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 93

Example 2 (continued)
Compute story shear response histories:

u1(t)

u2(t)

u3(t)

600.00
400.00
200.00
0.00
-200.00
-400.00
-600.00
0

10

11

12

10

11

12

10

11

12

600.00
400.00
200.00
0.00
-200.00
-400.00
-600.00

600.00
400.00
200.00
0.00
-200.00
-400.00
-600.00

Time, Seconds

=k2[u2(t)-u3(t)]
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 94

Example 2 (continued)
Displacements and Forces at time of Maximum Displacements
(t = 8.96 seconds)
0

222.2 k
6.935
222.2
175.9 k

2222

5.454
398.1
21.9 k

6203

2.800
420.0
Story Shear (k)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

10403
Story OTM (ft-k)
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 95

Example 2 (continued)
Displacements and Forces at Time of Maximum Shear
(t = 6.26 sec)
130.10 k

6.44
130.10
180.45 k

1301

5.57
215.10 k

310.55
4406

3.50
525.65
Story Shear (k)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

9663
Story OTM (ft-k)
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 96

## Instead of solving the time history problem for each

mode, use a response spectrum to compute the
maximum response in each mode.

## These maxima are generally nonconcurrent.

Combine the maximum modal responses using some
statistical technique, such as square root of the sum of
(CQC).

## The technique is approximate.

It is the basis for the equivalent lateral force (ELF) method.
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 97

## Example 2 (Response Spectrum Method)

Displacement Response Spectrum
1940 El Centro, 0.35g, 5% Damping
Spectral Displacement, Inches

7.00

MODAL RESPONSE

6.00

5.71

5.00
4.00

3.02

3.00
2.00

1.57

1.00
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds

Mode 2
T = 0.65 sec

Mode 1
T = 1.82 sec

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 98

Mode 3
T = 0.45 sec

Example 2 (continued)
Spectral Displacement, Inches

7.00
6.00

5.71

5.00
4.00

3.02

3.00
2.00
1.00

1.57

0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds

## Modal Equations of Motion

y&&1 + 0.345 y&1 + 11.88 y1 = 1.22v&&g (t )
y&&2 + 0.966 y& 2 + 93.29 y 2 = 0.280v&&g (t )
y&&3 + 1.395 y& 3 + 194.83 y 3 = 0.060v&&g (t )

Modal Maxima

## y1 = 1.22 * 5.71 = 6.966"

y 2 = 0.28 * 3.02 = 0.845"
y3 = 0.060 *1.57 = 0.094"

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 99

S p e c tra l D is p la c e m e n t, In c h e s

7.00
6.00

Example 2 (continued)

5.71 x 1.22
in.

5.00
4.00

## 3.02 x 0.28 in.

3.00
2.00 1.57 x 0.06 in.
1.00
0.00
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00
Period, Seconds

## The scaled response

spectrum values give
the same modal maxima
as the previous time
histories.
10.00
5.00
0.00

Mode 1
T = 1.82

-5.00
-10.00
0

10

11

12

1.00
0.50

Mode 2
T = 0.65

0.00
-0.50
-1.00
0

10

10

11

12

0.15

Mode 3
T = 0.45

0.10
0.05
0.00

-0.05
-0.10
0

## MDOF Dynamics 4 - 100

11

12

Example 2 (continued)
Computing Nonconcurrent Story Displacements
Mode 1

1.000
6.966

0.802
6.966
5.586
=

0.445
3.100

Mode 2

1.000
0.845

0.555
0.845
0.469

1.247
1.053

Mode 3

1.000
0.094

1.802
0.169

## MDOF Dynamics 4 - 101

Example 2 (continued)
Modal Combination Techniques (For Displacement)
Sum of absolute values:

Exact

## 5.586 + 0.469 + 0.211 = 6.266

3.100 + 1.053 + 0.169 4.322

## Square root of the sum of the squares

6.935

5.454
2.800
Envelope of story displacement

## 6.9662 + 0.8452 + 0.1082

7.02

2
2
2
5.586 + 0.469 + 0.211 = 5.61

2
2
2 3.28

## 3.100 + 1.053 + 0.169

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

6.935

5.675
2.965
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 102

Example 2 (continued)
Computing Interstory Drifts

Mode 1

3.100 0 3.100

Mode 2

0.469
(
1.053)
0.584

1.053 0 1.053

Mode 3

0.169 0
0.169

## MDOF Dynamics 4 - 103

Example 2 (continued)
Computing Interstory Shears (Using Drift)

Mode 1

1.380(150) 207.0

2.486(150) = 372.9
3.100(150) 465.0

Mode 2

1.314(150) 197.1

0.584(150)
87.6
=

1.053(150) 157.9

Mode 3

0.319(150) 47.9

0.380(150)
57.0

0.169(150) 25.4

## MDOF Dynamics 4 - 104

Example 2 (continued)
2072 + 197.12 + 47.92

289.81

2
2
2
+
+
=
372.9
87.6
57
387.27

491.73
2
2
2

## 465 + 157.9 + 25.4

Exact

Exact

Exact

130.1

310.5
525.7

222.2

398.1
420.0

304.0

398.5
525.7

At time of
max. shear

At time of max.
displacement

Envelope = maximum
per story

## ASCE 7 Allows an Approximate

Modal Analysis Technique Called the
Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure

## Empirical period of vibration

Smoothed response spectrum
Compute total base shear, V, as if SDOF
Distribute V along height assuming regular
geometry
Compute displacements and member forces using
standard procedures

## Method is based on first mode response.

Higher modes can be included empirically.
Has been calibrated to provide a reasonable
estimate of the envelope
of story shear, NOT to provide accurate
estimates of story force.
May result in overestimate of overturning
moment.

## Assume first mode effective mass = total Mass = M = W/g

Use response spectrum to obtain total acceleration @ T1
Acceleration, g
Sa1

T1

Period, sec

W
= Sa1W
VB = (Sa1g )M = (Sa1g )
g
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

dr

Wx

hx

## Assume linear first mode response

fx

hx
2 Wx
fx (t ) = d r (t )1
h
g

VB (t ) =

nstories

i =1

d r (t )12
fi (t ) =
hg

nstories

i =1

hiWi

fx (t )
=
VB (t )

hxWx
nstories

i =1

hiWi

m1=1.0 k-s2/in

m2=1.5

k1=60 k/in

k2=120 k/in

3h
m3=2.0

Recall
T1 = 1.37 sec

k3=180 k/in

## ELF Procedure Example

Total weight = M x g = (1.0 + 1.5 + 2.0) 386.4 = 1738 kips
Spectral acceleration = w2SD = (2p/1.37)2 x 3.47 = 72.7
in/sec2 = 0.188g
Spectral Displacement, Inches

7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00

3.47 in.

3.00
2.00
1.00

1.37sec
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds

## Base shear = SaW = 0.188 x 1738 = 327 kips

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

## ELF Procedure Example (Story Forces)

386(3h )
= 0.381VB = 0.375(327) = 125 kips
f3 =
386(3h ) + 579(2h ) + 722(h )

W=386 k

W=579 k
3h

W=722 k

125 k
125 k
(220 k)

125 k

250 k
(215 k)

77 k

327 k
(331 k)

327 k
Story Shear (k)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Units = inches

Time History
(Envelope)

5.15

3.18
1.93

Modal Response
Spectrum

5.18

3.33
1.84

ELF

5.98

3.89
1.82

## ELF procedure gives good correlation with

base shear (327 kips ELF vs 331 kips modal
response spectrum).

## ELF story force distribution is not as good.

ELF underestimates shears in upper stories.

## Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure

Higher Mode Effects

1st Mode

=
2nd Mode

## Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Combined
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 115

## Uses empirical period of vibration

Uses smoothed response spectrum
Has correction for higher modes
Has correction for overturning moment
Has limitations on use

Ta = Ct h

x
n

## Ct = 0.028, x = 0.8 for steel moment frames

Ct = 0.016, x = 0.9 for concrete moment frames
Ct = 0.030, x = 0.75 for eccentrically braced frames
Ct = 0.020, x = 0.75 for all other systems
Note: For building structures only!

Ta = 0.1N
For moment frames < 12 stories in height, minimum
story height of 10 feet. N = number of stories.
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

## Adjustment Factor on Approximate Period

T = TaCu Tcomputed
SD1
> 0.40g
0.30g
0.20g
0.15g
< 0.1g

Cu
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

## Applicable only if Tcomputed comes from a properly

substantiated analysis.
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

## ASCE 7 Smoothed Design Acceleration Spectrum

(for Use with ELF Procedure)

Spectral Response
Acceleration, Sa

V = CSW
SDS

Short
period
acceleration
1

SD1

Long period
acceleration

T = 0.2

T = 1.0

SDS
CS =
R
I

SD1
CS =
R
T
I
Varies

Period, T

## R is the response modification factor, a

function of system inelastic behavior. This is covered
in the topic on inelastic behavior. For now, use
R = 1, which implies linear elastic behavior.

## I is the importance factor which depends on the

Seismic Use Group. I = 1.5 for essential facilities,
1.25 for important high occupancy structures,
and 1.0 for normal structures. For now, use I = 1.

Fx = CvxV
Cvx =

k
x

wxh
n

w h
i =1

k
i

## k Accounts for Higher Mode Effects

k = 0.5T + 0.75
(sloped portion only)
k
2.0
1.0
0.5

2.5
Period, sec
k=2

k=1
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

V = 327 kips

T = 1.37 sec

W = 386k

## k = 0.5(1.37) + 0.75 = 1.435

146 k
(125 k)
146 k

W = 579k

120 k
(125 k)
266 k

3h
W = 722k

61 k
(77 k)
327 k

327 k
Story Shear (k)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

## ASCE 7 ELF Procedure Limitations

Applicable only to regular structures with T
less than 3.5Ts. Note that Ts = SD1/SDS.

## Adjacent story stiffness does not vary more than 30%.

Adjacent story strength does not vary more than 20%.
Adjacent story masses does not vary more than 50%.
If violated, must use more advanced analysis (typically
modal response spectrum analysis).