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:

PURE

project on urban
reduction of eutrophication

Part-financed by the European Union


(European Regional Development Fund
and European Neighbourhood and
Partnership Instrument)

:
2012: (Project on Urban Reduction of
Eutrophication, PURE) , Vanha Suurtori 7, 20500 Turku,
Finland (); www.purebalticsea.eu
311 2 Pyry Finland Oy
PURE
.
: - , Entsorgungsbetriebe Lbeck; , ; , ; , .
: shutterstock.com/DmitriMaruta. .
:
:

Part-financed by the European Union


(European Regional Development Fund
and European Neighbourhood and
Partnership Instrument)

: , .
: 125
ISBN 978-952-5725-93-3 (.), 978-952-5725-94-0 (PDF)
2012 .

1. ............................................................................................................................................ 4
1.1
PURE ........................................................................................................................................5
1.2 .......5

2. ........................................................................................................................................................ 9
2.1 : .....................................................................................................................10
2.2 ................................11
2.3 ..........................................................................................14
2.4 :
PURE ......................................................................................................................................................................16
2.5 : PURE ........................17

3. .......................................................................................................................... 18
3.1 ...................................................................................................................................................................................19
3.2 .....................................................................................................................................20
3.3 .........................................................................................................................................22
3.4 : PURE ..........................25
3.5 : ......................................................................................................26

4. OC................................................................................................................... 28
4.1 .............................................................................................................................29
4.2 .................................................................................................................................................30
4.3 ...................................................................................................................33
4.4 : .............................................................................................................................34
4.5 .................................................................................................................................34
4.6 ........................................................................................................................................................35
4.7 ........................................................................................................................................................37
4.8 : PURE .....................38

5. ............................................................................................................... 39
5.1 ...................................................................................................................................................................................40
5.2 .............................................................................................................................................................................42
5.3 -.................................................................................................................................................44
5.4 -....................................................................................................................................................46
5.5 ........................................................................................................................................................47
5.6 :
PURE .......................................................................................................................................................................49
5.7 : ................................................................................................50

6. ......................................................................................................... 52
6.1 ...................................................................................................................................................................................53
6.2 .........................................................................................................................................................54
6.3 ..........................................................................................................................................................55
6.4 ....................................................................................................................................................59
6.5 :
PURE - ..........................................................................................................................................................62
6.6 :
PURE ..............................................................................................................................................................63
6.7 : ................................................................................................................64

7. .......................................................................................................................................... 66
7.1 ...................................................................................................................................................................................67
7.2 .......................................................................................................................68
7.3 : PURE ...................70
7.4 : .................................................................................................................72

8. C ................................................................................................................................ 73
8.1 ...................................................................................................................................................................................74
8.2 .....................................................74
8.3 ......................................................................................................................................................76
8.4 : ........................................................................................................................78

9. ........................... 79
9.1 ...................................................................................................................................................................................80
9.2 .......................................................................................81
9.3 .............................................................................................................82
9.4 , .......................................................................................83
9.5 : ..................................................................................................................................83

10. ................................................................................................................ 84
10.1 .................................................................................................................................................................................85
10.2 ........................................................................................85
10.3 .............................................................................................................................87
10.4 : ...............................................................................................89

11. ..................................................................................... 90
11.1 .................................................................................................................................................................................91
11.2 ...........................................................................93
11.3 ..........................................................................................................................................95
11.4 : ...............................................................................................95

12.
.............................................................................................................................. 96
12.1 ...............................97
12.2
.........................................................................................................................................................................102
12.3 ....................................................................................................................................................................................111

13.
......................... 113
13.1
..................................................................................................................................................................114
13.2 ................................................................................115
13.3 .........................................................................................................................................116
13.4 - ................................118
13.5 .................................................................................119

14. ................................................................... 121


................................................................................................................................................... 125

1.

: shutterstock.com/Kekyalyaynen

1.1

PURE

(Project on Urban Reduction of Eutrophication, PURE)


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(Commission on Environment, EnvCom)
(Union of the Baltic Cities,
UBC)
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(John Nurminen
Foundation)
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(Baltic
Marine Environment Protection Commission,
HELCOM)
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1 000 000 .

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100 .


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Wodocigw i Kanalizacji Sp z o.o. w Szczecinie
ZWiK) ()
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418 000 )
( 177 000 ),
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()
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0,2 /, 99,0% ( 400 000 ).
PURE

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Pyry Finland Oy PURE ,
.

12

Figure 2-1. Different types of sludges generated in urban waste water

treatment plant processes.

Primary
sedimentation

Aeration basin

Clarifier

Returned activated
sludge
Primary sludge
Secondary / excess
sludge

Thickening

Digestion

Digested sludge

Dewatering

Dewatered
sludge

. 2-3: ,

,

0,51,0%.

7080%. , , .
, (ATVDVWK-M 368E, 2003 .) , ,
( 3.3) .
(
3.2).
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10% (Kopp J., 2010 .). -

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< 10 000 ), ( 10 000100 000
) ( > 100 000 ).

2.3

Flow sheet 5: (Small and mid size waste water treatment plants with aerobic stabilization)


SLUDGE
THICKENING
Aerobic stabilized
excess sludge

Pretreatment
(thickening)

SLUDGE
DEWATERING

SLUDGE
DISPOSAL

(Mobile)
dewatering

Agriculture,
landscaping

Flow
6
.sheet
2-4:

(Primary and)
excess sludge)

SLUDGE
THICKENING

SLUDGE
DEWATERING

Pretreatment
(thickening)

(Mobile)
dewatering

SLUDGE
HYGIENIZATION

Windrow
composting

. 2-5:

14

SLUDGE
DISPOSAL

Final product
processing

treatment plants (and for small waste water treatment plants in Sweden, Finland
and Denmark. Another possibility for small plants to pump / transport their

sludge to bigger plants for sludge handling.


SLUDGE
THICKENING
(Primary and)
excess sludge

SLUDGE
DEWATERING

Pretreatment
(thickening)

Digestion, dewatering
and disposal on a
large plant

(Mobile)
dewatering

Flow sheet 8: (Figure 11-3 typical sludge handling for medium


- large waste water treatment plants)

. 2-6:

THICKENING

STABILIZATION

DEWATERING

HYGIENIZATION
DISPOSAL

Primary sludge

Optional: e.g.,
composting or
lime treatment

Gravity
thickening
Digestion

Excess sludge

Agriculture,
landscaping

Dewatering

Mechanical
thickening

Flow sheet 9: (Figure 11-4 Typical sludge handling for large waste water
treatment plants)
. 2-7:

THICKENING

Primary sludge

STABILIZATION

DEWATERING

Gravity
thickening

INCINERATION

DISPOSAL

Optional:
Drying
Digestion
Dewatering

Excess sludge

DRYING

Mechanical
thickening

Monoincineration
Ashes to landfill
or other use
Coincineration

. 2-8:

15

2.4 :
PURE ,

Gdanska Infrastuktura Wodocigowo-Kanalizacyjna Sp. z o. o.,



() ,
PURE. ( MUCT), .
781 000 ,
18 374 ( ).

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( 4,8%), .

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19,7%. 11,4 /
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.
(

Figure 4-2. Schematic diagram of a gravity thickener.

SLUDGE INFLUENT
WEIR

OUTLET CONCENTRATED SLUDGE


. 3-3:

21


, , , (), , (), (), (), (), (), -
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3.3.1

22

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. 3-5: () (). : PIU Jrmalas dens ZWiK Szczecin

23

3.3.3
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. 3-6: () (). : ZWiK Szczecin Entsorgungsbetriebe Lbeck

3.3.4
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3.4 :
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dens,
. 1 000 000 .

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4% 5% ( 2,5 ).
(24 / ). 57%,
3%.
37C 1420 .
2500 3,
5
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38,9%.
45%
55% . .
-

. 3-7: . : SIA Rgas dens

( 8 / ) ,
22%.
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. 3-8: .
: SIA Rgas dens

25

3.5 :


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47 %

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6%

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57 %

24 /

47 %

3,5 /

6%

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(ZKW)

56 %

1,5 /

27

4.

OC

. : , Metshallitus

OC

4.1
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( 3540C), (5357) .

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(LaCour et al., 2004 .).


30 , , ,

PRETREATMENT
FOR DIGESTION
Primary
sedimentation
if existing

. ; ,
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. 4-1.

ANAEROBIC
DIGESTION

TYPICAL POST-PROCESSING
AFTER DIGESTION

or

Flocculant aid
addition

Biogas
(energy production)

OPTIONAL:
Sludge thickening
& other methods
(disintegration)

Digestion

Digested
sludge

Sludge
dewatering
20-40% DS

Heating and mixing


Clarifier

Reject water to waste water


or reject water treatment

. 4-1:

29

OC

4.2
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,

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30

. 4-2: ()
(). : Entsorgungsbetriebe Lbeck SIA Rgas dens

OC

4.2.2

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4.2.3
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34

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Entsorgungsbetriebe Lbeck ZWiK Szczecin

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36

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4.7

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37

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4.8 :
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41

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.

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. , -

. 5-3: ().
: SIA Rgas dens PIU Jrmalas dens

,
(Guyer, 2011 .).

- .

,

.

, ,
100 000250 000 . ,
, 1520 ,
1015 .
2090
( ), 3035 /
, .. , .
.
4 14 . , , ,
,
-

43

.
.
(
) ,
.
.
. 5-4:
- (). :
,

5.3 -

- ,
, ,
.
, .
, -.


.
.
,
,
.
.

.

, .
.
. ,

,
.

,
-.
- . 5-5.
- 36 , 510 36 , .
.

44


. . , .
.
,
- (3%).


-
, .
-
3035% ,
2430%,
1522%,
2028%.

-

/
-
, , .
.


1.
BellmerTM

5.
( )

2.

4.

3.

. 5-5: -. : Bellmer GmbH

-
.
,

. ,
,
100 000 , , (), .



.

, ,

- (24 /7 ).
,

(8 16 5 ).
, . -
,
.

.
.
/ .
, .
.

-
.
, ,
12 .
- .

.
, ,
. ,
12 , ,
.

-. , ,
,

. , ,

.

, ,
.

45

- .

, ,

80 000 250 000 . , , 1520 ,
12 .


-.
2050
, 2030
/ . .
.
412 -

. 5-6: -
(). : ZWiK Szczecin


.

.

5.4 -

- , . .
60 . , .
,
.
, , 24 , 715
36 ,
.
.


-,
,
.
.
-
(1525 /)
(512 /). .
,

(,
).
40%,
3050% .

46

,
(. 6.3). : / 45%
, 35%
40%
.

-

/
- ,
, , . -

.

, ,

. -
, .
,
.

, ,

- (8 16
5 ).

,
-.

.
- .
,
.

, ,
-

-,
-.
-
-
.
150 000350 000

. , ,
1520 ,

.
2050 ,
(
2030 / ). ,
, 412 . , ,
,
.

-
- -.

23% ,
.
. -
. ,
, ,
.
. 5-7: - (). :
Entsorgungsbetriebe Lbeck

5.5
,
,
() .
. ,
, (, ).
.

,
. : ,

47

, . 70 120 ,
.
.
. 25%
40%.
130 500 .
, , 24 , 710 36
, .
(Bucher Unipektin AG, 2011 .).


/
, ,
, .
2 10% .
, - ,
.

KEMICOND

50% (. 6.3). , KEMICOND
,
.

, ,

, ,
, . 24 /7
() (8 16 5 ).

. -
, .

, ,
180 000400 000 . ,
, 1520 ,

.
2050
,
(2030
/ ).

.
512 .
, ,
.

. 5-8: . :
Bucher Unipektin AG,

48

5.6 :
PURE , PIU

Jrmalas dens,
()
37 500 . 1000 ( )
.

. PURE
, , .
.
, .
,
47%.
3,5 / .
,
( 18%).
5,4 /
. .
,

. 5-9: ,
. : PIU Jrmalas dens

.
, , , ,
, .

. 5-10: .
: PIU Jrmalas dens

49

5.7 :

, , .
, , ,
.

.
,
. .

(, , ..),
.
.
. 5-2. ,

PURE, . 5-1.

5-1:
PURE. BioP =

50

BioP

PURE

22 %

8 /

19 %

8 /

18 %

5.4 /

19.7 %

11.4 /

20 %

8-12 /

19 %

5.3 /

, ZKW

37 %

500 /

()

. 5-2:

2035% 1

1824%

1522%

1824%

2835%

2230%

2028%

2230%

3040%

414 /

412 /

512 /

1525
/

512 /

, ,
(
)

,
,

(
)

, ()
, ()
-
()
,
()

()
, ,
()

,
()
( )
, -
()
()

,
()

()

51

6.

: HSY Water

6.1
()
, . , ,
. (),
( ) (SNV, 2003 .,
Umweltbundesamt 2009 ., WHO, 2003 .).

:
5570C
;
12 -
.

SLUDGE TYPE

,
.
.
6-1.

HYGIENISATION
METHOD

Thickened, possibly
aerobically stabilized
sludge
24% DS

Dewatered sludge
(possibly stabilized
aerobically or
an-aerobically)
20 40% DS

Thermal treatment
- pasteurisation
- other treatment

FINAL PRODUCT

Soil conditioner
or fertiliser
Chemical treatment
- lime stabilisation
- other treatment
Covering material
and landscaping
Biological treatment
- windrow composting
- tunnel composting

. 6-1:

53

6.2
, .
( ),
- .
,
:
() ;
;

;
;
;
.

6.2.1
, 1860- .

.
:
65C100C.
65C 30 , 70C
25 , 80C 10 .
( ) .

.
, . -

. ,
. ,
: ,
. 11,9
/ ( ) (UBA, 2009 .).



(UBA, 2009 .).

. 6-2: - (). : O Jrve Biopuhastus

54

6.2.2
-
,
-
-
.
, -
-
.

.
(. 7)
, -
.

180C

.
(c ),
.
.




, -
, -
. -
-
(. 8).


4. -
. ,
-
, , -
, -
.
. 6-3: : shutterstock.com/Peter Gudella

-

.
,
,
, 6.4.

6.3

(CaO Ca(OH)2) 12 . 12 2 .
, , pH, .


(Ca(OH)2)

.
(. 5.4). (CaO),
, .
. , 5,
,

.
,
.

, , ,
, , 34 ,
510 36 , .
.

55


.
,
.
:
-
, ,
;
, -

;


;

,
.

, .
-
;
300400
.
. 6.3.4.

6.3.1
(2
4%), ,
(510% Ca(OH)2), .
, ,
. Ca(OH)2 ,

. -

, .

, ( / ),

.

6.3.2
-
(. 5.4). .
,
.
-,
.

,
;
-
;
-
;

-
, -
;

. 6-4: . : Entsorgungsbetriebe Lbeck

56

6.3.3
, , (2040%, .. ).
1520 . 12 .
CaO ,
, 60C , , .

,
(. 5). ,
, .
, ,
.

.
, , 1520 . ,
300400 CaO/ .

2 >12.
-.
2040 / .
1020 , 715 -/ ,

.
.

- (. 5.4).

, ,

200 000-400 000


. Iisalmi Water, , Savonlinna Water.
().

, .

6.3.4
, .
, .
.

.

, ( (Fe3(PO4)2)
(II) (FeO)) .
(H2O2), Fe2+
Fe3+, (III) (FePO4).


Kemicond. Kemicond ,
.

4 (H2SO4).

,
Kemicond. (NaOH)
.

57

,
, .
(
, Kemicond).
, , . ,
.
46 , 810 46
. ,
.
( ) , 220 H2SO4
27 H2O2
.
.

, ,

400 000700 000
.
. ,
, 1520 .
, -.
220 H2SO4/ , 27 H2O2/ .
5060 /
. 1525 , 1020 / ,

Kemicond.
.
Kemicond
50%
;
Kemicond -
38%45% (Brendler, 2006 .).
,
-.
.
.

,
. ,

, .

. 6-5: : ,


,
, ()
(
).

58

6.4
6.4.1


().
(60C 36 ) ,
. , .
:

, , -
;

,
,


. ,
.

.

.

, -
.
15%.
(. 3 5).
,
(), . (, ) -

6.4.2
, ,
,
,

. ,
- ,
, . .
, .

(, ()) . ,
, , 4050%
.
.
,
,
- .

, ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
. , . 1930- .,
1970- .
1990- .

: 50100 150200 ,
.

,
.

59

, ,

500 0003 000 000 , , .

.
, ,
1015 .

, (, ). ,
, ,

- .

,

, .
. ,
, 10 /
.

, .
( )
.

. 6-6: () - ().
: HSY Water O Jrve Biopuhastus


.
1 , , (),
, , - (), (), ()
.., , , , . .

60

6.4.3
, ,
, , , .

, . 46 , 6 2040
;
, , 2025 , 6
2040 .

5060 80100 .

.
(
500 0001 000 000 ),
.
1015 .

:
-

;
,
-
.
-
. ,
,
,
;
.
-
, -

,
, ,
, .

,
.

, ,

1,55
,
. ,
,
,
,
. , , 1520 .
75
120
.
, 100 200 / .
.

. , .

,
- .



, ( ) , , , . . ,
, , , , , ( ), , , .
.

61

6.5 :

PURE -, O

Jrve Biopuhastus, -
. - () 200 000 .
2700 (
).

.
- ,
.
6%.
4 / .
,
2024 55C.
22%. 8 /
.
.
.
.
, -

62

. 6-7: -. : O Jrve
Biopuhastus

-,
.
, , ,
.
, .

. 6-8. (). : O Jrve Biopuhastus

6.6 :

PURE , HSY

Water,
100
3 ( 1,1 ),

() (),
HSY Water. HSY Water PURE.
65 000 , 25 000 .
2,8 , 2,1 .
3,6% 1,3% . .
7,5 /. ,
,
4,1% (2011 .).
, : .
.
.
17 37 13
35,5 .
2,3% 2,7% .
( ). 29%.
4,5 /
6,1 / .
, . 69
. ,
. -

.

. ,
, (
).
HSY . , ,
.

. 2011 .
12,3 . 3 3,5
3 . , , 27 500 /, 4100 / ,
99% .
9 560 / ,
97% .
25 000 / (60% ), 4 500 / (35%
).
2011 .
.
2012 . , ,
, .

. 6-9.
, . : HSY Water

63

6.7 :


, .

. -

.

. 6-1.

PURE . 6-2.

. 6-1: . (, ,
, ), ( UBA, 2009 .).

(. 7)

( )


( )


. , . , , , .
, , , , , . , ,
. PURE
- () ().

64

. 6-2:

65

7.

. : metshallitus

7.1
,
. .
, .
, . , ,
2030%, 5090%.
, .
. , -

PRETREATMENT

,
, (,
) . . 7-1.

THERMAL DRYING

FINAL PRODUCT

Odorous gas to be
treated or to biofilter
Mechnical
sludge
dewatering

Thermal
drying

Optional:
pelletizing/
granulation

Final product
processing, e.g.
incineration

Sludge liquor to waste water treatment


. 7-1:

.
(). ,
(, ), .
. (
), .
(, , )
, (, , , , ), . , ,
, .
, , .. , .
, .

67

7.2
.
, ,
.
( ) ( ).
.
(2030% )
() ,
.
.


. ,
.
, 450460C ( ) 120160C ( )
510 ( ) 4060
( ).

,

. , ,

.

. . ,
,
(Burton et al., 2003).

( , , )
. , ,
. ,
4560
160200 190240C
.
8595, 95110C.

.

, ,
. (, )

68

. .
.
(Burton et al., 2003 .).
( 4560%)
.

. 7-2: (). : GiWK

( 85%) (
85%). ().
(. 8).
. (8590% ) -.
, ,
.

4560%.
.

-
. .

25% 95% ,
25% .
, .
50%
.

, ,

24
/7 ,
.
;
.
, , ,

. ,
.
,
.

. , , :
;

;
-

;

;
-
.

.
,
.

, ,
,

, -
.
,
.
. ,


. .
500 0002 000 000

. , , 1520 .
150 200
, ..
70100 /
.

. , ,
.
,
.

. 7-3: (). : ZWiK Szczecin

69

7.3 :

PURE , Zaklad

Wodocigow i Kanalizacji Sp z.o.o. w Szczecinie ZWiK



. () .
418 000 , 6300 (
) ( 50005500 ),
,
. . .
,
2 .
2,5%.

6%.

- 6% . 35 / .
( 3,5%).
37 20 . ( ) 350 , 37%.
70%,
25 .

70

. 7-4: ,
, (). : ZWiK Szczecin


- 20%.
812 / . 96%, . .
, ,
.
. 7-5: , . :
ZWiK Szczecin


. . 177
000 . 1680
( ) .
, .
, 1,5 .
5% . 5%.
6,5 /
.
30C35C.
3,5%
24 .

19% .

5,3 / .
95% .
. (
238 ) 35%. 40% .

.
(
).
,
, , .

. 7-6: , . :
ZWiK Szczecin

71

7.4 :

. 7-1: ,


( )
(4590% )


( )
(4590% )



.
.


0,5-0,9 .
150-200 .


.
,

70-100 /
.
.

.



, . , , , (), (),
(, ) (,
, , , ).
().

72

8. C

: ,

8.1
. , .
, , .
, .
. , ,
, ,
(, ).

- ( ) (
2008/98/EC),
. , , ,
, .
-
.
,

. 8-1: VERA
. . : Vera Klrschlammverbrennung GmbH

150 000 . , ,
PURE ,
. - .

8.2

(, ),
.
. ,
. ,
.
(, )

. 90%
(
). ,
, ,
.

-

74

,
,
.
, , .
35 / , ,
, . , ,
, . : -

,
,
, .
, ,
,
,
.

, ,
. 8-2: -.
:


, , , 2030%. .
()
(Schmelz, 2011 .),
a -
.

.
. , ,
, ,
.
.


24 7 ,

.
,
.
,

.

(.
9.4).

,
, .

8.2.1
,
.
.

. ,
.
.
- , , ,
.

25 000 /
,

200 000250 000 /.
7085%

(
, ),
.


, -

, , 515%,

75

20% .
60100
. 35 . -

, ,

,
-
.

8.2.2 ()
, ,
,
. .
3 / .
, ,
(, , ).
, ,


.
, .
,
,
, -

, ,
.
.

2040
.

( ) (

).

8.3
,
. .

8.3.1


, , .

. ,
: .

.
, , 8501000. ,
. .

76

. 8-3: (). : ZWiK


Szczecin

300
500 .
( 4001200 /
) .
.

. 45 ,
,
,
. .



, , , , ,
, (), .

8.3.2 ()

100% ()
1050% ( , ) ( ).
() , , .

. ,
.
1
, ,
.


( ) 850
950C.
.
650C .

. 8-4: . .: Vera Klrschlammverbrennung GmbH

77

:
, .
.

,
.
. , .
.


2040

,
. ,
, 2025 .

, 400600 . ( 4001200 / )


, , .
. 45
, , . .



.
: (), - () , ,
, , , ().
, , , , , , .

8.4 :
. 8-1:

78

.

<20%.

60100
.

8501000
,

.

2040 .

,

300500 .
850950C.
.
-
45 .
,


,
.
.
.

300500 .

45 .


.

9.

: shutterstock.com/Hywit Dimyadi

9.1
, ,
, .
. ,
, ,
() .
.
-
, , ,
.
.

.

.
, , ,
,
. (, ,
) . , , , ,
.
.

(
), , .
(.
7 8). - .


, , , ,
(, , )
(, ().
-

, , , (. 12).
.

. 9-1: , 2009 .* (% ). : Eurostat


100

75

50

25

Iceland

Switzerland

Norway

Greece

Malta

Netherlands

Slovenia

Slovakia

Romania

Estonia

Sweden

Finland

Belgium

Austria

Poland

Hungary

Italy

Germany

Czech Republic

Lithuania

Latvia

France

Luxembourg

Bulgaria

United Kingdom

Ireland

Spain

Cyprus

Data not available


Others
Incineration
Landfill
Compost and other applications
Agricultural use

* , , , , 2008 .; , , , 2007 .;
, 2006 .; , , 2005 .; , 2004 .; , 2003 .; ,
2002 .; , 2000 .; .

80

9.2

40
. . , , :
60%, 20%.
,
, .
,
.
50-60- . XX -
, , .

. , , ,
.

20 .
, , 5985% (Palfrey, 2011 .),
2090% (Bergs, 2010 .).
, ,
, . ,

(. 9-1).

()
( 12).
.
,

. , , ,
.
.

. 9-2:
. : SIA Rgas dens

(, Bergs 2008 .).


,
, .


. (
),
.
.

. 9-1: / (Palfrey, 2011 .)

Cd

Cu

Ni

Zn

Pb

Hg

Cr

(2006 .)

1,9

207

27

715

52

1.5

50

0,46,9

73356

1166

3321 235

8.9114

0,24,6

14127

81

,
,
(
). (. 7).
.

( )
, . -

12.

,
, (),
(AOX) ().
,
(,
, . .) .

.


.

, ,
, , , .
, 35
.

, , , , .
(.
10.4 12).

(. 11).

.

9.3
,
. ,
.

, ,
,
.

.

, ,
..,
.
. 9-3: - ()
. :

82

9.4 ,

(. 8).
, ,
. ,
, , , ,
. , , ,
.
,
.
8%
20%.
,
. ,
,
.
,
.
11.
,
,
.
.


- ,
(. 12). , ,
. ,
,
, . ,
( )
,
.
( ) () ,

.

9.5 :
;

.



.
.


, ,
.


(,
).
.
, ,
:
, .


, ,
, ,

.

.

83

10
.

10.1
, , ,
, , ,
, . . ,
() .
, , .
, .
-
, ,

.

, ,
,
. ,
, .

.
(),
(). . , .

, ,
.



. .

,
,
.
. , 24 /7 ,

Figure 11-1: Equilibrium diagram for ammonia (NH3) nitroge


and ammonium (NH4+) with changing pH value.

10.2

NH4+ (.) + OH-(.) > H2O + NH3 (.),


(.) . .
, NH4-N

80

NH +4

NH 3

60

60

40

40

% NH3NH 3
Percent


.
(NH4+-N) (NH3):

100

80

Percent NH +4

100

% +4
%NH

. , ,
,
.

pK = 9.25
20

20

6
7
8 9
10
11
.510-1:
12(NH3) 13

(NH4+)
pH pH.

. 10-1: (NH3)
(NH4+) pH

85

Figure 11-2: Principal process scheme of ammonia stripping


process.

Circulation air

Heat
exchange

NaOH
Washing
chemicali
(HCl)

Circulation
water
Ammonia
salt product

Heat
exchange
Reject water
before aeration

NH 3-air

. 10-2:

. ( > 10)

NH3 (. 10-1).

( ) , , .
,
. , .
( ) (. 10-2),

.

,
.

, ,


24 . ,
, 1520 .
,
, .

, ,

24 /7 .


.

, .
. -

.10-3: : shutterstock.com/Hansenn


Biovakka Oy
- . () . .
, . ,
. , .
.
.

86

10.3
. - (-),
, . , , , ,
.

10.3.1 -
- -.
.
( 40%), 60%
.

, . , , (Beier et al., 2008 .)


- , , SHARON, SAT PANDA.

10.3.2

-
.
.
, -
-
. -
,
( -
).
,
, -
.
. -

.

. -
-
DEMON Canon.
-
3040 25.
.

nitrogen
cycle

NH4

N2

Methanol

NO

1990 .
.
(Planctomycetes), ,
(N2),
.

O2
NO2

O2
50%

. 10-4:

: , c 100200 ,
210 .
. .
.
- ( 60%)
/, ,
.

87

PRETREATMENT

Balancing
tank

REJECT WATER TREATMENT

Primary
sedimentation

Reject water
treatment tank

Sludge recirculation

SECONDARY TREATMENT

Clarifier

Excess sludge

. 10-5: -


, :

30;

.

- (Sequential Batch Reactor, SBR),

BABE.

, ,

,
, .
,

. ,
.
-
.

, ,


12
. , , 1520 .
2040 ,
.
.



.
20%.
, ,
.

2005 . . () Lakeuden Etappi. . () ,
. ()
- -, . () ( 2009 .) . () SHARON. . - ,
2012 . , ,
SHARON.

88

10.4 :

. 10-1: . - = -

.
.



( ),

.

.

1,53 .

(,
).

,
.



.


1,53 .
.

.
.
3040C,

25 .


,
.
.


1 2 .
.

2040 .


(
).


,
.
.


2 4 .


.

, ,
, , .

89

11

. : Metshallitus

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108

12.2.3
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14.
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association ( ATV-DVWK, DWA). . http://www.dwa.de,

ISBN 978-3-935669-96-2, 2000.

ATV-DVWK-M 368E 2003. Biological Stabilisation of Sewage Sludge, German water and waste water association
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http://www.wwt-online.de/sites/wwt-online.de/files/schlammentw%C3%A4sserung_ohne_
flockungshilfsmittel.pdf, 30.5.2012 ( ).

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Beier M., Sander M., Schneider Y., Rosenwinkel K.-H. 2008. Energy-efficient nitrogen removal. (Energieeffiziente
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Bergs C.-G. 2010. New demand by sewage sludge and fertiliser regulation. (Neue Vorgaben fr Klrschlamm nach der
Klrschlamm-(AbfKlrV) und Dngemittelverordnung (DMV)). VKU Infotag Klrschlamm, 9.11.2010 (
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Berliner Wasserbetriebe 2012. http://www.bwb.de/content/language2/html/4951.php,
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BIOPROS 2008. Short rotation plantations. Guidelines for efficient biomass production with the safe application of
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Brendler, D. 2006. Use of the KEMICOND-Method with chamber filter presses Results;. (Einsatz des KEMICONDVerfahrens auf Kammerfilterpressen Ergebnisse aus der Praxis). Der Kemwaterspiegel 2006, http://www.kemira.

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126