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Design plan:

Container: Soda Bottle or Milk Jug


1st layer: T-shirt
2nd layer: Activated Charcoal
3rd layer: Clean Sand
4th layer: Clean Gravel
Last process: Put the water in the sun for about 12 hours.
Materials:
1 Old T-shirt- free
1 cup of Activated Charcoal-$8?
1-2 cups of Clean Sand- Free
2-3 cups of Clean Gravel-Free
1 Mason Jar- $3
1 Soda bottle/Milk Jug-Free
What each layer does:
Gravel: Catches large pieces of dirt, plants, and rocks from the water.
Sand: Catches smaller pieces of dirt, plants, and rocks from water.
Charcoal: Absorbs remaining particles in the water and parasites because it has a large surface
area that makes it easy for particles to bond to it. (not all particles bond to charcoal, such as
nitrates and sodium.)
T-shirt: Holds other layers in the filter and catches any remaining medium-small sized dirt, plant,
and rock particles from the water.
Filtration Testing:
Charcoal and T-shirt:
In this test we were trying to make the water clarity increase and to get rid of harmful dirt
particles.
The charcoal worked to clarify the water significantly. The water had a bit of a black hue
to it, but for the most part it was clearer than it was originally.
If we add the sand and gravel, then the water will probably be even more clear than with
just the charcoal.
Charcoal, Sand, and T-shirt:
In this test we were trying to make the water clarity increase more than the last test to
get rid of dirt particles.
The sand and charcoal worked to make the water about as clear as the water previous.
It is significantly clearer than the original water, but still not clearer than the test precious.
If we add the gravel, the water should get clearer and look almost as clear as drinking
water.
Gravel, Charcoal, Sand and T-shirt:
In this test, we used only gravel to take dirt particles out of the water and make the water
more clear.

The water is noticeably clearer than the previous test and it is obvious that with all of the
layers, the most clean water is filtered.
We could improve the cleanliness of the water by putting it in the sun for a long period of
time.
How does the filter process work?
Out filtration process works to eliminate E. coli, ammonia, parasites, and dirt. The filter
itself removes parasites and dirt by putting the particles through a series of layers to ultimately
block the parasites and dirt. Along with blocking the particles, the charcoal also absorbs them
through the holes it has. The process of putting the water in the sun after the filtration works to
remove the ammonia and E. coli. The sun kills the ammonia and E. coli by evaporating it and
changing it back into water. Ultimately the whole process of water filtration should eliminate dirt,
ammonia, parasites, and dirt using cheap resources for developing countries.
Field Report:
http://mapmaker.education.nationalgeographic.com/?ar_a=1&b=1&ls=000000000000
During the Design it Clean project, our group was assigned with the task of creating a
water filtration system that would successfully
remove harmful substances from the water in
Kenya, Africa. Kenya is full of tradition and
systems put there by its people, so it is
important that they are keeping these
traditions, while still considering health. It is
common for cattle to be roaming around in
the areas around water sources, which
causes their waste to also be in or near the
water. As common as it is for cattle to leave
their waste, it can also be common for
humans to. Although, it is not purposeful or
even known to the people. Without proper
restroom facilities, waste products can be
carried to water sources when they are near
to the source. Problems such as cattle and
human waste has caused there to be dirty
water and disease.
Some of the problems with the water
are parasites, E. coli, and dirt. These
problems occur from a lack of sanitation, but also from a lack of good water sources. The water
sources that people have been turning to have been depleted, causing them to walk farther and
for the water to be dirtier. Drinking water that is made of about 25% dirt can cause many
problems with disease and other sickness. However, the people have no other option. Lack of
water sources and more water options causes many people to lose hope for clean water.
Because water is such a necessity, women spend hours fetching water for their
villages.This time-consuming task takes up most of the day and is doing the villages more harm
than good a majority of the time. The women are sometimes to sick to go to school or work
because of the lack of clean water. This is also true for some of the men. The increasing issue

surrounding the sickness has caused several babies and children to die. If the water isnt fixed
soon, the problem will only continue to get worse.
Education is not a priority
since the peoples lives are
mostly centered around
surviving. According to
National Geographic, the
literacy rate in Kenya is only
87.4% compared to the 99%
in The United States. Many
people, particularly women,
are not able to go to school or
have time to teach
themselves anything because they are trying to provide for their families. This ends up being
almost a waste of time because the water theyre getting is contaminated anyway. The huge
water contamination issue is causing people to lose time and money.
Our water filter and cleaning process works to solve the huge water issue that Kenyans
face everyday. It removes dirt, parasites, and bacteria such as E. coli from water. Hopefully this
small step will be carried to help these people, and someday, help them have easy access to
clean water.
Test Data:
Microorganism Test:
Initial: 10 microorganisms were found in the water sample from the sewer.
After it went through the filter: 0 microorganisms were found in the water sample
The point of this test was to see if the filter could remove microorganisms such as
parasites in the water. Out test showed that originally there were several organisms in the water
and after we put the water through our filter, there were none. This shows that if it was used in a
place that has a parasite problem, such as Kenya, our filter would be able to get rid of them and
eliminate the danger of sickness.
Ammonia Test:
Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

Initial (ppm)

~4

~4

~4

Final (ppm)

~1

~0.75

~0.5

Notes

Not much different

Pretty significant
difference

Significant Difference

In an ammonia test, The lower the ppm, the less ammonia there is in the sample. Our
first test didnt really show a huge difference in ammonia levels. The last two tests, however,
showed a more significant difference. The point of testing ammonia levels is to get rid of the
ammonia, but also to show if there was E. coli in the water. Ammonia is a byproduct of E. coli

and other waste products, so it is important that it is removed. Although our filter removed most
of the ammonia, it didnt remove all of it, so the water would still not be completely safe to drink.
Turbidity Test:
Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

Initial (cm)

7 cm.

4 cm.

5 cm.

Final (cm)

10 cm.

18 cm.

13 cm.

Notes

Not great visibility

Good visibility

Good visibility

In a turbidity test, The higher the centimeter measure, the better turbidity. Turbidity is the
test of how clear the water is, which is important for getting out dirt and doing other tests, such
as a UV test. Our first test didnt show much of a difference, however the next two tests showed
a pretty significant difference in turbidity. The tests proved that our water filter definitely
improves turbidity.
Ph Test:
Initial

8.3

Final

7.3

Notes

Not much different

The ph test was to test the acidity or alkalinity of the water. If water is too acidic or too
basic, it can become dangerous to drink. In Kenya, there is a problem with the alkalinity of the
water, so that is what we were particularly testing. The lower the ph, the less basic the water.
Our test didnt really show much of a difference because we didnt add anything acidic that
would counteract the alkalinity. This test showed us how we could improve our filter to make it
balance the ph.

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