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Structural Dynamics of Linear Elastic

Multiple-Degrees-of-Freedom (MDOF) Systems


u1

u2

u3

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 1

Structural Dynamics of Elastic


MDOF Systems

Equations of motion for MDOF systems


Uncoupling of equations through use of natural

mode shapes
Solution of uncoupled equations
Recombination of computed response
Modal response history analysis
Modal response spectrum analysis
Equivalent lateral force procedure

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 2

Symbol Styles Used in this Topic


M
U

Matrix or vector (column matrix)

m
u

Element of matrix or vector or set

W
g

Scalars

(often shown with subscripts)

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 3

Relevance to ASCE 7-05


ASCE 7-05 provides guidance for three specific
analysis procedures:

Equivalent lateral force (ELF) analysis


Modal superposition analysis (MSA)
Response history analysis (RHA)
ELF usually allowed

ELF not allowed

Cs
See ASCE 7-05
Table 12.6-1

Ts

3.5Ts

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 4

Planar Frame with 36 Degrees of Freedom


uy
rz Typical nodal

Majority of mass
is in floors
9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

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ux

DOF

Motion is
predominantly
lateral

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 5

Planar Frame with 36 Static Degrees of Freedom


But with Only THREE Dynamic DOF

u1
u2

u1

U = u2
u
3

u3

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 6

Development of Flexibility Matrix


f1 = 1 kip
d1,1
d2,1

d1,1
d2,1

d3,1

d3,1

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 7

Development of Flexibility Matrix


(continued)
d1,2

f2=1 kip
d2,2

d1,1 d1,2
d2,1 d2,2
d3,1 d3,2

d3,2

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 8

Development of Flexibility Matrix


(continued)
d1,3

d2,3

d1,1 d1,2 d1,3


d2,1 d2,2 d2,3

f3 = 1 kip

d3,1 d3,2 d3,3

d3,3

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 9

Concept of Linear Combination of Shapes


(Flexibility)

d1,1 d1,2 d1,3 f1


U = d2,1 d2,2 d2,3 f2
d3,1 d3,2 d3,3 f3

d1,1
d1,2
d1,3



U = d2,1 f1 + d2,2 f2 + d2,3 f3
d
d
d
3,1
3,2
3,3
DF=U

K = D-1

KU=F

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 10

Static Condensation

K m,n Um Fm
=

K n,n Un {0}

K m,m
K
n,m

DOF with mass


Massless DOF

K m,mUm + K m,nUn = Fm

K n,mUm + K n,nUn = {0}


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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 11

Static Condensation
(continued)
Rearrange
Plug into
Simplify

1
n ,n

Un = K K n,mUm

1
n,n

K m,mUm K m,nK K n,mUm = Fm

K m,m K m,nK K n,m Um = Fm


1
n,n

K = K m,m K m,nK n,nK n,m

Condensed stiffness matrix


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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 12

Idealized Structural Property Matrices


m1

f1(t), u1(t)

k1
m2

f2(t), u2(t)

k2
m3
k3

f3(t), u3(t)

-k1
0
k1
K = -k1 k1+ k 2
-k 2
0
-k 2
k 2 + k 3

0
m1 0
M = 0 m2 0
0
0 m3

f1(t )

F(t ) = f2 (t )
f (t )
3

u1(t )

U(t ) = u2 (t )
u (t )
3

Note: Damping to be shown later


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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 13

Coupled Equations of Motion


for Undamped Forced Vibration

&&(t ) + KU(t ) = F(t )


MU
m1
0

0
m2
0

&&1 ( t )
0 u
&&

0 u
(
t
)
+
2
&& 3 ( t )
m 3 u

k1
k1

k1
k1 + k 2
k 3

0
u 1 ( t ) f1 ( t )

k 2 u 2 ( t ) = f 2 ( t )
k 2 + k 3 u 3 ( t ) f3 ( t )

DOF 2

&&1(t ) + k1u1(t ) k1u2 (t ) = f1(t )


m1u
&&2 (t ) k1u1(t ) + k1u2 (t ) + k 2u2 (t ) k 2u3 (t ) = f2 (t )
m 2u

DOF 3

&&3 (t ) k 2u2 (t ) + k 2u3 (t ) + k 3u3 (t ) = f3 (t )


m3u

DOF 1

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 14

Developing a Way To Solve


the Equations of Motion

This will be done by a transformation of coordinates


from normal coordinates (displacements at the nodes)
To modal coordinates (amplitudes of the natural
Mode shapes).

Because of the orthogonality property of the natural mode


shapes, the equations of motion become uncoupled,
allowing them to be solved as SDOF equations.

After solving, we can transform back to the normal


coordinates.

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 15

Solutions for System in Undamped Free Vibration


(Natural Mode Shapes and Frequencies)

&&(t ) + KU(t ) = {0}


MU
&& t ) = 2 sint
U(t ) = sin t U(
2
K

M = {0} has three (n) solutions:


Then

Assume

1,1

1 = 2,1 , 1

3,1

1,2

2 = 2,2 , 2

3,2

1,3

3 = 2,3 , 3

3,3

Natural frequency
Natural mode shape
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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 16

Solutions for System in Undamped Free Vibration


(continued)
For a SINGLE Mode

K = M2

For ALL Modes

Where: = [1 2 3 ]

12

2
2
2
2
K

=
=

Note: Mode shape has arbitrary scale; usually


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1,i = 1.0
or

T M = I
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 17

Mode Shapes for Idealized 3-Story Frame


1,2

1,1

1,3
Node
2,3

2,2

2,1

Node

Node

3,1

3,2

MODE 1

3,3

MODE 2
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MODE 3
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 18

Concept of Linear Combination of Mode Shapes


(Transformation of Coordinates)

U =Y
Mode shape

1,1 1,2 1,3 y1


1,1
1,2
1,3



U = 2,1 2,2 2,3 y2 U = 2,1 y1 + 2,2 y2 + 2,3 y3



3,1 3,2 3,3 y3
3,1
3,2
3,3
Modal coordinate =
amplitude of mode
shape
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 19

Orthogonality Conditions

= [1 2 3 ]
Generalized mass

m1*

T
*
M =
m2

m
3

Generalized stiffness

k1*

T
*
k2
K =

k
3

Generalized damping

Generalized force

c1*

T
*
c2
C =

c
3

f1* (t )
*
T
F(t ) = f2 (t )
f * (t )
3

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 20

Development of Uncoupled Equations of Motion


MDOF equation of motion:
Transformation of coordinates:
Substitution:

&&
&
MU+CU+KU
= F(t )
U = Y
&& C Y+K
&
M Y+
Y = F(t )

&& + TCY& + T KY = T F(t )


Premultiply by T : T MY
Using orthogonality conditions, uncoupled equations of motion are:

m1*

m *2

&&
y1 c 1*
&&
y2 +
m 3* &&
y 3

c 2*

y& 1 k 1*
&
y2 +
c 3* y& 3

k 2*

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y1 f1* (t )
*
y 2 = f2 (t )
k 3* y 3 f3* (t )

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 21

Development of Uncoupled Equations of Motion


(Explicit Form)

Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 3

*
1 1

*
*
*
&&
&
m y +c1y1+k1y1 = f1 (t )

*
2 2

*
*
*
&&
&
m y +c2 y2 +k2 y2 = f2 (t )

*
3 3

*
*
*
&&
&
m y +c3 y3 +k3 y3 = f3 (t )

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 22

Development of Uncoupled Equations of Motion


(Explicit Form)
*
ci
Simplify by dividing through by m* and defining i =
2mi*i

Mode 1

y&&1 + 211y&1 + 12 y1 = f1* (t )/ m1*

Mode 2

2
*
*
&&
&
y 2 + 222 y 2 + 2 y 2 = f2 (t ) / m2

Mode 3

y&&3 + 233 y& 3 + 32 y 3 = f3* (t ) / m3*


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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 23

Earthquake Loading for MDOF System


u&&g U&&r ,1
&&r ,1(t )
u&&g (t ) + u

&&r ,2 (t ) =
FI (t ) = M u&&g (t ) + u
u&& (t ) + u

&&
(
t
)
r ,3
g

&&r ,1(t )
u
1.0
&&
&&

M 1.0 ug (t ) + M ur ,2 (t )
1.0
u

&&
(
t
)

r ,3
Move to RHS as

FEFF (t ) = - M Ru&&g (t )

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 24

Modal Earthquake Loading


m1 = 2
m2 = 3
m3 = 1

u1
u2
u3

u&&g (t )
m3 = 1
m1 = 2

m2 = 3

u1

u3
u2

u&&g (t )

F (t ) = MRu&&g (t )
*

M= 3

1

R = 1
1

1
2 + 1

M=
3 R= 1

0
1

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 25

Definition of Modal Participation Factor

&&g (t )
fi (t ) = MRu
*

For earthquakes:

T
i

Typical modal equation:

fi (t )

MR
&&
y&&i + 2 i i y& i + y i =
u
=

g (t )
*
*
mi
mi
2
i

T
i

Modal participation factor pi

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 26

Caution Regarding Modal Participation Factor

pi =

MR
T
i

*
i

Mi
T
i

Its value is dependent on the (arbitrary) method


used to scale the mode shapes.
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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 27

Variation of First Mode Participation Factor


with First Mode Shape
p1 = 1.0
1.0

p1 =1.4

p1 =1.6

1.0

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1.0

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 28

Concept of Effective Modal Mass


For each Mode I,

mi = pi mi
2

The sum of the effective modal mass for all


modes is
equal to the total structural mass.

The value of effective modal mass is


independent of mode shape scaling.

Use enough modes in the analysis to provide


a total effective mass not less than 90% of the
total structural mass.
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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 29

Variation of First Mode Effective Mass


with First Mode Shape

m1 / M = 1.0
1.0

m1 / M= 0.9 m1 / M= 0.7
1.0

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1.0

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 30

Derivation of Effective Modal Mass


For each mode:

(continued)

y&&i + 2i i y& i + y i = pi u&&g


2
i

SDOF system:
2
&&
&
qi + 2 i i qi + i qi = u&&g

Modal response history, qi(t) is obtained by first


solving the SDOF system.

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 31

Derivation of Effective Modal Mass


(continued)

From previous slide

y i (t ) = pi qi (t )

Recall

ui (t ) = i y i (t )

Substitute

ui (t ) = pi i qi (t )

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 32

Derivation of Effective Modal Mass


(continued)

Applied static forces required to produce ui(t):

Vi (t ) = Kui (t ) = Pi Ki qi (t )
Recall:

Ki = i Mi
2

Substitute:

Vi (t ) = Mi Pi i qi (t )
2

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 33

Derivation of Effective Modal Mass


(continued)

Total shear in mode: Vi = Vi T R

Vi = (Mi ) RPi qi (t ) = i MRPi qi (t )


T

Acceleration in mode

Define effective modal mass:

Mi = MRPi
T
i

and

Vi = Mi qi (t )
2

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 34

Derivation of Effective Modal Mass


(continued)
T

i MR T
T
Mi = i MRPi = T
i Mi Pi
i Mi i

Mi = Pi mi
2

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 35

Development of a Modal Damping Matrix


In previous development, we have assumed:

c1*

T
*
c2
C =

c3

Two methods described herein:


Rayleigh proportional damping
Wilson discrete modal damping
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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 36

Rayleigh Proportional Damping


(continued)

MASS
PROPORTIONAL
DAMPER
STIFFNESS
PROPORTIONAL
DAMPER

C = M + K

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 37

Rayleigh Proportional Damping


(continued)

C = M + K
For modal equations to be uncoupled:

Assumes
T M = I

2nn = Cn
T
n

Using orthogonality conditions:

2nn = +

2
n

1
n
n =
+
2n
2
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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 38

Rayleigh Proportional Damping


(continued)

Select damping value in two modes, m and n


Compute coefficients and :


m n
=2 2
2
n m

m m
n
1/ 1/
n
m n

Form damping matrix

C = M + K

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 39

Rayleigh Proportional Damping (Example)


5% critical in Modes 1 and 3
Structural frequencies
Mode
1
2
3
4
5

4.94
14.6
25.9
39.2
52.8

Modal Damping Ratio

0.15

TYPE
MASS
STIFFNESS
TOTAL

= 0.41487
= 0.00324

0.10

0.05

0.00
0

20
40
Frequency, Radians/Sec.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

60

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 40

Rayleigh Proportional Damping (Example)


5% Damping in Modes 1 & 2, 1 & 3, 1 & 4, or 1 & 5
0.15

Modes
1&2
1&3
1&4
1&5

.36892
.41487
.43871
.45174

0.00513
0.00324
0.00227
0.00173

1,2

Modal Damping Ratio

Proportionality factors
(5% each indicated mode)

MODES
1,3
1,4
1,5

0.10

0.05

0.00
0

20

40

60

Fequency, Radians/sec
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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 41

Wilson Damping
*

Directly specify modal damping values i

2m1*11*
c1*

*
*
*
T
c2
2m222
C =

=
*
*
*

c3
2m333

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 42

Formation of Explicit Damping Matrix


From Wilson Modal Damping
(NOT Usually Required)

211

2 22

T C =

2 n 1n 1

( )

=c

2 nn

T 1

c1 = C

n
T
C = M 2i i i i M

i =1
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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 43

Wilson Damping (Example)


5% Damping in Modes 1 and 2, 3
10% in Mode 5, Zero in Mode 4
12
10

Modal Damping Ratio

10
8
6

4
2
0

0
4.94

14.57

25.9

39.2

52.8

Frequency, Radians per second


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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 44

Wilson Damping (Example)


5% Damping in all Modes
12

Modal Damping Ratio

10
8
6

4.94

14.57

25.9

39.2

52.8

4
2
0

Frequency, Radians per second


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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 45

Solution of MDOF Equations of Motion

Explicit (step by step) integration of coupled equations

Explicit integration of FULL SET of uncoupled equations

Explicit integration of PARTIAL SET of uncoupled


Equations (approximate)

Modal response spectrum analysis (approximate)

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 46

Computed Response for


Piecewise Linear Loading

Force, V(t)

Vt2

Vt1
t0

Vt 2 Vt 2
=
t2 t1

t1

t2 t3

Time, t

Time

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 47

Example of MDOF Response of Structure


Responding to 1940 El Centro Earthquake
m1=1.0 k-s2/in
10 ft

u1(t)
k1=60 k/in

m2=1.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

Example 1
Assume Wilson
damping with 5%
critical in each mode.

k2=120 k/in

10 ft

u3(t)
m3=2.0 k-s2/in
10 ft

k3=180 k/in
N-S component of 1940 El Centro earthquake
Maximum acceleration = 0.35 g
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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 48

Example 1 (continued)
Form property matrices:
m1=1.0 k-s2/in

u1(t)
k1=60 k/in
m2=1.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

m3=2.0 k-s2/in

1.0

kip s2/in
M =
1.5

2.0

k2=120 k/in

u3(t)
k3=180 k/in

60
0
60
K = 60 180 120kip/in
0
120 300

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 49

Example 1 (continued)
Solve eigenvalue problem:
m1=1.0 k-s2/in

u1(t)
k1=60 k/in
m2=1.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

m3=2.0 k-s2/in

k2=120 k/in

u3(t)
k3=180 k/in

K = M2

21.0

2
2
=
96.6
sec

212.4
1.000 1.000 1.000
= 0.644 0.601 2.57

0.300 0.676 2.47

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 50

Normalization of Modes Using

0.749 0.638 0.208


= 0.478 0.384 0.534
0.223 0.431 0.514

vs

M = I
T

1.000 1.000 1.000


0.644 0.601 2.57

0.300 0.676 2.47

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 51

Example 1 (continued)
Mode Shapes and Periods of Vibration

MODE 1
= 4.58 rad/sec
T = 1.37 sec

MODE 2
= 9.83 rad/sec
T = 0.639 sec

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MODE 3
= 14.57 rad/sec
T = 0.431 sec
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 52

Example 1 (continued)

m1=1.0 k-s2/in

u1(t)
k1=60 k/in
m2=1.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)
k2=120 k/in

m3=2.0 k-s2/in

u3(t)
k3=180 k/in

4.58

n = 9.83 rad/ sec


14.57

1.37

Tn = 0.639sec
0.431

Compute Generalized Mass:


1 . 801
M * = T M =

2 . 455

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kip sec 2 / in

23 . 10

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 53

Example 1 (continued)

m1=1.0 k-s2/in

u1(t)
k1=60 k/in
m2=1.5

k-s2/in

Compute generalized loading:


V * (t ) = T MR v&&g (t )

u2(t)
k2=120 k/in

m3=2.0 k-s2/in

u3(t)
k3=180 k/in

2.566

&&
*
Vn = 1.254 vg (t )
2.080

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 54

Example 1 (continued)
Write uncoupled (modal) equations of motion:
m1=1.0 k-s2/in

u1(t)
k1=60 k/in
m2=1.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)
k2=120 k/in

m3=2.0 k-s2/in

u3(t)
k3=180 k/in

y&&1 + 211y&1 + 12 y1 = V1* (t )/ m1*


y&&2 + 222 y& 2 + 22 y 2 = V2* (t ) / m2*
y&&3 + 233 y& 3 + 32 y 3 = V3* (t ) / m3*
y&&1 + 0.458y&1 + 21.0y1 = 1.425v&&g (t )
y&&2 + 0.983y&2 + 96.6y2 = 0.511v&&g (t )
y&&3 + 1.457y&3 + 212.4y3 = 0.090v&&g (t )

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 55

Modal Participation Factors

Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
Modal scaling

1 .4 2 5

1 .9 1 1

0 .5 1 1

0 .7 9 9

0 .0 9 0

0 .4 3 5

i,1 = 10
.

i Mi =10
.
T

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 56

Modal Participation Factors


(continued)

1.000
0.744

1.425 0.644 = 1.9110.480


0.300
0.223

using 1,1

=1

using T M
1

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=1

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 57

Effective Modal Mass

Mn

Mn = Pn m
2

*
n

Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3

Accum%

3.66 81
81
0.64 14
95
0.20 5 100%
4.50 100%

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 58

Example 1 (continued)
Solving modal equation via NONLIN:
For Mode 1:
&y&1 + 211y&1 + 12 y1 = V1* (t ) / m1*

1.00y&&1 + 0.458y&1 + 21.0y1 = 1.425v&&g (t )


M = 1.00 kip-sec2/in
C = 0.458 kip-sec/in
K1 = 21.0 kips/inch
Scale ground acceleration by factor 1.425

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MDOF Dynamics 4 - 59

Example 1 (continued)
Modal Displacement Response Histories (from NONLIN)
6.00
3.00

T1 = 1.37 sec

0.00
-3.00
-6.00
0

MODE 1

10

11

12

2.00
1.00

T2 = 0.64

0.00
-1.00
-2.00

MODE 2

10

11

12

0.20
0.10

T3 = 0.43

0.00
-0.10
-0.20

MODE 3

10

Time, Seconds

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11

12

Maxima
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 60

Example 1 (continued)
Modal Response Histories:
5

Modal Displacement, Inches

4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
MODE 1
MODE 2
MODE 3

-3
-4
-5
0

10

12

Time, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 61

Example 1 (continued)
u(t ) = y (t )

Compute story displacement response histories:

u1(t)

u2(t)

u3(t)

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
0

10

11

12

10

11

12

10

11

12

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
0

Time, Seconds

= 0.300 x Mode 1 - 0.676 x Mode 2 + 2.47 x Mode 3


Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 62

Example 1 (continued)
Compute story shear response histories:

u1(t)

u2(t)

u3(t)

400
200
0
-200
-400
0

10

11

12

10

11

12

10

11

12

400
200
0
-200
-400

400
200
0
-200
-400
Time, Seconds

= k2[u2(t) - u3(t)]
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 63

Example 1 (continued)
Displacements and forces at time of maximum displacements
(t = 6.04 sec)
0

134.8 k
5.11
134.8
62.1 k

1348

2.86
196.9
1.22

23.5 k

3317
220.4
Story Shear (k)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

5521
Story OTM (ft-k)
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 64

Example 1 (continued)
Displacements and forces at time of maximum shear
(t = 3.18 sec)
38.2 k

3.91
38.2
124.7 k

382

3.28
182.7 k

162.9
2111

1.92
345.6
Story Shear (k)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

5567
Story OTM (ft-k)
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 65

Modal Response Response Spectrum Method

Instead of solving the time history problem for each


mode, use a response spectrum to compute the
maximum response in each mode.

These maxima are generally nonconcurrent.

Combine the maximum modal responses using some


statistical technique, such as square root of the sum of
the squares (SRSS) or complete quadratic combination
(CQC).

The technique is approximate.

It is the basis for the equivalent lateral force (ELF) method.


Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 66

Example 1 (Response Spectrum Method)


Displacement Response Spectrum
1940 El Centro, 0.35g, 5% Damping

Spectral Displacement, Inches

7.00
6.00

Modal response

5.00
4.00

3.47

3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
0.00

3.04
1.20
0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds

Mode 3
T = 0.431 sec

Mode 2
T = 0.639 sec

Mode 1
T = 1.37 sec

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 67

Example 1 (continued)
Spectral Displacement, Inches

7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00

3.47

3.00

3.04
2.00

1.20

1.00
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds

Modal Equations of Motion


y&&1 + 0.458 y&1 + 21.0 y1 = 1.425v&&g (t )

Modal Maxima

y1 = 1.425 * 3.47 = 4.94"

y 2 = 0.511* 3.04 = 1.55"


y&&3 + 1.457 y& 3 + 212.4 y 3 = 0.090v&&g (t ) y 3 = 0.090 * 1.20 = 0.108"
y&&2 + 0.983 y& 2 + 96.6 y 2 = 0.511v&&g (t )

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 68

Example 1 (continued)

Spectral Displacement, Inches

7.00
6.00
5.00

The scaled response


spectrum values give
the same modal maxima
as the previous time
Histories.

3.47x 1.425

4.00
3.00

3.04 x 0.511
2.00

1.20 x 0.090

1.00
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds
6.00

Mode 1
T = 1.37

3.00
0.00
-3.00
-6.00
0

10

11

12

10

11

12

10

11

12

2.00

Mode 2
T = 0.64

1.00
0.00
-1.00
-2.00

0.20

Mode 3
T = 0.43

0.10
0.00
-0.10
-0.20
Time, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 69

Example 1 (continued)
Computing Nonconcurrent Story Displacements
Mode 1

1.000
4.940

=
0.644
4.940
3.181

0.300
1.482

Mode 2

1.000
1.550

0.601
1.550
0.931

0.676
1.048

Mode 3

0.108
1.000

2.5700.108 = 0.278
0.267
2.470

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 70

Example 1 (continued)
Modal Combination Techniques (for Displacement)
Sum of Absolute Values:

At time of maximum displacement

Exact
5.15

4.940 + 1.550 + 0.108 6.60

3.181+ 0.931+ 0.278 = 4.39


1.482 + 1.048 + 0.267 2.80

Square Root of the Sum of the Squares:

4.9402 + 1.5502 + 0.1082

5.18

2
2
2
3.181 + 0.931 + 0.278 = 3.33

2
2
2 1.84

1.482 + 1.048 + 0.267

2.86
1.22
Envelope of story displacement

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

5.15

3.18

1.93
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 71

Example 1 (continued)
Computing Interstory Drifts

Mode 1

4.940 3.181 1.759

3.181 1.482 = 1.699

1.482 0 1.482

Mode 2

1.550(0.931) 2.481

0
.
117
0
.
931
(
1
.
048
)

1.0480 1.048

Mode 3

0.108 (0.278) 0.386

0.278 0.267= 0.545


0.267 0 0.267

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 72

Example 1 (continued)
Computing Interstory Shears (Using Drift)

Mode 1

1.759(60) 105.5

1.699(120) = 203.9

1.482(180) 266.8

Mode 2

2.481(60) 148.9

=
0.117(120)
14.0

1.048(180) 188.6

Mode 3

0.386(60) 23.2

0.545(120)
65.4

0.267(180) 48.1

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 73

Example 1 (continued)
Computing Interstory Shears: SRSS Combination
106 2 + 149 2 + 23.22 220

2
2
2
+
+
215
=
204
14
65
.
4


267 2 + 189 2 + 48.12 331


Exact

Exact

Exact

38.2

163
346

135

197
220

207

203
346

At time of
max. shear

At time of max.
displacement

Envelope = maximum
per story

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 74

Caution:
Do NOT compute story shears from the story
drifts derived from the SRSS of the story
displacements.
Calculate the story shears in each mode
(using modal drifts) and then SRSS
the results.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 75

Using Less than Full (Possible)


Number of Natural Modes
Modal Response Histories:
5

Modal Displacement, Inches

4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
MODE 1
MODE 2
MODE 3

-3
-4
-5
0

10

12

Time, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 76

Using Less than Full Number of Natural Modes


Time-History for Mode 1
y1(t1) y1(t 2) y1(t 3) y1(t 4) y1(t 5) y1(t 6) y1(t 7) y1(t 8) .... y1(tn)
y (t ) = y 2 (t1) y 2 (t 2) y 2 (t 3) y 2 (t 4) y 2 (t 5) y 2 (t 6) y 2 (t 7) y 2 (t 8) .... y 2 (tn)
y3 (t1) y3 (t 2) y3 (t 3) y3 (t 4) y3 (t 5) y3 (t 6) y3 (t 7) y3 (t 8) .... y3 (tn)

u(t ) = [1 2 3 ]y (t )

Transformation:

3 x nt

3x3

3 x nt

3 x nt

Time History for DOF 1


u1(t1) u1(t 2) u1(t 3) u1(t 4) u1(t 5) u1(t 6) u1(t 7) u1(t 8) .... u1(tn)
u(t ) = u2 (t1) u2 (t 2) u2 (t 3) u2 (t 4) u2 (t 5) u2 (t 6) u2 (t 7) u2 (t 8) .... u2 (tn)
u3 (t1) u3 (t 2) u3 (t 3) u3 (t 4) u3 (t 5) u3 (t 6) u3 (t 7) u3 (t 8) .... u3 (tn)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 77

Using Less than Full Number of Natural Modes


Time History for Mode 1
y (t1) y1(t 2) y1(t 3) y1(t 4) y1(t 5) y1(t 6) y1(t 7) y1(t 8) .... y1(tn)
y (t ) = 1

y
(
t
1)
y
(
t
2)
y
(
t
3)
y
(
t
4)
y
(
t
5)
y
(
t
6)
y
(
t
7)
y
(
t
8)
....
y
(
tn
)
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

NOTE: Mode 3 NOT Analyzed

u(t ) = 1 2 y (t )

Transformation:

3 x nt

3x2

2 x nt

3 x nt

Time history for DOF 1


u1(t1) u1(t 2) u1(t 3) u1(t 4) u1(t 5) u1(t 6) u1(t 7) u1(t 8) .... u1(tn)
u(t ) = u2 (t1) u2 (t 2) u2 (t 3) u2 (t 4) u2 (t 5) u2 (t 6) u2 (t 7) u2 (t 8) .... u2 (tn)
u3 (t1) u3 (t 2) u3 (t 3) u3 (t 4) u3 (t 5) u3 (t 6) u3 (t 7) u3 (t 8) .... u3 (tn)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 78

Using Less than Full Number of Natural Modes


(Modal Response Spectrum Technique)
Sum of absolute values:
4.940 + 1.550 + 0.108 6.60

3.181 + 0.931 + 0.278 = 4.39


1.482 + 1.048 + 0.267 2.80

6.49

4.112
2.53

Square root of the sum of the squares:

4.9402 + 1.5502 + 0.1082

5.18

2
2
2
3.181 + 0.931 + 0.278 = 3.33

2
2
2 1.84

1.482 + 1.048 + 0.267

5.18

3.31
1.82

At time of maximum
displacement

Exact:

5.15

2.86

1.22

3 modes 2 modes

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 79

Example of MDOF Response of Structure


Responding to 1940 El Centro Earthquake
m1=2.5 k-s2/in
10 ft

u1(t)
k1=150 k/in

m2=2.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

Example 2
Assume Wilson
damping with 5%
critical in each mode.

k2=150 k/in

10 ft

u3(t)
m3=2.5 k-s2/in
10 ft

k3=150 k/in
N-S component of 1940 El Centro earthquake
Maximum acceleration = 0.35 g
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 80

Example 2 (continued)
Form property matrices:
m1=2.5 k-s2/in

u1(t)
k1=150 k/in
m2=2.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

m3=2.5 k-s2/in

2.5

kip s2/in
M =
2.5

2.5

k2=150 k/in

u3(t)
k3=150 k/in

0
150 150
K = 150 300 150 kip/in
0
150 300

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 81

Example 2 (continued)
Solve = eigenvalue problem:
m1=2.5 k-s2/in

u1(t)
k1=150 k/in
m2=2.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)

m3=2.5 k-s2/in

k2=150 k/in

u3(t)
k3=150 k/in

K = M2

11.9

2
2
=
93.3
sec

194.8
1.000 1.000 1.000
= 0.802 0.555 2.247
0.445 1.247 1.802

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 82

Normalization of Modes Using

M = I
T

0.466 0.373 0.207


1.000 1.000 1.000
= 0.373 0.207 0.465 vs 0.802 0.555 2.247

0.207 0.465 0.373


0.445 1.247 1.802

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 83

Example 2 (continued)
Mode Shapes and Periods of Vibration

Mode 1
= 3.44 rad/sec
T = 1.82 sec

Mode 2
= 9.66 rad/sec
T = 0.65 sec

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Mode 3
= 13.96 rad/sec
T = 0.45 sec
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 84

Example 2 (continued)

m1=2.5 k-s2/in

u1(t)
k1=150 k/in
m2=2.5 k-s2/in

u2(t)
k2=150 k/in

m3=2.5 k-s2/in

u3(t)
k3=150 k/in

3.44

n = 9.66 rad/ sec


13.96

1.82

Tn = 0.65sec
0.45

Compute generalized mass:


4 .6 0 3
M * = T M =

7 .1 5 8

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

k ip se c 2 / in

2 3 .2 4 1

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 85

Example 2 (continued)

m1=2.5 k-s2/in

m2=2.5

k-s2/in

u1(t)

Compute generalized loading:

k1=150 k/in

V * (t ) = T MR v&&g (t )

u2(t)
k2=150 k/in

m3=2.5 k-s2/in

u3(t)
k3=150 k/in

5.617

&&
*
Vn = 2.005 vg (t )
1.388

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 86

Example 2 (continued)
Write uncoupled (modal) equations of motion:
m1=2.5 k-s2/in

u1(t)
m2=2.5 k-s2/in

k1=150 k/in

y&&2 + 222 y& 2 + 22 y 2 = V2* (t ) / m2*

u2(t)

y&&3 + 233 y& 3 + 32 y 3 = V3* (t ) / m3*

k2=150 k/in
m3=2.5 k-s2/in

y&&1 + 211y&1 + 12 y1 = V1* (t )/ m1*

u3(t)
k3=150 k/in

y&&1 + 0.345y&1 + 11.88y1 = 1.22v&&g (t )


y&&2 + 0.966y&2 + 93.29y2 = 0.280v&&g (t )
y&&3 + 1.395y&3 + 194.83y3 = 0.06v&&g (t )

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 87

Modal Participation Factors

Mode 1 1 .2 2 2 .6 1 5
Mode 2 0 .2 8
0 .7 4 8
Mode 3 0 .0 6 0 0 .2 8 7
Modal scaling

i,1 = 10
.

i Mi =10
.
T

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 88

Effective Modal Mass

Mn

Mn = Pn mn
2

% Accum%
Mode 1 6.856 91.40 91.40
Mode 2 0.562 7.50 98.90
Mode 3 0.083 1.10

100.0

7.50 100%

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 89

Example 2 (continued)
Solving modal equation via NONLIN:
For Mode 1:
&y&1 + 211y&1 + 12 y1 = V1* (t ) / m1*

1.00y&&1 + 0.345y&1 + 11.88 y1 = 1.22v&&g (t )


M = 1.00 kip-sec2/in
C = 0.345 kip-sec/in
K1 = 11.88 kips/inch
Scale ground acceleration by factor 1.22

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 90

Example 2 (continued)
Modal Displacement Response Histories (from NONLIN)
10.00
5.00

T=1.82

0.00
-5.00
-10.00
0

Mode 1

10

11

12

1.00
0.50

T=0.65

0.00
-0.50

Mode 2

-1.00
0

10

11

12

0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00

T=0.45

-0.05
-0.10

Mode 3

10

11

12

Maxima
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 91

Example 2 (continued)
Modal Response Histories
8
MODE 1
MODE 2
MODE 3

Modal Displacement, Inches

6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
0

10

12

Time, Seconds

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 92

Example 2 (continued)
Compute story displacement response histories:

u1(t)

u2(t)

u3(t)

u(t ) = y (t )

8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
-2.00
-4.00
-6.00
-8.00
0

10

11

12

10

11

12

10

11

12

8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
-2.00
-4.00
-6.00
-8.00

8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
-2.00
-4.00
-6.00
-8.00

= 0.445 x Mode 1 1.247 x Mode 2 + 1.802 x Mode 3


Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 93

Example 2 (continued)
Compute story shear response histories:

u1(t)

u2(t)

u3(t)

600.00
400.00
200.00
0.00
-200.00
-400.00
-600.00
0

10

11

12

10

11

12

10

11

12

600.00
400.00
200.00
0.00
-200.00
-400.00
-600.00

600.00
400.00
200.00
0.00
-200.00
-400.00
-600.00

Time, Seconds

=k2[u2(t)-u3(t)]
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 94

Example 2 (continued)
Displacements and Forces at time of Maximum Displacements
(t = 8.96 seconds)
0

222.2 k
6.935
222.2
175.9 k

2222

5.454
398.1
21.9 k

6203

2.800
420.0
Story Shear (k)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

10403
Story OTM (ft-k)
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 95

Example 2 (continued)
Displacements and Forces at Time of Maximum Shear
(t = 6.26 sec)
130.10 k

6.44
130.10
180.45 k

1301

5.57
215.10 k

310.55
4406

3.50
525.65
Story Shear (k)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

9663
Story OTM (ft-k)
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 96

Modal Response Response Spectrum Method

Instead of solving the time history problem for each


mode, use a response spectrum to compute the
maximum response in each mode.

These maxima are generally nonconcurrent.


Combine the maximum modal responses using some
statistical technique, such as square root of the sum of
the squares (SRSS) or complete quadratic combination
(CQC).

The technique is approximate.


It is the basis for the equivalent lateral force (ELF) method.
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 97

Example 2 (Response Spectrum Method)


Displacement Response Spectrum
1940 El Centro, 0.35g, 5% Damping
Spectral Displacement, Inches

7.00

MODAL RESPONSE

6.00

5.71

5.00
4.00

3.02

3.00
2.00

1.57

1.00
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds

Mode 2
T = 0.65 sec

Mode 1
T = 1.82 sec

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 98

Mode 3
T = 0.45 sec

Example 2 (continued)
Spectral Displacement, Inches

7.00
6.00

5.71

5.00
4.00

3.02

3.00
2.00
1.00

1.57

0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds

Modal Equations of Motion


y&&1 + 0.345 y&1 + 11.88 y1 = 1.22v&&g (t )
y&&2 + 0.966 y& 2 + 93.29 y 2 = 0.280v&&g (t )
y&&3 + 1.395 y& 3 + 194.83 y 3 = 0.060v&&g (t )

Modal Maxima

y1 = 1.22 * 5.71 = 6.966"


y 2 = 0.28 * 3.02 = 0.845"
y3 = 0.060 *1.57 = 0.094"

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 99

S p e c tra l D is p la c e m e n t, In c h e s

7.00
6.00

Example 2 (continued)

5.71 x 1.22
in.

5.00
4.00

3.02 x 0.28 in.

3.00
2.00 1.57 x 0.06 in.
1.00
0.00
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00
Period, Seconds

The scaled response


spectrum values give
the same modal maxima
as the previous time
histories.
10.00
5.00
0.00

Mode 1
T = 1.82

-5.00
-10.00
0

10

11

12

1.00
0.50

Mode 2
T = 0.65

0.00
-0.50
-1.00
0

10

10

11

12

0.15

Mode 3
T = 0.45

0.10
0.05
0.00

-0.05
-0.10
0

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 100

11

12

Example 2 (continued)
Computing Nonconcurrent Story Displacements
Mode 1

1.000
6.966

0.802
6.966
5.586
=

0.445
3.100

Mode 2

1.000
0.845

0.555
0.845
0.469

1.247
1.053

Mode 3

1.000
0.094

2.247 0.094 = 0.211


1.802
0.169

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 101

Example 2 (continued)
Modal Combination Techniques (For Displacement)
Sum of absolute values:

At time of maximum displacement

Exact

6.966 + 0.845 + 0.108 7.919

5.586 + 0.469 + 0.211 = 6.266


3.100 + 1.053 + 0.169 4.322

Square root of the sum of the squares

6.935

5.454
2.800
Envelope of story displacement

6.9662 + 0.8452 + 0.1082

7.02

2
2
2
5.586 + 0.469 + 0.211 = 5.61

2
2
2 3.28

3.100 + 1.053 + 0.169


Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

6.935

5.675
2.965
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 102

Example 2 (continued)
Computing Interstory Drifts

Mode 1

6.966 5.586 1.380

5.586 3.100 = 2.486

3.100 0 3.100

Mode 2

0.845 (0.469) 1.314

0.469
(
1.053)
0.584

1.053 0 1.053

Mode 3

0.108 ( 0.211) 0.319

0.211 0.169 = 0.380


0.169 0
0.169

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 103

Example 2 (continued)
Computing Interstory Shears (Using Drift)

Mode 1

1.380(150) 207.0

2.486(150) = 372.9
3.100(150) 465.0

Mode 2

1.314(150) 197.1

0.584(150)
87.6
=

1.053(150) 157.9

Mode 3

0.319(150) 47.9

0.380(150)
57.0

0.169(150) 25.4

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 104

Example 2 (continued)
Computing Interstory Shears: SRSS Combination
2072 + 197.12 + 47.92

289.81

2
2
2
+
+
=
372.9
87.6
57
387.27

491.73
2
2
2

465 + 157.9 + 25.4


Exact

Exact

Exact

130.1

310.5
525.7

222.2

398.1
420.0

304.0

398.5
525.7

At time of
max. shear

At time of max.
displacement

Envelope = maximum
per story

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 105

ASCE 7 Allows an Approximate


Modal Analysis Technique Called the
Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure

Empirical period of vibration


Smoothed response spectrum
Compute total base shear, V, as if SDOF
Distribute V along height assuming regular
geometry
Compute displacements and member forces using
standard procedures

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 106

Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure

Method is based on first mode response.


Higher modes can be included empirically.
Has been calibrated to provide a reasonable
estimate of the envelope
of story shear, NOT to provide accurate
estimates of story force.
May result in overestimate of overturning
moment.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 107

Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure

Assume first mode effective mass = total Mass = M = W/g


Use response spectrum to obtain total acceleration @ T1
Acceleration, g
Sa1

T1

Period, sec

W
= Sa1W
VB = (Sa1g )M = (Sa1g )
g
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 108

Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure


dr

Wx

hx

Assume linear first mode response

fx

hx
2 Wx
fx (t ) = d r (t )1
h
g

VB (t ) =

nstories

i =1

d r (t )12
fi (t ) =
hg

nstories

i =1

hiWi

Portion of base shear applied to story i

fx (t )
=
VB (t )

hxWx
nstories

i =1

hiWi

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 109

ELF Procedure Example


m1=1.0 k-s2/in

m2=1.5

k1=60 k/in

k2=120 k/in

3h
m3=2.0

Recall
T1 = 1.37 sec

k3=180 k/in

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 110

ELF Procedure Example


Total weight = M x g = (1.0 + 1.5 + 2.0) 386.4 = 1738 kips
Spectral acceleration = w2SD = (2p/1.37)2 x 3.47 = 72.7
in/sec2 = 0.188g
Spectral Displacement, Inches

7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00

3.47 in.

3.00
2.00
1.00

1.37sec
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

2.00

Period, Seconds

Base shear = SaW = 0.188 x 1738 = 327 kips


Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 111

ELF Procedure Example (Story Forces)


386(3h )
= 0.381VB = 0.375(327) = 125 kips
f3 =
386(3h ) + 579(2h ) + 722(h )

W=386 k

W=579 k
3h

W=722 k

125 k
125 k
(220 k)

125 k

250 k
(215 k)

77 k

327 k
(331 k)

327 k
Story Shear (k)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 112

ELF Procedure Example (Story Displacements)


Units = inches

Time History
(Envelope)

5.15

3.18
1.93

Modal Response
Spectrum

5.18

3.33
1.84

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

ELF

5.98

3.89
1.82

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 113

ELF Procedure Example (Summary)

ELF procedure gives good correlation with


base shear (327 kips ELF vs 331 kips modal
response spectrum).

ELF story force distribution is not as good.


ELF underestimates shears in upper stories.

ELF gives reasonable correlation with displacements.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 114

Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure


Higher Mode Effects

1st Mode

=
2nd Mode

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Combined
MDOF Dynamics 4 - 115

ASCE 7-05 ELF Approach

Uses empirical period of vibration


Uses smoothed response spectrum
Has correction for higher modes
Has correction for overturning moment
Has limitations on use

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 116

Approximate Periods of Vibration

Ta = Ct h

x
n

Ct = 0.028, x = 0.8 for steel moment frames


Ct = 0.016, x = 0.9 for concrete moment frames
Ct = 0.030, x = 0.75 for eccentrically braced frames
Ct = 0.020, x = 0.75 for all other systems
Note: For building structures only!

Ta = 0.1N
For moment frames < 12 stories in height, minimum
story height of 10 feet. N = number of stories.
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 117

Adjustment Factor on Approximate Period

T = TaCu Tcomputed
SD1
> 0.40g
0.30g
0.20g
0.15g
< 0.1g

Cu
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

Applicable only if Tcomputed comes from a properly


substantiated analysis.
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 118

ASCE 7 Smoothed Design Acceleration Spectrum


(for Use with ELF Procedure)

Spectral Response
Acceleration, Sa

V = CSW
SDS

Short
period
acceleration
1

SD1

Long period
acceleration

T = 0.2

T = 1.0

SDS
CS =
R
I

SD1
CS =
R
T
I
Varies

Period, T

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 119

R is the response modification factor, a


function of system inelastic behavior. This is covered
in the topic on inelastic behavior. For now, use
R = 1, which implies linear elastic behavior.

I is the importance factor which depends on the


Seismic Use Group. I = 1.5 for essential facilities,
1.25 for important high occupancy structures,
and 1.0 for normal structures. For now, use I = 1.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 120

Distribution of Forces Along Height

Fx = CvxV
Cvx =

k
x

wxh
n

w h
i =1

k
i

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 121

k Accounts for Higher Mode Effects


k = 0.5T + 0.75
(sloped portion only)
k
2.0
1.0
0.5

2.5
Period, sec
k=2

k=1
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 122

ELF Procedure Example (Story Forces)


V = 327 kips

T = 1.37 sec

W = 386k

k = 0.5(1.37) + 0.75 = 1.435

146 k
(125 k)
146 k

W = 579k

120 k
(125 k)
266 k

3h
W = 722k

61 k
(77 k)
327 k

327 k
Story Shear (k)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 123

ASCE 7 ELF Procedure Limitations


Applicable only to regular structures with T
less than 3.5Ts. Note that Ts = SD1/SDS.

Adjacent story stiffness does not vary more than 30%.


Adjacent story strength does not vary more than 20%.
Adjacent story masses does not vary more than 50%.
If violated, must use more advanced analysis (typically
modal response spectrum analysis).

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 124

ASCE 7 ELF Procedure


Other Considerations Affecting Loading

Orthogonal loading effects


Redundancy
Accidential torsion
Torsional amplification
P-delta effects
Importance factor
Ductility and overstrength

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

MDOF Dynamics 4 - 125