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Katelyn Algas

CHE 133-202
2/26/13
Experiment 5: Gas Chromatography and Raoults Law
Purpose
The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether or not a solution follows Raoults
law by determining the composition of both the condensed and vapor phases of the solution. A
gas chromatograph was used to determine the composition of the phases. Example data involving
acetone and DCM were used to show the liquid data and the vapor data and to show how to
perform the calculations needed to create a vapor pressure plot of the data. Then in the lab,
hexane and pentane were used, and a vapor pressure plot was created from the calculations of the
experimental data. The calculations that were performed were the moles per unit area of each
pure liquid component, the moles of each component in each mixture, the mole fraction of
component A for each mixture, the pure vapor pressure of components A and B, the pressure per
unit area of each pure vapor component, and the partial pressures of compounds A and B.
Procedure
CHE 133 Experiment 5, General Chemistry Lab II, Winter Quarter 2012-2013, DePaul
University. [Online] https://www.d2l.depaul.edu. February 18, 2013.

There were no changes made to the experiment.

Data and Results


Below are the data and results for the example data, as well as the data and results for the
experimental data. With these, vapor pressure plots were created to see whether or not the
solutions follow Raoults law.

Example Data
Table 1: Given Data for Components A and B
Liquid
Density
Molar mass Integrated
injection
(g/mL)
(g/mol)
peak area of
volume
pure liquid
(mL)

Vapor
pressure
(mmHg)

Integrate
d peak
area of
pure
vapor
1617.8

Pure
2.0010-4
0.791
58.08004
108428.8
229.5
Acetone
(A)
Pure
2.0010-4
1.325
84.93288
59457.2
429.5
3190.7
DCM
(B)
Table 1 shows the given data needed to perform the calculations. The calculations include the
number of moles of acetone and DCM, the total number of moles, the mole fractions of acetone
and DCM, the partial pressures of acetone and DCM, and the total pressure.
Table 2: Liquid Phase Data
Area A

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0

Area B

108428.8
99164.6
85637.7
75500.9
65854.4
54991.4
47531.6
36200.0
24431.0
12842.8

5727.8
10156.4
15521.4
20819.9
24797.3
32165.1
37672.5
42940.0
49725.5
59457.2

Moles of
A (mol)

Moles of
B (mol)

2.72E-06
2.49E-06
2.15E-06
1.90E-06
1.65E-06
1.38E-06
1.19E-06
9.09E-07
6.14E-07
3.23E-07
0.00E+00

0.00E+00
3.01E-07
5.33E-07
8.15E-07
1.09E-06
1.30E-06
1.69E-06
1.98E-06
2.25E-06
2.61E-06
3.12E-06

Total
number of
moles
(mol)
2.72E-06
2.79E-06
2.68E-06
2.71E-06
2.75E-06
2.68E-06
2.88E-06
2.89E-06
2.87E-06
2.93E-06
3.12E-06

Mole
fraction of
A

Mole
fraction of
B

1.00E+00
8.92E-01
8.01E-01
7.00E-01
6.02E-01
5.15E-01
4.14E-01
3.15E-01
2.14E-01
1.10E-01
0.00E+00

0.00E+00
1.08E-01
1.99E-01
3.00E-01
3.98E-01
4.85E-01
5.86E-01
6.85E-01
7.86E-01
8.90E-01
1.00E+00

Table 2 shows the data and calculations of liquid acetone and DCM. The colored boxes are the
integrated peak areas of acetone (A) and DCM (B).
Table 3: Vapor Phase Data

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7

Area A

Area B

1617.8
1622.4
1148.6
1187.4

158.3
293.2
569.7

Partial
pressure of A
(mmHg)
229.5
230.2
163.0
168.5

Partial
pressure of
B (mmHg)
0.0
21.3
39.5
76.7

Total pressure
(mmHg)
229.5
251.5
202.4
245.2

3
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0

851.5
645.1
408
369.3
150
69.1

838.8
1184.3
1403.3
2134.5
2177.5
2728.8
3190.7

120.8
91.5
57.9
52.4
21.3
9.8
0.0

112.9
159.4
188.9
287.3
293.1
367.4
429.5

233.7
251.0
246.8
339.7
314.4
377.2
429.5

Table 3 shows the data and calculations of acetone and DCM in the vapor phase. The colored
boxes are the integrated peak areas of acetone (A) and DCM (B).
Figure 1: Vapor Pressure Plot for Acetone and DCM
500
450
400
350

Pressure (mmHg)

300

Acetone

250

Linear (Acetone)

200

DCMM
Linear (DCMM)

150

Total

100

Linear (Total)

50
0
0 0.5 1 1.5
Mole Fraction Acetone

Figure 1 shows the partial pressures of acetone and DCM and the total vapor pressure. Together,
they are a function of the mole fraction of acetone in the solution. The legend of the graph
distinguishes the partial pressures from the total vapor pressure.
Gas Chromatography Data
Table 4: Given Data for Components A and B
Liquid
Density
Molar mass Integrated
injection
(g/mL)
(g/mol)
peak area of
volume
pure liquid
(mL)
Pure
Pentane
(A)

2.0010-4

0.683

72.15028

417171.0

Vapor
pressure
(mmHg)

514.0

Integrate
d peak
area of
pure
vapor
6520.4

Pure
2.0010-4
0.659
86.11116
115263.0
150.0
1834.0
Hexane
(B)
Table 4 shows the given data needed to perform the calculations. The calculations include the
number of moles of pentane and hexane, the total number of moles, the mole fractions of pentane
and hexane, the partial pressures of pentane and hexane, and the total pressure.
Table 5: Liquid Phase Data
Moles
of A
(mol)
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

Area A Area B
417171.
0
153405. 23583.
0
0
134633. 29861.
0
0
110752. 39669.
0
0
49156.
90360.0
0
61153.
76276.0
0
53190.
50217.0
0
75584.
51839.0
0
88345.
33247.0
0
1094.0

0.0

3029.0
115263
.0

1.89E-06
6.96E-07
6.11E-07
5.03E-07
4.10E-07
3.46E-07
2.28E-07
2.35E-07
1.51E-07
4.96E-09
0.00E+0
0

Moles
of B
(mol)
0.00E+
00
3.13E07
3.97E07
5.27E07
6.53E07
8.12E07
7.06E07
1.00E06
1.17E06
4.02E08
1.53E06

Total
number
of moles
(mol)

Mole
fraction
of A

Mole
fraction
of B

1.89E-06

1.00E+00

0.00E+0
0

1.01E-06

6.90E-01

3.10E-01

1.01E-06

6.06E-01

3.94E-01

1.03E-06

4.88E-01

5.12E-01

1.06E-06

3.86E-01

6.14E-01

1.16E-06

2.99E-01

7.01E-01

9.34E-07

2.44E-01

7.56E-01

1.24E-06

1.90E-01

8.10E-01

1.32E-06

1.14E-01

8.86E-01

4.52E-08

1.10E-01

1.53E-06

0.00E+00

8.90E-01
1.00E+0
0

Table 5 shows the data and calculations of liquid pentane (A) and hexane (B). The colored boxes
are the integrated peak areas of pentane (A) and hexane (B).
Table 6: Vapor Phase Data
Area A

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6

6520.4
4893.3
5961.7
5719.1
5120.0

Area B

215.9
335.3
501.1
711.4

Partial
pressure
of A
(mmHg)
514.0
385.7
470.0
450.8
403.6

Partial
pressure
of B
(mmHg)
0.0
17.7
27.4
41.0
58.2

Total
pressure
(mmHg)
514.0
403.4
497.4
491.8
461.8

5
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0

3769.4
4031.7
2821.0
1618.2
103.2

785.9
1093.3
1068.6
1206.1
1837.0
1834.0

297.1
317.8
222.4
127.6
8.1
0.0

64.3
89.4
87.4
98.6
150.2
150.0

361.4
407.2
309.8
226.2
158.4
150.0

Table 6 shows the data and calculations of pentane and hexane in the vapor phase. The colored
boxes are the integrated peak areas of pentane (A) and hexane (B).

Figure 2: Vapor Pressure Plot for Pentane and Hexane


600
500
400
Pressure (mmHg)

Pentane
Linear (Pentane)

300

Hexane
200

Linear (Hexane)
Total

100

Linear (Total)

0
0 0.5 1 1.5
Mole Fraction Pentane

Figure 2 shows the partial pressures of pentane and hexane and the total vapor pressure, and
together, they are a function to the mole fraction of pentane in the solution. The legend of the
graph distinguishes the partial pressures from the total vapor pressure.
Sample Calculations
Moles per unit area for each pure liquid component
The moles per unit area for each pure liquid component was determined by first calculating the
moles of species i per unit area (C*i,l):

C*i,l =

M i Ai ,l
V l i

The Vl is the volume of the liquid sample injected into the gas chromatograph (mL), i is the
density of the liquid (g/mL), Mi is the molar mass, and A*i,l is the integrated peak area of the pure
compound reported by the gas chromatograph.

( 2.00 104 mL ) (0.683 g )


Pentane :

mL

g
72.15028
( 417171.0)
mol

12

=4.54 10

mol per unit area

Moles of each component in each mixture


The number of moles in each mixture component was calculated by multiplying the integrated
peak area for each component of the mixture, Ai,l, by the correct value of C*i,l.
Ci ,l
ni ,l =A i ,l
Pentane : ( 417171.0 ) ( 4.54 1012 mol ) =1.89 106 mol
Mole fraction of component A for each mixture
Once the number of moles was calculated, the mole fraction of component A for each mixture
was determined by using this equation:
XlA=

n A ,l
n A , l+ nB ,l
6

1.89 10 mol
Pentane :
=1.00
( 1.89 106 mol ) +(0.00 mol)
Pure vapor pressure of compounds A and B
The vapor pressures of pure compounds A and B were given. These were assigned to P*A and P*B.
P*A = 514.0 mmHg
P*B = 0.00 mmHg
Pressure per unit area for each vapor component
The pressure per unit area for each vapor component was calculated by dividing P*i by A*i,v.

Ai , v
Pi

Ci , v =

Pentane=

514.0 mmHg
2
=7.883 10 mmHg per unit area
6520.4

Partial pressures of compounds A and B


The partial pressures of compounds A and B were calculated by multiplying the area under each
vapor peak by the pressure per unit area.
C Av
P A =A A , v
Pentane=( 6520.4 ) ( 7.883 102 mmHg )=514.0 mmHg

Discussion
Based on the experimental results, the system made up of pentane and hexane did not
follow Raoults Law. One possible explanation would be the sources of error involved. One
source of error could be that each vial did not have the same amount of pentane and hexane.
Perhaps when one group was mixing their vial, some of the solution came out, or when the
pentane and hexane were being put into the vial, some of each compound dissolved in the
process, since both compounds are volatile.
Intermolecular forces affect solutions. There are intermolecular forces between the solute
and the solvent when they are mixed together. The solute and the solvent by themselves also
have intermolecular forces between each other. The best or ideal way intermolecular forces affect
solutions is when the forces between the solute and solvent are about the same as the forces

between the solute particles and the solvent particles. The vapor pressure plot of acetone and
DCM is a perfect example. This showed how Raoults Law is true. However, not all solutions
follow it. Raoults Law occurs when there is a nonvolatile solute present. In this experiment with
pentane and hexane, it was mentioned that pentane and hexane were volatile, which was why the
experimental results did not agree with Raoults law and the plot does not look like the plot for
the example data.