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OBJECTIVE

To determine the coefficient of velocity of two small orifice.


THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
a Determination Coefficient of Velocity from Jet Trajectory.
The following dimensions from the equipment are used in the appropriate calculations. If
required these values may be checked as part of the experimental procedure and replaced with
your own measurements.
Diameter of small orifice = 4 mm
Diameter of large orifice = 8 mm
Surface Area of Reservoir = ..........m2
(For different sets of equipment, please refer to the equipment manual)
The ideal orifice outflow velocity (from the application of Bernoullis Equation - conservation
of mechanical energy for a steady, incompressible, frictionless flow) at the jet vena contracta (
narrowest diameter) is

Vi

2 gh
Equation 1

Where h is the height of fluid above the orifice.

The actual velocity,

V Cv 2 gh
Equation 2
Cv is the coefficient of velocity, which allows for the effects of viscosity and, therefore Cv <
1.
Cv can be determined from the trajectory of the jet using the following argument:
Neglecting the effect of air resistance, the horizontal component of the jet velocity can be
assumed to remain constant so that in time, t, and the horizontal distance travelled,

x vt

Equation 3

Because of the action of gravity, the fluid also acquires a downward vertical (y-direction)
component of velocity. Hence, after the same time, t, (i.e. after traveling a distance x) the jet
will have a y displacement given by,

t2
yg
2

Equation 4

This can be rearranged to give:


t

y
g

Equation 5
Substitution for t from (50) into (49) and for v from (47) into (48) yields the result:

cv

x
2 yh
Equation 6

Hence, for steady flow connections, i.e. constant h, Cv can be determined from the x, y coordinates of the jet. A graph of x plotted against (yh)0.5 will have a slope of 2Cv.

b Determination of Coefficient of Discharge under Constant Head


The ideal orifice outflow velocity (from the application of Bernoullis Equation - conservation
of mechanical energy for a steady, incompressible, frictionless flow) at the jet vena contracta (
narrowest diameter) is

Vi

2 gh
Equation 7

Where h is the height of fluid above the orifice.


The actual velocity,

V Cv 2 gh
Equation 8

Cv is the coefficient of velocity, which allows for the effects of viscosity and, therefore Cv < 1.
The actual flow rate of the jet is defined as:

Qt Ac v
Equation 9
Where Ac is the cross sectional area of the vena contracta, given by:

Ac Cc A0
Equation 10
Where,
A0 is the orifice area and Cc is the coefficient of contraction and therefore, Cc < 1.
Hence,

Qt Cc A0Cv 2 gh
Equation 11
The product CcCv is called the discharge coefficient, Cd, so finally,

Qt Cd A0 2 gh
Equation 12
If Cd is assumed to be constant, then a graph of Qt plotted against (h)0.5 will be linear and
S Cd A0 (2 g ) 0.5

slope,

Determination of Coefficient of Discharge under varying Head.

Under flow - the time, t for the head drop from h1 to h given by,

Ar
Cd A0

2
( h1 h )
g
Equation 13

Where,

Ar = cross sectional area of the reservoir (including the secondary chamber).


This is an approximate result, which does not allow fully for the effects of flow unsteadiness.

PROCEDURE
a) Determination Coefficient of velocity from Jet Trajectory.
1 Orifice No. 1 (diameter, 4 mm) was inserted into the orifice fitting device.

2
3

4
5

The apparatus was connected to the water supply of the hydraulic bench and the pump
was started.
The water head was adjusted to 400 mm by mean of the adjustable overflow.

A sheet of paper is attached to back- board between the needle and board and secured
it in place with the clamp provided so that its upper is horizontal. The location of the
top of each needle on the paper was marked.
The jet trajectory probes of the trajectory device was adjusted until they got in contact
with the jet.

The horizontal distance from the plane orifice (taken as x=0) to the co-ordinate point
marking the position of the first needle was noted. The first co-ordinate is close
enough to the orifice to treat it as having the value y=0. Thus, y displacement were
measured relative to this position.
Measured y-position of the jet is noted down in tabular form.

DATA RESULTS AND CALCULATION


1. Determination Coefficient Of Velocity From Jet Trjectory
Data Result and calculation
Small Orifice
Orifice Diameter = 0.004 m
Water Head = 0.4 m
No.

Horizontal Distance
x
m
0.01
0.08
0.15
0.22
0.29
0.36
0.43
0.50

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Vertical Distance
y
m
0.301
0.293
0.275
0.255
0.222
0.184
0.136
0.075

(yh)0.5
m0.5
0.347
0.342
0.331
0.319
0.298
0.271
0.233
0.173

Graph of x against h^0.5


0.4
0.35

f(x) = - 0.33x + 0.37


R = 0.89

0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

yh^0.5
1). Graph x against yh0.5
Slope: - 0.334
Velocity coefficient, Cv = Slope/2

= - 0.334/2

CV =

x
2 yh
0.01
2 ( 0.301 ) (0.4)

= - 0.167

= 0.0144

Large Orifice
Orifice Diameter = 0.008 m
Water Head = 0.4 m

No.

Horizontal Distance
x
m
0.01
0.08
0.15
0.22
0.29
0.36
0.43
0.50

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Vertical Distance
y
m
0.302
0.296
0.281
0.256
0.222
0.184
0.136
0.075

(yh)0.5
m0.5
0.348
0.344
0.335
0.32
0.298
0.271
0.233
0.173

Graph x against yh^0.5


0.4
0.35

f(x) = - 0.34x + 0.38


R = 0.89

0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

yh^0.5
2). Graph(x against yh^0.5)
Slope: 0.3391

Velocity coefficient, Cv= - 0.339/2

CV=

= - 0.1695

x
2 yh
0.01
2 ( 0.302 ) (0.4)

= 0.0144

2. Determination of Coefficient of Discharge under Constant Head


Data Results and Calculation
No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Orifice
Diameter
d
m
0.004

0.008

Head
h

Volume
V

Time
T

Flow Rate
Qt

H0.5

m
0.4
0.38
0.36
0.34
0.32
0.4
0.38
0.36
0.34
0.32

m3
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005

secs
16.71
17.35
17.81
18.14
18.85
4.11
4.18
4.42
4.70
5.19

m3/sec
2.9910-5
2.8810-5
2.8110-5
2.7510-5
2.6510-5
1.2210-4
1.1910-4
1.1310-4
1.0610-4
9.6310-5

m0.5
0.63
0.62
0.6
0.58
0.57
0.63
0.62
0.6
0.58
0.57

Small Orifice
Time, s

Graph time against h^0.5


0.64
0.63
0.62
0.61

f(x) = - 0.03x + 1.15


R = 0.94

0.6
0.59
0.58
0.57
0.56
0.55
0.54
16.5

17

17.5

18

18.5

19

h^0.5
3). Graph time against h^0.5
Slope: 0.0307

0.5

Coefficient of discharge, Cd=

Ao (2 g)
=
slope

0.0307
=
551.54
1.257 105( 2 9.81)0.5

Large Orifice
Time, s

graph time against h^0.5


0.64
0.63
0.62

f(x) = - 0.06x + 0.85


R = 0.91

0.61
0.6
0.59
0.58
0.57
0.56
0.55
0.54
4

4.2

4.4

4.6

4.8

5.2

5.4

h^0.5
4).Graph time against h^0.5
Slope: 0.0552

0.5

Ao (2 g)
Coefficient of discharge, Cd=
=
slope

0.055
=
247.03
5.027 105(2 9.81)0.5

3. Determination of Coefficient of Discharge under Varying Head


Data Result and Calculation
No.

Orifice
Diameter
d
m
0.004

1
2
3
4
5

Area of
Reservoir
Ar
m2
=
2

(0.21)
4

6
7
8
9
10

=0.035
0.035

0.008

Head
h

Time

h0.5

m
0.400
0.360
0.328
0.293
0.260

sec
0
20
40
60
80

m0.5
0.632
0.6
0.573
0.541
0.509

0.400
0.270
0.160
0.075
-

0
20
40
60
80

0.632
0.519
0.4
0.273
-

Small Orifice
Time, s

Graph of time against h^0.5


0.7
0.6

f(x) = - 0x + 0.63
R = 1

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

h^0.5

5). Graph of time against h^0.5


Slope: 0.0015

Cd=

Ar
Ao

2
0.035
2
(0.0015 )= 1.886
slope =
g
1.257105 9.81

Large Orifice
Time

Graph of time against h^0.5


0.7
0.6

f(x) = - 0.01x + 0.64


R = 1

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

h^0.5
6). Graph of time against h^0.5
Slope: 0.006
Cd=

Ar
Ao

2
slope =
g

0.035
2
(0.006 )= 1.886
5.027105 9.81

DISCUSSION

The graphs of the jet trajectories for the two orifice sizes at the different flow rates are
decreasing. The slope of the graph is much higher for the orifice of diameter 4 mm compared
with the orifice of diameter 8 mm. From the graph 1 and 2, it can seen that the higher the flow
rates, the less the gradient of the slope and the less the degree of the decrease of the graph.
The graph also shows that the diameter of the orifice do not greatly affect the trajectory of the
water flowing out from the orifice. The trajectories differ greatly because of the flow rates.
From the graph 1 and 2 we can obtain the value Cv using from formula in CV =
x
2 yh

and from slope of graph average Cv = Slope/2. However the value of Cv we obtain do

not equal to the average Cv = Slope/2.

For Coefficient of Discharge under Constant Head, from graph 3 and 4 the coefficient
0.5

of discharge Cd can obtain by using formula Cd =


we obtain from graph 3 small orifice, Cd =

Ao (2 g)
slope
. The coefficient of discharge Cd

551.54 and graph 4 large orifice, Cd= 247.03.

For Coefficient of Discharge under Varying Head, the coefficient of discharge Cd obtains
using formula Cd=
5, Cd=

Ar 2
slope . The coefficient of discharge for small orifice from graph
Ao g

1.886 and for large orifice from graph 6, Cd=

1.886. The coefficient of discharge Cd

from both large and small orifice is same.


Therefore, common errors done by human could affect the readings and as well as the theory
which would be inappropriate value to be obtained from experiment.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, it can be said that the diameter of the orifice have effect on the trajectory of the
water flowing out from the orifice. But, the head of the water is found to have more effect on the
trajectory than the diameter of the orifice. The coefficient of velocity, C v can be estimated by plotting
the x against yh^0.5, where the graph gives a gradient of Cv .The coefficient of velocity of water from

the slope of graph and using formula in theory does not equal. Therefore, the objective of this
experiment does not achieve.