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Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-1

Programming Logic and Design, 6th Edition


Chapter 5
Exercises
1.

What is output by each of the pseudocode segments in Figure 5-22?

Answer:
a.
b.
c.
d.

e.
f.

2.

5, 22, 5
4, 6, 7
5, 6
Goodbye
Goodbye
Goodbye
Goodbye
Goodbye
Goodbye
Goodbye
Goodbye
Goodbye
Hello
Hello
Hello
Adios
Adios
Adios
Adios
Adios
Adios
Adios
Adios

Design the logic for a program that outputs every number from 1 through 10.

Answer:
A sample solution follows
Flowchart:

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Pseudocode:
start
Declarations
num number
housekeeping()
number = 1
while number <= 10
detailLoop()
endwhile
finishUp()
stop
housekeeping()
number = 1
return
detailLoop()
output number
number = number + 1
return
finishUp()
output End of program
return

Solutions 5-2

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

3.

Solutions 5-3

Design the logic for a program that outputs every number from 1 through 10
along with its square and cube.

Answer:
A sample solution follows
Flowchart:

Pseudocode:
start
Declarations
num number
num square
num cube
housekeeping()
while number <= 10
detailLoop()
endwhile
finishUp()
stop

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-4

housekeeping()
number = 1
return
detailLoop()
square = number * number
cube = square * number
output number, square, cube
number = number + 1
return
finishUp()
output End of program
return

4.Design the logic for a program that outputs every even number from 2 through 30.
Answer:
A sample solution follows
Flowchart:

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Pseudocode:
start
Declarations
num number
housekeeping()
while number <= 30
detailLoop()
endwhile
finishUp()
stop
housekeeping()
number = 2
return
detailLoop()
output number
number = number + 2
return
finishUp()
output End of program

Solutions 5-5

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-6

return

5.

Design the logic for a program that outputs numbers in reverse order from 10
down to 1.

Answer:
A sample solution follows
Flowchart:

Pseudocode:
start
Declarations
num number
housekeeping()
while number >= 1
detailLoop()
endwhile

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-7

finishUp()
stop
housekeeping()
number = 10
return
detailLoop()
output number
number = number - 1
return
finishUp()
output End of program
return

6. a. The No Interest Credit Company provides zero-interest loans to customers. Design


an application that gets customer account data, including an account number,
customer name, and balance due. Output the account number and name; then output
the customers projected balance each month for the next 10 months. Assume that
there is no finance charge on this account, that the customer makes no new purchases,
and that the customer pays off the balance with equal monthly payments, which are
10 percent of the original bill.
Answer:
A sample solution follows
Flowchart:

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-8

Pseudocode:
start
Declarations
num accountNum
num balanceDue
num month
num paymentAmt
string custName
num PAY_RATE = 0.10
string PROMPT1 = Enter an account number
string PROMPT2 = Enter the customer name and balance due
housekeeping()
detail()
finishUp()
stop
housekeeping()
output PROMPT1

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-9

input accountNum
return
detail()
output PROMPT2
input custName, balanceDue
output accountNum, custName
month = 1
paymentAmt = balanceDue * PAY_RATE
while month <= 10
balanceDue = balanceDue paymentAmt
output month, balanceDue
month = month + 1
endwhile
output PROMPT1
input accountNum
return
finishUp()
output End of program
return

b. Modify the No Interest Credit Company application so it executes continuously for


any number of customers until a sentinel value is supplied for the account number.
Answer:
A sample solution follows
Flowchart:

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-10

Pseudocode:
start
Declarations
num accountNum
num balanceDue
num month
num paymentAmt
string custName
num PAY_RATE = 0.10
string PROMPT1 = Enter an account number or 999 to exit
string PROMPT2 = Enter the customer name and balance due
housekeeping()
while accountNum not equal to 999
detailLoop()
endwhile
finishUp()
stop

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-11

housekeeping()
output PROMPT1
input accountNum
return
detailLoop()
output PROMPT2
input custName, balanceDue
output accountNum, custName
month = 1
paymentAmt = balanceDue * PAY_RATE
while month <= 10
balanceDue = balanceDue paymentAmt
output month, balanceDue
month = month + 1
endwhile
output PROMPT1
input accountNum
return
finishUp()
output End of program
return

7. a. The Some Interest Credit Company provides loans to customers at 1.5 percent
interest per month. Design an application that gets customer account data, including
an account number, customer name, and balance due. Output the account number and
name; then output the customers projected balance each month for the next 10
months. Assume that when the balance reaches $10 or less, the customer can pay off
the account. At the beginning of every month, 1.5 percent interest is added to the
balance, and then the customer makes a payment equal to 5 percent of the current
balance. Assume the customer makes no new purchases.
Answer:
A sample solution follows
Flowchart:

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Pseudocode:
start
Declarations
num accountNum
num balanceDue
num month
num paymentAmt
string custName

Solutions 5-12

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-13

num PAY_RATE = 0.05


num INTEREST_RATE = 0.015
string PROMPT1 = Enter an account number
string PROMPT2 = Enter the customer name and balance due
housekeeping()
detail()
finishUp()
stop
housekeeping()
output PROMPT1
input accountNum
return
detail()
output PROMPT2
input custName, balanceDue
output accountNum, custName
month = 1
while month <= 10
balanceDue = balanceDue * (1 + INTEREST_RATE)
if balanceDue > 10 then
paymentAmt = balanceDue * PAY_RATE
balanceDue = balanceDue paymentAmt
output month, balanceDue
month = month + 1
else
balanceDue = 0
output month, balanceDue
month = 11
endif
endwhile
output PROMPT1
input accountNum
return
finishUp()
output End of program
return

b. Modify the Some Interest Credit Company application so it executes continuously


for any number of customers until a sentinel value is supplied for the account number.
Answer:
A sample solution follows
Flowchart:

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Pseudocode:
start
Declarations

Solutions 5-14

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-15

num accountNum
num balanceDue
num month
num paymentAmt
string custName
num PAY_RATE = 0.05
num INTEREST_RATE = 0.015
string PROMPT1 = Enter an account number or 999 to exit
string PROMPT2 = Enter the customer name and balance due
housekeeping()
while accountNum not equal to 999
detailLoop()
endwhile
finishUp()
stop
housekeeping()
output PROMPT1
input accountNum
return
detailLoop()
output PROMPT2
input custName, balanceDue
output accountNum, custName
month = 1
while month <= 10
balanceDue = balanceDue * (1 + INTEREST_RATE)
if balanceDue > 10 then
paymentAmt = balanceDue * PAY_RATE
balanceDue = balanceDue paymentAmt
output month, balanceDue
month = month + 1
else
balanceDue = 0
output month, balanceDue
month = 11
endif
endwhile
output PROMPT1
input accountNum
return
finishUp()
output End of program
return

8. Secondhand Rose Resale Shop is having a seven-day sale during which the price of
any unsold item drops 10 percent each day. For example, an item that costs $10.00 on
the first day costs 10 percent less, or $9.00, on the second day. On the third day, the
same item is 10 percent less than $9.00, or $8.10. Design an application that allows a
user to input a price until an appropriate sentinel value is entered. Output is the price
of every item on each day, one through seven.

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-16

Answer:
A sample solution follows
Flowchart:

Pseudocode:
start
Declarations
num itemNumber
num price
num day
string description
num TERM = 7
num REDUCTION = 0.10
string PROMPT1 = Enter an item number or 999 to exit
string PROMPT2 = Enter the description and price
housekeeping()
while itemNumber not equal to 999
detailLoop()

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-17

endwhile
finishUp()
stop
housekeeping()
output PROMPT1
input itemNumber
return
detailLoop()
output PROMPT2
input description, price
day = 0
while day < TERM
day = day + 1
output day, price
price = price * (1 REDUCTION)
endwhile
output PROMPT1
input itemNumber
return
finishUp()
output End of program
return

9. The Howell Bank provides savings accounts that compound interest on a yearly basis.
In other words, if you deposit $100 for two years at 4 percent interest, at the end of
one year you will have $104. At the end of two years, you will have the $104 plus 4
percent of that, or $108.16. Design a program that accepts an account number, the
account owners first and last names, and a balance. The program operates
continuously until an appropriate sentinel value is entered for the account number.
Output the projected running total balance for each year for the next 20 years.
Answer:
A sample solution follows
Flowchart:

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-18

Pseudocode:
start
Declarations
num accountNum
num balance
num year
string firstName
string lastName
num INTEREST_RATE = 0.04
num TERM = 20
string PROMPT1 = Enter an account number or 999 to exit
string PROMPT2 = Enter the first name, last name, and
balance
housekeeping
while accountNum does not equal 999
detailLoop()
endwhile
finishUp()
stop
housekeeping()
output PROMPT1

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-19

input accountNum
return
detailLoop()
output PROMPT2
input firstName, lastName, balance
output accountNum, firstName, lastName
year = 0
while year < TERM
balance = balance * (1 + INTEREST_RATE)
year = year + 1
output year, balance
endwhile
output PROMPT1
input accountNum
return
finishUp()
output End of program
return

10. Mr. Roper owns 20 apartment buildings. Each building contains 15 units that he rents
for $800 per month each. Design the application that would print 12 payment coupons
for each of the 15 apartments in each of the 20 buildings. Each coupon should contain
the building number (1 through 20), the apartment number (1 through 15), the month
(1 through 12), and the amount of rent due.
Answer: A sample solution follows
Flowchart:

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Pseudocode:
start
Declarations
num buildingNum
num aptNum
num month
num TOTAL_BUILDS = 20
num TOTAL_UNITS = 15
num TOTAL_MONTHS = 12
num RENT = 800
string COUPON_HEADING = Payment Coupon
housekeeping()
while buildingNum <= TOTAL_BUILDS

Solutions 5-20

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-21

detailLoop()
endwhile
finishUp()
stop
housekeeping()
buildingNum = 1
return
detailLoop()
aptNum = 1
while aptNum <= TOTAL_UNITS
month = 1
while month <= TOTAL_MONTHS
output COUPON_HEADING
output Building Number: , buildingNum
output Apartment Number: , aptNum
output Month: , month
output Rent Due: , RENT
month = month + 1
endwhile
aptNum = aptNum + 1
endwhile
buildingNum = buildingNum + 1
return
finishUp()
output End of program
return

11. a. Design a program for the Hollywood Movie Rating Guide, in which users
continuously enter a value from 0 to 4 that indicates the number of stars they are
awarding to the Guides featured movie of the week. The program executes
continuously until a user enters a negative number to quit. If a user enters a star value
that does not fall in the correct range, reprompt the user continuously until a correct
value is entered. At the end of the program, display the average star rating for the
movie.
Answer: A sample solution follows
Flowchart:

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-22

Pseudocode:
start
Declarations
num numOfStars
num count = 0
num total = 0
num avg
string PROMPT =
Enter the star rating or a negative number to quit
housekeeping()
while numOfStars >= 0
detailLoop()
endwhile
finishUp()
stop
housekeeping()
output PROMPT
input numOfStars
return

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-23

detailLoop()
while numOfStars > 4 OR numOfStars < 0
output Please enter a value from 0 to 4
input numOfStars
endwhile
count = count + 1
total = total + numOfStars
output PROMPT
input numOfStars
return
finishUp()
avg = total / count
output The average star rating is: , avg
output End of program
return

b. Modify the movie-rating program so that a user gets three tries to enter a valid
rating. After three incorrect entries, the program issues an appropriate message and
continues with a new user.
Answer: A sample solution follows
Flowchart:

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-24

Pseudocode:
start
Declarations
num numOfStars
num count = 0
num total = 0
num attempts
num avg
num LIMIT = 3
string PROMPT =
Enter the star rating or a negative number to quit

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-25

housekeeping()
while numOfStars >= 0 AND attempts < LIMITS
detailLoop()
endwhile
finishUp()
stop
housekeeping()
output PROMPT
input numOfStars
attempts = 0
return
detailLoop()
while (numOfStars > 4 OR numOfStars < 0) AND attempts < LIMIT
output Please enter a value from 0 to 4
input numOfStars
attempts = attempts + 1
endwhile
if attempts < LIMIT then
count = count + 1
total = total + numOfStars
output PROMPT
input numOfStars
else
output You have failed to enter a valid rating.
output The program will now end.
endif
return
finishUp()
avg = total / count
output The average star rating is: , avg
output End of program
return

c. Modify the movie-rating program so that the user is prompted continuously for a
movie title until ZZZZZ is entered. Then, for each movie, continuously accept starrating values until a negative number is entered. Display the average rating for each
movie.
Answer: A sample solution follows
Flowchart:

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-26

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-27

Pseudocode:
start
Declarations
string movieTitle
num numOfStars
num count = 0
num total = 0
num attempts
num avg
num LIMIT = 3
string STAR_PROMPT =
Enter a star rating or a negative number for a new movie
string MOVIE_PROMPT =
Enter a movie title or ZZZZZ to quit
housekeeping()
while movieTitle not equal to ZZZZZ AND attempts < LIMITS
detailLoop()
endwhile
finishUp()
stop
housekeeping()
output MOVIE_PROMPT
input movieTitle
attempts = 0
return
detailLoop()
output STAR_PROMPT
input numOfStars
while numOfStars >= 0 AND attempts < LIMIT
getStarRating()
endwhile
calcAverage()
if attempts < LIMIT then
output MOVIE_PROMPT
input movieTitle
attempts = 0
endif
return
getStarRating()
while (numOfStars > 4 OR numOfStars < 0) AND attempts < LIMIT
output Please enter a value from 0 to 4
input numOfStars
attempts = attempts + 1
endwhile
if attempts < LIMIT then
count = count + 1
total = total + numOfStars
output PROMPT
input numOfStars
else
output You have failed to enter a valid rating.
output The program will now end.

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-28

endif
return
calcAverage()
avg = total / count
output The average star rating for , movieTitle, is: , avg
return
finishUp()
output End of program
return

12. The Caf Noir Coffee Shop wants some market research on its customers. When a
customer places an order, a clerk asks for the customers zip code and age. The clerk
enters that data as well as the number of items the customer orders. The program
operates continuously until the clerk enters a 0 for zip code at the end of the day.
When the clerk enters an invalid zip code (more than 5 digits) or an invalid age
(defined as less than 10 or more than 110), the program reprompts the clerk
continuously. When the clerk enters fewer than 1 or more than 12 items, the program
reprompts the clerk two more times. If the clerk enters a high value on the third
attempt, the program accepts the high value, but if the clerk enters a negative value on
the third attempt, an error message is displayed and the order is not counted. At the
end of the program, display a count of the number of items ordered by customers
from the same zip code as the coffee shop (54984), and a count from other zip codes.
Also display the average customer age, as well as counts of the number of items
ordered by customers under 30 and by customers 30 and older.
Answer: A sample solution follows
Pseudocode:
start
Declarations
num custZip
num custAge
num numItems = 0
num validNumItems
num countOfOrders = 0
num totalCustAge = 0
num numItemsUnder30 = 0
num numItems30AndOlder = 0
num numItemsInStoreZip = 0
num numItemsInOtherZips = 0
num STORE_ZIP = 54984
string ZIP_PROMPT = Enter the zip code
string AGE_PROMPT = Enter the customers age
string ITEM_PROMPT = Enter the number of items
housekeeping()
while custZip not equal to 0
detailLoop()
endwhile

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-29

finishUp()
stop
validateZipCode()
while custZip > 99999
output Please enter a valid zip code
input custZip
endwhile
return
validateCustAge()
while custAge < 10 OR custAge > 110
output Please enter a valid customer age
input custAge
endwhile
return
validateNumItems()
Declarations
num attempts = 0
num LIMIT = 2
validNumItems = 1
while (numItems < 1 OR numItems > 12) AND attempts < LIMIT
output Please reenter the number of items
input numItems
attempts = attempts + 1
endwhile
if attempts = 2 AND numItems < 0 then
output An invalid number of items was entered
output This order will not be counted
validNumItems = 0
endif
return
housekeeping()
output ZIP_PROMPT
input custZip
return
detailLoop()
output AGE_PROMPT
input custAge
output ITEM_PROMPT
input numItems
validateZipCode()
validateCustAge()
validateNumItems()
countOfOrders = countOfOrders + 1
totalCustAge = totalCustAge + custAge
if custZip = STORE_ZIP
numItemsInStoreZip = numItemsInStoreZip + numItems
else
numItemsInOtherZips = numItemsInOtherZips + numItems
endif

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-30

if custAge < 30 then


numItemsUnder30 = numItemsUnder30 + numItems
else
numItems30AndOlder = numItems30AndOlder + numItems
endif
output ZIP_PROMPT
input custZip
return
finishUp()
Declarations
avgCustAge
if countOfOrders > 0 then
output Total items ordered in the ,
STORE_ZIP, zip code = , numItemsInStoreZip
output Total items ordered in other zip codes = ,
numItemsInOtherZips
avgCustAge = totalCustAge / countOfOrders
output The average customer age is: , avgCustAge
output numItemsUnder30,
items were ordered by customers under 30
output numItems30AndOlder,
items were ordered by customers 30 and older
endif
output End of program
return

Flowchart: The flowcharts structure will be very similar to that given for previous
exercises.

Find the Bugs


13. Your student disk contains files named DEBUG05-01.txt, DEBUG05-02.txt, and
DEBUG05-03.txt. Each file starts with some comments that describe the problem.
Comments are lines that begin with two slashes (//). Following the comments, each
file contains pseudocode that has one or more bugs you must find and correct.
Answer:
Please see the DEBUG05-01.txt, DEBUG05-02.txt, and DEBUG05-03.txt solution
files.

Game Zone
14. In Chapter 2, you learned that in many programming languages you can generate a
random number between 1 and a limiting value named LIMIT by using a statement
similar to randomNumber = random(LIMIT). In Chapter 4, you created the logic
for a guessing game in which the application generates a random number and the

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-31

player tries to guess it. Now, create the guessing game itself. After each guess, display
a message indicating whether the players guess was correct, too high, or too low.
When the player eventually guesses the correct number, display a count of the
number of guesses that were required.
Answer:
A sample solution is as follows:
Flowchart:

Pseudocode:
start
Declarations
num myRandomNumber
num guess
num count
num LIMIT
string PROMPT = Enter a number between 1 and
string CORRECT = You guessed correctly!
string HIGH = You guessed too high!

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-32

string LOW = You guessed too low!


housekeeping()
while guess not equal to myRandomNumber
detailLoop()
endwhile
finishUp()
stop
housekeeping()
myRandomNumber = random(LIMIT)
output PROMPT, LIMIT
input guess
count = 1
return
detailLoop()
if guess > myRandomNumber then
output HIGH
else
output LOW
endif
input guess
count = count + 1
return
finishUp()
output CORRECT
output It took , count, guesses!
output End of program
return

15. Create the logic for a game that simulates rolling two dice by generating two numbers
between 1 and 6 inclusive. The player chooses a number between 2 and 12 (the
lowest and highest totals possible for two dice). The player then rolls two dice up to
three times. If the number chosen by the user comes up, the user wins and the game
ends. If the number does not come up within three rolls, the computer wins.
Answer:
A sample solution is as follows:
Flowchart:

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Pseudocode:
start
Declarations
num dice1
num dice2

Solutions 5-33

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-34

num guess
num count
num won
num LIMIT = 6
string PROMPT = Choose a number between 1 and 12
string WIN = You win!
string LOSE = You lose!
housekeeping()
while count < 3 AND won = 0
detailLoop()
endwhile
finishUp()
stop
housekeeping()
count = 0
won = 0
dice1 = random(LIMIT)
dice2 = random(LIMIT)
output PROMPT
input guess
return
detailLoop()
count = count + 1
if guess = dice1 + dice2 then
output WIN
won = 1
endif
dice1 = random(LIMIT)
dice2 = random(LIMIT)
return
finishUp()
if count = 3 AND won = 0 then
output LOSE
endif
output End of program
return

16. Create the logic for the dice game Pig, in which a player can compete with the
computer. The object of the game is to be the first to score 100 points. The user and
computer take turns rolling a pair of dice following these rules:

On a turn, each player rolls two dice. If no 1 appears, the dice values are added to
a running total for the turn, and the player can choose whether to roll again or
pass the turn to the other player.
If a 1 appears on one of the dice, the players turn total becomes 0; in other words,
nothing more is added to the players game total for that turn, and it becomes the
other players turn.
If a 1 appears on both of the dice, not only is the players turn over, but the
players entire accumulated total is reset to 0.

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-35

When the computer does not roll a 1 and can choose whether to roll again,
generate a random value of 1 or 2. The computer will then decide to continue
when the value is 1 and decide to quit and pass the turn to the player when the
value is not 1.

Answer:
A sample solution is as follows:
Pseudocode:
start
Declarations
num dice1
num dice2
num userCount
num computerCount
num userTurn
num LIMIT = 2
num WIN_NUM =100
housekeeping()
while computerCount < WIN_NUM AND userCount < WIN_NUM
detailLoop()
endwhile
stop
housekeeping()
output The first to 100 wins the game of Pig
userCount = 0
computerCount = 0
userTurn = 1
return
detailLoop()
if userTurn = 1 then
output Users turn to roll the dice
else
output Computers turn to roll the dice
endif
dice1 = random(LIMIT)
dice2 = random(LIMIT)
if userTurn = 1 then
if dice1 = 1 OR dice2 = 1 then
output Computer's turn
userTurn = 0
if dice1 = 1 AND dice2 = 1 then
userCount = 0
endif
else
userCount = userCount + dice1 + dice2
if userCount >= WIN_NUM
output User wins!
else
output Enter a 1 to play again or
0 to pass

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

endif
else

Solutions 5-36
input userTurn

endif
if dice1 = 1 OR dice2 = 1
output User's turn
userTurn = 1
if dice1 = 1 AND dice2 = 1 THEN
computerCount = 0
endif
else
computerCount = computerCount + dice1 + dice2
if computerCount >= WIN_NUM
output Computer wins!
else
if random(2) = 1 then
userTurn = 0
else
userTurn = 1
endif
endif
endif

endif
return
finishUp()
output End of program
return

Flowchart: The flowcharts structure will be very similar to that given for previous
exercises.

Up for Discussion
17. Suppose you wrote a program that you suspect is in an infinite loop because it just
keeps running for several minutes with no output and without ending. What would
you add to your program to help you discover the origin of the problem?
Answer:
Adding output statements at key locations would show you which
variables were changing and which were not, helping you to locate
the source of the error. You could also add decisions that display a
message or variable values at key points in the process.
18. Suppose you know that every employee in your organization has a seven-digit ID
number used for logging on to the computer system. A loop would be useful to guess
every combination of seven digits in an ID. Are there any circumstances in which you
should try to guess another employees ID number?

Programming Logic and Design, 6e

Solutions 5-37

Answer:
Students' answers should vary. Typical reasons a students might try
to guess another workers ID might be to investigate if they suspect
the other employee or one of the other employees customers is
doing harm to the company or to another person or engaging in
illegal activity. Perhaps the student would investigate another
worker if he or she wants to start a personal relationship with the
worker. Other students will assert that no one should attempt to
guess another employees number under any circumstances.
19. If every employee in an organization had a seven-digit ID number, guessing all the
possible combinations would be a relatively easy programming task. How could you
alter the construction of employee IDs to make guessing them more difficult?
Answer:
One technique that helps is to add letters or other punctuation
marks to ID numbers. Another is to add a check digit. For example,
after a six-digit ID number is assigned, the number can be divided
by a prime number, such as 7, and the remainder can be used as
the seventh digit.