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Electric Logging, in L.W. LeRoy (ed.), Subsurface GeoL Methods, Colo. Sch. Mines, p. 365,
Fig. 152, 1951).
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1941).
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1.

Graba A.W., On the Classification of Sedimentary Rocks, Am. Geol., 33, pp.

228-247, 1904; Grabau's Principles of Stratigraphy, A.G. Seiler and Co., New York, pp. 269-

298, 1913. ( .)
Krynine P. D., The Megascopic Study and Field Classification of Sedimentary Rocks,
Prod. Monthly, 9, pp. 12-32, 1945; Juorn. Geol., 56, pp. 130-165, 1948; Tech. Paper 130,
School of Mineral Industries, State College, Pennsylvania, 1948. Shrock R.R., A
Classification of Sedimentary Rocks, Journ. Geol., 56, pp. 118- 129, 1948. (
, .)
Pettijohn F.J., Sedimentary Rocks, Harper and Brothers, New York, pp. 191-194, 1949.
( ,
.)
Krumbein W., Slss L.L., Stratigraphy and Sedimentation, W.H. Freeman and Co.,
San-Francisco, pp. 150-189, 1963. (
.)
2. Wentwrth Ch.., A Scale of Grade and Class Terms for Clastic Sediments, Journ. Geol.,
30, pp. 377-392, 1922.
3. Shepard F.P., Nomenclature Based on Sand-silt-clay Ratios, Journ. Sed. Petrol., 24, pp.
151-158, 1954.
4. Griffiths J.C, Grain-Size Distribution and Reservoir-Rock Characteristics, Bull. Am.
Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 36, pp. 205-229, 1952.
5. rynine P.D., op. cit. (note 1).
6. Krynine P. D., Sediments and the Search for Oil, Prod. Monthly, 9, p. 22, 1945.
7. Jenkins O. P., Geologic Formations and Economic Development of the Oil and Gas Fields
of California, Bull. 118, Calif. Div. Mines, 773 p., 1943. (
.)
8. rtn D.., Sawtll G., (ed.), Gulf Coast Oil Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa,
Oklahoma, 1970 p., 1936. (
-.)
. 95-99

4 -
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20 200 .
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;

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(Jones, Petroleum Production, Reinhold
Publishing Corp., New York, 1, p. 14, Fig. 2-2).
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- - (Jones, Petroleum
Production, Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, 1, p. 15, Fig. 2-3).
. [3]

0,25 , 5000
. 30 000
- (. 4-2).

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(%) = ( / )100.

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.

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5 30 %,
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(400 ) , -, (Liebr,
Hiltz, Huzarevich, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 192, p. 359, Fig. 5).
,
- ().
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.

, 1962 .
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:
0, 10-15%,
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. - . .

4-1

1. .R. Fettke, The Bradford Oil Field, Pa. Geol. Surv., 4th series, pp. 214-228, 1938.
2. M. Musk at, Physical Principles of Oil Production, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York,. p. 585,
1949.
3. H.S. Gibson, Oil Production in Southwestern Iran, World Oil, p. 273. 1948.
4. W.Y. Pickering, C.L. Dorn, Rangely Oil Field, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, in Structure of
Typical Am. Oil Fields, 3, p. 143, 1948.
5. H.E. Minor, M. A. Hanna, East Texas Field, Rusk, Cherokee, Smith, Gregg, and Upshur
Counties, Texas, in Stratigraphic Type of Oil Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., pp. 625, 626,
1941.
6. W.T. Lietz, The Performance of the Ten Section Oil Field, Tech. Paper 2643, 1949; Trans. Am.
Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 186, pp. 251-258, 1949.
7. .. Barnes, J.F. Sage, Cas Repressuring at Glenn Pool, in Production Practice, Am. Petrol.
Inst., p. 57, 1943.
8. H.B. Hill, E. L. Rawlins, C. R. Bopp, Engineering Report on Oklahoma City Oil Field,
Oklahoma, RI 3330, U. S. Bur. Mines, p. 199, 1937.
9. A.L. Payne, Cumarebo Oil Field, Falcon, Venezuela. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 35, p.
1869, 1951.


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.

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CGS: 1 ,
1 , ,
1 /
1 2
1 / (76,0 ) [7].

.
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- .
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, (Hubert, Journ., Geol. 48, pp. 787-826,
1940) (uskat, Physicalles Principles of Oil Production, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York,
pp. 123-131, 1949).

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5-1000

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100%- . kw (50, 40)
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,
( . . 149153: 5, , ..).
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56 %-

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(Gratn, Journ. Geol., 43, p. 800, Fig. 5,
1953).
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, () (Stewart, Craig, Morse, Tech. Paper 3517,
Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 198, pp. 93-102, 1953). 1:100 . ; - ; - ; .
, , .
,
, .
. 4-8.
,
,
[25] (. . 296: . 7-26)
[26] (. . 295-296:

. 7-25 7-27).
- ().
, ,
, - .
.
(), ,
[27]. - ,

,
, . .,
. - . .

(. . 293).
,
, .
.
0,25 2,0 , 0,5-1,0 . ,
, .
.
. ,
, .
, ,
, . ,
,
,
.
,
,
. 120 .
() ,
[28]. 20 %,
- 1000 , ,

.
270 , 4700 .

,
.
[29], ,
, .
, , 23 %,
16,7 %. 15 000
, 1176 .
, ( ),
- ( ).
, , ,
32 ,
[30] (. . 8-4). -
, .
( ),
, . ,
, ,
, [31].
,
, ,
.
, [32], 60 . .
1,5 . , -
600 . . (D-3),
( ),
-
(. . 7-49). , ,
7 % 800 .

, ,
. ,
, ,

(. . 4-13).

, ,
,

.
[33]. , , ,

, ,
- ,
.
: 1) ; 2)
; 3) ; 4) .
. ,
,
[34], , , , , ,
. ,
,
, ,
.

.
,
, .

: 1) ;
2) , 3) , 4) .
- 24
, [35].


. ,
.
,
.
, ,
.

, .
,
, -,

.
[36],
. [37],
, ,
.
2 ,
.
.
,
,
.
,

. ,
( ) ,
,
.
,
,

,
, . 7-58.

, ,
,
,

.

.

, ,

. . 326-327 ( 7,
, ..).

[38]. ,
, [39]. ,
1 . 1 40 , ,
. ,
, (). 16 .

1000
. ,
.
, ( ),
, ,
, ; ,
,
. , [40],
, ,
.

.
[41].
- , ,
, , .

,
. , , ,
.

; ,
.
. 4-9.
, , :

. 4-9. , ,
.
, .
.
1.

, ,

. ,
,
[42].
2.

[36].

, . ,

. ,
,
,

.
3.

,
. , ,
,
,

, [43].
,
.

, .
,
: 1) , ,
2)
, [44].
, ; ,

. , ,
, , .
, , ,
,
, .
,
.
.

16 000 .

[45] (. . 81). (, , , --) (?)


- - [46].

, .
(R.. Rutledge, ) 1 . .
, , ,
. ,
,
, (. . 3-8).
. -,
(. . 7-62), 400 . , 75%
25 % - .
2500 ,
10 000 [47].
1 . .
(),

, ,
.
.
,
,
.
.
- ,
(
6-37API, 1,029-0,339, 18, .. 0,946).
(. . 13-11)
, 150
75 [48].
1000 ,
1 . .
, ,
- , .
.
,
,
.
1/30 /45 ( 1/16 ).
10%, - 0,5 .

.

, .
-, . 1321,
[42].
(. . 269: . 6-53, ..).
( ),
-, , ,
500 ,
2 10 %. ,

[49], ,
, , , ,
[50].
-
. [51], ,
- (. . 14-7).
-',
( - ).
-
.
,
; ,
[51], . ,

. ,
, .
[52] (. 4-10).
,
- (). ,

. .
, .
(-) .
36 ,
; ,
1 [53]. -
25 3500
(. 4-11).
().

. 4-10. -, (unt,
Independent Petroleum Association of America, 19, p. 42, 1949).
20 .
- (). , ,
. ,
, . ,
.
;
, ,
. ,

. 100 . 200
. . [54]. . 4-12
- .
(. )

()

[54].

, ,
, , ,
,
. , ,
, ,

. ;
.

1 .
12,5API (0,98 /3).
,
. ;

30 000 .

100 000 .

,
- [55] (. . 6-31).
5000 ,

. 4-11. - -
. .
( 1 ), 1800 ,
, .

, ,
, ,
,
(W.S. Olson, ).
-
( - ).
- (. . 6-12)

. 4-12.
: () (D.A. Busch). 5-10
. 1 - ; 2 - .
(. . 2-2) [56] , ,
,

. 2
15 %, 0,00005 0,5 ,
( ,
).
; ,
. [57].
;
,
. , , ;
, . [58] (. . 6-21) ,
,
.
50-150 ,
.
, , ,
,

50

.
, ,
.
, ,
,

.
[59]
[60] - ,
, -.

--, 1836 . -- ,
12-13%.
:
23 + MgCl2 CaMg (CO3)2 + l2.
[61] 1886 .
-. [62]
-- , ,

[63]

. ,
-
,

. ,
-
;
, .

.

, , ,

.

;
. [64] ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
. , ,
. . 4-13
D-3 ( ) ,
- [65]. ,
, .

. 4-13. D-3
( ) , ,
(W aring, Layer, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol., 34, p. 307,
Fig. 13). .
: 1 15 %, 2 10 %, 3 5 %; 4 - .
, ,
.
, , ,

.
- [66]
(),
16040 (. . 7-23).
1884 . 500 . .
,
,

,
[] . ,
20-30 , ,
;
.
- -
- (. . 4-11 4-12).
, , , ,
(. 7-24), (.
7-60 7-61), - , (. 7-58),

()

- (. . 8-10).
.
, , ,

, .
.
,
.
, [67].
. ;
. ,

.

,
, . ,
,

, . , 90-95 %
[68].
,
. ,

.
,
, ,
. ,
,
.
, .
, .

,

. , ,
, , . ,
, ( )
- .
,
, .
- ()
- - .
, , , .
.
.
, - . .

- ,
, , , , , , , .

[69],

,
, (. . 3-3).
. 40
,

. 4-14. ,
,

(rynin, Journ. Geol., 56, p. 152, Fig. 12, 1948).


1 - ; 2 - ; 3 - ; 4 - ; 5 .
,

: , , , , ,
, , , , [70].

-
[71]. ,
,
, ,
[72], : 1) ,
; 2) ,
, ; 3)
,

-
( ) [73]; 4) , [74]
, .

. 4-14.

( ),
[75]
(. 6-37). ,
.
12,5% 79 ,
.

,
,
.
,
; ,

.

, .
, ,
, , , , .

[76].

,
. ,

.
.
: 1) ; 2) ,
, ; 3) .
,
.
-
. ,
, .

. ,
.
,

, .
, , 15 000 ,
(R.. Hutchison, ); ,
.

.
,

[77].

. . .
,
, 6606 (), - 6887 (). . .

-: .

, , , ,
.
,
(. . 9-13).
,
. -

,
.
. 4-15
.
, , ,


, , ,
. ,
,
. ,
,
.
, , ,
, , .
. , ,
, .
-,
. , -

. 4-15. ,
, (Ath, Problems of
Petroleum Geology, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., p. 815, Fig. 1, 1934).
,
,
.
, ,- ,
; .
[78]
, .
,

.
.
,
,
. ,
, ,
.
, , , ,
. ,

. -
, , , , ,
.
,

,
. ,
,
, .
[791
-, . ,

,
.
,
2.
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
.
,

(. . 374-376).
, ,
. - . .

;
-
. [80]
,

-,

, .
,
, ,
, 1.

.
. 4-16. :
() , (),
( ) , () (Archie, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.,
34, p. 945, Fig. 1).

[81]. ,
, , , (. 4-16).
( ), ,
, ,
,
. , . 4-17,
[82].
,
, . 4-18. 90 (
)

. , ,
,
, . - . .

. 4-17. 500
( ) -
(Ryder, World Oil, p. 174, 1948).
1 , 29
, . ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
( 6 10
).

, .

. ,

.
[83]

- , 2 - , S -
. S

. 4-18.
- ,
(llon, . and G. Journ., 24, p. 119, 1949). ,
90 - . 90 ()
, .
, 1 . ,

.
, , .
, , .

, ..
.


.
,
. -
[84].

,
.
, ,
, -
. - . .

,
. ,
,
[85]. ,
,
.
: , . .. ,
, ,
1.


-. ,
, .
-
, -,
,
.
,

.


,
.
, ,
.
,
II
. - . .


1.

rhie G.E., Introduction to Petrophysics of Reservoir Rock, Bull. Am. Assoc.

Petrol. Geol., 34, pp. 943-961, 1950.


2.

Krynine P.D., Petrologic Aspects of Prospecting for Deep Oil Horizons in

Pennsylvania, Prod. Monthly, 12, pp. 28-33, 1948.


3.

Jnes P.J., Petroleum Production, 1, Mechanics of Production, Reinhold

Publishing Corp., New York, pp. 13-15, 1946.


4.

Melher A.F., Determination of Pore Space of Oil and Gas Sands, Trans. Am. Inst.

Min. Met. Engrs., 65, pp. 469-489, 1921. ( - ,


.)
Pirson S.J., Elements of Oil Reservoir Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York,
pp. 20-34, 1950.
Pollard T.A., Reichertz P.P., Core-Analysis Practices - Basic Methods and New
Developments, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 36, pp. 230-252, 1952.
5.

rnine P.D., Reservoir Petrography of Sandstones, U.S. Geol. Surv., Oil and Gas

Investig., May OM 126, Geology of the Arctic Slope of Alaska (3 sheets), from sheet 2.
6.

Dar ., Fontaines publiques de la ville de Dijon, Victor Dalmont, Paris, 1856.

7.

American Petroleum Institute, New York and Dallas, Texas, Recommended

Practice for Determining Permeability of Porous Media API RP 27, 27 p., 1952.
5.

Muskat M., Physical Principles of Oil Production, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New

York, pp. 123-149, 1949.


. 138-141.

5 -, ,
, : ;
; . : ;
; . : ;
; . : ; ; .
,
. ,
: , . ,
( ),
, ,
. ;
,
. ,
. , - .
, , .
, ,
. 12.
,
, , ,
, .
,
. ,
,
,

,
. -
, , ,
. - .


, ,
, ,
, .
, ,
,
. : )
, ; ) ,
( , ,

, ); ) ,
. ,
.
. ,
, ,
.
,
.
,
. , ( )
, .
, ,
.
,
[11].

,

. ,
, ,
, [2]. ,
, ;
, ,
.
,
.

, ,
.
, , . ,
,
, . ,
, ,
, , ,
.
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
(
) .

,
.

;
. , ,
- .
,
,
,
.
, ,
, ,
, , 48 , ,
, 10-80,
160 .
,

. , ,
, ,


.
.
,
,
.
, ,
( ),
. , , ,
, .
.
,
. , .
, .

, ,
. ,
, .

,
,
: ,
,
(. . 421-427: 10, , ..),
, ,
. , ,
, ,
. - -
; ,
, ;
. -
(). , ,
, -
().
.
.

50 % ,
10-30 % . ,
-
, , .
,
. 5-1, , ,
, .

. , ,
, ,
,
.
( )
,
. ,

. 5-1. ,
, (Jersey-Humble report, Committee
of Reservoir Development and Operations, p. 12, Fig. 2, 1942). A -
; - ; 1 - ; 2 - ; 3 - .

. 5-2.
,
(Michaux, Buck, in Gulf Coast Oil Fields, p. 802, Fig. 5, 1936).


().
. 146-147

, ,
(oil-field waters) [5]. ,

(.. ,
), ,
(dry holes, wet wells, clusters, failures). ,

- -
. ,
,

. 5-6. ,

.
,
.

.
. 5-6.

.
,
- .
, ,
, . ,
, .

(. . 286-287: . 7-17). 5
. , , ,
.
;
. ,
. , , [6], [7], , - -
[8] .


: , .
- ,

,
. ,
.
, , ,
. ,
-
, .


.
,
.

, [9].
(connate waters)
, ; , .
,

[] .
(interstitial waters),
[10].
,
; , , ,
, ,
.
[
3,5%], ,
. ,
. ,
,
, , ,
.
[ connate waters .
, , ,

( ). .
( ,
)
, -
.
, , ( 2,
) , ,

(..

) . ,

.
() -
, ,
.
. .. , ,
,
.
,
, . () nnte waters
, ;
, nnte waters. .
.. nnte waters .
( .
, 1967, - , . 171-172).
[ nnte waters, .
, (interstitial waters -
( ); . ). Cnnte
waters - , ,
, . ,
. , , ,
, ].

--

. , ,

. [ 6
.

.
.
, . ,
, ,
. ,
, . ,
, ,

. .

.
,
() [11].
,
. ,
.
,
, 6 .


.
,
.
.

10 %, 50 %

[12].
,
2000 . , 600
, 50% .

.
1. -,
,
-. . 5-7

. 5-7.
(Bruce,
Wlge, in Drilling and Production Practice, p. 170, Fig. 9, 1947).
l - --; 2 - , - ( - ); 3 - ; 4 -; 5 - , -; 6 - , ; 7 - ; 8
- ; 9 - ; 10 - -, ; 11 - ; 12 -; 13 - -, ( ); 14 - .

.
. .
(. . 416-421:
10, , ..),

. , , ,
(. . 421-427: 10, , ..).

[13],
,
interstitial waters . - . .

,
45 %
, 50 % - , 80 % - 90 % --
.
- ,
,
,
, .
. 5-8
(. . 10-11).

,
-. ,
, []
, , ,
.
2. ,
. ,
, ,
.

. 5-8.
( ) -
-,
(Shilthuis, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met, Engrs., 127, 132, p. 269).
l - ; 2 - ; 3 - -.
3.

-.
,
.
,
(adsorbed and interstitial water),
. - . .



.
,


.
,
,
. , ,

. 5-9. .

, .
,
.

, ,
(. 5-9);
, .
.

(NaCl).

-,


, .

.
, .

.
,
.

,
.
. ,
, , ,
,
. ,
,

,
,
. ,
10 %, ,
. ,
,
, ,
[.. ].

,
. ()
.

:
1.

()

(water saturation).
2.

[.. ]
.
3.

, , .
.
() : 1) 2)

.
1.

.
.
,
, ,

.

, [14].
2.

, .
(formation factor) ,
, , ,
[15].

, ,
(. 5-10).
,
[16].
:
.
. 5-11.


Rt = FRw,
Rt - ,
, F - , Rw -
. F
F = -m ,
- , m - , , ,

(. 5-12).


, , .

. 5-10.
(Archie. Bull. Am. Assoc.
Petrol. Geol., 34, p. 956, Fig. 8, 1950).
A - , , -; , -; -
, -; - , , ; -
, , .

.

Rt = Rw/m S S = FRw/Rt
, S,
,
. Rt,
,
.

,
. Rw

[17].
( 1,9 2,0)
. ,
S. S ( 40 %),
- ,
, .

, ,
.

, ,
(
) 300 000 . . (30 %)
. .
[18] ( 1,458) ()
, 642 798 . ., 64,3%
. ,
. 5-2, 35 000 . . (3,5 %).

, ,
,
.
, . , ,
.

. 5-11.
(Archie, Bull. Am.
Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 34, p. 957, Fig. 9, 1950). , , , - , . 5-10,
.

. -1
.

,
.

, .
60 %
[19].
, . 5-13,

.

. 5-12. (

) ,
(Martin, . and G. Journ., p. 111, 1953).
15 %
, 12, .
, 60.
, ,
. ,
,
,
, .

,
.
,
. ,
,

,
( = 100 %).
(. %1 000 000) (. .).
,
, . 17,12 .
., - 14,3 . .
0,0583, ,
.
( 14,73 /.
60F) 62,34 /.. 0,433 /./,
43,33 /./100 . , 42 , 350 .
14,73 /. 60F 1,00 (10API).

.
[20] (. . 324 . 7-57, ..),
2300 . .
(0,23%), 1400 . . (0,14 %); , ,
323 . . (0,03%)
[21], [22].

- , (isocon maps),

.

[23]. . 5-14
-- ()
. ,
( ),

.

. 5-13.
(Jeffrds, Bull. 76, Kansas Geol. Surv., Part 1, p. 11, Fig. 6, 1948).

. ,
, , .
, ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
,
.

. -
, 60 1 (60 000
. . 6 %),
0,80 5,0 1 (800-5000 . .)
[24]. (. . 5-4),
10 000-125 000 .
. (1-12 %), 5000-35 000
. . (0,5-3,5 %). ,
, ,

.
.

.
, , ,

. 5-14. -,
(Dll, Ginter, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 14, p. 1216, Fig. 1,
1936).
.
1 - ; 2 - -; 3 - .


, .
.
[25] ,
. [26].

. ,
, (Na+) (+), , ( ++)
(Mg++), ,
. , , :
- (SO4--) (l-) - (2--)
(3-).

[ ]
:
1. . [ (SO4--), (NO3-)
(l-)] [ (Na+) (+)].
2. .
[ - (++), (++) (Mg++)].
.
3. . [ (3--), (3-)
(S2--)] .
. .
4.

. .
.

.
, . ,
, ,
, , .

, , . 51. ,

,
[.. , ].
- .
, , - ,
, , -
.
. , , ,
, , , , , , . , ,
.
, ,
, ,
(reaction values)
.

( ). :
=
= (/) [27]
= (/)= /
= -
= - .

,
. , ,
:
(Na+) - 0,0434
(SO4--) - 0,0208
+
( ) - 0,0256
(Cl-) - 0.0282
++
( ) - 0,0499
(NO3-) - 0,1061
(Mg++) - 0,821
(CO3--) - 0,0333
+
( ) - 0,992
(HO3-) - 0,0164

5-1

Na+ +
(
Na+)
++
Mg++

SO4-l3

-
,

, %
( )

17 610
2 960
927
21497

765,0
148,2
76,2
989,4

38,67
7,48
3,85
50,00

2 620
34 000
177
36 797

54,5
932,0
2,9
989,4

2,75
47,10
0,15
50,00

58 294

1978,8

100,00

( )

( Na+ +)

38,672=77,34

( ++ Mg++)

(47,10 +2,75-38,67) 2 = 22,36


( Na+ +)

00,00

( ++ Mg++)

(11,33-11,18)2 = 0,30

B - 17 000, -, . - . .
[28].
[29].
. 5-2
.
,
[30].
,
,
. ,
, . 5-3.


. . 5-4
5-2 (. .)


(. .)

(%)
,

,
-

2000-3000

()

()

Na++K+

++

Mg++

11000

420

1300

,
.
.
35000

0,2

31,7

1,2

3,8

120

5263

2003

10

63

7548

47100

42

288

27620

1865

553

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40598

259

387

24653

1432

335

68964

l-

SO4--

3--

19350

2690

150

55,3

7,7

89

HO3
-

( )

()

( )

(
)

()

()

()

95275

198

360

46191

1015
8
2091
7

2206

154388

140063

284

73

61538

2874

225749

119855

132

122

62724

9977

1926

194736

77340

730

32600

1326
0

1940

125870

184387

268

18

91603

1875
3

3468

298497

139496

352

43

60733

2145
3

2791

224868

10

1.
W. Dittmar, Report on Researches into the Composition of Ocean Water, Collected by
Challenger, Challenger Reports, 1, Physics and Chemistry, pp. 1-251, 1884.
2.
Staff of Caribbean Petroleum Company, Oil Fields of Royal Dutch-Shell Group in
Western Venezuela, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 32, p. 557, 1948.
3.
F.W. Mihaux, Jr., E.O. Buck, Conroe Oil Field, Montgomery County, Texas, in Gulf Coast
Oil Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., p. 810, 1936, Sun Company Stewart 3.
4.
H. E. Minor, M. A. Han n a, East Texas Oil Field, Rusk, Cherokee, Smith, Gregg and
Upshur Counties, Texas, in Stratigraphic Type Oil Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., p.
639, 1941, Stanolind 1 Everetts.
5.
The Gulf Oil Corp.
6.
H.B. Hill, R.K. Guthri c, Engineering Study of the Rodessa Oil Fields in Louisiana,
Texas, and Arkansas, RI 3715, U. S. Bur. Mines, p. 90, H, 194 3.
7.
S.B. White, Davenport Field, Lincoln County, Oklahoma, in Stratigraphic Type Oil
Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., p. 4 03, 1941, Texas. Co., Patterson 1.
8.
J.B. New by et al., Bradford Oil Field, McLean County, Pennsylvania, and
Cattaraugus County, New York, in Structure of Typical American Oil Fields, Am. Assoc, Petrol. Geol.,
Tulsa, Okla., 2, p. 435, 1929.
9.
H.B. Hill, E. L. Rawlins, .R. Bopp, Engineering Report on Oklahoma City Field,
Oklahoma, RI 3330, U. S. Bur. Mines, p. 214, 1937, Analysis J. Carter Oil Go. Dimniven 1, at
6,454 feet.
10.
W. Gish, R.M. Carr, Garber Field, Garfield County, Oklahoma, in Structure of Typical
American Oil Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., 1, p. 191, 1929.

5-3
,

KCl
NaCl

0,524
Na

0,394

CaS4

Ga

0,294

MgS4

Mg

0,202

l2

Ga

0,361

K23

0,569

MgCl2

Mg

0,255

Na2C3

Na

0,434

K2S4

0,449

CaC3

Ca

0,400

Na2S4

Na

0,324

MgC3

Mg

0,288

1. F.G. ibll, A Method for the Graphical interpretation of water analyses, Summary of
Operations, California Oil Fields, 6, 9, p. 7, 1921.

5-4
, ,

70
250
360
600
780
2510
2625
2990
3300

(/, . .)
l

SO4

50
2300
3240
28250
33500
97000
98600
88000
11000

48
510
720
7500
9000
1600
1100
0
300

419
5000
7000
59000
68000
157000
160000
141000
20000

L.. ase, Oil Weekly, p. 54, 1945.


. ,
H2S.

, , ,
, ,
.
- .

. ,
( )
, .
. 5-15. . 5-15,
[31]. ,
. . 5-15, ,
[32].

.
[33],

, .
,
.
[
, ,
- .. , .. ,
- .. . ..
-
. 1967 .
- .. .]

: 1)
(SO4--); 2)
( Mg)

. 5-15. ,
[ill, Summ. of Oper., Calif. Div. Mines, 6, 9, p. 10, Fig. 3,
1921 ( A); J.S. Parker, Southwell, Jour. Inst. Petrol. Technol., 15, p. 158, Fig. 5,
1929 ( ); H.A. Stiff, Tech. Note 84, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 192, p.
377, Fig. 3, 1951 ( )].

.
:
I. : - ;
- , ; - ,
, ; D - , . II.
: 1 - ; 2 - ; - ; 4 - -; 5 - -; 6 -; 7 - -.
, [34].

--, ,
, [35]. -,
, ,
[34].

, , , [36]. ,

,
.
, , ,
, ,
, ;
(H2S). ,

. 5-16. Na++ K+, ++ Mg++ (Sitter, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol.


Geol., 31, p. 2033, Fig. 1, 1947).
Mg++ (8,5%)
( 2 - 5%) .
. ,
, ,
[] .
, -

,
. ,
[37].
. 5-16
. Na+++, ++ Mg++.
.
,
, . ,
,
[38].
.
. 5-17
Na +.

, NaCl.
, - ,
,
.
.
, ,

. 5-17.
- Na+ (Sitter, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol.
Geol., 31, p. 2034, Fig. 2, 1947).
, , ,

, NaCl
3,5% 2,9%. ,
,
.

.
.
,
[39]. :
1. ,
- -
.

. ,
,
[41 ].
2.
.
,
.
.

. 5-18. -
, , (Minor, in The
Structure of Typical American Oil Field, 3, p. 894, Fig. 2, 1934).
-.

, , ,
. , ,
(),
,
[42].
3.


.
,

.

.
4. , , ,


-
.
5.
.
-, , ,
,
[43].
- . 5-18.

.
6.
- ,
.
.
7. ,
. ,
, , ,
. ,
, .
2,
.

,
,
. , -
.
; .
1.
,

, - [44]. ,
,
.


. , ,
(broken-bond water) ( ,
, ).
. ,
, ,
. Na+, ,
.

, .
, - ,
, . ,


.
2.
, ,

. , ,
,

.
,
,
.
.
3. ,
,
[45].

. ,
,
, , -

[46].

4.

,
.
,
.
,
.

,

,
-
.
5. ,

, .
.
, ,
, ,
.
,
.

, .
6.
; .
- -
, [47].
.
, ,

),

, ,
,
. ,

,
.

[] ,
-, -

.
,
(petroleum); ,
. ,
.
, (crude oil),
- , ;
, ,
. .
, ,

.

.
, ; ,
, , - ,
. ,
, , ,
, .
,
, .
, , , , .

, ,
, - - - [48].
, 42
() 310 .
(. . -3).


, .
, .
;
,


, , ,
,
.
,
, .
, (oil in place) [ ;
- ],
[49].
-,

.
, , ,
(shrinkage factor) (. . 191),

(. . 192),

(recovery

factor),

.
-, 1
, . ,
, ,
,

.

( ).
[50]



.
,
; ,
.

, ,
.
,
, ,
.
.

, ,
,
. ,
1

- ,
. . . 427-428: .

,
,
(. . 431
). ,
,
, .

,
, .
.
()
, 234
37 [51]. ,
,
-,

,
.

;

, , .
,

,
.
, ,
, ,
,
,
- .
, , , ,
,
[52].
,
, , ,
. 5-5.
5-5 (.%)

,
[, ].
[ (Cahygens)] ;
, , ,
. ,

.
,
- , .
, , , , ,
, ,
.
,
,
().
( )
. ,
,
,
[] .
,

. ,
.

,

. 66,
, .

].

, ,
.
,
(
).
,
, , .
[] - 410 (
),
(- 410).

,
512, 83,33% 16,67%
72,15; ,


. 5 (14), 18 (818), 75
(1022) 802 (1328). (n2n)
, (48),
13 (612), 27 (714) . .
, ,
18 38 , 60 523
,
. , ,
,

.
,

.
,
.
,
. , ,
, (cracked), .


,
.
, , ,

. ,
.

.
,
,
.
. :

,
, [53].
, ,


, , ,
-

H2S 2.


,
. ,
:
( ); ( );
( ) (
).
,

(-)

.
( ) (750F )
; ,
.
. 5-19.
,
, , -
, (. 520) (. 5-21) (. ,
. 164-166).
, , . 5-22. [

; % (
, . 5-22), - % .

, . 1, , 1960, . 480-507, ..
, , 1958, . 33-36].
,
. 1

,
. ,
2.
. , (4) ,
2.

. 176-180

(),
1000. []
, . ,
,
,
. ,
.
( 3)
.

- .

[, , - , S, N],

; ,
.
, -
.
() (. . 179,
180: 5, ).
. (0,1-5,5 .%)
[56] .
: 1) ; 2)
(H2S); 3) , , ,
, SH (, , -
C3H8S) , S2 (, 2,3- C2H6S2).
(sulfur hydrocarbons) , ,
.
, ,
.
,
(. . 414-416: 10, ).

, .

.
,
.
,
API (American Petroleum Institute), ,
. : 0,07
0,08% 3-5% .
,
.
, (chapopotes)
6,15 10,75% . 0,5%
, 0,5% - ; 42% ,
,
(),
.

1946 ., , 58% - [57].



. ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
- , ,
,

[58].
. 5-23.
API (..
).

. 5-23.
API (Nelson, . and G. Journ., p. 118, 1953).
l - ; 2 - ; 3 - ; 4 - ; 5 ; 6 - -; 7 -
.
. .
, ,
,
, (C5H5N) (C9H7N).
, ,
. , . /5
0,25%
, 0,148%
[59]. ,
0,82% [60].
. 2% (
0,1 4,0%) [61]:
1.

2.

(65).

3.

[G6H56(R)].

4.

, CnH2n-1().
()

5. . ,
,
. ,
[62] 8,2% 1,04,
41572 589.
,
. ,
; , ,
. , ,
,
. ,
: = 85,2%; = 7,4%; S = 0,7% = 6,7%.
, (glance pitch)
[ ].

, .

, , ,
, , , , , ,
, , , [63].
.
113 [64] 0,04
400 . . (0,04-10-4% - 0,04%),
1 10 . . (1-10 -4% - 1-10-3%).
, 0,003 0,72% [65].
, ,
, , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , [66].
,
, ,
,

. ,
,
.
[66].
. ,
, .
R , ( 3-), .32-),
(322-) ..

5-8
( )

0,91
0,05
0,03
0,01

0,72
0,08
0,05
0,04
0,02
0,02

0,56
0,06
0,06
0,05
0,04
0,03

0,14
0,08
0,08
0,08
0,05
0,05

0,07

0,20

0,53

D.. at, B.Williams, Reservoir fluids and their behavior, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 36,
p. 345, tabl. 1, 1952.

5-9 ,

.%

0,1

0,0001
0,11
0,73
1,71
0,58
0,85
2,18
3,40
3,37
3,04
2,69
0,049
0,349
0,518
0,587
1,55

--
--
--
9- ,
225
8- ,

225
--
,
40-225
,
225 /740
280 /40

. %

0,006
0,003
0,012
0,012
0,009
0,009
11,5
1,84

0,788

29,9

0,36

8-

2,07

9-

-
-
n-

1,68
0,0389
0,572
0,0398
0,1426
0,580
0,176

~100,00


:
340
380
410
460
550
890

3,8
2,9
3,3
3,6
3,6
9,0
2,3

J. Feldman, L. Scarpino, G. Pentazopolos, . rchin (Synthetic Fuels Research, U.S. Bur. of


Mines, Bruceton, Pa.), Composition of Crude Oil from the Bradford Field, Pensilvania, Prod. Monthly,
16, 6, pp. 14-16, 1952.

5-10 ,

,
588 . ., 25 (77F)

- 15,6, 5,1%

,
.

; , -
. , .
;
,
[67].
,
[68]. 15-25
1000 , . ( 0,7 0, 8%)
, .

. 5-24. () [ ,
.. ] (Wenger, Lanum,
Petrol. Engrs., p. A-69, Figs. 4, 5, 1952).
1 - , ( ); 2 - - - (); 3 -, (); 4 - -, (); 5 - ,
().

, ,
, .
. 5-8.
.
. 5-9.
, 58%
, ;
, .
,
(. 5-10). 300
. ()
(760 ) 25 (77F).
, 25 45F
, . 40
,
25. 300.
[69].
,
,
,
. [
- -
(, ., 1966).]

() [70].
. ,
,
. , 0, 100.
,
; ,
.

(. . 5-10).
, ,

. ,
, . 5-24. [
.. .. (1951),

:
= 474,5d4 + 49350/ - 456,8.

..
.
(, ., 1965)
.. ( )
. .

:
, , , , ,
, , , ,
, . ,
,
. 10 .
. - ,
.
, .

. ,
,
.
60F .
, ,
.

(API)

, ,
,

. API
, , ,
, , . API
; ,
.
API .

:
API = (141,5/. 60F) - 131,5.
= (140/. 60 F) - 130.
API
. 5-11. . 5-12
.
. 5-13.
5-11

( )

60F
1,0000 (
)
0,9655
0,9333
0,9032
0,8750
0,8485
0,8235
0,8000
0,7778

API

10,0

10,0

15,0
20,0
25,0
30,0
35,0
40,0
45,0
50,0

15,1
20,1
25,2
30,2
35,3
40,3
45,4
50,4

5-12

:

: ,
,
-
: , ,
,


- (
)
(
) -
(
)
:


( = 1,0)
0,9792-0,7507
0,9725-0,7507
0,9861-0,9218
0,8762

API
13,0-57,0
14,0-57,0
12,0-22,0
30,0

0,8927-0,8109

27,0-43,0

0,9529-0,8203
1,0217-0,7351

17,0-41,0
7,019,0-61,0

0,9402-0,7796

1,0217-0,7796

7,0-50,0

0,934-0,835

20,0-38,0

0,9529-0,8203

17,0-41,0

1,000-0,7507

10,0-57,0

. and G. Journ., pp. 278-302, 1952; The Science of Petroleum, Oxford, Univ. Press,
London and New York, 2, pp. 840-930.
. 5-14
1F.
,
.
, ,
.
,
5-13

60F,

100F
200F
300
F
I
60F
. I . I . I
1,0

10,0

0,98

12,9 0,96

15,9 0,92

22,3

0,9

25,7

0,88

29,3 0,85

35,0 0,82

41,0

0,8

45,4

0,78

49,9 0.74

59,8 0,69

73,6

0,7

70,6

0,67

69,0

.S. Bell, American Petroleum Refining, 3rd ed., D. Yan Nostrand Co., New York, p. 66,
1945.

-, , ,
,
.
.
5-14
60F

0,90
0,80
0,70

25,7
45,4
70,6

0,00036
0,00039
0,00049

Anderson, Ind. Chem., 12, p. 1011, 1920.

,
- , 0,867 (31,8API) 0,892 (27,1API)
[72].
, 460-490 . 1
, 134 .
1 .
[73], 0,849 (35,2API) 0,869
(31,3API) .

, - (), , [75]:
,
500-2000
2000-5000
5000-6000

I
.
30-35
0,88-0,85
35-40
0,85-0,82
40-45
82-0.80

-
, ( ),
31API (. 0,87) 16API (.
0,96) , : - 10
,
[74].

-,
,
[76]:

, , , ,
,
,
1100 .
- ,
, .
31,8API,
.

, 1API

200 . -
, .. ,
, [77].
( API)
,
.
, [78].
,
- 0,720 (65API); 700900 7-8% , 1450
12% , , 1800
30%- 0,90
(25,7API). () -
1800 17
; ,
0,840 0,860 (37-33
API), , , 0,900 0,907 (25,724,5Q API). .
,
, , (5-7API), 10 API
, ,
12API, 57 API .
27 35 API,
.

(volume). [
;
; ; volume
, , ;
, .
[1]. , , ,
. ,
,
(
),
(. 5-25). , 0,5-0,8
1

, ,
, 1
. (producing gas-oil ratio) -

, .

5-15
1 36 API
220F, ,
,
/.
,

1000
2500
5000
.
./ .
/
/
500
1100
6,90
17,80
36,00
1000
2200
3,50
8,50
16,80
2000
4400
2,00
4,45
8,45
3000
6600
1,60
3,20
5,70
McAllister, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 142, p. 53, tabl III, 1941.
: 1 100 0 .
( 60F 14,7 /. ) 1,60
3000 /. 6600
.

,
, 1
. . 5-15
- . ,

. 5-25.
( ) (.. Hill.
R.K.Guthrie, U.S. Bur. Mines, RI 3715, p. 86, 1943).

.

.
1
, (shrikage factor),
, 1
,
( ).
0,63-0,88,
- 1,14-1,60.


, . , 1
, ,
. 5-26.

, , .

. 5-26. 1 ,
1000 . , ,
, .
, ,
0,625 1000 . .
, 1
, . ,
1 ,
. - , ;
- , ; ; , ,
; - ,
.


API ( ),

60F . 5-16 (. . 202: . 5-19).

5-16
,

I
(//1F)
0,67
0,67-0,72
0,72-0,77
0,78-0,85
0,85-0,97
0,97-1,076

79
78-65
64-51
50-35
34-15
14-0

0,0008
0,0007
0,0006
0,0005
0,0004
0,00036

.S. Bell, American Petroleum Refining, 3rd ed., D. Van Nostrand Co., New York, p. 66).

,
,
,
.
. ,

. 5-27. 1
, ,
(
) (ukl, ed., Petroleum
Conservation, p. 101, Fig. 9, 1951).
.

. 5-28. ,

, , (iss, Journ. Petrol.
Technol., T.P. 3748, p. 26, Fig. 5, 1954).
3650 ;
/. ; 1190 /. ;
120F; ()
48,1API.
1 - ; 2 - ; 3
- .
, (
), 150
[79]. ,
1 , . 5-27,
, , - . 5-28.
, ,
. ( API)
, .
. 5-29.
(

), ,
. , ,
, , 2%
1F. . 5-30. . 5-31
, ,
() .

. 5-29. ( )

(l, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs. 165).

. 5-30.
(Standing, . and G. Journ., p. 95, 1947).
1F
2 %.
. ;
, .

,
.

,


, ,
,
.

.
. , , ,
,
, , , .

( ,
) [81] (. 5-32).

. 5-31.
, , (Cupps, Lipstate, Fry, U.S. Bur. Mines,
RI 4761, Fig. 28, opp. p. 46, 1951).

.

. 5-32.
( ),
-, , (Brubecker, Stutsman, . and G. Journ., p. 118, Fig.
9, 1951). 152F.
,
( ),
, ,
().

, .
.
5-33. , , ,
.
,
,
.

.
. ,
API, . . .
. 5-34.
,

. 5-33.
(Nelson, . and G. Journ., p. 70, Fig. 2, 1946).
, , API:
1 - , ; 2 - , , 29,3; 3 - , ; 4 - ,
, 32,1; 5 - , , 34,4; 6 - , , 36,0; 7 - , , 37,7;
8 - , , 34,5; 9 - , , 37,4; 10 - , , 36,5;
11 - , , 41,0; 12 - , , 41,6; 13 - , , 44,2.
, .. ,
, ,
(. . 409-410) [82].

. 5-34.
(. and G. Journ., p. 37, 1944).
.


, ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
:
, ,

. 5-35.
, -, (Littlefield, Gray, Godbold,
Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 174, p. 147, Fig. 8, 1948).
.

. 5-36.
( API)

(Nelson, . and G. Journ., p. 70, 1946).


.
-, ,
.
5-35.
,
. ,
- ,
, .
.
. 5-36
.
.
- -, -, 1, 2
- . ,
,
(. ) [80].
,
. ,
( -, SU-),

. , ,

.
, ,
,
.
,
,
.

. (RI)

.
, .
,
.

,
;
, , ,
. 1,39 1,49.
.
,
[83].
.
,
( API)
. . 5-17
.
API
. 5-37.
GGS , / 100 .
1 , , 1 ,
1 , 1
, 1 /, ,
(API Bull. 228,
1941). 1,810-4, - 110-, - 0,610- . ,
, ,
,
.

5-17

I
.
6
1,029
22
0,918
44
0,802
58
0,742
72
0,691

(n20D)
1,566
1,509
1,448
1,417
1,390

A.L. Ward, S. S. Kurtz, Jr., W.H. Fu1wei1er, Determination of Density and Refractive Index
of Hydrocarbons and Petroleum Products, in The Science of Petroleum, Oxford Univ. Press, London
and New York, 2, p. 1147, tabl. IV, 1938.
n - ,
; 20 20; D ,
D.

[].
, bloom [
], .

. 5-37. (
API) 17
(dberg, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.,
21, p. 1473, Fig. 3, 1937).
1 - ; 2 - ; 3 - ; 4 - ; 5 - ; 6 - .
.
, [84].
,

. ;
2537 3650 .
, ,
100 000 ,
- .
[ ,
,
. 1966 . ,
-
(, ., 1966),
, .

- .

0 1,2 .
, ; - .
,
, 250-300 ( 12 . .). ,
200, [85]; ,

, .
,

. (),
, 2645,
,
.
, .
,
.
. -
; .
( API), . ,
, ; ,
.
.
, .
.
. ( !)
, , ,
- . ,

. ,
.
;
,
,
.
. , , ,
H2S , .

,
. ,
35 , , ,
,

. , ,
, .
;

5-18
, ,

()
.

, ,
()
,
,
0,801
()
-,
,
0,835
()
, ,

0,85-0,87
()
, ,
0,812
( )
, ,
0,844

()
,
, D
0,84
()
, ,
- (
0,948
)
-,
, ,

()

SU-

100F
, F

37

42

45,2

38

38

45

31,3-35,2

45-53

42,8

39

36,1

350

37

40,2

-15

17,8

992

-20

12,6

6000 (+)

30

1. A. J. Kraemer, G. Wade, Tabulated Analyses of Texas Crude Oils, Tech. Paper 607, U.S.
Bur. Mines, p. 19, 48, 1939.
2. E. Lane, E. L. Graton, RI 3385, U. S. Bur. Mines, p. 19, 1938.
3. H. B. Hill, E. L. Ramlio, R. p, Engineering Report on Oklahoma City Oil Field,
Oklahoma, RI 3330, U. S. Bur Mines, p. 207, tabl. 65, 3, 1937.
4. .Q. Cupps, Ph. H. Lipstate, J. Fry, Variance in Characteristics of the Oil in the Weber
Sandstone Reservoir, Rangely Field, Colorado, RI 4761, U. S. Bur. Mines, pp. 60-68, 1951.
5. H. B. Hill, R. K. Guthrie, Engineering Study of the Rodessa Oil Field in Louisiana, Texas,

and Arkansas, RI 3715, U. S. Bur. Mines, p. 8, 1943.


6. Crude Oils, in The Science of Petroleum, Oxford Univ. Press, London and New York, 5,
Part 1, p. 31, 1951.
7. , . 23.
8. , . 21.
9. W.J. Wenger, W. J. Lanum, Characteristics of Crude Oils from Big Horn Basin Fields.
Petrol. Eng., A-56, tabl. 6, 1953.

. , 2-5
, ,
.
. 5-18.
, ,
,
, .
,
.
-70F +90F . ,
34API 105
110F, , .
10 ,

[86].
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,

, .

, ,
.
.
1F 0,00036 0,00096;
0,00040 0,00065.
0,000840,
0,000817. (

API)

, ( API)
(. .. 516).
. - ,
1 3,5 4,5.
, 1000 . ,
, 1 1F, 252
, (..U.).
(
API).
. 5-19.
1 18 300-19 500
, 1 10 200-14 600
.
5-19

, /

API

0,70-0,75

70,6-57,2

11700-11350

0,75-0,80

57,2-45,4

11350-11100

0,80-0,85

45,4-35,0

11100-10875

0,85-0,90

35,0-25,7

10875-10675

0,90-0,95

25,7-17,5

10 675-10 500

Sherman, Kropff, Journ. Am. Chem. Soc., 30 MS 2, p. J 630, 1908; H. S. Bell,


American Petroleum Refining, 3rd ed., D. Van Nostrand Co., New York, p. 45, 1945.

;
, ,
. ,
, .
, ,
8 % ,

.
(associated),
, ,
(nonassociated), , .

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.
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.
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1 .
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(bubble point).
,
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, , .

. 5-38.
,
(petroleum).
, ,
,
(petroleum substance) (Borys v. Can. . Ry and Imperial Oil Ltd.,
Jud. Comm. Privy Council Judgment given January 1953).

, .
. 5000 /.

20 . 1 .
,
1 . % 5 % [87].
, 6 %
(I.I.Gardescu, ). ,

. 5-38.
, .
1 SB ,
, . 2
; . 3
SB , ,
.
1: 200 /. (SB),
450 /. (); .
2: 450 /. (SB), 450 /.
(); . 3: 700 /.
(SB), 450 /. (): .
50% ,
.
. ,

, 5000-6000 /. ,
,
.
( . . 9).

[88] .
,
.
. 60F
30 ( 14,73 /. ,
);
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, ; , 3 540 000 .
3540 . .
, ,
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[ 1000 3 1 ].


() , [89]. ,
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(. 5-39). , 14,7 /.
, , 3000 /.
,
,

. ,
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60F,


,
.

, . , ,
2880 /. ,
400 . . 2720 /. ,

100 /. 400 000 000/160, ..


2 500 000 . .
, , 2,5 . .
, 2720 ( . ), .. 6,8
. . . , 250
/. , , ,
2 500 000 . (2720-250), 6 175 000 000 . .

.


( 4),

. ,
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(716), (818) (920).
,
[
].
.

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35 /. .
. ,
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.

, .
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, .

0,65-0,90 (
= 1,0). . 5-20.

,
[92]. 0,1 1000 . ,
- 0,3 1000 . .
, . ,
, .

, ,
, 900 1200
, :

5-20

1.
V. Cotner, H.. rum, Natural Gas in Amarillo District, , in Geology of Natural
Gas, Am. Assoc. Petrol, Geol., Tulsa, Okla., p. 409, 1935.
2.
.. eplinger, J. R. Wanemacher, K. R.Burns, Hugoton, World's Largest Dry Gas
Fields in Amazing Development, O. and G. Journ., pp. 84-88, 1949.
3.
G.G. Clark, J.M. DeLong, Carthage Field, Panola County, Texas, in Occurrence of Oil
and Gas, Pub. 5116, Univ. of Texas, p. 59, 1951.

4.

R.B. Rulledge, Velma Oil Field, Stephens County, Oklahoma, Petrol. Engrs., pp. 8- 47,

1953.
5.
S.E. Slipper, Natural Gas in Alberta, in Geology of Natural Gas, Am. Assoc. Petrol.
Geol,, Tulsa, Okla., p. 51, 1935.
6.
H.H. Suter, The General and Economic Geology of Trinidad, BWI, in Colonial Geol.
and Min Res., 4, p 28, 1952.
7.
Staff of Caribbean Petroleum Company, Oil Fields of Royal Dutch-Shell Group in
Western Venezuela, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 32, p. 595, 1948.
8.
A.L. Payne, Cumarebo Oil Field, Falcon, Venezuela, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.,
35, p, 1870, 1951.
9.

Adapted from D.B. Shimkin, Is Petroleum a Soviet Weakness? O. and Gas. Journ., pp.

214-226, 1950.


,
; .
, ,
.


. .

8:1, - 15:1.
9:1
16:1 . ,
, ,
.
.
. () , , ,
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;
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( )
, ;
, 8 . %.
,

, .
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.
, -.

-, ,
. ,
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. 5-21.
, ,

5-21

282 1060 . . [94]. ,


- 200 500 -
, [95]. ,
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[96] , 50 ,
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1-8 . % [97]. ,

, .
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. (N2) - , , 78%
. 99 . % ,
. ,
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1075
1000 . .

. (H2S) -
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, 0,06-0,08%
( ,
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.
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25 50.


2C + MeS4 + H2 MeC3 + C2 + H2S,
Me - , - , .
, -
- , .
,
.
, ,
[105]; : ;
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); - (
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- .
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.

, . ( %)
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956 1000
. . 0,973. 1
. . 15 .
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:
1.

- , - .
2.


,
.
3.

, .
, ,
; ,
, , ;
- , ,
, .

1.

Gran done P., Cook .., Collecting and Examining Subsurface Samples of

Petroleum, Tech. Paper 629, U.S. Bur. Mines, 67 p., 1941.


2.

Pyle H.C, Sherborne J.E., Core Analysis, Tech. Publ. 1024, Petrol. Technol.,

1939; Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 132, pp. 33-61, 1939.
Pollard T.A., Reichertz P.P., Core-Analysis Practices - Basic Methods and New
Developments, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 36, pp. 230-252, 1952.
3.

Lidd1e R.A., The Van Oil Field, Van Zandt County, Texas, Bull. 3601, Univ. of

Texas, 82 p., 1936.


4.

Cupps .Q., Lipstate Ph.H., Jr., Fry J., Variance in Characteristics of the Oil in

the Weber Sandstone Reservoir, Rangely Field, Colorado, RI 4761, U.S. Bur. Mines, 68 p.,
1951.
Espach R.H., Fry J., Variable Characteristics of the Oil in the Tensleep Sandstone
Reservoir, Elk Basin Field, Wyoming and Montana, RI 4768, U.S. Bur. Mines, 24 p., 1951.
5

Case L.. et al., Selected Annotated Bibliography on Oil-Field Waters, Bull.

Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 26, pp. 865-881, 1942.


6

Wasson Th.,Wasson I.B., Cabin Creek Field, West Virginia, Bull. Am. Assoc.

Petrol. Geol., 11, pp. 705-719, 1927.


7

Reger D.B., The Copley Oil Pool of West Virginia, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol.

Geol., 11, pp. 581-599, 1927.

8. Davis R. E., Stephenson E. A., Synclinal Oil Fields in Southern West Virginia,
Structure of Typical Am. Oil Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., 2, pp. 571-576,
1929. 9 Crawford J.C, Waters of Producing Fields in the Rocky Mountain Region, Tech. Pub.
2383, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 179, pp. 264-285, 1949. 10 Case L. C, The Contrast
in Initial and Present Application of the Term'Connate, Water, Journ. Petrol. Technol., 8, 4,
p. 12, 1956.
11.

Fettke Ch.R., Core Studies of the Second Sand of the Venango Group from Oil

City, Pa., Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., pp. 219-230, 1927. ( ,
1926 . ,
, .)
12.

ru W.A., Welge H.L, The Restored-state Method for Determination of Oil

in Place and Connate Water, in Production Practice and Technology, Am. Petrol. Inst., pp.
166-174, 1947.
13.

Trask P.D., Compaction of Sediments, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 15, pp.

271-276, 1931.
14.

Rail .G., Taliaferro D.., A Method for Determining Simultaneously the Oil

and Water Saturations of Oil Sands, RI 4004, U.S. Bur. Mines, 16 p., 1946. aran J.G., Core
Analysis - an Aid to Profitable Completions, Mines Magazine, pp. 19-24, 1947.
15.

Pollard T.A., Reichertz P. P., op. cit. (note 2). (

-.)
. 213-218

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75 000 ( 12 . ) .
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. 14].
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.

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Bull. 5116, p. 241, 1951).

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.

1.

Howell J.V., Historical Development of the Structural Theory of Accumulation

of Oil and Gas, in Problems of Petroleum Geology, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., pp.
1-23, 1934.
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Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 22, pp. 1097-1100, 1938.


2.

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3.

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4.

White I. C, West Virginia Geol. Surv., 1, pp. 176-177, 1899.

5.

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6.

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7.

McCollough E. H., Structural Influence on the Accumulation of Petroleum in

California, in Problems of Petroleum Geology, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla, pp.
735-760, 1934.
8.

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9.

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10.

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11.

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12.

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13.

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14.

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Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., New York, pp. 47-55, 1940.
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Geol., 29, pp. 1537-1579, 1945.


16.

Winter H.E., Santa Fe Springs Oil Field, Bull. 118, Calif. Div. Mines, pp. 343-

346, 1943.
17.

rbell .S., Method for Projecting Structure Through an Angular

Unconformity, Econ. Geol., 14, pp. 610-618, 1919.


Levorsen A.I., Convergence Studies in the Mid-Continent Region, Bull. Am. Assoc.

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Lahee F.H., Field Geology, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co.. New York, pp. 667- 671,
1952.
18.

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Field, Oklahoma County, Okla., Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 16, pp. 957- 1020, 1932.
19.

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Texas, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 30, pp. 1830-1856, 1946.
20.

Hewett D.F., Measurements of Folded Beds, Econ. Geol., 15, pp. 367-385,

1920 Mertie J.., Jr., Delineation of Parallel Folds and Measurement of Stratigraphic
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21.

Walters R.P., Oil Fields of Carpathian Region, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.,

30, pp. 319-336, 1946.


22.

Mraze L., Les plis diapirs etle diapirisme en general, Comptes-rendus des

Seances de lTnstitut Geologique J de Roumanie, 6, pp. 226-272, 1927.


Bohdanowicz K., Geology and Mining of Petroleum in Poland, Bull. Am. Assoc
Petrol. Geol., 16, pp. 1061-1091, 1932.
23.

Powers S., Reflected Buried Hills in the Oil Fields of Persia, Egypt, and

Mexico, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 10, pp. 422-442, 1926.
24.

Blackwelder E., The Origin of Central Kansas Oil Domes, Bull. Am. Assoc.

Petrol. Geol., 4, pp. 89-94, 1920.


Wilson I.F., Buried Topography, Initial Structures and Sedimentation in Santa Rosalia
Area, Baja California, Mexico, Ball. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 32, pp. 1762- 1807, 1948.
25.

D /L., Bridge J., Buried and Resurrected Hills of Central Ozarks, Bull.

Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 16, pp. 629-652, 1932.


26.

us .G., Earth Flexures, Their Geometry, Cambridge Univ. Press, London,

106 p., 1929.


Gill W.D., Construction of Geological Sections with Steep-limb Attenuation, Bull.
Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 37, pp. 2289-2406, 1953.
27.

Woolnough W. G., Pseudo-tectonic Structures, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.,

17, pp. 1098-1106, 1933.


28.

Krumbein W.C, Occurrence and Lithologic Associations of Evaporites in the

United States, Journ. Sed. Petrol., 21, pp. 63-81, 1951.


29.

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pp. 1009-1017, 1925.


30.

Hill M.L., Classification of Faults, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 31, pp.

1669- 1673, 1947.


31.

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Texas, in Structure of Typical American Oil Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., 1,
pp. 304-388, 1929.
32.

Sanders C.W., Emba Salt Dome Region, USSR, and Some Comparisons with

Other Salt-Dome Regions, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 23, pp. 492-516, 1939.
33.

Wassn Th., Creole Field, Gulf of Mexico, Coast of Louisiana, in Structure of

Typical American Oil Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., 3, pp. 281-298, 1948.
34.

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Republic of Colombia, South America, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 55, pp. 1165- 1216, 1944.
35.

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Faulting, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 37, pp. 489-508, 1953.
36.

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Pennsylvania and New York, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 33, pp. 303-335, 1949.
37.

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Alberta, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 18, pp. 1417-1453, 1934.
Link Th.A., Interpretations of Foothills Structures, Alberta, Canada, Bull. Am. Assoc.
Petrol. Geol., 33, pp. 1475-1501, 1949.
38.

M A.W., III, et al., Types of Oil and Gas Traps in Rocky Mountain

Region, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 35, p. 1005, 1951.


eebe L.F., Wyoming's Circle Ridge Field, O. and G. Journ., pp. 109-114, 1953.
39.

Walters R.P., op. cit. (note 21), p. 326.

40.

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Avenue Field, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 174, pp. 191-200.
41.

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States, Fourth World Petrol. Congr., Section I/A/1 Proceed., pp. 57-84, 1955.
42.

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in Structure of Typical American. Oil Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., 2, pp. 7592, 1929.
43.

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Geol., 37, p. 318, 1953.


44.

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Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 13, pp. 367-381, 1929.


45.

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Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., pp. 915-947, 1935.

( . . 8).

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Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 34, p. 287, Fig. 18, 1950).
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.

1.

Pugh W.., Preston .G. (ed.), Bibliography of Stratigraphic Traps,

Seismograph Service Corporation, Tulsa, Okla., 190 p., 1951.


2.

Heroy W.., Petroleum Geology, in Geology 1888-1938, 50th Anniv. Geol.

Soc. Am., pp. 534-539, 1941.


1.

Mre R.C., Meaning of Facies, Mem. 39, Geol. Soc. Am., pp. 1-34, 1949.

3.

rumbein W.C, Sloss L. L., Stratigraphy and Sedimentation, W.H. Freeman

and Co., San Francisco, pp. 316-331, 1963.


4.

Sherrill R.E., Dickey P.A., Mattesn L.S., Types of Stratigraphic Oil Pools in

Venango Sands of Northwestern Pennsylvania, in Stratigraphic Type Oil Fields, Am. Assoc.
Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., pp. 507-538, 1941.
5.

Swann D.H., Athertn E., Subsurface Correlations of Lower Chester Strata of

the Eastern Interior Basin, Juorn. Geol., 56, pp. 269-287, 1948.
6.

Ingham W.I., Dora Oil Pool, Seminole County, Oklahoma, in Stratigraphic

Type Oil Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., 408-435, 1941.
7.

Freeman J.C, Strand-line Accumulation of Petroleum, Jim Hogg County,

Texas, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 33, pp. 1260-1270, 1949.
8.

Denham R.L., Dougherty W.E., Sand Belt Area of Ward and Winkler Counties,

Texas, and Lea County, New Mexico, in Stratigraphic Type Oil Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol.
Geol., Tulsa, Okla., pp. 750-759, 1941.
9.

ass N.W.T., Origin of Bartlesville Shoestring Sands, Greenwood and Bulter

Counties, Kansas, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 18, pp. 1313-1345, 1934.
Bass N.W., Leatherock C., Dillard W.R., Kennedy L.E., Origin and Distribution of
Bartlesville and Burbank Shoestring Oil Sands in Parts of Oklahoma and Kansas, Bull. Am.
Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 21, pp. 30-66, 1937.
10.

adman W.K., The Golden Lanes of Greenwood County, Kansas, Bull. Am.

Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 11, pp. 1151 - 1172, 1927.


Cheyney A.E., Madison Shoestring Pool, Greenwood County, Kansas, in Structure of
Typical American Oil Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 2, pp. 150-159, 1929. Bass N. W., op.
cit. (note 9).
11.

all M.W., Weaver T.J., rider H.D Ball D.S., Shoestring Gas Fields of

Michigan, in Stratigraphic Type Oil Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., pp. 237266, 1941.
12.

Fettke Ch.R., Music Mountain Oil Pool, McKean County, Pennsylvania, in

Stratigraphic Type Oil Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., pp. 492-506, 1941.
13.

Neal E.P., South Ceres, Oklahoma's Oddest Shoestring Field? World Oil, pp.

92- 98, 1951.


14.

Marbut .F., Geological Descriptions of the Calhourn, Lexington, Richmond,

and Huntsville Sheets, Mo. Geol. Surv., 12, Part II, pp. 123-210, 270, 331, 1898. (
.)
Hinds H., Greene F., Stratigraphy of the Pennsylvanian of Missouri, Mo. Geol. Surv.,
13, pp. 90-106, 1915.
Hinds H., Unconformities in the Pennsylvanian, Geologic Note, Bull. Am. Assoc.
Petrol. Geol., 10, pp. 1303-1304, 1926.
15.

Hinds H., Greene F.C, Leavenworth-Smithville, Missouri-Kansas, Atlas Folio

206, U.S. Geol. Surv., pp. 6, 10, 1917.


16.

Wilson Ch. W., Jr., Channels and Channel-Filling Sediments of Richmond Age

in South-Central Tennesse, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 59, pp. 733-766, 1948.
17.

Weller J.M., The Geology of Edmonson County, Ky. Geol. Surv., Series VI, 24.

246 p., pp. 199-208, 1927.


18.

Strachan .G., Pre-Pennsylvanian Channelling in Western Kentucky and its

Connection with Oil Accumulation, Tulsa Geol. Soc. Digest, pp. 36-40, 1935.
19.

hrles H.H., Bush City Oil Field, Anderson County, Kansas, in Stratigraphic

Type Oil Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., pp. 43-56, 1941.
20.

Rich J.L., Further Observations on Shoe String Oil Pools of Eastern Kansas,

Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 10, pp. 568-580, 1926.


21.

Thompson .., Oil Field Exploration and Development (Vol. 1 of Oil Field

Principles), 2nd ed., D. Van Nostrand Co., pp. 67, 429, 1950.
. 331-333

8 ():

. : -;
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: 1) ; 2) ,

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[1],

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,

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-
; -
.
.
.

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(Hill, Guthrie, U.S. Bur. Mines, RI 3715, p. 20, Fig. 25).
- (
).
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;
. 100 000 ,

142 .

3.

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. 8-5 , .

.
. ,
, .
, ,
-.

. 8-5. -
( ), , (Weddl, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 35r
pp. 620, 622, Figs. 2, 4).


.
- -.
;
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. 8-6,

8-7.

(. 8-8),
-, . --

(.8-9).
- .


.
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1) , , 31API (0,877 /)
, . ,
, ,
, -
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.

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() (Chambers, 118, Calif. Div. Mines, 489, Fig. 207,
1943).

.
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,
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,
, , .
.

,
. ,
,
, ,
. ,
- ,
, .
. 340-341: . 8.7 8.11
(salt-plug pools, salt-dome
pools).

(salt-dome

fields)

,
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,
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,
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.
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, 500-600

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. 343-362
.

4.

, -

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.
5.

, -

, .

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, ;
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,

.

1.

Minor .., anna M.A., East Texas Oil Feeld, in Stratigraphic Type Oil

Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., pp. 600-640, 1941.
2.

Geology of Salt Dome Oil Fields, A Symposium, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.,

Tulsa, Okla., 797 p., 1926.


3.

Symposium on Salt Domes, Journ. Inst. Petrol. Technol., 17, pp. 252-371,

1931. Gulf Coast Oil Fields, A Symposium, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., 1070 p.
1936.
4.

Vitesti L.P., Geology of the Salt Domes in the Carpathian Region of Rumania.

Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 9, pp. 1165. 1200, 1925.

5.

Dupouy-Camet J., Triassic Diapiric Salt Structures, Southwestern Aquitaine

Basin, France, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 37, pp. 2348-2388, 1953.
6.

Harrison J.V., Salt Domes in Persia, Journ. Inst. Petrol. Technol., 17, pp. 303-

305, 1931.
7.

Stille H., The Upthrust of the Salt Masses of Germany, in Geology of Salt

Dome Oil Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., pp. 142-166, 1926. Coomber S.E.,
Germany, in The Science Petroleum, Oxford Univ. Press, London and New York, 1, pp. 184188, 1938.
8.

British

Intelligence

Objectives

Sub-Committee

(BIOS),

Oil

Field

Investigations, German Oil Industry, Part III, Sec. 2, 1939-1945. (


.)
9.

Reeves F., Status of German Oil Fields, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 30, pp.

1546-1584, 1946.
10.

Sanders .W., Emba Salt-Dome Region, USSR, and Some Comparisons with

Other Salt-Dome Regions, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 23, pp. 492-516, 1939.
.., , XVII . . , 4, . 181-199, .,
1937.
11.

Harrison Th.S., Colorado-Utah Salt Domes, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.. 11,

pp. 111-133, 1927.


12.

Prommel H. W. C, Crura H. E., Salt Domes of Permian and Pennsylvanian Age

in Southeastern Utah and Their Influence on Oil Accumulation, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol.
Geol., 11, pp. 373-393, 1927.
13.

Baker A.A., Dane .E., Reesicle J.R., Jr., Paradox Formation of Eastern Utah

and Western Colorado, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 17, pp. 963-980, 1933.
14.

Pwers S., Interior Salt Domes of Texas, in Geology of Salt Dome Oil

Fields. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., pp. 209-268, 1926.
15.

Spooner W.C, Interior Salt Domes of Louisiana, in Geology of Salt Dome Oil

Fields, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., pp. 269-344, 1926.


16.

Harrisn J.V., op. cit. (note 5), pp. 300-320.

17.

Lees G.M., Salt, Some Depositional and Deformational Problems, Journ. Inst.

Petrol. Technol., 17, pp. 259-280, 1931.


18.

Wade A., Intrusive Salt Bodies in Coastal Asir, Southwestern Arabia, Journ.

Inst. Petrol. Technol., 17, pp. 321-330, 1931.


19.

Hbsn G.D., Salt Structures: Their Form, Origin, and Relationship to Oil

Accumulation, in The Science of Petroleum, Oxford Univ. Press, London and New York. 1,

pp. 255-260, 1938.


20.

Eard1e A.J., Petroleum Geology of Aquitaine Basin, France, Bull. Am. Assoc.

Petrol. Geol., 30, pp. 1517-1545, 1946.


21.

Dupouy-Camet J., op. cit. (note 4).

22.

T1 R.E., Water-insoluble Residues in Rock Salt of Louisiana Salt Pluss.

Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 21, pp. 1268-1310, 1937.


23.

Hea1d .. Sandstone Inclusion in Salt in Mine on Avery's Island, Bull. Am.

Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 8, pp. 674-676, 1924.


. 365-366


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, (Watts, Trans. Am.
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(dberg, Am. Journ. Sci., 5th series, 31, p. 281, Fig. 7, 1936).


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)/
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-, (Espach, Fry, U.S. Bur. Mines, RI 4768, Fig. 12,

opp., p. 10).
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, ( 1F/50
(dberg, Sass, Funkhouser, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 31, p. 2124, Fig. 11,
1947).
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- , 1F
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/. - . .

160F ( 60F 100F 5000 ).


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/F.
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,

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- ( 1F/44 /
1 F/50 ) (Nichols, Tech. Paper 2114, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 170, p. 46, Fig.
2, 1947).
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100 , 1800 [27]. ,


- 1F 100 ,
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-,
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. . 9-18
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[28]. ,
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- 10 000 [29].
374 (705F), , ,

. 9-17. ,
- 100
(McCutchin, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 14, p. 542, Fig. 2).
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1F/107 1F/36,5
, .

, .

30 000 (9 ). ,
, . 9-1. ,

. 9-18.
100 (Nichols, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs.,
170, p. 46, Fig. 2, 1947).



74F.
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[29].
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:

,
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100 .

[31], . 9-19,
1800 ,
( )
( ). . 9-20
- .
1,66 F/100 0-4000 1,0F 100
,
. ,
-, (. . 398:
9, . ..)

. 9-19.
, (Cupps, Lipstate, Fru U.S. Bur. Mines, RI 4761, Fig.
5, 1951).
1F/51 o 1F/68 1800
( 3500 )
(), , ,
.

, , ,
57 [32], 47,4-50,6 1F,
- 51,3-62,1 1F.

()

. . 9-21 , 160F

[26].
, .
, [33] [34],
,
.

. 9-20.
, 4000 ,
4000-9000 (
83,3F) (Rjas, Smith, Austin, Report of Ministry of Mines and
Hydrocarbons, Venezuela, Nat. Petr. Convention, p. 214, Fig. 5, 1951).
:

.

. 9-21. ,
(Lipstate, Fry, U.S. Bur. Mines, RI 4761, opp., p. 6, Fig. 6, 1951).
.

160F ()
. - ; -
.
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[35].
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9-2

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.


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.
1.
( )
(. . 194-198).
. 9-3,

- . 9-4.
9-3

Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 13th ed., pp. 1729-1730, 1948.


2.
, .
.
/273 ,

9-4 (
)

P.W. Bridgman, The Physics of High Pressures, Macmillan Co., New Jork, p. 346,
1931.
9-5

32

1,000000

10

50

0,99973

50

122

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100

212

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1F.

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. 5-31,
- . 9-5.
9-6

Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 13th. ed., Chem. Rubber Pub. Co. Cleveland,
pp. 1745-1750, 1948.
. 9-6.

100-700
1 , 5000 / 10 000 /
, [39].
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.

1.
1

.

, ,
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) .

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.
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.
.
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670 . , 200F - 600 .
(. . 5-30).
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; 9, . ..).
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()
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()
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[42].
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25 000 (7,5 ) ,
.
;

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, ,
.

1.

r W.., Rock Pressure, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 12, pp. 355-384.

2.

Pym L.A., Bottom-Hole Pressure Measurement, in The Science of Petroleum,

1928.
Oxford Univ. Press, London, New York, 1, pp. 508-515, 1938.
3.

Biddison M.P., Estimation of Natural Gas Reserves, in Geology of Natural

Gas, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Tulsa, Okla, pp. 1035-1052, 1935. (
.)
4.

. and G., Journ., 57, 17, 1959.

5.

ru W.A., A Study of the Smackover Limestone Formation and the

Reservoir Behavior of Its Oil and Condensate Pools, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 155,
pp. 88-132, 1944; Petrol. Technol., Tech. Pub. 1728, 1944. Goebel L.A., Cairo Field, Union
County, Arkansas, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 34, pp. 1954-1980, 1950.
6.

Review of Middle East Oil and Reservoir Studies and Characteristics,

Petroleum Trans.,. London, pp. 15-17, 1948.


7.

Rumble R.C, Spain H.H., Stamm H.E., A Reservoir Analyzer Study of the

Woodbine Basin, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 192, pp. 331-340, 1951.
8.

Hill G.., lburn W.A., Knight J.W., Reducing Oil-Finding Costs by Use of

Hydrodynamic Evaluation, in Economics of Petroleum, Exploration, Development, and


Property Evaluation, Southwestern Legal Foundation, Dallas, Texas, Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
Englewood Cliffs, 1961. Berry F.A.F., Hydrodynamics and Geochemistry of the Jurassic
and Cretaceous Systems iin the San Juan Basin, Northwestern New Mexico and
Southwestern Colorado, Ph.D. thesis, Stanford Univ., 192 p., 1959.
9.

Taber S., Effect of Earthquakes on Artesian Waters, Econ. Geol., 23, pp. 696-

697, 1928.
10.

Shepard F.P., Submarine Geology, New York, 348 p., pp. 47-53, 1948.

11.

Hanway J., An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian,

Sea..., London, 1, 1753.


12.

Gibson R.E., The Nature of Solutions and Their Behavior under High

Pressure, Scientific Monthly, 46, pp. 103-119, 1938.


13.

Hubbert M.K., Rube W.., Role of Fluid Pressure in Mechanics of

Overthrust Faulting, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 70, pp. 149-158.


14.

annn G.E., Craze R. C, Excessive Pressures and Pressure Variations with

Depth of Petroleum Reservoirs in the Gulf Coast Region of Texas and Louisiana, Trans. Am.
Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 127, pp. 31-38, 1938. Dickinson G., Geological Aspects of
Abnormal Reservoir Pressures in Gulf Coast' Louisiana, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 37,
pp. 410-432, 1953.
15.

Watts E.V., Some Aspects of High Pressure in the D-7 Zone of the Ventura

Avenue Field, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 174, pp. 191-200, 1948.
16.

Maslin L. S., Jr., and G. Journ., p. 56, 1949.

17.

Dnnell A.S., High-pressure Yates Sand Gas Problem, East Wasson Field,

Yoakum County, West Texas, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 25, pp. 1880-1897, 1941.
18.

eep .E., Ward H.L., Drilling Against High Rock Pressures with Particular

Reference to Operations Conducted in the Khaur Field, Punjab, Journ. Inst. Petrol. Technol.,
20, pp. 990-1013, 1934.
19.

Suter H.H., The General and Economic Geology of Trinidad, B.W.I.,

Colonial Geol. and Min. Res., 3, p. 22, 1952.


20.

alhun J.C, Pressure Parting of Formations, O. and G. Journ. p. 85, 1950.

21.

Cotner V., rum H.E., Geology and Occurrence of Natural Gas in Amarillo

District, Texas, in Geology of Natural Gas, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., pp. 401403, 1935.

22.

Millikan C.V., The Geological Application of Bottom Hole Pressure, Bull.

Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 16, pp. 891-906, 1932.


23.

Ath L.F., Density, Porosity, and Compaction of Sedimentary Rocks, Bull.

Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 14, pp. 1-35, 1930.


404-405 .

10
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99-101, 1949.

0,195 //F 70-100F 0,093 //F 100-130F.


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Hubbert M.., Entrapment of Petroleum under Hydrodynamic Conditions, Bull.


Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 37, p. 1977, tabl. 1, 1953.

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. (Murphy, Petrol. Engrs., p. B-94, 1952).

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Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 192, . 336, Fig. 8, 1951)

- . 50 /. (3,5
). .

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,
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1,8810-7 ( 0,045 /// ( /
/ (4)
(), ()
3,010-6 ( / / (5))
1,8810-7 ( 0,045 /// ( /
/ (4)
* - .
S.E. Buckly, The Pressure-Production Relationship in the East Texas Field, in Production
Practice, Am. Petrol. Inst., p. 141, 1938.
R.G. Rumble, H. H. Spain, H. E. Stamm III, A Reservoir Analyzer Study of the Woodbine
Basin, Tech. Pub. 3219, Petrol. Technol., 1951; Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 192, pp. 335-336,
1951.
.. Meinzer, Compressibility and Elasticity of Artesian Aquifers, Geol., 23, p. 285, 1928.
4 L.F. Elking, Reservoir Performance and Well Spacing, Spraberry Trend Area Field of West
Texas, Tech. Pub. 3622, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 198, p. 186, 1953.
H.N. Hall, Compressibility of Reservoir Rock (Tech. Note 149), Journ. Petrol. Technol., p.
18, 1953; Trans., 198, p. 310.
I. Haskett, Reservoir Analysis if Redwater Pool, O. and G. Journ., p. 146, tabl. 3, 1951.
M. Muskat, Physical Principles of Oil Production, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, p.
271, 1949.

, ,
, ,

.
,
.

.
.

[27]. : 1)
2)

. 10-18. (
) - (Hall, Tech. Note 149, Jonrn. Petrol,
technol., p. 18, Fig. 2, 1953).
.
+ 35.
1 - ; 2 - .
. . 10-18.
(1010 -6 ///),
. . 10-19 .

(. 10-20).
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[28],
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(Hall, Tech. Note 149, Journ. Petrol. Technol., p. 18, Fig. 3, 1953).
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.
1 - ; 2 - ; 3 - ( ).
(. 10-17),
.
[29] ,
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(4,110-5% ),
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, 0,9
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, 1,47 /,
300 100 /.
440 ,

. 10-20.
(Hall, Tech. Note 149, Journ. Petrol. Technol., p. 19, Fig. 4, 1953).

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1953 ., ,
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1000 7500 108237 [48].
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1.

lkins L.., Petroleum Reservoir Mechanics, Scientific Monthly, 70, 2, pp. 122 -

126, 1950.
2.

Sage .., L W. N., Volumetric and Phase Behavior of Hydrocarbons, Stanford

Univ. Press, Stanford, California, 299 p., 1939.


3.

Sherborne J.E., Fundamental Phase Behavior of Hydrocarbons, Tech. Pub. 1152,

Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 136, pp. 119-133, 1940. Clark N. J., It Pays to Know
Your Petroleum, World Oil: Part I, pp. 165-172, 1953: Part II, pp. 208-213, 1953. (

.

. 454-457.


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Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 48, 11, pp. 1755-1803, 1964), . [

.. .. . 1966 .
: X.. ,
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XX .
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1968).
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XVIII .

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, 1967
., - 1968 . - . pe.

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0,004-0,02 100 (0,410-4 - 0,210-3%), 40-400 100 (0,04-0,4%).
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[20] 1922 . ,
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1. f ., Das Erdol, 2nd ed., pp. 160-229, 1906. (

.)
2. Clarke F.W., Inorganic and Organic Theories of the Origin of Oil, in Data of Geochemistry,
Bull. 770, U. S. Geol. Surv., 5th. ed., pp. 731-755, 1924. (
.)
3. Thompson ... Oil-Field Exploration and Development, 2nd ed., Technical Press, London, 1,
p. 19, 1950.
4. x .., Transformation of Organic Material into Petroleum under Geological Conditions the Geological Fence, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 30, pp. 645-659, 1946.
5. Rankama K., New Evidence of the Origin of Pre-Cambrian Carbon, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 59,
pp. 389-416, 1948.
6. Whiteside R.., Migration in Lucien Oil Field During Ordovician, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol.
Geol., 20, pp. 617-619, 1936.
7. Drse G.E., Preservation of Oil During Erosion of Reservoir Rock, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol.
Geol., 17, pp. 827-842, 1933.
8. Hunt J.M., Jamieson G.W., Oil and Organic Matter in Source Rocks of Petroleum, in Habitat
of Oil, Lewis G. Weeks (ed.), Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., pp. 735-746, 1958.
9. Erdman J.G., Some Chemical Aspects of Petroleum Genesis as Related to the Problem of
Source Bed Recognition, Geochim, et Cosmochim., Pergamon Press, 22, pp. 16-36, 1961.
10.

Silverman S.R., Epstein S., Carbon Isotopic Composition of Petroleums and Other

Sedimentary Organic Materials, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 42, pp. 998- 1012, 1958.
11.

Meinshein W.G.. Origin of Petroleum, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 43,. pp. 937-938,

1959.
12.

Smith P.V., Jr.. Studies on the Origin of Petroleum, Occurrence of Hydrocarbons in

Recent Sediments, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 38, pp. 377-404, 1954.
13.

Hunt J.M., Forsman J. P., Relation of Crude Oil Composition to Stratigraphy in the Wind

River Basin, Wyoming Geol. Assoc. Guidebook, pp. 105-112, 1957.


14.

Weeks L.G., Factors of Sedimentarv Basin Development that Control Oil Occurrences,

Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.,' 36. p. 2103, 1952.


15.

Smith P.V., Jr., op. cit. (note 7), pp. 377, 383.

16.

idwe11 A.L., Hunt J. M., Migration of Oil in Recent Sediments of Pe~ dernales,

Venezuela, in Habitat of Oil, Lewis G. Weeks (ed.). Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., pp.
790-817, 1958.
17.

F1rkin M., Aspects of the Origin of Life, Saturday Review of Literature, 1963.

Discussion by J. M. Hunt in Saturday Review of Literature, pp. 44-45, 1963 and The Mines

Magazine, Colo. Sch. Mines, Golden, Colorado, 1964. ( ,


, .)
18.

DeG1 ., The Effect of Igneous Intrusions on the Accumulation of Oil in the

Tempico-Tuxpam Region, Mexico, Econ. Geol., 10, p. 651, 1915.


19.

Pratt W.E., Hydrogenation and the Origin of Oil, in Problems of Petroleum Geolo^-gy,

Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., pp. 235-245, 1934.


20.

Clarke F.W., op. cit. (note 1), p. 48.

21.

Rankama K., Sahama Th. G., Geochemistrv, Univ. of Chicago Press,, pp. 185-186, 1950.

22.

Tibs A., Porphyrin in bituminosen Gesteinen and Erdol-Kohlen: Zur Entstehung des

Erdols, Angew. Chem., 44, p. 551, 1936.


23.

Treibs A., Chlorophyll und Haminderivata in bituminosen Gesteinen, Erdol, Erdwaschen,

und Asphalten, Angew. Chem., 44, pp. 683-686, and Annalen, 410, 42, p. 517, 1934, 43, pp. 172196, 1935.
24.

Dunning H.N., Moore J.W., Porphyrin Research and Origin of Petroleum, Bull. Am.

Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 41, pp. 2403-2412, 1957.


25.

Trask P.D., Patnode H. W., Source Beds of Petroleum, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa,

Okla., 566 p., pp. 32-61, 1942.


. 490-494

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.

1.

Galloway J., The Kettleman Hills Oil Fields, Bull. 118, Calif. Div. Mines, pp. 491-493,

1943.
2.

Goebel L.A., Cairo Field, Union County, Arkansas, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol.

3.

Geol., 34, pp. 1954-1980, 1950.

4.

M A.W., On the Migration of Petroleum Through Sedimentary Rocks, Bull. Am.

Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 2, pp. 168-171, 1918.


5.

Clark F.R., Origin and Migration of Oil, in Problems of Petroleum Geology, Am. Assoc.

Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., pp. 309-335, 1934.


6.

McCoy A.W., Keyte W.R., Present Interpretations of the Structural Theory for Oil and

Gas Migration and Accumulation, ibid., pp. 253-307.


7.

Rih J.L., Function of Carrier Beds in Long-Distance Migration of Oil. Bull. Am. Assoc.

Petrol. Geol., 15, pp. 911-924, 1931.


8.

Levrsen A.I., Studies in Paleogeology, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 17, pp. 1107-

1132, 1933.
9.

Munn M.J., The Anticlinal and Hydraulic Theories of Oil and Gas Accumulation, Econ.

Geol., 4, 6, pp. 509-529, 1909.


10.

Rih J.L., Moving Underground Water as a Primary Cause of the Migration and

Accumulation of Oil and Gas, Econ. Geol., 16, 6, pp. 347-371, 1921.
11.

Mraze L., L'Industrie du petrole en Romaine, Les Gisements de petrole, Impri-meries

Independantes, Bucharest, 82, p., 1910.


12.

Da1 M.R., The Diastrophic Theory, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 56, pp. 733-753,

1917.
13.

King F.H., Principles and Conditions of the Movements of Ground Water, 19th

14.

Ann. Rept. U.S. Geol. Surv., Part II, pp. 59-294, 1899. 11. Monnett V. E., Possible Origin

of Some of the Structures of the Mid-Continent Oil Field, Econ. Geol., 17, 3, p. 200, 1922.
15.

Lewis J.V., Fissility of Shale and Its Relations to Petroleum, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 35, pp.

557-590, 1924.
16.

Cheney M.G., Geology of North-Central Texas, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 24, pp.

65-118, 1940.
17.

Ddsn

.R.,

Standing

M.

.,

Pressure-Volume-Temperature

and

Solu

bility Relations for Natural Gas-Water Mixtures, in Drilling and Production Practice,
Am. Petrol. Inst., pp. 173-178, 1944.
18.

McKetta J.J., Jr., Katz D.L., Phase Relations of Hydrocarbon-Water Systems, Trans. Am.

Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., 170, pp. 34-41, 1947. Buckley S. E., Hocott R., Taggart M. S., Jr.,
Distribution of Dissolved Hydrocarbons in Subsurface Waters, in Habitat of Oil, Lewis G. Weeks
(ed.), Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., pp. 850-882, 1958.
19.

Prod, of Crude Oil by Solution in High-Pressure Water, World Oil, pp. 136-140, 1948.

20.

McCoy A.W., Notes on Principles of Oil Accumulation, Journ. Geol., 27, pp. 252- 262,

1919.
21.

McCoy A.W., A Brief Outline of Some Oil Accumulation Problems, Bull. Am. Assoc.

Petrol. Geol., 10, pp. 1015-1035, 1926. McCoy A.W., Keyte W.R., op. cit. p. 258.
22.

eehe .E., Parkhurst L.P., Effect of Dissolved Gas upon the Viscosity and Surface

Tension of Crude Oils, Petrol. Dev. and Technol., Am. Inst. Min. Met. Engrs., pp. 51-69, 1926.
Rich J.L., op. cit. (note 4), p. 914.
23.

Weirih .., Shelf Principle of Oil Origin, Migration, and Accumulation, Bull. Am.

Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 37, pp. 2027-2045, 1953.


. 533

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1.

Cram I.H., Definitions of Geology - Subsurface Geology, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.,

29, p. 470, 1945. ush D.A., Subsurface Techniques, in Parker D. Trask (ed.), Applied
Sedimentation, John and Sons, New York, and Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 559-578, 1950.
LeR L.W. (ed.), Subsurface Geologic Methods - A Symposium, Quart. Colo. Sch. Mines, 44,
826 p., 1949; 2nd ed., 1156 p., 1951. (
.)
2.

., Paleogeographic and Palinspastic Maps, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 29, pp.

426-450, 1945. ( ,
.). Coffin R., Recent Trends in Geological-Geophysical Exploration and
Methods of Improving Use of Geophysical Data, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 30, pp. 2013-

2033, 1946. Geophysical Case Histories, I, 1948, L.L. Nettleton (ed.), and 11, 1956, Paul L.
Lyons (ed.), Soc. Explor. Geophys., Shell Bldg., Tulsa, Okla. (
, ,
.). Krumbein W., Sloss L.L., Stratigraphy and Sedimentation, 2-nd ed., W.H.
Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 660 p., 1963. ( .
, 10 -
, - 13 - - 14 - .
3.

Krumbein W. , Criteria for Subsurface Recognition of Unconformities, Bull. Am. Assoc.

Petrol. Geol., 26, pp. 36-62, 1942.


4.

Jackson G., Directional Drilling Today, Journ. Petrol. Technol., sec. 1, pp. 27-31, 1953.

5.

Lee W., The Stratigraphy and Structural Development of the Forest City Basin in Kansas,

Bull. 51, State Geol. Surv., Univ. of Kansas, 142 p., 1943. (
.)
6.

Lee W., Relation of Thickness of Mississippian Limestones in Central and Eastern Kansas

to Oil Deposits, Bull. 26, State Geol., Surv., Lawrence, Kansas, 42, p., 1939. (
.)
7.

Weirih .., Shelf Principle of Oil Origin, Migration, and Accumulation, Bull. Am.

Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 37, pp. 2027-2045, 1953.


8.

Levorsen A.I., Convergence Studies in the Mid-Continent Region, Bull. Am. Assoc.

Petrol. Geol., 11, pp. 657-682, 1927. Wheeler R.R., Swesnik R. M., Stratigraphic Convergence
Problems, World Oil, pp. 57-62, 1950.
9.

Swain F.M., Onlay, Offlap, Overstep, and Overlap, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 33, pp.

634-636, 1949. ( 15 .)
10.

atn J.., The By-Passing and Discontinuous Deposition of Sedimentary Materials,

Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 13, pp. 713-762, 1929.


11.

Moore R.C., Meaning of Facies, Memoir 39, Geol. Soc. Am., pp. 1-34, 1949. (

- 171 - , .
.)
12.

Krumbein W.. Recent Sedimentation and the Search for Petroleum, Bull. Am. Assoc.

Petrol. Geol., 29, pp. 1233-1261, 1945.


13.

Krumbein W.C, Principles of Facies Map Interpretation, Journ. Sed. Petrol., pp. 200-211,

1952.
14.

Krumbein W.C, Lithofacies Maps and Regional Sedimentary-Stratigraphic Analysis, Bull.

Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 32, pp. 1909-1923, 1948. Sloss L.L., Dapples E.C, Krumbein W. C,
Lithofacies Maps, An Atlas of the United States and Southern Canada, John Wiley and Sons.,

108 p.,
572-573

14

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.

1. Weeks L.G., Concerning Estimates of Potential Oil Reserves, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol.
Geol., 34, p. 1951, 1950.
2. White D., Some Relations in Origin Between Coal and Petroleum, Journ. Wash. Acad.
Sci., 5, pp. 189-212, 1915.
3. ThomW.T., Jr., Present Status of the Carbon-Ratio Theory, in Problems of Petroleum
Geology, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geoly, Tulsa, Okla., pp. 69-95, 1934.
4. , . 71-75, 1934. Postley ., Natural Gas Developments, and Possibilities
East of the Main Oil and Gas Fields of Appalachian Region, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.,
19, p. 857. fig. 1, and p. 860, fig. 2, 1935. Hendricks T.A., Carbon Ratios in Part of
Arkansas-Oklahoma Coal Field. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 19, p. 938, fig. 1, 1935.
5.
States.

Thom W.., J ., op. cit. (note 3), pp. 86 and 87, figs. 1 and 2, carbon ratios of United

6. Fuller M.L., Carbon Ratios in Carboniferous Coals of Oklahoma, and Their Relation to
Petroleum, Econ. Geol., 15, p. 226, 1920.
7. Thom W. ., Jr., op. cit. (note 3), pp. 84-85.
8. Reeves F., The Carbon-ratio Theory in the Light of Hilt's Law, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol.
Geol., 12, pp. 795-823, 1928.
9. Thom W.., op. cit. (note 3), pp. 82 and 84.
10. Drse G.E., The Present Status of the Carbon-ratio Theory, Bull. Am. Ass Petrol.
Geol., pp. 455-463, 1927.
11. Hilt C, Die Beziehungen zwischen der Zusammensetzung und den technischen Eig
schaften der Steinkohlen, Zeitsch. des Ver. Deutscher Ingn., 17, Heft 4, pp. 194-- -1873.
12. Russell W.L., Relation Between Isocarbs and Oil and Gas Production in Kent Ecol.,
Geol., 20, pp. 254-255, 1925.
13. He .., Regional Metamorphism of Coal in Southeastern West Virgnia. E Am.
Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 27, pp. 1194-1227 1943.
. 603-604

15
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, .
.
,
,
- .
, -
, , ,-
, .



- ,- , ,
.
: ,

-
. ,
, ;
, ,
;

, .
,
.
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,
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,
.
.
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.
[4].
,

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,
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-.

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.

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.


,
[5].
1935-1941 . 1 25,1
; 1942-1945 24,6, 1946-1951 . - 26,5
.

[6]. 3,2 3,9


,
. , , ,
,
. ,
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,
,
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,
.

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.

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.

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,
.

1.

Pratt W. ., Oil in the Earth, Univ. of Kansas Press, Lawrence, Kansas, p. 9,

2.

Carsey J. ., Roberts M. S., Exploratory Drilling in 1962, Bull. Assoc. Petrol.

1942,
Geol., 47, pp. 889-934, 1963. (
.
.)
3.

Rumfield .F., Morrisey N.S., How to Evaluate Exploration Prospects,

Geophysics, 29, pp. 434-444, 1964.


4.

Noble E.., Geological Masks and Prejudices, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.,

31, pp. 1109-1117, 1947.


5.

Western Hemisphere Oil Study Committee, Indep. Petrol. Assoc. Am.,

Washington, D. C.j Report on Petroleum in the Western Hemisphere, pp. 61, 75, 1952.
6.

arse J.., Roberts M. S., op. cit. (note 2), p. 915.


Campbell J. M., Oil Property Evaluation, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, 523
p., 1959. ( , .
.)


1
Albertite.

(-, ),
.
[ ( 75 85%, - 7 10%) -
, (. .
), (. Bitumen)
- ].
1

.
( )
. - . .

Asphalt (bitumen, .). () - ,


, ,

( ).
150 200F. (asphaltite) - ,

-,

, ..
, .

1,0-1,15; (10-70%) - .
[ - : 1) (..
) 2) ,
, , ,
.

().
( 35% -
), , ,
- 60%.
.
, , .
(15-50%), ..
( , S. N)].

Asphaltic pirobitumens. -
, , . 1,25.
,
.
.
(wurtzilite), (elaterite) (albertite).
[ . ,
(),
, .
,
(), (. Bitumen),
( ) - ,
, - . ]
Asphaltites. - 250600F. 1,20. 0-60% 60-90%
. (gilsonite)
(glance pitch).
[ - ,
(. Bitumen). , .. ,
, ,
- , , ,
.]
Bitumen. -
, . ,
, .
.
[ - ,
( 65-90%), ( 15%)
- , S, N ( ).
, ,

,
() . ,

(, , ..)

. ,
,
: 1) - ;
2) - 3) -
.
, ,
- ;
- ,
, .
.
-
, , , , , ,
. .

.
,
].
Bituminous. - , (oil)
.
.
r. - ,
.
Chapopoteras. - , ,.
.
Coorongite. - ,
Eleaophyton,
.
[ - . ].
Crude (oil) - (. petroleum), .
[ .
.
, ,
( ),
].
Directional drilling. -

,
.
Drill-stem test. -
, .

. ,
,
.
Elaterite. - ,
,
, .
[ - (),
(. Bitumen)].
Gilsonite. - , , .
(S. Gilson) - , .
,
. (uintaite).
[ - , ].
Glance pitch. - ,
- (manjak). . [ .]
Grahamite. , .. .. ,
, . , ,
. [ - , ].
Gravel packing. ( )

.
.
Hatchettite. - - ,
.
. (mineral
tallow).
[ , .
() ,
. ]

Hydrocarbon. - ,
, . (petroleum)
.
[ , (.
Petroleum) . - (.
Bitumen), - (),
, , ,
- , - , S, N].
Impsonite. - ,
, .
.
[ - ( ),
].
Jars. - , ,
,
.
Kerogen. - ,

.
, , , , .
,
, .
, ,
, , .
[] ,
( ).
[ .
- -
, .
-

() ,

.
().
].
Maltha.

[ - (. Asphalt),
].
Manjak. - ,
[. Glance pitch].
Naphtha. . naphtha
, - ,
250 .
.
Natural gas. - ,
, .
, ,
.
, ,
,
.
Oil shale. [ - .
- ].
(kerogen shale),

. , ,
.
Ozokerite (odoriferous wax .). ( ).
, - , , -,
. , ,
. ,
. -, ,
,
. -
, (ceresin)
.
, .
22 29.
Paraffin dirt. - ,
.
, ,

,
. , -, [
?].
Petroleum. ;
,

, .
1546 .
[Petroleum .
, .. ,
. petroleum
, , ].
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Plugging. - ,

).

- ,
,
.
Pyrobitumen. - ,
.
[

, ,
].
Shale-shaker.

.
. - , -, ,

. , ..
asphalt pitch.
[
(Webster). , ,
. ,
- tar-sands].
Torbanite. - ,
.

, ,
. , , .
, ,
.
[ - , . . ()
, ( 90%
).]
Wurtzilite. - , ,
. . - X. (. Wurtz) -
.

,
abd, abnd - ,
-
AS - , ( )
bbl -
b/d -
BCPD -
-
BFPH -
-
-
BHPF -
BHPSI -
bid -
bldg drk -
bldg rds -
B/ -
/ -
-
BOPD -
- ( )
BPD -
-
BPWPD -
brkn - ,
BS -
BS and W -
btm - , ,
..U. - ( 0,252
BW -
BWPD -
BWPH
-
CD -
CFG - .

CFGPD - .
chk -
circ -
clng -
-
- ,
cond -
contr -
cor -
- ,
-
CPSI -
crd -
crg -
crse - ,
csg -
CSL - ()
-
ctg -
D and -
DC - ,
DD -
DF -
DO - ,
DP -
D/P -
drk -
drld -
drlg -
DST -
EL - ,
elec log -
elev,
log -
est - ,

f - ,
FIH -
fid -
flour, flur - ,
fm -
fos - ,

FP -
GA -
gal (s) - ,
G and -
G and OCM -
GC - ,
GCM
GCR
ggd - ,
gge - , , ,
GO -
G/O -
GOR -
gr, grd - ,
grav ,
hd - ,
HFO - ,
HFW - ,
HGOR -
-
hr (s) - ,
hvy -
ig - ,
incl -
interst -
IP -
- , ( )
l - , ,

lse - ,
mass -
MCF - . .
MCFGPD - . .
md -
mi -
Ml - , -
MICT -
MIM -
MIR -
MIRT -
MIT -
- -
nat - ,
NL - ,
NS -
and G -
and GCM -
and SW -
OAW -
- ,
- ,
OF
- , ,

1 -

-
sd - ,
-
OTD -
OWDD - ,
OWPB- (
)
OWWO -


-
-
and -
-
PBTD -
PD -
per, perm -
perf -
perf csg
Pkr - ,
PL -
pld - ,
PLO -
L -
POP -
- ,
psi - .
psia - .
psig - .
PVT - - -
R, Rge - , , , ,
- ,
refl -
refr - ,
rmg - ()
rng - ( )
RPv -
RTv -
RUCT -
RUM -
RUPv
RURv -
sat - , ,
SC -

SD - ,
SDO -
SU rep -
Sd SO -
Sec -
sed -
SG, S/G -
SG and -
SIv -
SIBHP - ()
SIGP - ()

SIP -
SIS -
SITP - - ()

Sl - ,
SL - ,
SO, S/O -
SO and G -
SO and W -
SP - (, )
spd -
squ - , ,
SSO -
stds -
stn - ,
strks - ,
sul wtr -
sur - ,
surf -
SW, S/W -
swbd,
swbg - ,
SWS - ,

sx -
, Twp - , 66
/ -
tbg - -
tbg chk - , -
TD -
temp -
- -
/ -
TPSI - - ()

T/sd -
tstg -
Twst -
Unconf - ,
UR - ()
W -
WC -
W/C
WI -
WL - ,
W/L -
WO -
WOC, WOCS - ,
WOCT -
WO/ -
WOR -
WORT -
WOT -
WP -
Wpstk - ,
wtg -
wtr -
WW -
Xin, Xln -


DeGolyer E., Vance H., Bibliography of the Petroleum Industry, Bull. 83, A. and. M.
College of Texas, College Station, Texas, 725 p., 1944.
Dunbar . ., Dunbar L., A Selected List of Periodicals, Serials, and Books Dealing
with Petroleum and Allied Subjects, Department of Conservation, New Orleans, Louisiana,
218, p., 1939.
Economic Geology Publishing Company, Urbana, Illinois, Annotated Bibliography
of Ecomic Geology, published annually since 1928 ( .)
Geological Society of America, Bibliography and Index of Geology Exclusive of
North America, published annually since 1933, Annotated, Including a section on petroleum.
Hardwicks . ., Petroleum and Natural Gas Bibliography, Univ. of Texas, Austin,
167 p., 1937.
Katz D.L., Bzasa M.J., Bibliography for Physical Behavior of Hydrocarbons under
Pressure and Belated Phenomena, J.W. Edwards, Ann. Arbor, Michigan, 306 p., 1946.
Peckham S.F., Beport on the Production, Technology and Uses of Petroleum and Its
Products, Tenth Gensus of the United States, Government Printing Office, Washigtonn, D.
C, 1884.
Bedwood Sir ., Petroleum, 5th ed., 3 vols., Griffin and Co., London, and J. B.
Lippincott. Co., Philadelphia, 1353 p.,
Trask P.D., Bibliography Belating to Organic Content of Sediments, Beport of
Committee on Sedimentation, Division of Geology and Geography, National Besearch
Council, pp. 37-43, 1937-1938.
U.S. Geological Survey, Bibliography of North American Geology, Since 1785.

., 18501930 ., , .-., 1932.

..,

..,

,
, . , , ., 1955.
, , .
.. ., , .- ., 1966.
.., .., ,
, ., 1955.

.., , . .
, 1965.