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CPAA DESIGN MANUAL

Jacking Design
Guidelines

Concrete Pipe Association


of Australasia

Jacking Design
Guidelines
First edition 1990
Revised 2013

Concrete Pipe Association


of Australasia

JACKING PIPE GUIDELINES

Contents
1. INTRODUCTION
2. SCOPE
3. JACKING PIPES
3.1 The forces involved
3.2 Barrel Design
3.3 Joint Design

4. THE JACKING FORCES


5. JOINT STRESSES AND DEFLECTIONS
6. THE PIPE JACKING TECHNIQUE
6.1 Development
6.2 The Jacking Pit
6.3 The Shield
6.4 The Jacking Operation
6.5 Excavation
6.6 Control of Operation
6.7 Safety

7. REFERENCES

Fig. 1.1.
CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALASIA

CTIONS

UE

1.

Since this construction method was first introduced in the


USA at the end of last century the technique has become
generally accepted throughout the world and considerable
development of plant and procedures has taken place,
particularly in the last two decades.
Introduction

nstallation by jacking is a technique applicable to pipes of concrete and other rigid materials. Its use has become increasingly common in locations where open trenches would
seriously interfere with existing installations or with the traffic.
The pipes are positioned one by one in a pit or pits excavated at intervals along the line, and
from here the pipes are driven through the ground by hydraulic jacks. The excavation is carried out at the first pipe, which is equipped with a shield, and - from here the spoil is carried
back to the jacking pit for disposal. The procedure is shown diagrammatically in Fig. 1.1.
Since this construction method was first introduced in the USA at the end of last century the
technique has become generally accepted throughout the world and considerable development of plant and procedures has taken place, particularly in the last two decades.

tralasia

JACKING PIPE GUIDELINES

2. Scope

Concrete Pipe Association of Australasia

3. Jacking Pipes

ipes have been jacked in diameters up to


3.13.The
Forces
2. SCOPE
JACKING
PIPESInvolved
4000
mm with the most common range 900
to 1800.
Short lengths of smaller diameters have
Pipes have been jacked in diameters up to 4000 mm with the acking pipes, as opposed to pipes laid in open
3.1 The Forces Involved
beenmost
jacked
through
that
have
been
either
common
rangeholes
900 to
1800.
Short
lengths
of smaller
excavations,
are subjected to both jacking forces
predrilled
or thrust
bored,
or the
pipes
have
been
diameters
have been
jacked
through
holes
that
have been
Jacking
pipes,
opposed
pipesof
laid
in open
excavations,
and external earthasloads
andtoboth
these
have
to
either
predrilled
thrust and
bored,
the pipes
have been
forced
through
the or
ground
theorspoil
removed
are
subjected
to
both
jacking
forces
and
external
earth
loads
be
considered
when
specifying
the
pipes.
through the ground and the spoil removed with an
with forced
an auger.
and both of these have to be considered when specifying

auger.

the pipes.
The effect
of the jacking force on the pipe barrel
The desire in recent years to jack long lengths of
is mostly small on account of the high compresin recent
yearstotothe
jack development
long lengths ofof
800 and
800 The
and desire
smaller
has lead
The effectof
of the
the jacking
forceThe
on joint,
the pipe
barrel is mostly
sive strength
concrete.
however,
has lead
to the development
of jacking
very elaborate
very smaller
elaborate
excavation,
control and
small
on
account
of
the
high
compressive
strength
of the
excavation, control and jacking equipment with excavation,
must be considered because the joint cross-section
equipment with excavation, spoil removal, grade
concrete.
The
joint,
however,
must
be
considered
because
spoil removal, grade and bearing control all performed by
is smaller,
as across-section
rule, than isthat
of the
and the
the joint
smaller,
as barrel
a rule, than
that of the
and remote
bearing
control all performed by remote
control.
jacking
force
is
transferred
eccentrically
across
the
barrel
and
the
jacking
force
is
transferred
eccentrically
across
control.
the
joint.
joint.
Locations where jacking is most commonly used is under
Locations
where jacking is most commonly used
roads, railways, waterways or developed areas where
The external
earth
load
barrelisisequal
equal
to smaller
The external
earth
loadon
onthe
the barrel
to or
is under
roads,would
railways,
or developed
excavation
causewaterways
major disruption.
or
smaller
than
the
trench
load
on
a
pipe
bedded
than
the
trench
load
on
a
pipe
bedded
in
a
trench
of same
areas where excavation would cause major disruption.
width
as
the
excavation
(i.e.
the
outside
diameter
in a trench of same width as the excavation (i.e. of the
Length of pipe strings jacked range up to at least 250 m and
pipe plusdiameter
a margin of
for the
over-excavation).
Length
of
pipe
strings
jacked
range
up
to
at
the outside
pipe plus a margin for
longer lengths are readily achievable, but most economical
least range
250 appears
m and
longer
lengths
are
readily
to be 100-120 m.
over-excavation).
The jacking method of installation, therefore, is very efficient
achievable with intermediate jacking stations, but
from an external
of view since
the external
The jacking
methodload
of point
installation,
therefore,
is earth
forcesrange
usuallyappears
range between
1.5 and m.
4 MN but up
most Jacking
economical
to be 100-120
load
is
smaller
than
both
trench
and
embankment
very efficient from an external load point of viewload on
to 30 MN have been used.
pipes of the same diameter under the same height of fill.
Jacking forces usually range between 1200 and
since the external earth load is smaller than both
jacking
straightkN
lines
of even
7000Whilst
kN but
up toin30,000
have
beengrade
used.is the most
trench and embankment load on pipes of the same
common, horizontal as well as vertical curves have also
diameter under the same height of fill.
Whilst jacking in straight lines of even grade is the
been jacked.

most common, horizontal as well as vertical curves


best suited for pipeline construction through
have The
alsoground
been jacked.
jacking consists of granular or cohesive soils. Quicksand

The ground
best(peaty)
suitedground
for pipeline
and swampy
is poorlyconstruction
suited as control of
line and
gradeconsists
is extremely
difficult, and
jacking through
through
jacking
of granular
or cohesive
re- quires and
special
excavation
equipment
or the
soils.rock
Quicksand
swampy
(peaty)
ground
is use of
explosives.
poorly suited as control of line and grade is extremely difficult, and jacking through rock requires
special excavation equipment or the use of explosives.

Detail - Intermediate Jacking Station

Jacking Pit

Laser
Track

Hydraulic Jacks

Figure 1.1 Typical Jacking Arrangement

Fig. 1.1 Typical Jacking Arrangement

Jacking Shield

Jacking
Jacking Design
Design Guidelines
Guidelines

CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALASIA

3.2 Barrel Design


3.2 Barrel Design
3.2 Barrel Design

Experience has shown that it can be difficult to


Experience has shown that it can be difficult to control
control
rotation
of the
the jacking
Experience
haspipes
shown
thatpipes
it jacking
canduring
be operation.
difficult
toFor
control
rotation
of the
during
the
this
rotation
of
the
pipes
during
the
jacking
operation.
For
this
operation.
For
this
reason
it
is
customary
to
specify
reason it is customary to specify circular reinforcement for
reason
it
is
customary
to
specify
circular
reinforcement
for
circular
reinforcement for jacking pipes.
jacking pipes.

Minimum
Minimum
TestTest
LoadLoad
Minimum
Test
Load
(seeAustralian
AustralianStandard
StandardAS 4058-1992)
(see

(see
Australian
Standard AS 4058-1992)
AS/NZS
4058-2007)

jacking pipes.

on the
the pipes
pipes isis calculated
calculatedfrom
fromthe
The
load We
We on
The earth
earth load
The
earth
load
We
on
the
pipes
is
calculated
from
the
the
following
formula:
following formula:
following formula:

2
We CWe
2cCt-B 2cCtB
where
- CtwB2
twB
We - CtwB2 - 2cCtB

where
where

is the
width
of the
BB is
themaximum
maximum
width
of excavation
the excavation
B isis the
the unit
maximum
width
ofsoil
theabove
excavation
w
weight
of
the
the pipe
ww isisthe
unit
weightofofthethe
soil
above
the pipe
the
unit
weight
soil
above
thevalues
pipe
c is the soil cohesion for which indicative
are given
c c isisthe
soil
cohesion
for
which
indicative
values
the soil
cohesion for which indicative values
are given
in Table
3.1
Ct are
given
in
Table
3.1
in
Table
3.1
is the trench load coefficient graphed in Fig. 3.1
thetrench
trench load
load coefficient
in Fig.
3.1 3.1
the
coefficientgraphed
graphed
in Fig.
CCt
t is is
Type of Soil
Type
Typeof
ofSoil
Soil
CLAY
CLAY

Values of C
Values
of c kPa
Values
kPa of C
kPa
2
2
15
15
50
50
0
0
5
5
15
15
5
5

SOFT
SOFT
MEDIUM
MEDIUM
HARD
HARD
LOOSE
LOOSE
SILTY
SILTY
DENSE
DENSE
SATURATED
SATURATED

SAND
SAND

TOP SOIL
TOP SOIL

Theminimum
minimumtest
testload
load(T.L.)
(T.L.) required
required is:
The
is:
The minimum test load (T.L.) required is:

T.L.
T.L.== W
Wee
T.L. = W
FF e
F

factor which
assumed
to to
F Fisisaa factor
whichcan
canbebe
assumed
F be
is between
a factor 2which
can be assumed
to
and
3
depending
on
the
be between 2 and 3 depending on the
bedegree
between
2 and 3 depending
the
of over-excavation,
withwith
theon the
degree
of
over-excavation,
degree
of over-excavation,
with
the
smaller
value
corresponding
to
the
larger
smaller value corresponding to the larger
smaller
value corresponding
thethe
larger
space between
the excavationtoand
space
between the
excavation and
the
space
between
the excavation and the
outside
of the pipes.
outside of the pipes.
outside of the pipes.
(Refer clause 9.3.3 AS/NZS 3725-2007).

(Refer clause 9.3.3 AS 3725-1989).


(Refer clause 9.3.3 AS 3725-1989).

Table
(c)(C)
Table3.1
3.1- -Soil
SoilCohesion
Cohesion

Table 3.1 - Soil Cohesion (C)


1
5 1
5

2
2

3
3

4
4

5
5

6
6

7
7

8
8

9
9

10
10

Avg. Unit Weight (kN/m3)


Avg. Unit Weight (kN/m3)

ValuesofofC
Values
CttCt

4
4

A - Saturated Clay
Saturated
BA- -Wet
Clay Clay
Wet Clay
CB--Sandy
Clay
Sandy Sand
Clay
DC--Clayey
Clayey
Sand Material
ED- -Loose
Granular
E - Loose Granular Material

11
11

12
12

13
13

14
14

15
15

16
16

17
17

A
A

20
20
19
19
18
18
17
17
16
16

B
B
C
C
D
D
E
E

3
3

Natural Surface
Natural Surface

2
2

H
H
B
B

1
1
Figure
3.1 -- Trench
Trench LoadCoefficient
Coefficient(C(Ct)
Figure
)
t(Ct)
Figure3.1
3.1 - TrenchLoad
Load Coefficient

Values of H/B
Values of H/B

18
18

JACKING PIPE GUIDELINES

Concrete Pipe Association of Australasia


Joint Design
3.33.3
Joint
Design

Packer

Many special jacking joints have been developed to cater


Many
special
jacking
joints Some
have typical
been developed
to cater
3.3forJoint
Design
various
applications.
joints are shown
in
for various
Fig. 3.2 applications. Some typical joints are shown in

Fig.
3.2special jacking joints have been developed to cater
Many
joint pipesSome
have typical
been successfully
for Normal
various flush
applications.
joints are jacked
shownand
in
Normal
flush joint pipes have been successfully jacked and
Fig.are
3.2suitable for moderate jacking forces.
are suitable
moderate
jacking
forces.
A packer for
must
be applied
as shown
in Fig. 3.2a. It extends

over the fulljoint


length
of the
periphery,
but because the contact
pipes
have
been successfully
and
ANormal
packerflush
must be applied
as shown
in Fig. 3.2a.jacked
It extends
area
is
small
in
comparison
with
the
wall thickness and the
are
suitable
for
moderate
jacking
forces.
overload
the isfull
lengthrelative
of thetoperiphery,
but because
theis
eccentric
the cross-section
the
joint
A
packer
must
be
applied
as
shown
in
Fig.
3.2a.
It
extends
contact
area
small inforces
comparison
with the
wall
limited
toisjacking
of the order
given
in thickness
Table 3.2.
over the full length of the periphery, but because the contact
and These
the load
is eccentric
relative
to the cross-section
the
values
do not take
into consideration
the influence
area is small in comparison with the wall thickness and the
elasticity
joint
deflection,
which
jointofispacker
limitedthickness,
to jacking
forces and
of the
order
given in
Tableis
load is eccentric relative to the cross-section the joint is
3.2. dealt with in more detail in Section 6.
limited to jacking forces of the order given in Table 3.2.
These
valuesring
do not
not take
take
into
consideration
the influence
influence
These
values
do
consideration
the
Rubber
joints
areinto
included
where watertightness
of
packer
thickness,
elasticity
and
joint
deflection,
which
is
is essential
which elasticity
is mainly and
in sewer
and access
tunnel
of packer
thickness,
joint deflection,
which
dealt
with
in
more
detail
in
Section
6.
applications.
Detailsdetail
incorporating
concrete
sockets as well
is dealt
with in more
in Section
6.

a)

Packer

Steel Locating Band

b)

Steel Locating Band

Packer

as stainless steel socket-sleeves have been used. (See Fig.

Rubber
ring joints
joints are
are included
included where
where watertightness
watertightness
Rubber
ring
3.2c-e).
is
essential
which
is
mainly
in
sewer
and
access tunnel
tunnel
is essential which is mainly in sewer
applications.
Details
incorporating
concrete
sockets
as
InfluencingDetails
these details
are:
applications.
incorporating
concrete socketswell
as
i)
The
magnitude
of
the
jacking
force.
as
stainless
steel
socket-sleeves
have
been
used.
(See
Fig.
well as stainless steel socket-sleeves have been used. (See
ii)
The joint deflection required.
3.2c-e).
Fig.
3.2c-e).

Both of these parameters depend on the degree of control


exercised
over details
the operation,
Influencing
are: which again depends on the
Influencing these
these
details
are:
sophistication
of
the
equipment
available.
Themagnitude
magnitudeof
ofthe
the jacking
jacking force.
force.
i) i)The

Thejoint
joint deflection
deflection required.
ii)ii)The
required.
The
which tolerances
and of
grade
are
Both
of ease
these with
parameters
depend onon
theline
degree
control
achieved
depends
on the
squareness
the ends
of the
the
Both
of these
parameters
depend
onagain
theof
degree
of control
exercised
over
the operation,
which
depends
on
pipes
as
well
as
the
equipment.
In
this
context
reference
exercised
over of
thethe
operation,
which
again depends on the
sophistication
equipment
available.
should be made
the relevantavailable.
clauses on end squareness
sophistication
of thetoequipment
in Australian Standard AS 4058-1992.
The ease with which tolerances on line and grade are
The
ease depends
with which
tolerances
on line
andends
grade
are
achieved
on the
squareness
of the
of the
achieved
depends
on
the
squareness
of
the
ends
of
the
pipes as well as the equipment. In this context reference
pipes
well
as the
equipment.
In
this on
context
reference
Diameter
Max.
Jacking
Force
shouldasbe
made
to the
relevant clauses
end squareness
should
be
made
to
the
relevant
clauses
on
end
squareness
in Australian Standard
(mm) AS 4058-1992.
(kN)
in Australian Standard AS/NZS 4058-2007.

900

1200
Diameter

Packer

c)

Packer

Packer

Rubber Ring

Steel Locating Band

Rubber Ring

d)

Steel Locating Band


Packer

1200

Rubber Ring

1800 Force
Max. Jacking

Diameter
(mm)
1500
(mm)

Max. Jacking
Force (kN)
2200
(kN)

1800
900
2100
1200

3100
1200
7000
1800

1500

2200

1800

3100

Steel Locating Band

2100

7000

Packer

Packer
Steel
Locating Band
Rubber Ring

e)

* Refer to manufacturer for allowable jacking forces for different


joint configurations

Confined Rubber Ring

Table 3.2 Maximum Jacking Forces

Figure 3.2 Joints Suitable for Jacking Pipes

Fig. 3.2 Joints suitable for Jacking Pipes

Packer

Confined Rubber Ring

CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALASIA

4. The Jacking Forces

5. Joint Stresses and


Jacking Design Guidelines
Deflections
he resistance which has to be overcome during

the jacking operation varies considerably from


case to case and only a range can be indicated. The
influencing
factors are:
4. THE JACKING
FORCES
1.
outside
of during
jackedthe
line
The Length
resistanceand
which
has to diameter
be overcome
jacking
operation
considerably from case to case and only a
2.
Weightvaries
of pipe
range
can beofindicated.
The influencing factors are
3.
Height
overburden
4. Nature of ground
1. Length and outside diameter of jacked line
5.
Load on
shield or leading edge
2. Weight
of pipe
6.
Whether
operation is continuous or not
3. Height
of overburden
4. Nature
of ground
7.
Lubrication
5. Load on shield or leading edge

When
the operation
jacking operation
the resist6. Whether
is continuousis orstopped
not
7. Lubrication
ance
builds up very quickly in some soils. Jacking
force increases of 20-50% are reported following
When the jacking operation is stopped the resistance builds
delays of as little as 8 hours. Under such circumup very quickly in some soils. Jacking force increases of
stances
pipe
jacking
should
be of
carried
as a
20-50% are
reported
following
delays
as little out
as 8 hours.
continuous
operation whenever
Under such circumstances
pipe jackingpossible.
should be carried out
as a continuous operation whenever possible.

The pipe jacking resistance per unit area of external


The pipe ranges
jacking resistance
perover
unit area
of external
surface
surface
from 5 to
40 kPa,
and typical
ranges
from
5
to
over
40
kPa,
and
typical
values
for
various
values for various ground conditions are listed
in
ground conditions are listed in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1.

Ground Condition

Jacking Resistance
(kPa)

Ground Condition

Jacking Resistance (kPa)

Rock

2-3

Boulder Clay

5-18

Firm Clay

5-20

Wet Clay

10-15

Silt

5-20

Dry Loose Sand

25-45

he theoretical line and grade of a jacked pipeline isSTRESSES


never completely
achieved in practice.
5. JOINT
AND DEFLECTIONS
Without making any allowance for margins to
The
theoretical
line andingrade
of a jacked
pipelinewhich
is never is
cover
variations
concrete
strength,
completely
achieved
practice.
Without making
any
irrelevant
havinginregard
toToler
the approximate
nature
allowance for margins to cover variations in concrete strength,
of this analysis, a uniform joint stress of around
which is irrelevant having regard to the approximate nature
to 45/3
MPa orjoint
12 stress
to 15ofMPa
can35/3
be to
allowed
of 35/3
this analysis,
a uniform
around
45/3
forormachine-made
wet-cast
pipes
respectively.
MPa
12 to 15 MPa canand
be allowed
for cast
and
spun pipes
respectively.

Such deviations are corrected by adjustments which


result
in angular
deflections
at the joints
asresult
did the
Such
deviations
are corrected
by adjustments
which
in
angular
deflections
at theprompting
joints as did the
the original
deviations
original
deviations
adjustments.
prompting the adjustments.

In order to avoid damage to the joints due to over-

In stressing
order to avoid
damage
to the
jointsitdue
to importance
over- stressingto
by the
jacking
force
is of
by the jacking force it is of importance to estimate the stress
estimate the stress concentrations resulting from
concentrations resulting from the angular joint deflections.
angular
joint deflections.
Asthe
a first
approximation
it can be assumed that stress
concentrations about 3 times the joint stress resulting from
As a first approximation it can be assumed that
completely uniform application of the jacking force must be
stress concentrations about 3 times the joint stress
expected.

resulting from completely uniform application of

Without
makingforce
any allowance
forexpected.
margins to cover variations
the jacking
must be
in concrete strength, which is irrelevant having regard to the
approximate
nature ofany
thisallowance
analysis, a uniform
joint stress
of
Without making
for margins
to cover
around
35/3
to
45/3
MPa
or
12
to
15
MPa
can
be
allowed
variations in concrete strength, which is irrelevant
for cast and spun pipes respectively. A more detailed analysis
having regard to the approximate nature of this
has been carried out by Lenz and Moller (Ref. 18) and the
analysis,
a uniform
jointon
stress
around 35/3 to 45/3
following
approach
is based
theirof
development.

MPa or 12 to 15 MPa can be allowed for machine-

It made
is here assumed
that the pipes
pipes are
separated byAelastic
and wet-cast
respectively.
more
packers
of
wood
or
hardboard.
Materials
a high
detailed analysis has been carried out with
by Lenz
and
Poissons ratio like rubber and plastic are not suitable, as
Moller (Ref. 18) and the following approach is
they cause spalling of the joint edges.

based on their development.

It is here assumed that the pipes are separated by


elastic packers of wood or hardboard. Materials
with a high Poissons ratio like rubber and plastic
are not suitable, as they cause spalling of the joint
edges

Table 4.1 Jacking Resistance for Various Ground Conditions

Having regard to the high static resistance, jacking capacity


to cope with unscheduled stop- pages is necessary.
Having
regard
the high static
jackingis
In cohesive
soil to
a substantial
portionresistance,
of the resistance
capacity
to copeandwith
is
ground adhesion,
this unscheduled
can be reduced stoppages
by lubrication.
The most commonly used lubricant is Bentonite, which is
necessary.
injected through nipples in

In cohesive soil a substantial portion of the resistthe jacking


head and
along theand
pipethis
wall.can
It isbe
claimed
that
ance
is ground
adhesion,
reduced
lubrication repeated every 2-3 days can reduce the jacking
by lubrication. The most commonly used lubricant
force by more than 50% but average reductions of about
is
Bentonite,
which is injected through nipples
30%
are more common.
in the jacking head and along the pipe wall. It is
claimed that lubrication repeated every 2-3 days
can reduce the jacking force by more than 50%
but average reductions of about 30% are more
common.

Concrete Pipe
Association
of Australasia
JACKING
PIPE GUIDELINES
Figure
5.2
Figure 5.2

The thickness of these packers before permanent


deformation is a. Packer thickness after permanent
deformation, a = 0.6 a.

Pipe length: L

Total packer and pipe deformation can now be written:

a = a + L
Where represents the dimensional change.

L
j E = j E + E
j
p
c

a
Ej

Ej =

and:

tj

From Fig 5.2 follows:

= j

a
Ep

+ j

tj L
t

Ec

a t Ec

+ Ltj. Ep

This case is treated in Ref. 12 and for the ratios of inner


to outer radii of the joint ri r = 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0 curves
linking

jo and

max j

z r

j
jo

jo

2
1

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Figure 5.1
Figure
5.1

a max j

where:

hence:

or in radians:

a jo max j jo
Ej r
z r

and degrees:

180 a jo max j jo
Ej r
z r

a
Ej

Ej
max j

Above considerations are based on the simple elasticity


theory assuming that E is constant and independent of the
stress. This assumption is not valid for concrete, but it is
on the safe side. This explains why actual lines have been
deflected in excess of the safe angles predicted by above
considerations without causing any damage to the joints.

If the deflection concentrated at the joint only is required


the value of Ep should be substituted for Ej in the equation
for .

ri r = 0.8

ri r = 0.8

This equation allows us to estimate the safe deflection for


any pipe-joint configuration. It must be noted that this
deflection is the combined pipe-packer deflection and is
larger than what would be measured at the joint.

are shown in Fig. 5.1.

ri r = 0.8

max

tg =

a t Ep Ec

The problem is now reduced to that of the stress distribution


in an annular cross-section where the tensile stresses are
disregarded.

max j

r
ri

In these expressions jo is the joint stress for uniform load.

consideration pipe wall elasticity.

r
ri

Ep and Ec are the corresponding elasticity coefficients,


and Ej an equivalent joint elasticity coefficient taking into

hence:

max j

where j is the stress in the joint and in the wall.

= j

packer

jo

The deformations can be related to the stresses:

j
z r

max

jo

The following examples illustrate the advantage of wide


joints and thick packers on the permissible joint deflections.

Jacking Design Guidelines

CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALASIA

Example 1. Packer (Joint) is full width of wall.

Hence:

Outside diameter: 2220 mm


Inside diameter: 2000 mm

and:

ri r = 0.90
max j = 40 MPa

Ej =

Ec = 40 000 MPa
Ep = 150 M Pa

Pipe Length, L = 3000 mm


Compressed Packer Thickness, a = 15 mm
=

(2000 + 110)110 x

max j

and:
max

8750 x 103

jo

j jo
z r

Ej =

40.0
12.0

85.7 x 1110

16.7

= 2.40 and from Fig 5.1

= 1.5

15 x 110 x 150 x 40000


15 x 110 x 40000 + 3000 x 80 x 150
15 x 16.7
97.1 x 1080

= 97.1 MPa

x 1.5 = 0.00358 (Rad.) = 0 12

Example 3. This is identical to Example 2 with the


exception that the pipe length is halved. It then follows:

= 3.2

15 x 12

40.0

deflection angle caused by reduced joint width.

= 3.33 and from Fig 5.1

15 x 110 x 40000 + 3000 x 110 x 150

= 16.7 MPa

When comparing with Example 1 note the reduction in

= 12.0 MPa

15 x 110 x 150 x 40000

(2000 +80)80 x

max j

z r

Jacking Force: 8750 kN

8750 x 103

jo
max j jo

Wall and Joint Thickness: t = tj = 110 mm

Hence:

jo

= 85.7 MPa

Ej =

15 x 110 x 150 x 40000


15 x 110 x 40000 + 1500 x 80 x 150

= 117.9 MPa

x 3.2 = 0.00606 (Rad.) = 0 20.8

5 x 16.7
117.9 x 1080

x 1.5 = 0.00295 (Rad.) = 0 10.1

For a 3000 mm length of pipeline with 2 joints the deflection

Example 2. Packer (Joint) is not full width of wall.

would be 0

Outside diameter: 2220 mm

20.2 or 68% greater than for the line with

3000 mm long pipes.

Inside diameter: 2000 mm


Wall, t = 110 mm
Joint, tj = 80 mm
ri r =

1000
1080

Example 4. This is identical to Example 3 except that the


packer thickness is doubled.

= 0.93
Ej =

Jacking Force: 8750 kN


max j = 40 MPa

Ec = 40 000 MPa
Ep = 150 MPa

30 x 110 x 150 x 40000


30 x 110 x 40000 + 1500 x 80 x 150
30 x 16.7
132.0 x 1080

= 132.0 MPa

x 1.5 = 0.0053 (Rad.) = 0 18.1

Pipe Length, L = 3000 mm

Note that a doubling of packer thickness has increased the

Compressed Packer Thickness, a = 15 mm

deflection by 80%.

JACKING PIPE GUIDELINES

Concrete Pipe Association


of Australasia
6.1 Development

6. The Pipe Jacking


Technique

The preparation of a pipe jacking operation commences with the excavation of the jacking pit -if
is required.
6such
.2 The
JackingThe
Pitpit wall must be reinforced to
withstand the maximum jacking force envisaged.

6.
THEDevelopment
PIPE JACKING TECHNIQUE
6.1

The preparation of a pipe jacking operation commences


While
it is relatively
to pit
design
bearing
arwith
the excavation
of theeasy
jacking
-if such
is required.
eas,pitgrillages,
or ground
anchors
resist
The
wall must piles,
be reinforced
to withstand
theto
maximum
jacking
force envisaged.
the jacking
loads, deflection can become a major

6.1 he
Development
mechanisation in the last couple of decades,
and in later years the automation of pipe jack-

The
mechanisation
in the lastaims:
couple of decades, and in
ing has
had the following
later years the automation of pipe jacking has had the following
i) To aims:
reduce the labour content of the operation.
i)ii)To To
reduce
the labour
content over
of thethe
operation.
increase
the control
operations.
ii) To increase the control over the operations.
iii) To allow the jacking of pipes 800 mm and less
iii) To allow the
of pipes
800 mm
and less in diam6.jacking
THE PIPE
JACKING
TECHNIQUE
in diameters.
eters.

Concrete Pipe Association of Australasia

problem. If insufficient rigidity is available, some of

While
it iseffort
relatively
design will
bearing
the jack
andeasy
ramto travel
be areas,
lost ingrillages,
overpiles, or ground anchors to resist the jacking loads, defleccoming become
elastic deformations.
Deflections can cause
tion 6can
a major
problem. If insufficient rigidity is
.2 Theloads
Jacking
Pit jack
eccentric
to
the
base
head
with
available, some of the jack effort and or
ramram
travel
will be
lost
subsequent
seal
failure,
fracture
of
the
jack
body
in
overcoming
elastic
deformations.
Deflections
can
cause
The
preparation
of
a
pipe
jacking
operation
commences
6.1 Development
Reports of operations
carried out 40 or more years
with the
excavation
ofjack
the base
jacking
pitram
-if such
is required.
eccentric
loads
theram.
head
with subseor bending
ofto
the
(Ref or
1).
Reports of operations carried out 40 or more years ago refer
Theseal
pit wall
mustfracture
be reinforced
to withstand
theor
maximum
ago
refer
to
advances
per
shift
around
1.5
m.
Toquent
failure,
of
the
jack
body
bending of
The
mechanisation
in
the
last
couple
of
decades,
and
in
to advances per shift around 1.5 m. Today with a 3-4 man
jacking
force
envisaged.
laterman
years crew
the automation
of pipe jacking
has
had the folWhere
the
jacking
operation
is
under
an
embankthe
ram.
(Ref
1).
day
with
a
3-4
of
experienced
men
2.5-5
crew of experienced men 2.5-5 m/shift are achieved on avlowing aims:

ment
a pitit isisrelatively
not required
and bearing
the reaction
may be
While
easy to design
areas, grillages,

erage
with
of content
10-15,
even
higher
m/shift
arepeak
achieved
average
with
peak
perfori) Toperformance
reduce on
the labour
ofand
the
operation.
outputs
diameters
ii) smaller
To increase
the control
over the
operations.
mance for
of the
10-15,
and
even
higher
outputs
for the

Where
the
jacking
operation
is under
an embankment
a pit
ground anchors
resist
the jacking
loads,
piles,
taken
byoranchors
sunktointo
the
ground
or deflecthrough
is
not
required
and
the
reaction
may
be
taken
by
anchors
tion
can
become
a
major
problem.
If
insufficient
rigidity
is
iii) To allow the jacking of pipes 800 mm and less in diam-rods anchored at the far side of the embankment.
smaller diameters
of theor
jack
effort and
ramanchored
travel will be
sunkavailable,
into thesome
ground
through
rods
atlost
the far
Similarly layingeters.
tolerances have improved. Acceptable tolerLaunching
pad
or
guide
rails
are
constructed
alin
overcoming
elastic
deformations.
Deflections
can
cause
side
of
the
embankment.
Launching
pad
or
guide
rails
are
ance
specifications
range from 30-100
mm in both
vertical
Similarly
laying
tolerances
have
improved.
Accepteccentric
loads
tobe
theaccurately
jack base or ram
head with
subselowing
pipes
to
aligned
in
direction
Reports
of operations
carried
out 40 or more
years ago refer
constructed
allowing
pipes
to
be
accurately
aligned
in
direcand
directions,
and tolerances
actually
achieved
quent seal failure, fracture of the jack body or bending of
ablehorizontal
tolerance
specifications
range
30-100
to advances
per shift around
1.5from
m. Today
with a 3-4 man
andthe
grade.
tion
and
grade.
ram.
(Ref 1).
range from 10-20 mm.
of experienced
men 2.5-5 m/shift
are achieved
mm in both crew
vertical
and horizontal
directions,
and on av-

The fact that the


majority
of performance
pipelines belong
in the
erage
with peak
of 10-15,
andbelow
even higher
jacking operation is under an embankment a pit
tolerances
actually
10-20
outputs
forachieved
the
800
mm diameter
range
hassmaller
beendiameters
arange
strong from
incentive
to de6.3 Where
The the
Shield
is not required and the reaction may be taken by anchors
mm.
velop suitable equipment for use in these diameters. Equipsunk into the ground or through rods anchored at the far
Similarly laying tolerances have improved. Acceptable tolerment including
sophisticated cutting heads, spoil disposal
In
andand
executed
jacking
operations
In well
well
executed
jacking
operations
side planned
ofplanned
the embankment.
Launching
pad
or guide
railsthe
are lead
ance
specifications
range
from
30-100
mm
in
both
vertical
The fact that
the majority
ofhas
pipelines
belong in the
conveyors
andand
steering
devices
resulted.
pipe
is
equipped
with
a
sharp
edged
shield
which
serves
constructed
allowing
pipes
to
be
accurately
aligned
in
direchorizontal directions, and tolerances actually achievedthe lead pipe is equipped with a sharp edged shield
below 800 mm
tion and grade.
the two-fold
purpose of reducing the resistance to the pipe
rangediameter
from 10-20range
mm. has been a strong
which serves the two-fold purpose of reducing the
fact that the
majorityequipment
of pipelines belong
the below
entering the soil and minimizing the quantity of soil spilling
incentive toThe
develop
suitable
for inuse
resistance
thelatter
pipecan
entering
the enhanced
soil and minimiz6.3
ThetoShield
800 mm diameter
range has
been a strong
incentive to deinto
the pipe.
The
be further
by providin these diameters.
Equipment
including
sophistivelop suitable equipment for use in these diameters. Equiping
the
quantity
of
soil
spilling
into
the
pipe.
The
ing
one
or
more
baffles
in
the
top
segment
of
the
opening.
cated cutting heads, spoil disposal conveyors and

6.3 The Shield

ment including sophisticated cutting heads, spoil disposal

In well planned and executed jacking operations the lead

latter
can
be further
byshield
providing
one or
pipe
is equipped
with enhanced
a sharp edged
which serves
Depending
on the
typetop
soil
andthethe
of pipe
groundmore
in
the
segment
ofpresence
the opening.
thebaffles
two-fold
purpose
ofofreducing
resistance
to the

conveyors
steering devices has resulted.
steering devices
hasand
resulted.

water
thesethe
precautions
may betheinadequate
andspilling
chemical
entering
soil and minimizing
quantity of soil
into the pipe.
latter
can
be
bypresence
providstabilization,
freezing
and
compressed
air atthe
the
face of the
Depending
onThethe
type
offurther
soil enhanced
and
ing one or
more
in
the top
segment unscheduled
of the opening.entry
excavation
have
allbaffles
been
used
to prevent
of groundwater
these
precautions
may be inadof
soil
into
the
work
area.
equate
and onchemical
stabilization,
freezing
Depending
the type of soil
and the presence
of ground-and
The shield
may also
be equipped
with individual
jacks which
water these
precautions
and chemical
compressed
air
at the may
facebeofinadequate
the excavation
have
allowstabilization,
it to be tilted
andand
thereby
making
to the
freezing
compressed
air atadjustment
the face of the
all been
used
toallprevent
entryentry
of soil
excavation
have
been Fig.
usedunscheduled
to prevent unscheduled
direction
of
jacking.
(See
6.1).
soil into
thearea.
work area.
intoofthe
work

The shield may also be equipped with individual jacks which

it to may
be tilted
and be
thereby
making adjustment
to the
Theallow
shield
also
equipped
with individual
direction of jacking. (See Fig. 6.1).
jacks which allow it to be tilted and thereby making

Figure 6.1 Typical Jacking


Shield Arrangements

10

Fig 6.1 Typical Jacking Shield Arrangements


Fig 6.1 Typical Jacking Shield Arrangements

CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALASIA

6.4 The Jacking Operation

6.5 Excavation

When jacking short to medium lengths the jacking


force is provided by jacks located at the pit and
transferred to the pipe through a jacking head distributing the load evenly along its periphery.

Excavation equipment is selected on the basis


of job size, pipe size and type of ground. Normal
method is to use short handled picks and shovels
plus miscellaneous pneumatic equipment, e.g. clay
spaders, jackpicks. In the very large jobs the expense of a mole may be war- ranted. These generally have their own built in cutting and removal
system.

The jacks should all be of the one size and with a


total capacity well above estimated jacking loads.
While a stroke exceeding the pipe length will avoid
the use of spacers it is usually uneconomical to purchase jacks with strokes of this order. Short stroke
jacks although increasing the handling problems
can reduce the size of the jacking pits. Jacks operate at a relatively high pressure even the so-called
low pressure jacks operate at 15 MPa. Jacking
6.4equipment
The Jacking
Operation
should
be clean and well maintained
particularly the hydraulic oil and filters. At least
When
shortshould
to medium
lengths
the jacking
onejacking
spare jack
be kept
on site.
If one force
jack
is provided by jacks located at the pit and transferred to
fails the remaining jacks may have sufficient capacthe pipe through a jacking head distributing the load evenly
ity its
to periphery.
push the pipe -however, in most jack conalong
figurations the removal of one jack will apply an
eccentric
load to
pipe.
The
jacks should
all the
be of
the one size and with a total

of spoil is usually with


Jacking DesignRemoval
Guidelines

capacity well above estimated jacking loads. While a stroke


Although
rateswill
areavoid
relatively
slow
0.3it
exceeding
thejacking
pipe length
the use
of (e.g.
spacers
m/hr.)
power
operated
jacks
should
be
used
is usually uneconomical to purchase jacks with strokes to
of
uneven
and extra
labourthe
associthisavoid
order.the
Short
strokejacking
jacks although
increasing
handling
problems
can reduce
the size
the jacking pits. Jacks
ated
with manual
jacks.
(Refof1).
operate at a relatively high pressure even the so-called
jacking
from only
the jacklowWhen
pressure
jacks operate
at 15one
MPa.position
Jacking equipment
ing force
increases
the length
of the section
should
be clean
and wellwith
maintained
particularly
the hydraulic
oil
and
filters.
At
least
one
spare
jack
should
be
kept
jacked. It is therefore usual when jacking long lines
on to
site.introduce
If one jackintermediate
fails the remaining
jacks
may
have
sufjacking stations where
ficient
capacity
to
push
the
pipe
-however,
in
most
jack
conthe force is introduced between the pipes thus refigurations the removal of one jack will apply an eccentric
ducing the maximum force required. In this case
load to the pipe.

the rear pipe section acts as anchor for the reaction tojacking
the jacking
force
pressing
the(e.g.
front
Although
rates are
relatively
slow
0.3section
m/hr.)
forward.
power
operated jacks should be used to avoid the uneven

(1) a handcart
(2) conveyor belt
(3) small machines
Removal of spoil is usually with
Handcarts are commonly used in the smaller pipes.
(1) a handcart
Providing the pipe slope is not severe and the pipe
(2) conveyor belt
is kept
reasonably clean quite heavy loads (1-2
(3)
small machines

tonnes) can be pushed. Small power winches assist


in adversearecircumstances.
Handcarts
commonly used in the smaller pipes. Providing the pipe slope is not severe and the pipe is kept reasonConveyor
beltsheavy
are an
excellent
means
ably
clean quite
loads
(1-2 tonnes)
canof
be transpushed.
ferring
material.
Asassist
the in
pipe-line
is continually inSmall
power
winches
adverse circumstances.

creasing the conveyors must have quick means of

Conveyor
arelengths.
an excellent
means
adjustingbelts
flight
(Ref
1). of transferring material. As the pipe-line is continually increasing the conveyors
Where
is adjusting
a seriousflight
problem
commust
havegroundwater
quick means of
lengths.
(Ref
1).
pressed air has been used to counterbalance the

water pressure either by creating a compression

Where
groundwater
is a behind
serious problem
compressed
chamber
immediately
the cutting
face orair
has been used to counterbalance the water pressure either
for smaller diameters by pressurizing the whole
by creating a compression chamber immediately behind
pipeline.
also
rotatingbycutting
headsthe
the
cutting Here
face or
foraugers
smaller or
diameters
pressurizing
are
used.
In
the
latter
case
the
pressure
on
the
whole pipeline. Here also augers or rotating cuttingcutheads
ting
head
may
be case
applied
by the on
grout
pressure
are
used.
In the
latter
the pressure
the cutting
head
being
behind
the head.
applied by the
grout pressure
being maintained bemay
be maintained
hind the head.

jacking and extra labour associated with manual jacks.


The
(Ref
1). pipe joints for such intermediate jacking sta-

tions will have to be specially designed as provision

must
be made
for both
a considerable
When
jacking
from only
one position
the jackingjoint
forcegap
increases
with
the
length
of
the
section
jacked.
It
is
thereto be developed without the joint coming out of
forealignment
usual when
jacking
long linesjacks
to introduce
intermediand
for hydraulic
to be accommoatedated
jackingwithin
stations
where
theofforce
is introduced
the
edges
the pipe
wall. between
the pipes thus reducing the maximum force required. In this
case
rearinstances
pipe section
acts
as anchorhas
for been
the reaction
to
Inthe
some
this
approach
used to
thethe
jacking
force
pressing
the
front
section
forward.
extent that all jacking except of the last 2-3
pipes to have entered the line is done from inter-

The pipe joints for such intermediate jacking stations will


mediate stations. The extreme in this development
have to be specially designed as provision must be made for
is to
carry out jacking
at to
each
and to
limit the
both
a considerable
joint gap
be joint
developed
without
the
movement
pipe at
a for
time.
In thisjacks
instance
joint
coming outtoofone
alignment
and
hydraulic
to be
the jacking iswithin
donethe
by edges
inflating
rubber
tubes placed
accommodated
of the
pipe wall.
In some
instances
this
approach
has
been
used
the deflaextent
in the joints and by successive inflationtoand
thattion
all jacking
the last 2-3advance
pipes to is
have
entered
of the except
tubes aofworm-like
achieved.
the line is done from inter- mediate stations. The extreme
in this development is to carry out jacking at each joint and
to limit the movement to one pipe at a time. In this instance 11 6.6
the jacking is done by inflating rubber tubes placed in the

Control of Operation

JACKING PIPE GUIDELINES

6.6 Control of Operation

A variation to (ii) has also been used in case of larger


pipelines. Here a pilot line was first constructed near
the invert and an accurate concrete cradle cast for
the larger pipeline to slide on. An expensive but effective way of ensuring close construction tolerances.

Concrete Pipe Association of Australasia

Consistent control of direction and grade is essential, a task which in recent years has been vastly
simplified by the use of laser beams. The level and
direction of the progress of the pipeline should be
Fig. 6.2 (b) shows the correction having been implemented
plotted
in stage
order
to allow
earlymore
adjustments
as
at
an earlier
resulting
in a much
accurate operainstant
correction
to
direction
of
jacking
cannot
be
tion than in Fig. 6.2 (a).
made.

6.7
6.7Safety
Safety
Pipe jacking projects like all operations below ground rePipe jacking projects like all operations below
quire careful attention to safety requirements. Poisonous
ground
require
careful by
attention
to safety
requiregases
whether
generated
the equipment
used
or emaments.from
Poisonous
gases whether
generated
nating
the soil excavated
must be
removed, by
andthe
meequipment
used or
emanating
from the
soilregard
exca-to
chanical
equipment
must
be well screened
having
the
cramped
conditions
often
existing onequipprojects
vated
must working
be removed,
and
mechanical
of
this
nature.
ment must be well screened having regard to the

Fig. 6.2 (a) shows correction to the direction of


jacking having
been
delayed
until of
theways
pipeline
has
Corrections
can be
made
in a variety
as, for
instance:
intersected the projected course. The result is that
i)pipeline
By vertical
and horizontal
of jacking force
overshoots
in theadjustments
opposite direction
beposition.
fore the corrective measures take effect.

cramped working conditions often existing on pro-

ii) By excavating ahead to correct line and grade (cohesive


soils
Fig. only).
6.2 (b) shows the correction having been imiii) By adjustments to the shield. (Fig. 6.1)

Power requirements are ideally supplied by electricity or


jects of thisairnature.
compressed
as internal combustion engines will require
added ventilation and are very noisy in such a confined
Power requirements are ideally supplied by elecspace. High pressure hydraulic hoses and connections must
tricity
or compressed
internal
combustion
be
meticulously
maintainedair
andasindustrial
safety
regulations
engines will
added
ventilation
and In
aregeneral
very
governing
therequire
use of laser
must
be observed.
noisymining
in such
a confined
High
local
regulations
must bespace.
followed
withpressure
regard to
plant
and installations,
electric lighting
most
instanchydraulic
hoses andand
connections
mustin be
meticues
needs
to
be
limited
to
32
volt.
lously maintained and industrial safety regulations

plemented at an earlier stage resulting in a much


more
accurate
than
in in
Fig.
6.2of(a).
A
variation
to (ii) operation
has also been
used
case
larger pipelines. Here a pilot line was first constructed near the invert
Corrections can be made in a variety of ways as, for
and an accurate concrete cradle cast for the larger pipeinstance:
line
to slide on. An expensive but effective way of ensuring
close construction tolerances.

i) By vertical and horizontal adjustments of


jacking force position.
ii) By excavating ahead to correct line and grade
(cohesive soils only).
iii) By adjustments to the shield. (Fig. 6.1)

A.

governing the use of laser must be observed. In


general local mining regulations must be followed
with regard to plant and installations, and electric
lighting in most instances needs to be limited
to 32 volt.

Start of Correction
Result of Correction

Deviation
Design Centre Line

Start of Correction
B.

Result of Correction

Design Centre Line


Figure 6.2 Steering of Pipeline

Fig 6.2 Steering of Pipeline

12

Jacking Design Guidelines

CONCRETE PIPE ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALASIA

ENGLISH

REFERENCES

REFERENCES

13.Horizontal Earth Boring and Pipe Jacking Manual.


14. Jacking
Concrete
Pipes.
National
Utility
Contractors
Association, 1981.

CPA of Great Britain, Bull. No 5. 1980.
15. Pipe Jacking Basics. Civil Engineering, Sept 1979.
ENGLISH
16. How Intermediate Crowns extend Pipe Jacking

Possibilities,
World
Water, Feb 1980.
14.Jacking
Concrete
Pipes.
17.Pipe
Jacking:
A State-of-the-Art
CPA
of Great
Britain,
Bull. No 5. 1980.Review.

Construction
Industry Research and Information
15.Pipe
Jacking Basics.
Association. Sept
Technical
Civil Engineering,
1979.Note 112. 1983 by

R NIntermediate
Craig.
16.How
Crowns extend Pipe Jacking Possibilities, World Water, Feb 1980.
17.Pipe Jacking: A State-of-the-Art Review.
Construction Industry Research and Information Association. Technical Note 112. 1983 by R N Craig.
18. Lenz, D. undo Moller, H.J.:

Beispiele Fur im Durchpressverfahren Eingebaute
GERMAN
Grosse Leitungen Aus Stahlbeton-und Spannbetonrohren. Betonund Stahlbetonbau 1970 NR.8.
18.
undo
Moller, H.J.:van Stahlbetonrohren
19. Lenz,
Lenz,D.D.:
Durchpressen
Beispiele
im Durchpressverfahren
Eingebaute Grosse

SehrFur
Grossen
Durchmessers. Beton-und
Leitungen
Aus Stahlbeton-und
Spannbetonrohren. Beton
Fertigteil-Technik
1975 NR.9.
und
1970 NR.8.
20. Stahlbetonbau
Scherle, M.: Technik
und Anwendungsgrundsatze
19.
D.:
Lenz,
des Rohrvortriebes.
Baumaschine und Bautechnik.
Durchpressen
1971. van Stahlbetonrohren Sehr Grossen
Durchmessers.
21. Bielecki, R.: Maass, U.: Stein, D. Small diameter
Beton-und
1975and
NR.9.
jackedFertigteil-Technik
pipes: Development
experience
20.
M.:
Scherle,
from Hamburg
Pipes and Pipelines International.
Technik
und
Anwendungsgrundsatze des Rohrvortriebes.
Aug.
1983.
Baumaschine und Bautechnik.1971.
21. Bielecki, R.: Maass, U.: Stein, D.
Small diameter jacked pipes: Development and experience
from Hamburg
Pipes and Pipelines International. Aug. 1983.

AUSTRALIAN

AUSTRALIAN

1. Pipe Jacking J Daffy.


1. Pipe Jacking J Daffy.

Cement and Concrete Association of Australia.
Cement and Concrete Association of Australia. Technical
Technical Note 24, 1973.
Note 24, 1973.
2. Pipe Jacking and Boring in lieu of Tunnelling.
2. Pipe Jacking and Boring in lieu of Tunnelling.

Proceedings of the 14th Conference of Engineers
Proceedings of the 14th Conference of Engineers controlcontrolling Water Supply and Sewerage
ling Water Supply and Sewerage Undertakings serving the

Undertakings serving the Cities and Towns of
Cities and Towns of Australia. Brisbane 22-26 Sept 1969.

Australia. Brisbane 22-26 Sept 1969.
3. Pipe Jacking in lieu of Tunnelling R Surgener.
3. Pipe Jacking in lieu of Tunnelling R Surgener.
Concrete Pipe Association of Australia (CPAA). National

Concrete Pipe Association of Australia (CPAA).
Seminar Melbourne and Sydney, Oct-Nov 1972.
National Seminar Melbourne and Sydney,
4. Pipe Jacking C Greeves. Hume News, Nov. 1971.

Oct-Nov 1972.
5. Pipe Jacking G Magee. Hume News, Mar. 1972.
4. Pipe Jacking C Greeves. Hume News, Nov. 1971.
6. A look at Horizontal Boring and Pipe Jacking by Bill
5. Pipe Jacking G Magee. Hume News, Mar. 1972.
Jones.
6. A look at Horizontal Boring and Pipe Jacking by
Pipeline Construction, Aug-Sept. 1974.
Bill Jones. Pipeline Construction, Aug-Sept. 1974.
7. The Jacking of a Concrete Pipe through Dry Running
7. The Jacking of a Concrete Pipe through Dry RunSand, Dandenong Valley Authority,
ning Sand, Dandenong Valley Authority,
Technical Report No.7, Oct 1978.

Technical Report No.7, Oct 1978.

GERMAN

AMERICAN

AMERICAN

8. Concrete Pipe Lines.


American Concrete Pipe Association (ACPA) Publication
8. Concrete Pipe Lines. American Concrete Pipe
1942.
9. Concrete
Association
Publication
Pipe(ACPA)
Handbook
ACPA 1942.
1980.
9. ConcretePipe
Pipe
Handbook
ACPA
1980.
10.Concrete
Design
Manual
ACPA
1970.
10. Concrete
Manual
ACPA 1970.
11.Design
DataPipe
No.Design
13 ACPA
1968.
11 .Design
Data No.
13 ACPA
12.Marks:
Standard
Handbook
for 1968.
Mechanical Engineers
12. Marks:
Standard
1978,
Section
5, p.44. Handbook for Mechanical

Engineers 1978, Section 5, p.44.
13. Horizontal Earth Boring and Pipe Jacking Manual.

National Utility Contractors Association, 1981.

13

Concrete Pipe Association


of Australasia

www.cpaa.asn.au