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2013/2014 10-11

1
1.
: 1. K2Cr2O7, A2. K2CrO4.
, 1 2.
(6 )
. 1. K2Cr2O7: +6, VI.
A2. K2CrO4: +6, VI.
: K2Cr2O7 + 2KOH 2K2CrO4 + H2O
to

4K2Cr2O7
4K2CrO4 + 2Cr2O3 + 3O2.
2. , .
? (6 )
. ,
( ).
( ) .

[Ag(NH3)2]OH. ()
:
O
to
CH2 CH CH CH CH C
+ 2 [Ag(NH3)2]OH
H
OH OH OH OH OH
O
CH2 CH CH CH CH C
+ 2Ag + 3NH3 + H2O
ONH4
OH OH OH OH OH
, .
( ) .

.
3. NaCl, Na2CO3, NaOH NaNO3.
.
. (8 )
. .
.
.
:
Na2CO3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + H2O + CO2 ( ).
NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O .
, .

:

NaCl + AgNO3 AgCl + NaNO3 ( );


2NaOH + 2AgNO3 Ag2O + 2NaNO3 + H2O (- ).
.
:
to
NaNO3 + 4Zn + 7NaOH() + 6H2O
4Na2[Zn(OH)4] + NH3 (
, ).
4. ,
: ? (8 )
. ,
.
,
28 / < 1 < 32 /,

44 / < 2 < 84/:


44
84
28
32
5. .
1.8 ,
2.5 . ,
. (10 )
. , , ,
Ne (Z = 10) Ar (Z = 18). ,
10 (), F O2. 18
(), : K+ Ca2+. 2.5
CaO: Z(Ca2+) = 20, Z(O2) = 8.
:
to
2Ca + O2
2CaO;
to
CaCO3 CaO + CO2;
to
Ca(OH)2
CaO + H2O.
: CaO.
6. , ,
, 16.8
, 200
4 /,
.
. (12 )
.
:
3CnH2n + 2KMnO4 + 4H2O 3CnH2n(OH)2 + 2MnO2 + 2.
:
MnO2 + 4HCl Cl2 + MnCl2 + 2H2O;
(HCl) = V = 0.2 4 = 0.8 ;
(MnO2) = 0.2 .

, (CnH2n) = 0.3 .
:
M(CnH2n) = 16.8 / 0.3 = 56 /,
14n = 56; n = 4.
C4H8, -1, -2 2-.
. -2:
3CH3CH=CHCH3 + 4K2Cr2O7 + 16H2SO4 6CH3COOH + 4Cr2(SO4)3 + 4K2SO4 + 16H2O.
-1 CO2,
2.
: -2, -1, 2-.
7. pH 0.141%- 2.436.
, ,
= 5.1104, 1 /. . (12
)
. H+
[H+] = 10pH = 102.436 = 3.664103 /.
:
HA H+ + A.
[H ][A - ]
[ H ]2
(3.664 10 3 ) 2
K =

5.1 10 4.

3
[HA]
c [ H ] c 3.664 10
:
= 0.03 /.
1000 ( 1000 , .. ) 1.41 ,
0.03 . () = 1.41 / 0.03 = 47 /,
HNO2.
: HNO2.
8.

:
C7H5Cl3 X1 C7H5NO4 X2 C7H8N2O5 X3 C6H7N.

. (12 )
.

1)

;
X1

2)

to

3)

;
X2

4)

;
5)
X3

6)

9.
(i , ):
H2S

I2, H2O
1

Na2S2O3

Cl2,

SO2

4
6

SOCl2

KOH -
5

(12 )

:
1) H2S + I2
S + 2HI;
H 2O
Na2S2O3;
2) S + Na2SO3(-)

3) Na2S2O3 + H2SO4 () SO2 + S + Na2SO4 + H2O


Na2S2O3 + 2HCl SO2 + S + 2NaCl + H2O;
t o ,
4) SO2 + Cl2
SO2Cl2;

5) SO2Cl2 + 4KOH(-) K2SO4 + 2KCl + 2H2O;


to
6) SO2() + PCl5()
SOCl2 + POCl3.

: 1 S; 2 SO2Cl2; 3 K2SO4.
10. , ,
.
Y.

NaOH .
.
, . (14
)

. Y X
. , , , ,
, .
,
() Y:
COONa

NaOOC

COONa

NaOOC

COONa
COONa

Y
Y :
O
O
O
O

O
O

O
O


1) 12C() + 18HNO3() C12O9 + 18NO2 + 9H2O;
to

2)

COONa

O
O

O
O

+ 6 NaOH

NaOOC

COONa

NaOOC

COONa

p-p

3 H2O

COONa

3)

COONa
NaOOC
NaOOC

COONa

COONa

t
6 NaOH

TB

6 Na2CO3

COONa

2
1.
: 1. KMnO4, 2. K2MnO4.
, 1 2.
(6 )
.

1. KMnO4: c +7, VII.


2. K2MnO4: c +6, VI.
o

t
: 2KMnO4()
K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2;

2KMnO4 + K2SO3 + 2KOH K2SO4 + 2K2MnO4 + H2O.


2. , .
? (6 )
. , ,
, ( ,
).

[Ag(NH3)2]OH. () :
O
to
CH2 CH CH CH CH C
+ 2 [Ag(NH3)2]OH
H
OH OH OH OH OH
O
CH2 CH CH CH CH C
+ 2Ag + 3NH3 + H2O
ONH
OH OH OH OH OH
4
, .
( ) .

.
3. NaOH, NH3H2O, Na2S, NaClO.
.
. (8 )
. .
.
.
:
Na2S + 2HCl H2S + 2NaCl ( );
NaClO + 2HCl NaCl + Cl2 + H2O ( - ).
:
2NaOH + 2AgNO3 Ag2O + 2NaNO3 (- ),
3NH3 + AgNO3 + H2O [Ag(NH3)2]OH + NH4NO3 (
).
4. ,
: ? (8 )
. ,
.
,

28 / < 1 < 44 /,
40 / < 2 < 131 /:
28
40
44
131

5. -.
93.3%, 50%.
. ,
. (10 )
. ,
XY. :
m(X) : m(Y) = 93.3 : 6.7 = 14 : 1 = M(X) : M(Y).
, N H. NH4+ H,
N - N3. ,
NH4N3.
NH4+ sp3- . N3
N=N=N, sp-,
sp2-.
: NH4N3.
6. , ,
, 50.4
, 80
2.5 /,

. . (12 )
.
:
3CnH2n + 2KMnO4 + 4H2O 3CnH2n(OH)2 + 2MnO2 + 2.
:
2KOH + H2SO4 K2SO4 + 2H2O.
(H2SO4) = V = 2.5 0.08 = 0.2 ,
(KOH) = 0.4 .
, ,
(CnH2n) = 0.6 ,
M(CnH2n) = 50.4 / 0.6 = 84 /,
14n = 84, n = 6.
,
(-3):
3C2H5CH=CHC2H5 + 4K2Cr2O7 + 16H2SO4 6C2H5COOH + 4Cr2(SO4)3 + 4K2SO4 + 16H2O,

. , -1
2, 1--1 2--1
2.
: -3, -1, -1, 2--1.
7. pH 0.01 /,
6.610-5. pH, 1
0.2 ? ,
. (12 )
. :
C6H5COOH C6H5COO + H+.

[H ][C 6 H 5COO - ]
[ H ]2
x2

6.6 10 5.

[C 6 H 5COOH]
c [ H ] 0.01 x
:
K =

x2 + 6.6 105x 6.6105 = 0.


: = [H+] = 7.8104 /.
1 = lg[H+] = lg(7.8104) = 3.11.
65Na -
:
(65) = (65Na) = 0.2 /.

[H ][C 6 H 5COO - ]
[ H ] 0.2
0.2 x
K =

6.6 10 5.

[C 6 H 5COOH]
0.01 [ H ] 0.01 x
= [H+] = 3.3106 /, 2 = lg[H+] = lg(3.3106) = 5.48.
: 1 = 3.11; 2 = 5.48.
8.

:
C7H16 X1 C7H7NO2 X2 C7H10N2O3 X3 C7H9NBr2.
.
(12 )
:

1)

2)

to

to

+ H2O

3)

+ 3FeCl2 + 2H2O

4)

5)

6)
9.
:
3
H SO (20%)
H C O , H SO p-p
KOH -
CaOCl2 2 4
1
KClO3 2 2 2 2 4
2
HCl
Cl2
1
2
3
4
5
6
4
(12 )
:
1) MnO2 + 4HCl Cl2 + MnCl2 + 2H2O
2KMnO4 + 16HCl 5Cl2 + 2MnCl2 + 2KCl + 8H2O;

2) Cl2 + Ca(OH)2 (-)


CaOCl2 + H2O;

3) aOCl2 + H2SO4() CaSO4 + Cl2 + H2O;


o

t
4) 3Cl2 + 6KOH
5KCl + KClO3 + 3H2O;

5) 6KClO3 + 5OHCCHO + 3H2SO4 3K2SO4 + 10CO2 + 3Cl2 + 8H2O;

1,
X2. 2 ,
6) 2KOH(.) + CO2 K2CO3 + H2O.
: 1 Cl2; X2 CO2; X3 K2CO3; X4 H2O.
10. , ,
.
Y.

NaOH .
.
, . (14
)
. Y X
. , , , ,
, .
,
() Y:
COONa

NaOOC

COONa

NaOOC

COONa
COONa

Y
Y :
O
O
O
O

O
O

O
O


1) 12C() + 18HNO3() C12O9 + 18NO2 + 9H2O;
to

2)

COONa

O
O

O
O

+ 6 NaOH

NaOOC

COONa

NaOOC

COONa

p-p

3 H2O

COONa

3)

COONa
NaOOC
NaOOC

COONa

COONa

t
6 NaOH

TB

6 Na2CO3

COONa
3
1.
: 1. K[Cr(OH)4], A2. Cr(OH)3.

, 1 2.
(6 )
.
1. K[Cr(OH)4]: c +3, IV.
2. Cr(OH)3: c +3, III.
: 2K[Cr(OH)4] + CO2 2Cr(OH)3 + K2CO3 + H2O.
2. ,
. ? (6 )
. ,
( ).
( )
.
[Ag(NH3)2]OH.
:
O
O
to
CH
CH
C
CH2 CH C
+ 2Ag + 3NH3 + H2O
2
+ 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH
H
ONH
4
OH OH
OH OH
, .
( ) .

.
3. HNO3, H2SO4,
H3PO4, HCl. .
. (8 )
. .
.
:
4HNO3() + 2KI() I2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O + 2KNO3
( - );
9H2SO4() + 8KI() H2S + 4I2 + 8KHSO4 + 4H2O
( - );
H3PO4() + KI() KH2PO4 + HI ( ).
. ,
HCl , :
, .
HCl() + AgNO3 AgCl + HNO3.
4. ,
: ? (8 )

. ,
.
,
2 / < 1 < 28 /,
28 / < 2 < 36.5 /:
28
36.5
2
, 28 / ( ).
5. X .
. 2.5
. X
X . (10 )
. , , NH4+.
, N. 18 /.
, , ,
18 2.5 = 45 /. , ,
, , X HCOONH4. :
HCOONH4 + KOH HCOOK + NH3 + H2O;
HCOONH4 + HCl HCOOH + NH4Cl.
, ,
- NO2, :
- 46 /, 46 / 18 = 2.556 2.6.
: HCOONH4.
6. , ,
, 25.2
, 6.72 ,
..,
.
. (12 )
.
:
3CnH2n + 2KMnO4 + 4H2O 3CnH2n(OH)2 + 2MnO2 + 2.
:
MnO2 + 4HCl Cl2 + MnCl2 + 2H2O;
(Cl2) = 6.72 / 22.4 = 0.3 ;
(MnO2) = 0.3 .
, (CnH2n) = 0.45 .
:
M(CnH2n) = 25.2 / 0.45 = 56 /,
14n = 56; n = 4.

C4H8, -1, -2 2-.


. -2:
3CH3CH=CHCH3 + 4K2Cr2O7 + 16H2SO4 6CH3COOH + 4Cr2(SO4)3 + 4K2SO4 + 16H2O.
-1 CO2,
2.
: -2, -1, 2-.
7. 1.27 CaOCl2 1
. ,
. . pH ,
(HClO)=2.910-8. (12 )
. :
CaOCl2 + Na2CO3 CaCO3 + NaCl + NaClO.
:
(CaOCl2) = 1.27 / 127 = 0.01 ,
, (NaOCl) = 0.01 , c(NaOCl) = 0.01 /.
() :
OCl + H2O HClO + OH.
( ) :
K =

[OH - ]2
[HClO][OH - ]
=
,
[OCl - ]
c( NaClO) [OH ]

:
K

Kw
10 14

3.45 10 7 .
K 2.9 10 8

3.45107 =

x2
.
0.01 - x

( ):
2 + 3.45107 3.45109 = 0,

= [] = 5.85105 /,
[H+] = 1014 / [OH] = 1.711010 /.
= lg[H+] = lg(1.711010) = 9.77.

: = 10.26.
7.

:
C2H2 X1 C7H8 X2 C7H5NO4 X3 C6H5NO2.
.
(12 )
:

1)

2)

+ CH3Br

3)

4)

to

5)

6)

9.
:

Mn(NO3)2

MnO2

Mn
2

MnSO4

NaOH -
4
6

.
o

t
1) Mn(NO3)2
MnO2 + 2NO2;
o

t
2) 3MnO2 + 4Al
3Mn + 2Al2O3;

3) Mn + H2SO4() MnSO4 + H2;


4) MnSO4 + 2NaOH(-) Mn(OH)2 + Na2SO4;
5) Mn(OH)2 + Br2 + 2NaOH MnO2 + 2NaBr + 2H2O;
6) MnSO4 + (NH4)2S MnS + (NH4)2SO4.

Br2, NaOH -

MnS

(12 )

: 1 Mn(OH)2, 2 MnO2.
10. , ,
.
Y.

NaOH .
.
, . (14
)
. Y X
. , , , ,
, .
,
() Y:
COONa

NaOOC

COONa

NaOOC

COONa
COONa

Y
Y :
O
O
O
O

O
O

O
O


1) 12C() + 18HNO3() C12O9 + 18NO2 + 9H2O;
to

2)

COONa

O
O

O
O

+ 6 NaOH

NaOOC

COONa

p-p

NaOOC

COONa
COONa

3)

COONa
NaOOC
NaOOC

COONa

COONa
COONa

t
6 NaOH

TB

6 Na2CO3

3 H2O

4
1.
: 1. Na2[Zn(OH)4], A2. Zn(OH)2.
, 1 2. (6
)
.
, Na[Zn(OH)4] !
, .
.
1.

Na2[Zn(OH)4]:

+2,

IV.
2. Zn(OH)2: +2, II.
:
Na2[Zn(OH)4] + 2HCl( ) Zn(OH)2 + 2Nal.
, . .
. :
Na2[Zn(OH)4] + 2NH4Cl Zn(OH)2 + 2Nal + 2NH3.
.
2. , .
? (6 )
. ,
( ).
( ) .

[Ag(NH3)2]OH. ()
:
O
to
CH2 CH CH CH CH C
+ 2 [Ag(NH3)2]OH
H
OH OH OH OH OH
O
CH2 CH CH CH CH C
+ 2Ag + 3NH3 + H2O
ONH
OH OH OH OH OH
4
, .
( ) .
3. H2S, HBr, H3PO4, HCOH.
.
. (8 )
. .
.
:
2AgNO3 + H2S Ag2S + 2HNO3 ( );

AgNO3 + HBr AgBr + HNO3 ( ).


:
3Ca(OH)2() + 2H3PO4 Ca3(PO4)2 + 6H2O ( ).
:
o

t
H2C=O + 4[Ag(NH3)2]OH
4Ag + (NH4)2CO3 + 6NH3 + 2H2O (

).
4. ,
: ? (8 )
:
. ,
.
,
20 / < 1 < 34 /,
4 / < 2 < 20 /:
20
34
4
, 20 / ( ).
5. .
1.8 ,
0.75 . ,
. (10 )
. , , ,
Ne (Z = 10) Ar (Z = 18). 1.8 ,
10 , 18. : Na+, Mg2+,
Al3+, Cl, S2. 0.75 MgS. (Z(Mg) = 12, Z(S) = 18).
o

t
: Mg() + S()
MgS;
o

t
MgSO4() + 4C()
MgS + 4CO.

: MgS.
6. , , ,
10.5
, 250
1.6 /,
.
. (12 )
.
:
3CnH2n + 2KMnO4 + 4H2O 3CnH2n(OH)2 + 2MnO2 + 2.
:
MnO2 + 4HCl Cl2 + MnCl2 + 2H2O;
(HCl) = V = 0.25 1.6 = 0.4 ;
(MnO2) = 0.1 .

, (CnH2n) = 0.15 .
:
M(CnH2n) = 10.5 / 0.15 = 70 /,
14n = 70; n = 1.
C5H10. -2:
5CH3CH=CH2H5 + 8KMnO4 + 12H2SO4 5CH3COOH + 5CH3H2COOH + 8MnSO4 +
+ 4K2SO4 + 12H2O.
: -2.
7. ( ) 80
11.2 %- ( 1.14 /). ( )
, 88 %
? (12 )
. :

2KCl + 2H2O H2 + Cl2 + 2KOH.



m = 80103 1.14 = 91200 ;
KOH
m(KOH) = 91200 1.14 = 10214 .
88%,
m(KOH) = 10214 / 0.88 = 11607 ,

(KOH) =

11607
= 207.3 .
56

(KOH) = (KCl),
m(KCl) = 207.3 74.5 = 15444 = 15.44 .
: 15.44 .
8.

:
C7H16 X1 C6H5COONa X2 C7H5NO4 X3 C7H4NO4Na
.
(12 )
.
CH3
1) CH3(CH2)5CH3

Cr2O3

to

COONa

CH3
2)

+ 4H2

+ 2NaMnO4

+ 2MnO2 + NaOH + H2O

COONa
3)

COOH

+ HCl(

+ NaCl

COOH
4)

COOH
H2SO4
(
)

+ HNO3(

+ H2O

to

NO2

COOH
5)

COONH4
+ NH3(

NO2

NO2

COONH4
6)

COONa

+ NaOH(

+ NH3 + H2O

NO2

NO2

9.
(i , ):

Fe
1

Fe(NO3)3

Br2, KOH -, to
2

HCl
3

H2S -
4

FeS

O2, to

4
(12 )

:
o

t
1) Fe + 6HNO3()
Fe(NO3)3 + 3NO2 + 3H2O;

2) 2Fe(NO3)3 + 3Br2 + 16KOH 2K2FeO4 + 6KNO3 + 6KBr + 8H2O;


3) 2K2FeO4 + 16HCl 2FeCl3 + 3Cl2 + 4KCl + 4H2O;
4) 2FeCl3 + H2S(-) 2FeCl2 + S + 2HCl;
5) FeCl2 + (NH4)2S(-) FeS + 2NH4Cl;
o

t
6) 4FeS + 7O2
2Fe2O3 + 4SO2.

: X1 K2FeO4; X2 FeCl3; X3 FeCl2; X4 Fe2O3.


10. , ,
.
Y.

NaOH .
.
, . (14
)
. Y X
. , , , ,
, .

,
() Y:
COONa

NaOOC

COONa

NaOOC

COONa
COONa

Y
Y :
O
O
O
O

O
O

O
O


1) 12C() + 18HNO3() C12O9 + 18NO2 + 9H2O;
to

2)

COONa

O
O

O
O

+ 6 NaOH

NaOOC

COONa

p-p

NaOOC

3 H2O

COONa
COONa

3)

COONa
NaOOC
NaOOC

COONa

COONa

t
6 NaOH

TB

6 Na2CO3

COONa
2013/2014

10-11
5
1. ) , , )
, . (6 )
: ) Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2;
) MnO2 + 4HCl MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O.
2. 106.11 3/.
. (6 )

. ,
.
92
m M
=
=
= 0.8670 /3.

V Vm 106.11
3
: 0.8670 / .
3.
: H2SO4, KOH, Br2, KMnO4? .
(8 )
. (NH4)2SO3:
(NH4)2SO3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 + SO2 + H2O;
(NH4)2SO3 + 2KOH K2SO3 + 2NH3 + 2H2O;
(NH4)2SO3 + Br2 + H2O (NH4)2SO4 + 2HBr;
3(NH4)2SO3 + 2KMnO4 + H2O 2MnO2 + 3(NH4)2SO4 + 2KOH.
: HI, (NH4)2S, Al2S3 .
4. SXY2 SX2Y2.
26.89%, X 13.45%.
. (8 )
. ,
:
= 32 / 0.2689 = 119 /.
X
() = 119 0.1345 = 16 / .
(Y) = (119 32 16) / 2 = 35.5 / .
SOCl2 SO2Cl2.
:
SOCl2 + 4NaOH Na2SO3 + 2NaCl + 2H2O;
SO2Cl2 + 4NaOH Na2SO4 + 2NaCl + 2H2O.
: SOCl2 SO2Cl2.
5.
(
+3) , 4.934 .
.
(10 )
. 1, (/) .
2 y. :
to
2M1 + 3Br2
2M1Br3;
to
2M2 + 3Br2 2M2Br3.
, :
m() = (x + 240) + (y + 240);
m() = x + y.
x y 480

4.934 ,
x y
x + y = 122.
: 1 52Cr, 2 70Ga.
: Cr Ga.
6. 12
, ,
. 3.74 ( 720 . .
15). . (12 )

. ,
, :
O
O
O
R CH C NH CH C
+ H2O
+ 2NaOH
2 R CH C
OH
ONa
NH2
R
NH2
,
. (. .
) :
O
O
R CH C
+ N2 +2NaCl + H2O
+ NaNO2 + 2HCl
R CH C
ONa
OH
NH2
OH
.
. . :
720 101.3
=
96 ;
760
pV
96 3.76
(N2) =
=
0.15 ;
RT 8.314 288
() = 0.5(N2) = 0.075 ;
12
() =
160 = 2R + 130.
0.075
R = 15 /,
, R CH3, :
O
O
CH3 CH C NH CH C
OH
NH2
CH3
: .
7. , :
C2H2 X1 C3H5NO X2 C3H6O3 X3 C4H8O3.
. (12 )
:
Hg 2 , H
1) HCCH + H2O

CH3CHO;
KOH
2) CH3CHO + HCN
CH3CH(OH)CN;
o

t
3) CH3CH(OH)CN + KOH + H2O
CH3CH(OH)COOK + NH3;
4) CH3CH(OH)COOK + HCl CH3CH(OH)COOH + KCl;
5) CH3CH(OH)COOH + NaOH CH3CH(OH)COONa + H2O;
6) CH3CH(OH)COONa + CH3Br CH3CH(OH)COOCH3 + NaBr.
8. 250 10%- (II)
.
. 80%-
, .
. (12 )
. :
FeCl2 + Na2C2O4 FeC2O4 + 2NaCl;
to
FeC2O4
FeO + CO + CO2 ( , , N2);
2FeO + 4H2SO4() Fe2(SO4)3 + SO2 + 4H2O;
Fe2(SO4)3 + 6NaOH 2Fe(OH)3 + 3Na2SO4.
m(FeCl2) = 250 0.1 = 25 ;
(FeCl2) = m / M = 25 /127 = 0.197 ;
(Fe(OH)3) = (FeCl2) = 0.197 ;

m(Fe(OH)3) = M = 107 0.197 = 21.08 .


: 21.08 Fe(OH)3.
9.
6.6 . .
45 . ? (12
)
. , , CnH2n+1I
CmH2m+1I. ( ):
2CnH2n+1I + 2Na C2nH4n+2 + 2NaI;
CnH2n+1I + CmH2m+1I + 2Na Cn+mH2(m+n)+2 + 2NaI;
2CmH2m+1I + 2Na C2mH4m+2 + 2NaI.
:
45
(NaI) =
0.3 .
150

(NaI) = 2(),
.
() = 0.15 ,
0.05 . ,

6.6 / 0.05 = 132 /;
(14 2n + 2) + (14(n + m) + 2) + (14 2m +2) = 132;
14 3n + 14 3m + 6 = 132;
42(n + m) = 126;
n + m = 3.
, CH3I
C2H5I.
CH3 CH CH2 CH3
: CH3I C2H5I.
CH3

10.

.
, :
, 2 3.
:
9.2 /, 2 25.5 / 48.5 / 3.
Q(512()) = 9.2 + 25.5 + 3 48.5 = 180.2 /.
, Q
2412
:

108

1410

1610

Q(108()) = 78.0 /, Q(1410()) = 127.5 /,


Q(1610()) = 125.2 /.

( 14 )

. : 1,

( ), 2, ,
1 2 (
). 1 2.
, 1 2, 3,
, 2 3:
1
1
1
1
1

1
2

1
1
1

1
1

1
1
1

2
2
1

3
2

1
1


.
: 1, 2 z 3:
8 x 2 y -78.0;

10 x 4 y -127.5;
10 x 4 y 2 z -125.2.

: = 4.75 /, = 20.0 /, z = 1.15 /.


, .
1, 2 3:
1
1

1
1

2
1

3
3
3 3 3

1
2

1
2

1
1

1
1

:
Q(2412()) = 12 (4.75) + 6 (20.0) + 6 1.15 = 170.1 /.
: 170.1 /.
6
1. ) , , )
, . (6 )

: ) 2NH3() + 2Na
2NaNH2 + H2;
o
t
to
) 4NH3 + 3O2 2N2 + 6H2O 2NH3 + 3CuO
3Cu + N2 + 3H2O.
2. 1.261 /3.
. (6 )
. ,
. :
m = V ;
92
M
Vm =
=
= 72.958 3/.
1.261

3
: 72.958 /
3.
: Ba(NO3)2, NaOH, HCl, KMnO4? . (8
)
. (NH4)2SO3:
(NH4)2SO3 + Ba(NO3)2 BaSO3 + 2NH4NO3;

(NH4)2SO3 + 2NaOH Na2SO3 + 2NH3 + 2H2O;


(NH4)2SO3 + 2HCl 2NH4Cl + SO2 + H2O;
3(NH4)2SO3 + 2KMnO4 + H2O 2MnO2 + 3(NH4)2SO4 + 2KOH.
4. PX3Y4 PX3Y3.
31.63%, Y 65.31%.
. (8 )
. ,
:
= 31 / 0.3163 = 98 /.
Y
(Y) = 98 0.6531 / 4 = 16 / .
(X) = (98 31 64) / 3 = 1 / .
H3PO4 H3PO3 .
:
H3PO4 + 3NaOH Na3O4 + 3H2O;
H3PO3 + 2NaOH Na2O3 + 2H2O.
: H3PO4 H3PO3.
5.
( +2)
, 1.807 .
. (10 )
. 1, (/) .
2 y. :
to
M1 + Cl2
M1Cl2;
to
M2 + Cl2 M2Cl2.
, :
m() = (x + 71) + (y + 71);
m() = x + y.
x y 142

1.807 ,
x y
x + y = 176.
: 1 64Cu, 2 112Cd.
: Cu Cd.
6. 161.2
166.8 . . (12 )
. ,
( R). :
O
CH2 O C
O
CH O C
CH2 O

R
R

O
+ 3NaOH

3R

+ CH
ONa

O
(R) = x (/), () = + 67.
:
() =

166.8
;
x 67

() =

() = 3(),

CH2 OH
OH

CH2 OH

161.2
.
3x 173

166.8
161.2
=3
;
x 67
3x 173

, = 211 /. R C15H31.
:
O
CH2 O C C15H31
O
CH O C C15H31
CH2 O

C C15H31

O
C15H31COONa.
: ; .
7. , :
C2H4 X1 C3H5N X2 C3H6O2 X3 C3H3O2Na.
. (12 )
:
1) H2C=CH2 + HBr CH3CH2Br;
2) CH3CH2Br + KCN CH3CH2CN + KBr;
to
3) CH3CH2CN + KOH + H2O
CH3CH2COOK + NH3;
4) CH3CH2COOK + HCl CH3CH2COOH + KCl;

5) CH3CH2COOH + Br2
CH3CH(Br)COOH + HBr;

6) CH3CH(Br)COOH + 2NaOH
CH2=CHCOONa + NaBr + 2H2O.
8. , B C.
D.
D 80.12%.
. (12 )
. , (
), , .
,
( D). , , .
,
M
() =
0.8012 ,
M 17
= 68.5 /. .
, , ()2,
M
0.8012 ,
M 34
137 /. . :
to
2Ba + O2
BaO;
to
Ba + O2 BaO2;
BaO + H2O Ba(OH)2;
BaO2 + 2H2O Ba(OH)2 + H2O2.
: Ba, BaO, BaO2, Ba(OH)2.
9.
17.4 61.8
. ? (12 )
. , ,
CnH2n+1Br CmH2m+1Br. ( ):
2CnH2n+1Br + 2Na C2nH4n+2 + 2NaBr;

CnH2n+1Br + CmH2m+1Br + 2Na Cn+mH2(m+n)+2 + 2NaBr;


2CmH2m+1Br + 2Na C2mH4m+2 + 2NaBr.
:
61 . 8
0 .6 .
(NaBr) =
103

(NaBr) = 2(),
.
() = 0.3 ,
0.1 . ,

17.4 / 0.1 = 174 /;
(14 2n + 2) + (14(n + m) + 2) + (14 2m +2) = 174;
14 3n + 14 3m + 6 = 174;
42(n + m) = 168;
n + m = 4.
, CH3Br
C3H7Br.
: CH3Br C3H7Br.
10.
CH3 CH CH2 CH3
.
CH3
, :
, 2 3.
: 9.2
/, 2 25.5 / 48.5 / 3.
Q(512()) = 9.2 + 25.5 + 3 48.5 = 180.2 /.
, Q
2412
:

108

1410

1610

Q(108()) = 78.0 /, Q(1410()) = 127.5 /,


Q(1610()) = 125.2 /.
(14 )
. : 1,

( ), 2, ,
1 2 (
). 1 2.
, 1 2, 3,
, 2 3:

1
1
1
1
1

1
2

1
1
1

1
1

1
1
1

2
2
1

3
2

1
1


.
: 1, 2 z 3:
8 x 2 y -78.0;

10 x 4 y -127.5;
10 x 4 y 2 z -125.2.

: = 4.75 /, = 20.0 /, z = 1.15 /.


, .
1, 2 3:
1
1

1
1

2
1

3
3
3
3 3

1
2

1
2

1
1

1
1

:
Q(2412()) = 12 (4.75) + 6 (20.0) + 6 1.15 = 170.1 /.
: 170.1 /.

7
1. ) , , )
, . (6 )
: ) Mg + H2S MgS + H2;
to
) 2H2S + 3O2(.)
2SO2 + 2H2O.
2. 55.71 3/, 1.113
/3. . (6 )
. m = V , :
M = Vm = 1.113 55.71 = 62 /.
xHyOz, z 2.
262 ().
: 262.
3.
: KMnO4, HCl, NaOH, AlCl3? . (8
)
. (NH4)2S.
3(NH4)2S + 2KMnO4 3S + 2MnO2 + 2KOH + 6NH3 + 2H2O;
(NH4)2S + 2HCl 2NH4Cl + H2S;
(NH4)2S + 2NaOH Na2S + 2NH3 + 2H2O;

3(NH4)2S + 2AlCl3
2Al(OH)3 + 3H2S + 6NH4Cl.
H 2O
4. : O3X2Y2 O3X2Y.
42.11%, Y 56.14%.
. (8 )
. ,
:
= 16 3 / 0.4211 = 114 /.
Y
(Y) = 114 0.5614 / 2 = 32 / .
(X) = (114 48 64) / 2 = 1 / .
H2S2O3 H2SO3 .
:
H2S2O3 + 2OH 2S2O3 + 2H2O;
H2SO3 + 2KOH K2SO3 + 2H2O.
: H2S2O3 H2SO3.
5.
( +3)
, 1.905 .
. (10 )
. 1, (/) .
2 y. :
to
2M1 + 3F2
2M1F3;
to
2M2 + 3F2 2M2F3.
, :
m() = (x + 57) + (y + 57);
m() = x + y.
x y 114

1.905 ,
x y
x + y = 126.
: 1 56Fe, 2 70Ga.
: Fe Ga.
6. 4.68
, ,
. 733 (
745 . . 19).
. (12 )
. ,
, :
O
O
O
R CH C NH CH C
+ H2O
+ 2NaOH
2 R CH C
OH
ONa
NH2
R
NH2
,
.
) :
O
R CH C
+ NaNO2 + 2HCl
R
ONa
NH2


(. .
O
+ N2 +2NaCl + H2O

CH C
OH

OH

.
. . :
745 101.3
=
99.3 ;
760
pV 99.3 0.733
(N2) =
=
0.03 ;
RT 8.314 292
() = 0.5(N2) = 0.015 ;
4.68
() =
312 = 2R + 130.
0.015
R = 91 /,
, R CH26H5, -:
O
O
CH2 CH C NH CH C
OH
NH2
CH2

: -.
7. , :
C7H8 X1 C6H6 X2 C6H11Cl X3 HOOC(CH2)4COOH.
. (12 )
:
CH3
COOH
+ 6KMnO4 + 9H2SO4

1) 5

+ 3K2SO4 + 6KMnO4 + 12H2O;

COOH
2)

+ 2NaOH(

3)

+ 3H2

to
+ Na2CO3 + H2O;

to, Pt
Cl

4)

+ Cl2

+ HCl

Cl
5)

6)

+ NaOH

+ NaCl + H2O

+ 8KMnO4 + 12H2SO4
+ 4K2SO4 + 8KMnO4 + 12H2O;

8. (NO3)36H2O
, ,
. , ,
, 1.0 0.159 . (12 )
. .
:
M(NO3)3 + 3NH3 + 3H2O M(OH)3 + 3NH4NO3;
to
2M(OH)3
M2O3 + 3H2O.

0.159
(M2O3) =
;
2 x 48

1
1
(M(NO3)36H2O) = 2(M2O3) =
=
;
x 62 3 6 18 x 294
1
2 0.159
=
;
2 x 48 x 294
= 27 (/). Al.
: .
9.
35.1 25.8 . .
.
? (12 )
. , , CnH2n+1Cl
CmH2m+1Cl. ( ):
2CnH2n+1Cl + 2Na C2nH4n+2 + 2NaCl;
CnH2n+1Cl + CmH2m+1Cl + 2Na Cn+mH2(m+n)+2 + 2NaCl;
2CmH2m+1Cl + 2Na C2mH4m+2 + 2NaCl.
:
35 . 1
0 .6 .
(NaCl) =
58 .5

(NaCl) = 2(),
.
() = 0.3 ,
0.1 . ,

25.8 / 0.1 = 258 /;
(14 2n + 2) + (14(n + m) + 2) + (14 2m +2) = 258;
14 3n + 14 3m + 6 = 258;
42(n + m) = 252;
n + m = 6.
n = 2 m = 4,
( .., (C2nH4n+2)
0). , n = m = 3, 1 C3H7Cl 2- CH3CHClCH3.
: 1- 2-.
10.
CH3 CH CH2 CH3
.
CH3
, :
, 2 3.

: 9.2
/, 2 25.5 / 48.5 / 3.
Q(512()) = 9.2 + 25.5 + 3 48.5 = 180.2 /.
, Q
2412
:

108

1410

1610

Q(108()) = 78.0 /, Q(1410()) = 127.5 /,


Q(1610()) = 125.2 /. (14 )
. : 1,

( ), 2, ,
1 2 (
). 1 2.
, 1 2, 3,
, 2 3:
1
1
1
1
1

1
2

1
1
1

1
1

1
1
1

2
2
1

3
2

1
1


.
: 1, 2 z 3:
8 x 2 y -78.0;

10 x 4 y -127.5;
10 x 4 y 2 z -125.2.

: = 4.75 /, = 20.0 /, z = 1.15 /.


, .
1, 2 3:
1
1

1
1

2
1

3
3
3
3 3

1
2

1
2

1
1

1
1

:
Q(2412()) = 12 (4.75) + 6 (20.0) + 6 1.15 = 170.1 /.
: 170.1 /.
8

1. ) , , )
, . (6 )
: ) H2O2 + 2KI + H2SO4 I2 + K2SO4 + 2H2O;
) 2KMnO4 + 5H2O2 + 3H2SO4 2MnSO4 + K2SO4 + 5O2 + 8H2O.
2. 293 100 . (6 )
. , -:
m
pV
RT ;
M

RT
pM
100 30
=
= 1.232 /.
p

M
RT 8.314 293
: 1.232 /.
3.
: KOH, AgNO3, HI, KMnO4? .
(8 )
. (NH4)2S:
(NH4)2S + 2KOH K2S + 2NH3 + 2H2O;
(NH4)2S + 2AgNO3 Ag2S + 2NH4NO3;
(NH4)2S + 2HI 2NH4I + H2S;
3(NH4)2S + 2KMnO4 3S + 2MnO2 + 2KOH + 6NH3 + 2H2O.
4. : N2X2Y4 N2X3Y4.
43.75%, 50.0%.
. (8 )
. ,
:
= 14 2 / 0.4375 = 64 /.
X
(X) = 64 0.50 / 2 = 16 / .
(Y) = (64 28 32) / 4 = 1 / .
NH4NO2 NH4NO3.
:
NH4NO2 + OH NO2 + NH3 + H2O;
NH4NO3 + KOH NO3 + NH3 + H2O.
: NH4NO2 NH4NO3.
5.
(
+2) , 6.708 .
. (10 )
. 1, (/) .
2 y. :
to
M1 + I2
M1I2;
o
t
M2 + I2
M2I2.
, :
m() = (x + 254) + (y + 254);
m() = x + y.
x y 508

6.708 ,
x y
x + y = 89.
: 1 24Mg, 2 65Zn.
: Mg Zn.

6. 88.4
9.2 . . (12
)
. ,
( R). :
O
CH2 O C
O
CH O C
CH2 O

R
R

CH2 OH

O
3R

+ 3KOH

+ CH
OK

CH2 OH

O
(R) = x (/), () = 3 + 173.
:
(C3H8O3) =

9.2
= 0.1 ;
92

() =

OH

88.4
.
3x 173

( C3H8O3) = (),
88.4
= 0.1;
3x 173

, = 237 /. R C17H33.
:
O
CH2 O C (CH2)7 CH CH C8H17
O
CH O C (CH2)7 CH CH C8H17
CH2 O

C (CH2)7 CH CH C8H17

O
C17H33COO.
: ; .
7. , :
C3H8 X1 C3H7MgBr X2 C4H8O2 X3 C4H5O2K.
. (12 )
:
h
1) CH3CH2CH3 + Br2
CH3CHBrCH3 + HBr;
2) CH3 CH CH3 + Mg
Br
3) CH3 CH CH3 + CO2

CH3 CH CH3
CH3

MgBr
CH CH3

MgBr

COOMgBr

4) CH3 CH CH3 + HBr

CH3 CH CH3 + MgBr2

COOMgBr

COOH
Br

5) CH3 CH CH3 + Br2


COOH

CH3 C

CH3

+ HBr

COOH

Br
6) CH3 C

CH3 + 2KOH

COOH

CH2 C CH3 + KBr + 2H2O


COOK

8. 18.2
,
27.3 . , .
(12 )
. . :
to
2MF() + H2SO4()
2HF + M2SO4;
Ca(OH)2 + 2HF CaF2 + 2H2O.
,
(CaF2) = m / M = 27.3 / 78 = 0.35 ,
(MF) = 2(CaF2) = 0.35 2 = 0.7 ,
M(MF) = 18.2 / 0.7 = 26 /.
: () = 26 19 = 8 /.
: LiF.
9.
30 7.2
.
. ? (12 )
. , , CnH2n+1I
CmH2m+1I. ( ):
2CnH2n+1I + 2Na C2nH4n+2 + 2NaI;
CnH2n+1I + CmH2m+1I + 2Na Cn+mH2(m+n)+2 + 2NaI;
2CmH2m+1I + 2Na C2mH4m+2 + 2NaI.
:
30
(NaI) =
0.2 .
150

(NaI) = 2(),
.
() = 0.1 ,
0.033 . ,

7.2 / 0.033 = 216 /;
(14 2n + 2) + (14(n + m) + 2) + (14 2m +2) = 216;
14 3n + 14 3m + 6 = 210;
42(n + m) = 126;
n + m = 5.
, CH3I 2--2 C4H9I. ,
:
CH3

CH3 CH3
CH3 C CH3
CH3 C C CH3
CH3 CH3
CH3 CH3
CH3

2,2- 2,2,3,3-
.
: 2--2-.
10.
CH3 CH CH2 CH3
.
CH3
, :

, 2 3.
: 9.2 /, 2 25.5 / 48.5
/ 3. Q(512()) = 9.2 + 25.5 + 3 48.5 = 180.2 /.
, Q
2412
:

108

1410

1610

Q(108()) = 78.0 /, Q(1410()) = 127.5 /,


Q(1610()) = 125.2 /. (14 )
. : 1,

( ), 2, ,
1 2 (
). 1 2.
, 1 2, 3,
, 2 3:
1
1
1
1
1

1
2

1
1
1

1
1

1
1
1

2
2
1

3
2

1
1


.
: 1, 2 z 3:
8 x 2 y -78.0;

10 x 4 y -127.5;
10 x 4 y 2 z -125.2.

: = 4.75 /, = 20.0 /, z = 1.15 /.


, .
1, 2 3:
1
1

1
1

2
1

3
3
3
3 3

1
2

1
2

1
1

1
1

:
Q(2412()) = 12 (4.75) + 6 (20.0) + 6 1.15 = 170.1 /.

2013/2014

10-11
9
1. Fe2+ Fe3+. (4 )
:
Fe2+ 1s22s22p63s23p63d6
Fe3+ 1s22s22p63s23p63d5
2. ,
. (4 )
:

CH3COOH

Cl2

PKp

ClCH2COOH

HCl

OH

OH

Br

Br

+ 3 Br2

3 HBr

Br
3. ,
,
. (8 )
:

OH

H3C CH CH2 OH

H3C C CH3

CH3

CH3

:
5 H 3C

C
CH2

CH3

8 KMnO4

+ 12 H2SO4

5 H 3C

CH3

5 CO2 + 8 MnSO4 + 4 K2SO4 + 17 H2O

4. : ) ,
; ) ,
. (8 )
:
:
)
LiCl SiCl4; MgCl2 TiCl4, SO2Cl2 CuCl2; FeCl2 CaOCl2.
)
C2H2Cl2 C3H3Cl3, CnHnCln, .
5. , 3.60 , 93.33% ,
.
, 1.30 .
. (12
)
:
1. = , CnH2n-16.
2. (Zn)=()=()=0,02
3. ()=180 /.
4. 1412 ( ).
5. :

6. 1000 .

C() + H2O() CO() + H2()
1000 K = 2.52 . , ,
H2O, CO H2 1 . (12 )
:
CO H2 x .
1 , H2O (1 2x) .

Kp

pCO pH 2
pH 2 O

xx
= 2.52,
1 2x

x = 0.458.
, CO H2 0.458 , H2O
0.084 .
: p(H2O) = 0.084 , p(CO) = 0.458 , p(H2) = 0.458 .
7.
( , ):

(12 )
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

:
2HNO3 () + 3SO2 + 2H2O 3H2SO4 + 2NO (2HNO3 () + SO2 H2SO4 + 2NO2)
H2SO4 () + FeS FeSO4 + H2S
2FeSO4 + 4NaOH + H2O2 2Fe(OH)3 + 2Na2SO4
2Fe(OH)3 + 10KOH + 3Br2 2K2FeO4 + 6KBr + 8H2O
3H2S + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH Ag2S + 2(NH4)2S + 2H2O ( H2S + 2AgNO3 Ag2S + 2HNO3)
to

Ag + SO2
6.
Ag2S + O2
X = H2SO4
8.
:

. (12 )
:

9. ,
, . NaOH
D, KMnO4, .
D E,
. (4.96 )
, 12.8 ( ). -.
, . (12 )
: , O2, S.
to

SO2, SO2
1.S + O2
2. SO2 + 2NaOH() Na2SO3 + H2O, D Na2SO3
3. 2KMnO4 + 5Na2SO3 + 3H2SO4 2MnSO4 + K2SO4 + 5Na2SO4 + 3H2O
t o .

Na2S2O3, E Na2S2O3
4. Na2SO3 + S
5. Na2S2O3 + 4Br2 + 5H2O Na2SO4 +8HBr + H2SO4
( Na2S2O3 +4Br2+5H2O 2NaHSO4 +8HBr
Na2S2O3 +4Br2+5H2O 2H2SO4 +2NaBr +6HBr)
, .
(Br2)=12.8/160=0.08, () = 0.02 , (5H2O) = 0.02 .
(5H2O) = 4.96/0.02 = 248 /, (Na2S2O35H2O) = 248 /.
E Na2S2O3.
10.
, 40 ,
. 17 ( 0.9
100) 32 .
0.8.
0.4. . (16 )
.
. 1 0.8, ,
1-0.8=0.2.
MxOy x:y = w(M)/M(M) : w(O)/M(O) = 0.8/M : 0.2/16 = 0.8/M : 0.0125
, .
:
M2O, MO, M2O3, MO2. . :
2 2 = 0.8/M : 0.0125
= 32 /
1 = 0.8/M : 0.0125
= 64 / , CuO.
, , .
m(Cu) = m( )w(u) = 320.4 = 12.8
n(Cu) = m(Cu)/M(Cu) = 12.8/64 = 0.2
n(CuO)= n(Cu) = 0.2
m(CuO) = n(CuO)M(CuO) = 0.280 = 16
, . m(MzOv) = m( ) m(CuO) = 32 16 = 16
: pV = nRT
(0.9101.3)17 = n(SO2)8.314(100+273)
n(SO2) = 0.5

n(S ) = n(SO2) = 0.5


m(S) = n(S)M(S) = 0.532 = 16
, ,
: m(M) = m(.) m(S) m(Cu) = 40 16 12.8 = 11.2
m(MzOv) = 16 m(M) = 11.2 ,
: m(O) = m(MzOv) - m(M) = 16 11.2 = 4.8 .
n(O) = m(O)/M(O) = 4.8/16 = 0.3
z : v = n(M) : n(O) = m(M)/M(M) : 0.3 = 11.2/M(M) : 0.3
, .
:
M2O, MO, M2O3, MO2. . :
2 2 = 11.2/M(M) : 0.3
= 18.7 /
1 = 11.2/M(M) : 0.3
= 37.3 /
M2O3 2/3 = 11.2/M(M) : 0.3
= 56 / Fe2O3.
, n(Fe2O3) = n(Fe)/2 = m(Fe)/(M(Fe)2) = 11.2/(562) = 0.1
, .
n(Fe) = 0.2
n(Cu) = 0.2
n(S) = 0.5
, , , FeS2: n(FeS2) = n(Fe)
= 0.2 . n(S) = 0.5 20.2 = 0.1 , n(Cu) = 0.2
Cu2S 0.1 .
0.2 FeS2 0.1 Cu2S.
: 0.2 FeS2 0.1 Cu2S
10
1. S2- S4+. (4 )
:
S2- 1s22s22p63s23p6
S4+ 1s22s22p63s2
2. , .
(4 )
:

2Al(OH) + 3H S
+ 3Na S + 6H O 2Al(OH) + 3H S + 6NaCl

Al2S3 + 6H2O
2AlCl3

3. ,
.
.
. (8 )
:

Br

H3C CH CH CH3

H 3C

CH3 Br

C CH2 CH3
CH3

:
5 H3C C
CH

CH3 + 6 KMnO4 + 9 H2SO4

5 H3C C

CH3 + 5 CH3COOH + 6 MnSO4 + 3 K SO + 9 H O


2
4
2

CH3

4. : ) ,
; ) ,
. (8 )
:
:

) NaHCO3 MgCO3; KHCO3 CaCO3.


) nH2n; C2H2 C6H6; CnH2nOn .., .
5. , 3.96 , 90.91% ,
.
, 1.95 .
. (12
)
:
1. = , CnH2n-8.
2. (Zn)=()=()=0,03
3. ()=132 /.
4. - 910 .
5. :

6. ( 25 C 1 ) ,
1 25 C ? ,
393.5 /, 285.8 / 84.68 / .
4.184 /. (12 )

:
C2H6 + 3.5 O2 = 2 CO2 + 3 H2O.
:
Q- = 2Q(CO2) + 3Q(H2O) Q(C2H6) =
= 2393.5 + 3285.8 84.68 = 1559.72 /.
, 1000 25 C 100 C:
Q = m C T = 1000 4.184 // 75 = 313800 = 313.8 .
:
n = Q / Q- = 313.8 / 1559.72 = 0.201 .
:

nRT 0.201 8.314 298


= 4.92 .

p
101.3

: 4.92 .
7.

(12 )
:
1.Mn(OH)2 + H2O2

MnO2 + 2H2O
to

Na2MnO4 + NaNO2 + H2O


2.MnO2 + NaNO3 + 2NaOH
3.Na2MnO4 + 2H2SO4 + 2Na2SO3 MnSO4 + 3Na2SO4 + 2H2O
o

4.MnO2 + 4HBr

MnBr2 + Br2 + 2H2O

to

CuBr2
5.Br2 + Cu
6.2CuBr2 + 2HI 2CuBr + 2HBr + I2
8.
:

. (12 )
:

1. C6H5CH2CH(Br)COOH

+ 2 NH3
t

2. 2 C6H5CH2CH(NH2)COOH

3. H2NCHC(O)NHCHCOOH
|
|
CH2C6H5 CH2C6H5
- +
4. ClH3NCHCOOH
|
CH2C6H5

- +
NO
5.
3H3NCHCOOH
|
CH2C6H5

6. H2NCHCOOH
|
CH2C6H5

C6H5CH2CH(NH2)COOH
H2NCHC(O)NHCHCOOH
|
|
CH2C6H5 CH2C6H5

+ 2 HCl +

t
H2O

H2NCHCOOH
|
CH2C6H5
HCl

H 2O

- +
2 ClH3NCHCOOH
|
CH2C6H5

- +
NO3H3NCHCOOH
|
CH2C6H5

NaOH

NaNO2

NH4Br

AgNO3

AgCl

NaNO3 + H2O

HOCHCOOH
|
CH2C6H5

N2

NaCl

H2O

9.
, .
,
40% ( ).
D - ,
F. D
G,
F. G. ,
. (12 )
: , Br2.
to

KBrO3 + 5KBr + 3H2O,


1. 3Br2 + 6KOH
KBr KBrO3.
.

2. KBr + 3H2O KBrO3 + 3H2,


(KBr) = (KBrO3), M(KBrO3)/M(KBr) = 167/119=1.4,
KBrO3 40% KBr.
3. P4 + 10Br2 4PBr5,
D P4 , - PBr5.
4. PBr5 + 8KOH(p-p) 5KBr + K3PO4 + 4H2O,

KBr F KPO4.
5. P4 + 5O2 P4O10 (P2O5),
G P4O10.
6. P2O5 + 6KOH 2K3PO4 + 3H2O,
F K3PO4.
: Br2, KBr, KBrO3, D P4, PBr5, F K3PO4, G P4O10.
10. , 40 ,
. 17 ( 0.9
100) 32 .
0.8.
0.4. . (16 )
.
. 1 0.8, ,
1-0.8=0.2.
MxOy x:y = w(M)/M(M) : w(O)/M(O) = 0.8/M : 0.2/16 = 0.8/M : 0.0125
, .
:
M2O, MO, M2O3, MO2. . :
2 2 = 0.8/M : 0.0125
= 32 /
1 = 0.8/M : 0.0125
= 64 / , CuO.
, , .
m(Cu) = m( )w(u) = 320.4 = 12.8
n(Cu) = m(Cu)/M(Cu) = 12.8/64 = 0.2
n(CuO)= n(Cu) = 0.2
m(CuO) = n(CuO)M(CuO) = 0.280 = 16
, . m(MzOv) = m( ) m(CuO) = 32 16 = 16
: pV = nRT
(0.9101.3)17 = n(SO2)8.314(100+273)
n(SO2) = 0.5
n(S ) = n(SO2) = 0.5
m(S) = n(S)M(S) = 0.532 = 16
, ,
: m(M) = m(.) m(S) m(Cu) = 40 16 12.8 = 11.2
m(MzOv) = 16 m(M) = 11.2 ,
: m(O) = m(MzOv) - m(M) = 16 11.2 = 4.8 .
n(O) = m(O)/M(O) = 4.8/16 = 0.3
z : v = n(M) : n(O) = m(M)/M(M) : 0.3 = 11.2/M(M) : 0.3
, .
:
M2O, MO, M2O3, MO2. . :
2 2 = 11.2/M(M) : 0.3
= 18.7 /
1 = 11.2/M(M) : 0.3
= 37.3 /
M2O3 2/3 = 11.2/M(M) : 0.3
= 56 / Fe2O3.
, n(Fe2O3) = n(Fe)/2 = m(Fe)/(M(Fe)2) = 11.2/(562) = 0.1
, .
n(Fe) = 0.2
n(Cu) = 0.2
n(S) = 0.5
, , , FeS2: n(FeS2) = n(Fe)
= 0.2 . n(S) = 0.5 20.2 = 0.1 , n(Cu) = 0.2
Cu2S 0.1 .
0.2 FeS2 0.1 Cu2S.
: 0.2 FeS2 0.1 Cu2S.
11

1. Cl- Cl+. (4 )
:
Cl- 1s22s22p63s23p6
Cl+ 1s22s22p63s23p4
2. ,
1,2-, 1,4- . . (4 )
:
:

Cl

HCl

+ HCl
Cl
3. ,
,
. (8 )
:

OH

H3C CH CH CH3

H3C C CH2 CH3

CH3 OH

CH3

:
5 H3C C
CH

CH3 + 6 KMnO4 + 9 H2SO4

5 H3C C

CH3 + 5 CH3COOH + 6 MnSO4 + 3 K SO + 9 H O


2
4
2

CH3

4. : ) ,
; ) ,
. (8 )
:
:
) H2S H2O2; LiH, N2H4, SiH4
) nH2n; C2H2 C6H6; CnH2nOn , .
5. , 3.12 , 92.31% ,
.
, 1.95 .
. (12
)
:
1. = , CnHn.
2. (Zn)=()=()=0,03
3. ()=104 /.
4. 88
5. :

6. 31 (III)
(V) 353 .
, (III) (V)
287 / 375 /. (12 )
:
1 .
PCl3 x , PCl5 (1 x) .

287x + 375(1 x) = 353,
x = 0.25 .
, ( PCl3) = 25%, ( PCl5) = 75%.
: ( PCl3) = 25%, ( PCl5) = 75%.
7.

(12 )
:
1.8NaI + 9H2SO4 () 8NaHSO4 + 4I2 + H2S + 4H2O
2.3I2 + 6KOH 5KI + KIO3 + 3H2O
3.2H2S + 2[Cu(NH3)2]Br Cu2S + 2NH4Br + (NH4)2S
o

2 CuO + SO2
o
t

Cu + H2O
5.CuO + H2
o
t

CuCl2
6.Cu + Cl2

4.Cu2S + 2O2

8.
:

. (12 )
:

9. ,
69.5% . 1.56

- . 0.5
/ ? (12 )
:
Na
. , Na2O2, .
2Na + O2 Na2O2
1 Na, Na2O2 0.5.
x.
1.695M(Na)=0.5x
21.695M(Na)=x, x=78/=M(Na2O2), , ,
Na2O2.
Na2O2 + 2KI + 2H2SO4 Na2SO4 + I2 +K2SO4 + 2H2O
(Na2O2) = (I2), (Na2O2) = 1.56/78 = 0.02 , (I2) = 0.02 .
I2 + 2Na2S2O3 2NaI + Na2S4O6
(Na2S2O3) = 2(I2)=0.04 . V(p-pa) = (Na2S2O3)/c=0.04/0.5 = 0.08 = 80 .
: V(p-pa) = 80 .
10.
, 40 ,
. 17 ( 0.9
100) 32 .
0.8.
0.4. . (16 )
.
. 1 0.8, ,
1-0.8=0.2.
MxOy x:y = w(M)/M(M) : w(O)/M(O) = 0.8/M : 0.2/16 = 0.8/M : 0.0125
, .
:
M2O, MO, M2O3, MO2. . :
2 2 = 0.8/M : 0.0125
= 32 /
1 = 0.8/M : 0.0125
= 64 / , CuO.
, , .
m(Cu) = m( )w(u) = 320.4 = 12.8
n(Cu) = m(Cu)/M(Cu) = 12.8/64 = 0.2
n(CuO)= n(Cu) = 0.2
m(CuO) = n(CuO)M(CuO) = 0.280 = 16
, . m(MzOv) = m( ) m(CuO) = 32 16 = 16
: pV = nRT
(0.9101.3)17 = n(SO2)8.314(100+273)
n(SO2) = 0.5
n(S ) = n(SO2) = 0.5
m(S) = n(S)M(S) = 0.532 = 16
, ,
: m(M) = m(.) m(S) m(Cu) = 40 16 12.8 = 11.2
m(MzOv) = 16 m(M) = 11.2 ,
: m(O) = m(MzOv) - m(M) = 16 11.2 = 4.8 .
n(O) = m(O)/M(O) = 4.8/16 = 0.3
z : v = n(M) : n(O) = m(M)/M(M) : 0.3 = 11.2/M(M) : 0.3
, .
:
M2O, MO, M2O3, MO2. . :
2 2 = 11.2/M(M) : 0.3
= 18.7 /
1 = 11.2/M(M) : 0.3
= 37.3 /
M2O3 2/3 = 11.2/M(M) : 0.3
= 56 / Fe2O3.

, n(Fe2O3) = n(Fe)/2 = m(Fe)/(M(Fe)2) = 11.2/(562) = 0.1


, .
n(Fe) = 0.2
n(Cu) = 0.2
n(S) = 0.5
, , , FeS2: n(FeS2) = n(Fe)
= 0.2 . n(S) = 0.5 20.2 = 0.1 , n(Cu) = 0.2
Cu2S 0.1 .
0.2 FeS2 0.1 Cu2S.
: 0.2 FeS2 0.1 Cu2S.

12
1. S2- S6+. (4 )
:
S2- 1s22s22p63s23p6
S6+ 1s22s22p6
2. ,
. . (4 )
:

O
H C

H2O

Br2

2 HBr

CO2

OH
3. ,
,
. (8 )
:

OH
H3C CH2 CH CH CH3

H3C CH2 C CH2 CH3


CH3

CH3 OH
:

5 H 3C C

CH2 CH3

+ 6 KMnO4 +

9 H2SO4

CH
CH3
5 H 3C C

CH2 CH3

+ 5 CH3COOH + 6 MnSO4 + 3 K2SO4 + 9 H2O

O
4. : ) ,
; ) ,
. (8 )
:
:
) Li2O, NO, SiO2; MgO TiO2; CaCO3 KHCO3.
) CH2O C2H4O2; CnH2nOn, .
5. , 4.72 , 91.52% ,
.
, 2.60 .
. (12
)
:
1. = , CnH2n-8.
2. (Zn)=()=()=0,04

3. ()=118 /.
4. - 910 .
5. :

6. NO 180
, NO NO2 114 .
NO2 ( /). (12 )
:
:
N2 + O2 = 2NO 180 ,
2NO + O2 = 2NO2 + 114 /.
, :
N2 + 2O2 = 2NO2 66 ,

Q(NO2) = 66 / 2 = 33 /.
: 33 /.
7.
( , ):

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

(12 )
:
Na2S + 2HI 2NaI + H2S
2H2S + 3O2 2H2O + 2SO2
5SO2 + 2KMnO4 + 2H2O 2H2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + K2SO4
H2SO4 () + Fe FeSO4+ H2
to

2Fe2O3 + 4SO2+ O2
4FeSO4
SO2+ 2NaOH Na2SO3 + H2O
X = SO2

8.

. (12 )
:

1. C6H5CH2CH2COOH + Br2
2. C6H5CH2CH(Br)COOH

2 NH3
to

3. 2 C6H5CH2CH(NH2)COOH

4. H2NCHC(O)NHCHCOOH
|
|
CH2C6H5 CH2C6H5
- +
5. ClH3NCHCOOH
|
CH2C6H5
- +
6. NO3H3NCHCOOH
|
CH2C6H5

C6H5CH2CH(Br)COOH

AgNO3

2 KOH

2 HCl

+ HBr

C6H5CH2CH(NH2)COOH
H2NCHC(O)NHCHCOOH
|
|
CH2C6H5 CH2C6H5

t
H2O

NH4Br

H 2O

- +
2 ClH3NCHCOOH
|
CH2C6H5

- +
NO3H3NCHCOOH
|
CH2C6H5
H2NCHCOOK
|
CH2C6H5

AgCl

KNO3

+2

H 2O

9. (II) (II) 40.9


. -
. ,
. ,
21.6 . ,
. .
. (12 )
:
o

MnC2O42H2O

MnO + CO + CO2 + 2H2O

to

MnO + CO2
MnCO3
MnO.
MnC2O42H2O x, MnCO3 y.
:
179 + 115 = 40.9
CO , 2 ( +) .
Ca(OH)2 + CO2 CaCO3 + H2O
2[Ag(NH3)2]OH + CO + 2H2O 2Ag + (NH4)2CO3 + 2NH3H2O
B CaCO3, C Ag.
(Ag) =2 (CO) = 2x = 21.6/108 = 0.2, x = 0.1
m(MnC2O42H2O) = 0.1179 = 17.9
m(MnCO3) = 40.9 - 17.9 =23
(MnCO3) = = 23/115 = 0.2
(CO3) = + = 0.1 + 0.2 = 0.3 , m(CO3) = 0.3100 =30
(MnO) = + = 0.3 , m(MnO) = 0.371 = 21.3
(MnC2O42H2O) = 17.9/40.9 = 0.438 = 43.8%
(MnCO3) = 23/40.9 = 0.562 = 56.2%
: m(CO3) = 30 , m(MnO) = 21.3 , (MnC2O42H2O) = 43.8%, (MnCO3) = 56.2%.
10.
, 40 ,
. 17 ( 0.9
100) 32 .

0.8.
0.4. . (16 )
.
. 1 0.8, ,
1-0.8=0.2.
MxOy x:y = w(M)/M(M) : w(O)/M(O) = 0.8/M : 0.2/16 = 0.8/M : 0.0125
, .
:
M2O, MO, M2O3, MO2. . :
2 2 = 0.8/M : 0.0125
= 32 /
1 = 0.8/M : 0.0125
= 64 / , CuO.
, , .
m(Cu) = m( )w(u) = 320.4 = 12.8
n(Cu) = m(Cu)/M(Cu) = 12.8/64 = 0.2
n(CuO)= n(Cu) = 0.2
m(CuO) = n(CuO)M(CuO) = 0.280 = 16
, . m(MzOv) = m( ) m(CuO) = 32 16 = 16
: pV = nRT
(0.9101.3)17 = n(SO2)8.314(100+273)
n(SO2) = 0.5
n(S ) = n(SO2) = 0.5
m(S) = n(S)M(S) = 0.532 = 16
, ,
: m(M) = m(.) m(S) m(Cu) = 40 16 12.8 = 11.2
m(MzOv) = 16 m(M) = 11.2 ,
: m(O) = m(MzOv) - m(M) = 16 11.2 = 4.8 .
n(O) = m(O)/M(O) = 4.8/16 = 0.3
z : v = n(M) : n(O) = m(M)/M(M) : 0.3 = 11.2/M(M) : 0.3
, .
:
M2O, MO, M2O3, MO2. . :
2 2 = 11.2/M(M) : 0.3
= 18.7 /
1 = 11.2/M(M) : 0.3
= 37.3 /
M2O3 2/3 = 11.2/M(M) : 0.3
= 56 / Fe2O3.
, n(Fe2O3) = n(Fe)/2 = m(Fe)/(M(Fe)2) = 11.2/(562) = 0.1
, .
n(Fe) = 0.2
n(Cu) = 0.2
n(S) = 0.5
, , , FeS2: n(FeS2) = n(Fe)
= 0.2 . n(S) = 0.5 20.2 = 0.1 , n(Cu) = 0.2
Cu2S 0.1 .
0.2 FeS2 0.1 Cu2S.
: 0.2 FeS2 0.1 Cu2S.
2013/2014


5-9
1. ,
. (4 )
:
Zn(OH)2 + 2HCl ZnCl2 + 2H2O;
Zn(OH)2 + 2NaOH Na2[Zn(OH)4].

2.
: , .
. . (6 )

. .
, ,
. , . ,
(N2) = (HCl) << (H2O).
3. , . (6 )
: , CrO3, Br2,
CoSO47H2O, Fe2O3 (-); Ni(OH)2, K2MnO4, Cr2O3,
NiCl26H2O, CrCl36H2O.
4. 1s22s22p6?
. (6 )
. :
Ne, F, O2, N3, Na+, Mg2+, Al3+.
: NaF, MgO, AlN, Al2O3, Mg3N2 .
5.
6:17. ? (6 )
. , .
, 2 , Cl .
2M ( ) 16
6
, 28() = 59, .

M ( ) 35.5 17
, , Cl2 .
M () 16 6
, 11() = 154, () = 14 /, N .
M () 71 17
, 23 , Cl3 .
2 M () 48 6
, 28( )= 177, .

M () 106.5 17
, 2 , Cl4 .
M () 32
6
, 11() = 308, () = 28 /, Si.

M () 142 17
: SiO2 SiCl4.
: Si.
6. , , 50%,
20%. , . (6 )
. .
1 , () = 0.2 , (4) = 0.8 .
,
0.2 = 0.8 16,
= 64 /.
SO2.
: SO2.

7. , ,
60 % 2 40 % 2.
? (8 )
. ,
, :
C2H4 + 3O2 2CO2 + 2H2O;

2
2
2C2H2 + 5O2 4CO2 + 2H2O.

2

(CO 2 ) 60%

1.5 ,
(H 2 O) 40%
(CO 2 ) 2x 2y
(H 2 O) 2x y
(CO 2 ) 2x 2y

1.5 , x 2y .
(H 2 O) 2x y
= 1 C2H4, = 2 C2H2.
m() = 28 + 2 26 = 80 .
28 100%
(C2H4) =
(C2H2) = 65%.
35% ,
80
: (C2H4) = 35%, (C2H2) = 65%.
8. 53.76 (. .) 3118.8 ;
, 2 2 393.5
285.8 / . (10 )
. :
C2H2 + 2.5O2 2CO2 + H2O.
(C2H2) = 53.76 / 22.4 = 2.4 .
1 Q = 3118.8 / 2.4 = 1299.5 / .
, :
Q = 2 393.5 + 285.8 = 1299.5 ,
. = 226.7 /.
: 226.7 /.
9. , ,
.
.
. (12 )
.
aCO3 , ;
Ca(OH)2 , , ;
CaO , ;
CaOCl2 , - ;
aSO42H2O , ;
CaC2 .
:
o

t
CaCO 3
CaO CO 2

CaO H 2 O
Ca(OH) 2
.
Ca(OH) 2 Cl 2
CaOCl 2 H 2 O

t
CaCO 3 H 2SO 4 H 2 O
CaSO 4 2H 2 O CO 2
o

t
CaCO 3 4C
CaC 2 3CO
o

t
CaO 3C
CaC 2 CO .

10. 28 %- ( 1.17/)
50 ? (12 )
. .
Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 4HNO 3
Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 2Ca(NO 3 ) 2
50
(Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 )
0.16129 ;
310
(HNO 3 ) 4Ca 3 PO 4 2 0.645 ;
m(HNO 3 ) M 0.645 63 40.635 ;
40.635
m(p pa)
145.125 ;
0.28
m 145.125
V (p pa)
124.0 .

1.17
: 124 .
11.
:
1
S
H2S
FeSO4
2
3
H2SO4
1
2
3
4
5
6
(12 )
. :
t
1) 4FeSO 4

2Fe 2 O 3 4SO 2 O 2
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

SO 2 2H 2S 3S 2H 2 O
t
S Fe

FeS
FeS 2HCl( - ) FeCl 2 H 2S
H 2S CuCl 2 ( ) CuS 2HCl
CuS 8HNO 3 ( ) CuSO 4 8NO 2 4H 2 O

12. 50 35.6%- 10
.
1.2 . . (12 )
. :
MeHal AgNO 3 AgHal MeNO 3
MeHal.
m(MeHal) = m(p-pa) = 0.356 50 = 17.8 .
y, Hal z.
MeHal :
m(MeHal) = 17.8 x(y + z),
:
m(-) = 50 + 10 m(AgHal) = 60 (108 + z).
1
1.2 ,
2

17.8 x ( y z )
,
60 x (108 z )
17.8 x ( y z )
.
0.356 1.2
60 x (108 z )
1.2y + 0.844z = 38.448.
.
1) Hal Cl, z = 35.5, 1.2y = 8.486.
y = 7, Me Li, LiCl.
2) Hal Br, z = 80, 1.2y = 29.032, y < 0, ,
.
3) Hal I, z = 127, 1.2y = 68.74, y < 0, ,
.
4) AgF , .. .
: LiCl.

1 0.356 , 2

2013/2014

1
1.8. , 4,
50 . (6 ).
. Z = 50 (4 8 + 1) = 17, , ClO4.
HClO4 Cl+7. :
O
H O Cl O
O
2.3. CH2Zn2O5 (6 ).
: [Zn(OH)]2CO3 .

3.1. 200 0.2 / 300


0.3 / KClO4.
, KClO4 1.1102,
(8 ).
.
NaClO4 + KCl KClO4 + NaCl.

(NaClO4) = c V = 0.2 0.2 = 0.04 ;
(KCl) = 0.3 0.3 = 0.09 .
0.2 + 0.3 = 0.5 (
).
KClO4. K+ ClO4
KClO4,
:
(0.09 x ) (0.04 x )
= [K+][ClO4] =
= 1.1102.

0.5
0.5
:
2 0.13 + 0.00085 = 0.
D = 0.0169 0.0034 = 0.0135.
0.13 0.1162
1,2 =
2
: 1 = 0.1231 2 = 0.0069 ().
, . . 0.1231 > 0.04 -
. , KClO4 0.0069 ,
m(KClO4) = M = 0.0069 138.5 = 0.956 .
: 0.956 .
4.2.
. 32 , 5%.
, ,
40% (8 ).
. ,
, :
CxHyOz + ((2x + y)/2 z)O2 xCO2 + 0.5yH2O.
(H) = 5%, m(H) = 0.05 32 = 1.6 (H) = 1.6 ; m(H2O) = 0.8 18 = 14.4 .
m(CO2) = 32 14.4 = 17.6 , (CO2) = 17.6 / 44 = 0.4 (C) = 0.4 .
: (C) : (H) = 0.4 : 1.6 = 1 : 4.
x = 1, y = 4, ,
4 3.

(CH4) = n, (CH3OH) = m, n + m = 0.4, . . (C) = 0.4 :


0.4 = (12n + 12m)/(16n + 32m),
7n = m,
n = 0.05, m = 0.35,
(CH4) = 0.05 , (CH3OH) = 0.35 ,
m(CH4) = 0.8 , m(CH3OH) = 11.2 .
: m(CH4) = 0.8 , m(CH3OH) = 11.2 .
5.6. (II) 22.53
400.
. () 366 (
= 298 = 1 .). (10 ).
. :
Hg(NO3)2Hg + 2NO2 + O2,
x
2x
x
4Al(NO3)32Al2O3 + 12NO2 + 3O2
y
3y
0.75
:
4KOH + 4NO2 + O2 4KNO3 + 2H2O.
, , O2, :
p V
0.366
(O2) =

0.015 O2 .
R T 0.082 298
(O2) = (0.75 + ) 0.25(3 + 2) = 0.5.
= 0.03 .
(Hg(NO3)2) = 0.03 ,
m(Hg(NO3)2) = 0.03 325 = 9.75 ,
(Hg(NO3)2) = 9.75 / 22.53 = 0.43 ( 43%),
(Al(NO3)3) = 0.57 ( 57%).
: (Hg(NO3)2) = 43%, (Al(NO3)3) = 57%.
6.1. 8250 .
1 ,
306 .
, K(23/3) = 4.27107, 1561
/ 891 / (10 ).
. :
CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O

C2H6 + 3.5O2 2CO2 + 3H2O


y

2y

3y

,
m(H2O) = 0.306 , (H2O) = 0.306 / 18 = 0.017 . :
891x 1561y 8.25

2 x 3 y 0.017
x = 0.004 , y = 0.003 .
, (CO2) = x + 2y = 0.004 + 2 0.003 = 0.01 .
: CO2 + H2O H2CO3.
(H2CO3) = /V = 0.01 /.

H2CO3 H+ + HCO30.01z
z
z

K =

[H ][HCO 3 ]
z2
z2
=
= 4.27 107

[H 2 CO 3 ]
0.01 z 0.01

[H+] = 0.01 4.27 10-7 = 6.535105 /,


pH = lg[H+] = 4.2.
: pH = 4.2.
7.1. ,
, . -:

(12 ).
. :
C2H6 C2H4

C2H5Br
C2H5OH
Ni, 600o

1) C2H6

C2H4 + H2;
H+

2) C2H4 + H2O C2H5OH;


t > 170o

3) C2H5OH C2H4 + H2O;


H2SO4()

4) C2H5OH + HBr C2H5Br + H2O;


H2O

5) C2H5Br + NaOH C2H5OH + NaBr;


h

6) C2H6 + Br2 C2H5Br + HBr.


:

C2H2 C2H4

CH3CHO
C2H5OH

8.7.
( , , Y , ):
Mn(NO3)2

KOH TB , O2 , t o

H 2S, H 2SO 4 p p

Y FeS SO2
MnO2
X KMnO4
(12 )

. :
to

1) Mn(NO3)2
MnO2 + 2NO2,

2) MnO2 + 0.5O2 + 2KOH


K2MnO4 + H2O,
3) K2MnO4 + 0.5Cl2 KMnO4 + KCl,
4) 2KMnO4 + 5H2S + 3H2SO4 2MnSO4 + 5S + K2SO4 + 8 H2O,
o

t
FeS,

t
6) 4FeS + 7O2
4SO2 + 2Fe2O3.

5) S + Fe

: X K2MnO4, Y S.

9.7. -2 28
70%.
38.4 .
. 150?
(14 ).
. .
. :
R(COOH)n + nC3H7OH R(COOC3H7)n + nH2O,
R(COOH)n + nKOH R(COOK)n + nH2O.
m(). = 28 / 0.7 = 40 .
() = () = ()
m() / M() = m() ./ M().
R , :
38.4/( + 83n) = 40/( + 87n),
= 13n.
n = 1 = 13 ( ), n = 2 = 26,
CH=CH, (- -):

10.3. , -
1.9, - .
58.39%.
.
( )
, , Z1.72 .
,
(14 ).
. :
M = DHF M(HF) = 1.9 20 = 38 /, F2 (- ).
,
. -
Z,
Z + n/2 F2 ZFn, n = 1, 2, 3 Z.
, ZFn .
:
MZ
0.5839 , Z = 26.7n.
(Z) =
M z 19n
n = 1, Z = 26.7 / (+1) .
n = 2, Z = 53.3 / .

n = 3, Z = 80 / Br.
:
Br2 + 3F2 2BrF3 (BrF3 - ).
Br3+
NaBr, 9x NaF 2 NaBrO3:
3BrF3 + 12NaOH 9NaF + NaBr + 2NaBrO3 + 6H2O.
9x

2x

Br2 () + 2NaOH + H2().


2NaBr + 2H2O
x

0.5x


m(Br2) = 0.5x 160 = 1.72,
= 0.0215 .
NaBrO3,
2 = 2 0.0215 = 0.043 :
3Na2SO3 + NaBrO3 3Na2SO4 + NaBr,
0.043

(Na2SO3) = 3(NaBrO3) = 3 0.043 = 0.129 ,


m(Na2SO3) = 0.129 126 = 16.25 .
: 16.25 .

2
1.2. , 2,
34 . (6 ).
: Z = 34 (2 8 + 1) = 17, , ClO2.
HClO2 Cl+3. :
HOCl=O
2.1. H14O2N4Cu (6 ).
: [Cu(NH3)4](OH)2 (II).
3.4. 200 0.5 / 100
0.25 / RbBrO3.
, RbBrO3 2.0102,
(8 ).
.
NaBrO3 + RbCl RbClO3 + NaCl.

(NaBrO3) = c V = 0.5 0.2 = 0.1 ;
(RbCl) = 0.25 0.1 = 0.025 .
0.2 + 0.1 = 0.3 (
).
RbBrO3. Rb+
BrO3 RbBrO3:
(0.1 x ) (0.025 x )
= [Rb+][BrO3] =
= 2.0102.

0.3
0.3
:
2 0.125 + 0.0007 = 0.
D = 0.0156 0.0028 = 0.0128.
0.125 0.113
1,2 =
2
: 1 = 0.0628 2 = 0.006 ().
, . . 0.0628 > 0.025 . , RbBrO3 0.006 ,

m(RbBrO3) = M = 0.006 213 = 1.28 .
: 1.28 .
4.3.
. 24 , 15%.
, ,
15% (8 ).
. ,
, :
CxHyOz + ((2x + y)/2 z)O2 xCO2 + 0.5yH2O.
() = 15%, m() = 0.15 24 = 3.6 , () = 0.3 , m(CO2) = 13.2 .
m(H2O) = 10.8 , (H2O) = 0.6 , () = 0.12 .
: (C) : (H) = 0.3 : 0.12 = 1 : 4.
x = 1, y = 4, , 4
3.
(CH4) = n, (CH3OH) = m, n + m = 0.3, . . (C) = 0.3 :

0.15 = (4n + 4m)/(16n + 32m),


2n = m,
n = 0.1, m = 0.2,
(CH4) = 0.1 , (CH3OH) = 0.2 ,
m(CH4) = 1.6 , m(CH3OH) = 6.4 .
: m(CH4) = 1.6 , m(CH3OH) = 6.4 .
5.7. (II) (III) 17.84
400. .
() 489 ( = 298 ,
= 1 .). (10 ).
. :
Hg(NO3)2 Hg + 2NO2 + O2
x
2x
x
4Fe(NO3)3 2Fe2O3 + 12NO2 + 3O2
y
3y
0.75
:
4LiOH + 4NO2 + O2 4LiNO3 + 2H2O.
, , O2, :
p V
0.489
(O2) =

0.02 O2 .
R T 0.082 298
(O2) = (0.75 + ) 0.25(3 + 2) = 0.5,
= 0.04 .
(Hg(NO3)2) = 0.04 ,
m(Hg(NO3)2) = 0.04 325 = 13 ,
(Hg(NO3)2) = 13 / 17.84 = 0.43 ( 73%),
(Fe(NO3)3) = 0.27 ( 27%).
: (Hg(NO3)2) = 73%, (Fe(NO3)3) = 27%.
6.3. 8.56 .
5
, 279 .
, K(23/3-) = 4.27107,
1561 / 2222 / (10 ).
. :
C2H6 + 3.5O2 2CO2 + 3H2O

2
3
C3H8 + 5 O2 3CO2 + 4H2O
y
3y
4y
,
m(H2O) = 0.279 , (H2O) = 0.279 / 18 = 0.0155 .
:
1561x 2222 y 8.56

3x 4 y 0.0155
x = 0.0005 , y = 0.0035 .
, (CO2) = 2x + 3y = 0.001 + 30.0035 = 0.0115 .
: CO2 + H2O H2CO3.
(H2CO3) = /V = 0.0115 /5 = 0.0023 /.

H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-

0.0023z
z
z
2

z
z2
[H ][HCO 3 ]
K =
=
= 4.27 107

[H 2 CO 3 ]
0.0023 z 0.0023

[H+] = 0.0023 4.27 10-7 = 3.134105 /,


pH = lg[H+] = 4.5.
: pH = 4.5.
7.8. ,
, . -:

(12 ).


. :
C2H4 C2H5OH CH3COOH CH3COONa
CH3COOC2H5

H+

1) C2H4 + H2O C2H5OH,


2) 5C2H5OH + 4KMnO4 + 6H2SO4 5CH3COOH + 4MnSO4 + 2K2SO4 + 11H2O,
3) CH3COOH + NaOH(-) CH3COONa + H2O,
4) CH3COONa + C2H5Br CH3COOC2H5 + NaBr,
H2O

5) CH3COOC2H5 + NaOH CH3COONa + C2H5OH,


H+

6) CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 + H2O.


:
C2H4 C2H5OH CH3CHO CH3COOH
CH3COONH4
8.3.
( , , Y , ):
KClO3

Na 2 CO 3 p p

KCl X K[Al(OH)4] AlCl3 Y KAlO2


(12 )

.
o

1) KClO3

KCl + 1.5O2
,

2) 2KCl + 2H2O H2 + Cl2 + 2KOH,


3) KOHp-p + Al(NO3)3 K[Al(OH)4] + 3KNO3 ( KOHp-p + Al(OH)3
4) K[Al(OH)4] + 4HCl AlCl3 + KCl + 4H2O,
5) 2AlCl3 + 3Na2CO3 + 3H2O 2Al(OH)3 + 3CO2 + 6NaCl,

6) Al(OH)3. + KOH.
KAlO2 + 2H2O.
: X KOH, Y Al(OH)3.

K[Al(OH)4])

9.6. -1 6.48
75%.
9.56 .
. 150?
(14 ).
. .
. :
R(COOH)n + nC4H9OH R(COOC4H9)n + nH2O
R(COOH)n + n/2Ba(OH)2 R(COO)nBan/2 + nH2O
m() . = 6.48 0.75 = 8.64 .
() = () = ()
m() / M() = m() ./ M().
R , :
9.56 / ( + 112.5n) = 8.64 / ( + 101n),
= 7n,
n = 1 = 7 ( ), n = 2 = 14, CH2,
HOOCCH2COOH.
to
HOOCCH2COOH
CH3COOH + CO2.
10.8. ,
(
9.07), .
21.846%.
.
( ) 7.21
. (..),
.
. :
M = DN2 M(N2) = 9.07 28 = 254 /, I2 ( ).
( Z)
, . I2 , Z ,

I2 + 2nZ 2IZn
, IZn
.
nM Z
(Z) =
0.21846, 0.78154nZ = 27.74442.
nM Z 127
n = 1, Z = 35.5 / Cl.
:
I2 + Cl2 2ICl (ICl ).
I+
NaI, 1.5 NaCl 0.5 NaIO3.
3ICl + 6NaOH 3NaCl + 2NaI + NaIO3 + 3H2O.
1.5x
x
0.5x
I2 l2
- - (
):

I2 ()+ 2NaOH + H2()


2NaI + 2H2O
x
0.5x

Cl2 ()+ 2 NaOH +H2()


2NaCl + 2H2O

1.5
0.75
, :
m = m(I2) + m(Cl2) = 0.5x 254 + 0.75x 71 = 7.21,
= 0.04 .
.
= 0.5 = 0.5 0.04 = 0.02 .
NaIO3 + 3SO2 + 6NaOH NaI + 3Na2SO4 + 3H2O.
0.02

(SO2) = 3(NaIO3) = 0.06 .


V(SO2) = 0.06 22.4 = 1.344 .
: 1.344 .

2013/2014

5-9

1. 8 .
?
.

Mr(O2) = 16 2 = 32,
Mr(Sn) = 32 8 = 256,
n = Mr(Sn) / Ar(S) = 256 / 32 = 8.

: S8.
2. , 16
. .
: H2S H2O2.
3. 4 ,
.
: 44 Ru , Ruthenia;
62 Sm , ,
.. -;
101 Md , .. ;
105 Db , ,
;
114 Fl , - ..,
.
4. 1.2 , 1.8 -
. ( )?
. , ,
:
KNO3 K+ + NO3,
Al(NO3)3 Al3+ + 3NO3.
1(NO3) = (K+) = 1.2 ,
2(NO3) = (NO3) 1(NO3) = 1.8 1.2 = 0.6 ,
(Al3+) = 2(NO3) / 3 = 0.2 .
: 0.2 .
5. ,
, .
.
: NH4NO3. NH4+ 3,
NO3 +5.
:
to
NH4NO3
N2O + 2H2O ( ),
NH4NO3 + KOH KNO3 + NH3 + H2O.

6. Z XZ2 YZ2 X Y
Z . X, Y, Z
.
: Z , X , Y .
NO2 + SO2 SO3 + NO.
7. - ,
:
) H2SO4 X H2SO4;
) NO2 Y NO2;
) O2 Z O2
) H2 Q H2.
.
: ) X SO2:
Cu + 2H2SO4() CuSO4 + SO2 + H2O;
SO2 + H2O2 H2SO4.
) Y HNO3:
4NO2 + O2 + H2O 4HNO3;
Cu + 4HNO3() Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O.
) Z Na2O2:
O2 + 2Na Na2O2;
2Na2O2 + 2CO2 2Na2CO3 + O2.
) Q HCl:
H2 + Cl2 2HCl
2HCl + Zn ZnCl2 + H2.
8. P2O5 1:1, 1:2
1:3. .
: 1) P2O5 + H2O 2HPO3


2) P2O5 + 2H2O H4P2O7


3) P2O5 + 3H2O 2H3PO4


9. , , :
) , ) , ) , , ) ,
) . .

: N2 O2,
Na Cl2.
) H2 + Cl2 2HCl ( HCl );
) 2H2 + O2 2H2O;
2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2 (NaOH );
) N2 + 3H2 2NH3 ( , Pt),
NH3 + HCl NH4Cl ();
) 4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O ( Pt),
2NO + O2 2NO2 ( );
) 2Na + O2 Na2O2;
Na2O2 + 2Na 2Na2O ( ).
10. X ,
. X 6 ,
, 87.5%. X
H2O2 Y,
, X, 1:3.
X,
.
. X N2H4 (M = 32 /), :

2NH3 + H2O2 N2H4 + 2H2O.


: X N2H4, Y NH3.

2013/2014
1

5-9

:

99 .
:

70 98 .


( I ):

89 .
( II ):

77 88 .
( III ):

66 76 .

2013/2014
2

10-11

:

99 .
:

70 98 .


( I ):

89 .
( II ):

77 88 .
( III ):

66 76 .

-2012
1. : ,
N2H4, NO, , , N2O, [Ag(NH3)2]OH.
1
3

: [Ag( N H 3 ) 2 ]OH N 2 H 4 N 2 N 2 O N O K N O 2 H N O 3 .
2. ,
(
):
1)
NH4Cl + CO2 + H2O
2)
K2CO3 + O2
3)
K2Cr2O7 + K2SO4 + H2O
.

:
1) (NH4)2CO3 + 2HCl 2NH4Cl + CO2 + H2O;
(NH4HCO3 + HCl NH4Cl + CO2 + H2O);
2) 2K2O2 + 2CO2 2K2CO3 + O2;
(, , 4KO2 + 2CO2 2K2CO3 + 3O2);
3) 2K2CrO4 + H2SO4 K2Cr2O7 + K2SO4 + H2O.
3. c , ,
,
,
. .
4
: HCOOH.
( 236).
( )
.
2HCOOH + 2Na 2HCOONa + H2;
HCOOH + NaOH HCOONa + H2O;
to

HCOOH + 2[Ag(NH3)2] 2Ag + (NH4)2CO3 + 2NH3 + H2O;


HCOOH + Cl2 2 + 2HCl.
4.
Aspergillus,
51010 /.
(III) 107 %? .
4
: x (). ,
= 1 / V(-) = x = x103 . Fe2(SO4)3
:
m(Fe2(SO4)3) = m(-) = 109 ,
(Fe2(SO4)3) = m(Fe2(SO4)3) / M(Fe2(SO4)3) = 109 / 400 = 2.51012 .
Fe3+ , -:
Fe2(SO4)3 2Fe3+ + 3SO42,
(Fe3+) = 2(Fe2(SO4)3) = 51012 ,

c(Fe3+) = (Fe3+) / V(-) = 51012 / (x103) = 5109 /.
(51010 /),
, .
: , .
1

5. XVIII 2.5 1.8 ,


, . .

2.48 , 30.
( ) ,
8.92 /3.
4
: ( h r):
V() = r2 h = 3.14 12.52 1.8 = 883.125 3 = 0.883 c3.
m() = V() = 0.883 8.92 = 7.88 .
;
(, ), :
Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2.
,
:
Cu + 2H2SO4() CuSO4 + SO2 + 2H2O.
SO2:
(SO2) =

pV 101.3 2.48

= 0.1 ;
RT
8.31 303

(Cu) = (SO2) = 0.1 .


:
m(Cu) = (Cu) M(Cu) = 0.1 64 = 6.4 ;
(Cu) = m(Cu) / m() =

6.4
= 0.812 ( 81.2%).
7.88

: 81.2% Cu.
6. 100 34.238 . .
6
: e , p n
. p+n. ,
:
(-) = m(-) / M(-) = 100 / (p+n),
N() = (-) N = 6.021025 / (p+n).
e , e = p
:
Ne = e 6.021025 / (p+n) = p 6.021025 / (p+n).
9.11028 ,

m(e) = m0(e) Ne = 9.11028 p 6.021025 / (p+n) = 54.78 p 103 / (p+n) = 34.238103.
, n / p = 0.6, CH4
(p = 10, n = 6).
: H4.
7. X Y
:
X() + HCl(-) + A()
Y() + HCl(-) + B()
5:3.
. X, Y, A B.

X Y , A B
.
6
: KMnO4 ( , ) Na2CO3 ( ).
2KMnO4 + 16HCl 5Cl2 + 2MnCl2 + 2KCl + 8H2O
X
A (- )
Na2CO3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O
Y
B ( )
x , (KMnO4) = x/158 (Cl2) = 0.016x (),
(Na2CO3) = (CO2) = x/106 ().
V(Cl2) : V(CO2) = 0.016 106 = 1.677 5:3.
.
:
to

6KOH + 3Cl2 5KCl + KClO3 + 3H2O;


2KOH + CO2 K2CO3 + H2O.
: X KMnO4, Y Na2CO3, A Cl2, B CO2.
8. , ,
( X Y ):
4
8

SiO2.H2O

SiO2.CaO

(SiO2)n

SiH4

HNO3, HF
MgO
Si
6
1

:
to

1) 3Si + 2MgO Mg2Si + 2SiO ( SiO2);


2) Mg2Si + HCl() MgCl2 + SiH4;
3) nSiH4 + 2nO2 (SiO2)n + 2nH2O;
4) (SiO2)n + nCaO nSiO2CaO
5) SiO2CaO + 2HCl SiO2H2O + CaCl2;
6) 3Si + 4HNO3 + 18HF 4NO + 8H2O + 3H2SiF6;
7) SiO2 + 6HF (-) 2H2O + H2SiF6 ( SiO2 + 4HF() 2H2O + SiF4 );
to

8) SiH4 Si + 2H2.
9. ,
, 30 . 10
, . 3
, .
, .
?
? ?
6
:
:
XSO4 + Zn ZnSO4 + X,
XSO4 + Fe FeSO4 + X.
, X Fe Zn.
, , X
, Zn. , X ,
Fe. , ,
(CoSO4). , :
CoSO4 + Zn ZnSO4 + Co;
3

CoSO4 + Fe FeSO4 + Co.


, 0.5x
. ,
, , w = () /t.
Zn Co:
m = 59x 65x = 3;
= (Zn) = 0.5 , n(Fe) = 0.25 .
:
m = 59 0.5x 56 0.5x = 0.75 .
3 ,
0.75 .
: CoSO4, m2 = 0.75 , 3 ,
0.75 .
10. , (n m),
:
8
1

CnH2n+2

Y
4

CmH2m+2
:
. , , :
to
1) CH3COONa + NaOH
CH4 + Na2CO3;

2) CH4 + Cl2
CH3Cl + HCl;
3) 2CH3Cl + 2Na
C2H6 + 2NaCl;

4) 2CH3COONa + 2H2O
2H2 + 2CO2 + C2H6 + 2NaOH.

11. 161
.
. , ,
1 25,
, (III) 1163
/, 1141 / 46 /, 286 /.
8
: :
to
2(NH4)2CrO4
Cr2O3 + N2 + 2NH3 + 5H2O + Q.
,
,
2 :
Q = Q(Cr2O3) + Q(N2) + 2Q(NH3) + 5Q(H2O) 2Q((NH4)2CrO4) =
= 1141 + 0 + 2 46 +5 286 2 1163 = 337 .
161 , .. 673.6 , ((NH4)2CrO4) = 4 , (N2) = 2 .
:
NH3 + HCl NH4Cl,
. :
V(N2) =

2 8.314 298
RT
=
= 48.9 .
101.325
p

: 48.9 .
12. 66.20% .
, Cl 2.1131010
4

, ClCl 3.4501010 .
.
?
10
. Cl.
y.
(Cl) =

35.5 x
= 0.6620;
y 35.5 x

35.5 = 0.6620 + 23.501,


11.999 = 0.6620,
= 18.125.
, , , ,
:
= 1 y = 18.125
= 4 y = 72.500
= 2 y = 36.250
= 5 y = 90.625
= 3 y = 54.325
= 6 y = 108.030

(r(Ge) = 72.59). .
, ClGeCl
(, , ).
Cl

a
:
b2 = 2a2 2a2cos = 2a2(1 cos),
b

b2
(3.45 10 10 ) 2
11.9025
1 cos =
=

1.333,
2
10 2
2a
2 ( 2.113 10 )
8.9295
1
cos = 0.333 = ; = 109.5.
3

a
Cl

, , GeCl4
, sp3- .
: GeCl4, , sp3-.
13. , -.
m t1/2. ,
, ,
, . ?
- .
8
: ,
, .

(t = 0)
m
4m
0.5 t1/2

2m
t1/2
0.5m
m
1.5t1/2

0.5m
2t1/2
0.25m
0.25m
2.5t1/2

0.125m
3t1/2
0.125m
0.0625m
,
.
:

1 t1 / 2
m(t) = m ,
2

1 0.5t1 / 2
, ,
m(t) = 4m
.
2
t, :
t

2t

1 t1 / 2
1 0.5t1 / 2
1 t1 / 2
1 t1 / 2
m = 4m
, = 4 .
2
2
2
2
:
t
1
2t 1
lg lg 4
lg ,
t1 / 2 2
t1 / 2 2
t
1
lg 4
lg .
t1 / 2 2
1
1
t
1
lg 4 2 lg , 2 lg
lg , t = 2t1/2.
2
2 t1 / 2 2
: 2t1/2.
14. ,
81-82.5%.
, , 16.08 25%-
11.4 1.18 /.
, 36.2%
. ,
. ,
?
14
:
:
O
CH2 O C R1
O
CH O C R2 + 3KOH
O
CH2 O C R3

CH2 OH
CH OH + R1COOK + R2COOK + R3COOK
CH2 OH

, :
(KOH) = V /M = 3.363 / 56 = 0.06 .
, () = 0.06 / 3 = 0.02 . :
M() = m() / () = 16.08 / 0.02 = 804 /.
1 , 2 3.
M() = 1 + 2 + 3 + 173 = 804,
1 + 2 + 3 = 631.
, ,
: R1 = CnH2n-1, R2 = CmH2m+1, R3 = CkH2k+1
12n + 2n 1 + 12m + 2m + 1 + 12k + 2k + 1 = 631,
n + m + k = 45.
.
1: C15H29COOH, C15H31COOH, C15H31COOH.
C15H29Br2COOH:
(Br) = 160 / 414 = 0.386 , .
6

2: 17H33COOH, C13H27COOH, C15H31COOH


C17H33Br2COOH:
(Br) = 160 / 442 = 0.362 (36.2%) .
O
.
CH
O
C C17H33
2
, ,
O
, CH O C C13H27
O
.
CH
O
C C15H31
2
,
, .
RCOOK + HCl RCOOH + KCl.
15. C, 12.5% , 17.5% ,
70% , .
100 .
26.93. ( )
.
? .
14
: : FeO, Fe2O3, Fe3O4, FeS2, FeSO4, Fe2(SO4)3
.
,
(III) , 70%, , (III)
. , ,
1 : 4, , . Fe2(SO4)3 FeSO4.
:
o

t
Fe2(SO4)3
Fe2O3 + 3SO2 + 1.5O2,
x
x
3x
1.5x
o

t
2FeSO4
Fe2O3 + 2SO2 + 0.5O2.
y
0.5y
y
0.25y

(III). :
(Fe) = (2x + y) / (2x + 3x +12x + y + y + 4y) = (2x + y) / (17x + 6y) = 0.125,
m(Fe2O3) = x 160 + 0.5y 160 = 100.
, x = 0.5 , y = 0.25 .
:
(SO2) = 3x + y = 1.75 ,
(O2) = 1.5x + 0.25y = 0.75 + 0.0625 = 0.8125 ,
(SO2) = 0.683.
:
M(c) = 26.93 2 = 53.86 /.

M(c) = (SO2) 64 + (1 (SO2)) 32 = 53.86,
(SO2) = 0.686, , .
Fe2O3 + 6HCl 2FeCl3 + 3H2O ( );
Fe2O3 + 6NaOH / ( , ).
: 0.5 Fe2(SO4)3, 0.25 FeSO4.

1
1. ,
. (4 )
+6; SO3, Na2SO4.
2. C9H11NO3 HCl NaOH.
, . (8 )
():
O
HO
CH2 CH C
OH
NH2
:

HO

CH2 CH C

+ HCl

HO

CH2 CH C

OH

NH2
HO

CH2 CH C

NH3Cl

O
+ 2NaOH

O
OH

CH2 CH C

NaO

O
ONa

OH

+ 2H2O

NH2
NH2
3. , 1.35 ( +2), ,
0.51 , 0.96 .
, . (8 )
:
XCl2 + YS XS + YCl2
, , :
m( XS)
0.96
m( XCl 2 )
1.35
(XS) =
;
(XCl2)
.

M ( XCl 2 ) x 71
M ( XS) x 32
(XS) = (XCl2), = 64 /, X Cu, CuCl2.
Y.
(YS) = (XS) = 0.96/96 = 0.01 ;
M(YS) = 0.51 / 0.01 = 51 /, M(Y) = 19 /.
, NH4HS.
: CuCl2, NH4HS.
4. 400 NaOH 1.2 / 1.04 /
30 70%- . . (8 )
:
: m(SO3) = m = 0.7 30 = 21 , (SO3) = 21/80 = 0.2625 ,
m(H2SO4) = 30 21 = 9 , (H2SO4) = 9/98 = 0.092 .
SO3 :
SO3 + H2O H2SO4
0.2625 . ,
(H2SO4) = 0.2625 + 0.092 = 0.3545 .
:
(NaOH) = c V = 1.2 0.4 = 0.48 .
:
2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O;
0.48

0.24

0.24

(H2SO4) = 0.3545 0.24 = 0.1145 .


Na2SO4 + H2SO4 2NaHSO4
0.1145

0.1145

0.229

:
(Na2SO4) = 0.24 0.1145 = 0.1255 , m(Na2SO4) = 0.1255 142 = 17.8 .
(NaHSO4) = 0.229 , m(NaHSO4) = 0.229 120 = 27.5 .
:
m(-) = 30 + 400 1.04 = 446 ;
(NaHSO4) = 27.5 /446 = 0.062 ( 6.2%);
(Na2SO4) = 17.8 / 446 = 0.04 ( 4.0%).
: (NaHSO4) = 6.2%; (Na2SO4) =4.0 %. Na+,
SO42, HSO4.
5. 63 Na2SO3 5650 , 63
Na2SO3 7H2O 11715 .
1 Na2SO3 7H2O . (10 )
: Na2SO3, Na2SO3 7H2O
:
Na2SO3() Na2SO3(aq) + Q1
(1)
Na2SO37H2O() Na2SO3(aq) + 7H2O + Q2 (2)
Na2SO3() + 7H2O Na2SO37H2O() + Q3
(3)
, Q3 = Q1 Q2
Q1 Q2, 1 Na2SO3() Na2SO37H2O().
(Na2SO3) = 63/126 = 0.5 ,
Q1 = 5650/0.5 = 11300 / = 11.3 /;
(Na2SO37H2O()) = 63/252 = 0.25 , Q2 = 11715/0.25 = 46860 / = 46.86 /.
Q3 = Q1 Q2 = 11.3 + 46.86 = 58.16 /.
: 58.16 /.
6. 3,
. , ,
. 250 , 1 .
, (NH4OH) = 2105. (10 )
:
(NH4Cl) = m(NH4Cl) / M(NH4Cl) = 3/53.5 = 0.056 .
t
NH4Cl
NH3 + HCl


(NH3) = (HCl) = 0.056 .
: HCl (V(H2O) = 250 )
NH4OH (V(H2O) = 1 ).
pH HCl ( , ):
c(H+) = c(HCl) = / V = 0.056 / 0.25 = 0.224 /, pH= lgc(H+) = 0.65.
NH4OH ( ):
c(NH4OH)0 = 0.056 / 1 = 0.056 /.

NH4OH NH4+ + OH
c0 x
x
x
2
x
.
K
c0 x

x2
2 10 5 , x = 1.05103.
0.056 x

c(OH ) =1.05103 /;
c(H+) = 1014 / c(OH) = 0.951011 /.
:
pH = lg(0.951011) = 11.03.
: 0.65, 11.03.
:

7. :
X1 3
1

(NH4)2SO4

X3

NH3

X4
7

8
X2 2
X5
,
-.
. (12 )
:
1) NH3 + H2SO4 NH4HSO4
2) NH4HSO4 + NH3 (NH4)2SO4
3) 2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4
4) (NH4)2SO4 + BaCl2 BaSO4 + 2NH4Cl
t
5) NH4Cl() + KOH()
NH3 + KCl + H2O

t
6) 2NH3 + 1.5O2
N2 + 3H2O

7) N2 + O2 2NO
8) 2NH3 + 2.5O2
2NO + 3H2O

8. :
CnH2nOn X C4H7O2Cl Y C4H6O2 Z CmH2mOm

(n = 3m)

,
. (12 )
:
1) C6H12O6
CH3CH2CH2COOH + 2CO2 + 2H2 ( )

P
2) CH3CH2CH2COOH + Cl2
CH3CH2CHClCOOH + HCl

3) CH3CH2CHClCOOH + 2() CH3CH=CHCOOK + KCl + 2H2O


4) 2CH3CH=CHCOOK + H2SO4 2CH3CH=CHCOOH +K2SO4
5) CH3CH=CHCOOH + 8KMnO4 + 11KOH CH3COOK + KOOCCOOK + 8K2MnO4 + 7H2O
6) CH3COOK + HCl CH3COOH + KCl

: X CH3CH2CH2COOH; Y
CH3CH=CHCOOK; Z CH3COOK.
9. ( )
. ( = 8.2 /3), 10 10 ,
5 3 50%. ,
96.6 25
1 14.66 . (14 )
1) . Zn
Zn + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2
(H2) = 1101.314.66 / (8.31298) = 0.6 .
(Zn) = 0.6 , m(Zn) = 39
m(Cu) = 96.6 39 = 57.6
(Cu) = 57.6/64 = 0.9
M = m() / ((Cu) + (Zn)) = 96.6/(0.6 + 0.9) = 64.4 /.
2) , .
m() = V = 10 0.5 0.3 8.2 = 12.3
3) .
t I M
, = 0.5 , n = 2 .
m( )
nF

n F m( ) 2 96500 12.3

= 123 .
t M
600 0.5 64.4

: 123 .
10. 25.6 .
, 560 20%-
135 (II). 250
, 60.8 . . (14
)
:
1) (KOH) = 5600.2 / 56 = 2 ,
(CuCl2) = 135 / 135 = 1 .
2KOH + CuCl2 Cu(OH)2 + 2KCl
(Cu(OH)2) = 1 .
2) , Cu(OH)2
. , ,
:
R1COOCH=CHR2 + H2O R1COOH + R2CH2CHO

Cu(OH)2 :
2R2CH2CHO + 5Cu(OH)2 (R2CH2COO)2Cu + 2Cu2O + 6H2O

2.5x
x
2R1COOH + Cu(OH)2 (R1COO)2Cu + 2H2O

0.5x
3) Cu2O Cu(OH)2:
(Cu(OH)2) = 1 2.5x 0.5x = 1 3x
(Cu2O) = x
:
t
Cu(OH)2
CuO + H2O

1 3x
1 3x
60.8,
144x + 80(1 3x) = 60.8 x = 0.2
4) :
M() = m() / () = 25.6 / 0.2 = 128 /.
CH3COOCH=CHC3H7, :
O
CH3 C
O CH CH CH2 CH2 CH3

2
1. ,
. (4 )
3, : PH3, K3P.
2. C5H9NO4 HCl NaOH.
,
. (8 )
(2-).
O
HOOC CH2 CH2 CH C
OH
NH2
:
O
O
HOOC CH2 CH2 CH C
+ HCl
HOOC CH2 CH2 CH C
OH
OH
NH2
NH3Cl
HOOC CH2 CH2 CH C

+ 2NaOH
OH

NaOOC CH2 CH2 CH C

O
ONa

+ 2H2O

NH2
NH2
3. , 38.28 ( +2),
, 6.12 , 27.96
. , .
(8 )
:
X(H3COO)2 + YS XS + Y(CH3COO)l2
, :
m(X(CH 3 COO) 2 )
38.28
m( XS)
27.96
n(X(CH 3 COO) 2 )

(XS)

M ( XS) x 32
M (X(CH 3 COO) 2 ) x 118
(XS) = (X(H3COO)2), M(X) = 201 /, X Hg,
Hg(CH3COO)2.
Y.
(YS) = (XS) = 27.96 / 233 = 0.12 , M(YS) = 6.12 / 0.12 = 51 /, M(Y) = 19 /.
, NH4HS.
: Hg(CH3COO)2, NH4HS.
4. 350 KOH 1.4 / 1.07 /
50 55%- .
. (8 )
: m(SO3) = m = 0.55 50 = 27.5 , (SO3) = 27.5/80 = 0.344 ,
m(H2SO4) = 50 27.5 = 22.5 , (H2SO4) = 22.5/98 = 0.230 .
SO3
SO3 + H2O H2SO4
0.344 . ,
(H2SO4) = 0.344 + 0.230 = 0.574 .
: (KOH) = c V = 1.4 0.35 = 0.49 .
:
2KOH + H2SO4 K2SO4 + 2H2O; n(H2SO4) = 0.574 0.245 = 0.329
0.49 0.245 0.245

2012/2013
1



:
98 .
:
82 97 .


( I ):
96 .
( II ):
86 95 .
( III ):
80 85 .