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UniTest


2009

621.396.6(075)
32.844.173
59
-
() 20072010 .
:
;
-

59

[ ] : . . / . . , . . , . . , . . .
. . (4 ). : , 2009. (
:

1626/3382008 /
.
.

. . ). 1 . . (DVD). . : Intel
Pentium ( ) 1 ; 512
; 50 ;
DVD ; Microsoft Windows XP SP 2 / Vista (32 ) ; Adobe
Reader 7.0 ( pdf).
ISBN 978-5-7638-1657-0 ()
ISBN 978-5-7638-1660-0 ( )
. 0320902478 ()
- , , . , , , - . .
,
. Atmel.
.
.
230100.62, 230100.68 ;
230201.65 230000
.
090102.65 090000 ,
.
, 2009
-
. .

: - ;

. . , , .

. 30.11.2009
4
: , 660041, , . , 79


........................................................... 6
................................................................... 7
1.
................... 9
1.1. .................................................................... 9
1.2.
......................................................................................... 9
1.3. ......................................................... 11
1.4. .......................................................... 12
1.4.1. .
...................................................................................................... 13
1.4.2.
..................................................................................................... 16
1.4.3. ........................... 16
1.4.4. .
MPP- SMP- ......................................................... 18

1.5. ,
....................................................................................................... 20
1.6. ............................. 24
1.7.
.......................................................................................................... 25
1.7.1. ............................................................. 25
1.7.2. ..................................................................................... 27
1.7.3. .................................................... 27
1.7.4. ...................... 30
1.7.5. .
...................................................... 30
1.7.6. ... 33
1.7.7. ... 35

1.8. ..................................... 37
1.9. .................................................. 40
1.9.1. .................................................................................... 40
1.9.2. ........................................................................................ 41
1.9.3. .......................................................................... 43

1.10. ........................................................................................ 47
1.11. .
............................................................................ 49
1 ........................................................... 50
. .

2.
............................................................. 51
2.1. ................................................................................... 51
2.2. .......................................................................... 53
2.3. ................................................................. 57
2.4. ..................... 60
2.5. ......................................... 61
2.6. ...................................................................... 62
2.7. .......................................................................... 65
2.7.1. ............................................................................................. 65
2.7.2. .............................................. 66
2.7.3. ............................................................ 74
2.7.4. ..................................................................................................... 76
2.7.5. .............................................. 78
2.7.6. ........................................... 80
2.7.7. .............................. 82
2.7.8. -
...................................................................................................... 83

2.8. , ................................. 85
2.8.1. .................................................................................................. 85
2.8.2. ...................................................................... 89
2.8.3. MicroConverter ............................................................................................. 91

2 ........................................................... 92
3.
ATMEL ............. 93
3.1. ................................................................................... 93
3.2. AVR- ............................................ 97
3.3. AVR-......................... 100
3.4. AVR ........................................................ 105
3.5. /.......................................................................... 106
3.6. / ............................................................................... 106
3.6.1. / .................. 107
3.6.2. / 0-TCCR0 ............................... 107
3.6.3. / 0-TCNT0 ............................................. 108
3.6.4. A / 1-TCCR1A ........................... 109
3.6.5. B / 1 TCCR1B ........................ 111
3.6.6. / 1 ............................................................... 114
3.6.7. (WDT) .......................................................................... 115

3.7. (SPI) .............. 117


3.7.1. SS ..................................................................... 118
3.7.2. SPI SPCR ................................................................. 119
. .

3.7.3. SPI SPCR......................................................................... 121


3.7.4. SPI SPDR ........................................................................ 122

3.8. (UART) ...... 122


3.8.1. UART ......................................................................................... 125
3.8.3. UART UCR ............................................................... 127
3.8.4. - (Baud Rate Generator) ........................................................ 128
3.8.5. - UART UBRR ...................................................... 128

3.9. () ......................................................... 130


3.10. - (ADC) .............................. 131
3.10.1. - ................. 132
3.10.2. ADC ADMUX................................... 133
3.10.3. ADC ADCSR.................................... 134
3.10.4. ........................................................ 135

3.11. AVR- ............................................................................... 136


3 ......................................................... 158
......................................................... 159
............................................................ 161
........................ 175

. .


, , .
, ,
.
, (,
, .) .
, . ,
, , .

230100.62, 230100.68
,
, ;
230201.65
230000 . 090102.65 , .

. .



, . .
, , , ,
. , ,
.
30
. I14004 Intel,
.
.

, ,
.
- . :
CISC-;
RISC-;
( .);
.
CISC- (Complicated Instruction Set Computer ) .
Intel,
80 % .
RISC- (Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) . Sun Microsystems MIPS Computer Systems.

RISC- PowerPC
IBM, Motorola, Apple Computers. RISC-

. .

. Inmos
RISC-.

DSP (Digital Signal Processor
), Texas Instruments, Analog Devices, Motorola, NEC. DSP
, , .
. , , .

.
, . .
() ,
.

. 4-, 8-, 16-, 32- . ,
.
8- , 16- 32- .

, .

. .

1.

1.1.
, () , .
,
.
, .
.
, .
. , .
, . , , .
, , ,
. , .
,
, / , , . ,
. ,
, .

1.2.

4004 Intel
1971 . , , , 45. , . 4 , 4,5 . . 1000
8000 .
. .

1.
1.2.

3500

Pentium IV
2750

Pentium IV

2000

Core 2

Core

1500

Pentium III
1000
750

Pentium III
Pentium II

500

Pentium Pro

233

Pentium
80486

66

80386

33

8080 8086
4

4004
0

80186
80286

4040 8008

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1982 1982 1985

1992 1993 1997 1998 1999

2001 2002 2004 2006 2007

. 1.1. Intel

Intel 8008 ( 4004) 8 8080 . I8080


16- ,
64 . 8, 16
. 58080.
10 70 , 16 ,
100 .
, 1980- . I80386.

I80486 1989 . Pentium 1993-.
1995 . Pentium Pro (150 , 512 ),
. ,
RISC. Pentium Pro Intel (Dynamic Execution), . . , .
, .
1998 . Pentium II Xeon. , , 4, 8 .
1999 . Pentium III.
0,25 , Katmai, . .

10

1.
1.2.

SSE, L1 32 (16 + 16), L2 512 ( , ).


2000 . Intel Pentium 4 (
Willamette), NetBurst 6.
20 , .
1.4 1.5 .
: - , ! SSE, 144 SSE2. , 8 ,
(Trace Cache).
Intel 64 IA-64 (Intel Architecture-64 bit).
EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction
Computing ). ,
RISC EPIC , EPIC RISC. ,
IA-64, , ( ), . ,

( , . .). IA-64 2001 .,
Itanium.
, , Multi-core
Intel Processors.
Intel Xeon Processor 5400, 45-
.
.

1.3.
, ,
: .
. .

11

1.
1.3.


(. 1.2). .
, .
( ).

() ()
.
/
.
, .
, , : ,
.
,
, .

, , () ()
().

.
- ,
.
,
, .
(BIOS), . IBM PC , ,
. . ( )
.
.

1.4.
(
),

.
(), , , . .

12

1.
1.4.

, : , , , / . .
1.4.1. .

,
. , ,
( ) .
, . .
.
:
,
;
, ( , . .).
:
, (2-) , .
: , -;
, () .
.
:
,
(, , . .);
,
, (2, 4 8 ).
:
, , .
. ,
;
, 0, .
. .
:
;
.
.
:
. .

13

1.
1.4.

;
;
.
:
;
.
:
;
.


,
. , , ,
, . 8-, 16-, 3264 8/16 . , Intel 8080 (I8080) 8-
16- ,
8- . Intel 80386 (I80386) 32- , 32- . , ,
, ( ,
). ,
() .

. ,
. : , .
( )
, , . .
( ) , , , .
, . . ,
: ,
, ,
, ,

. .

14

1.
1.4.

/, , .
(. . ) : ( ), , (, , ,
). .
.
, :


1.1

2051

01 0641 2052

0641

2052

15 0642 2053

0642

2053

02 0643 2054

0643

2054

00 0000 0000

0641

0642

0643

:
1- ;
2- -
();
3- ;
4- ;
5- .
, :
01 ;
02 ;
15 ;
00 .

. .

15

1.
1.4.

. 1.1 , ().
. , 8 , ,
256 .
1.4.2.

:
, , ,
. . , (
,
), , , , , /,
, , ; ,
, ;
.
,

.
.
1.4.3.
- . 1.2.

, , .
,
(
).
. .

16

1.
1.4.

()

()

. 1.2.


. (),
, () ().
.
,
,
.
, , ,
.
. -
- ,
. ,
,
.
: 1)
; 2) ; 3)
/; 4) /;
5) .
, . . .

. ,
,
:
1.
,
, .
2.

.
. .

17

1.
1.4.

3.
() .
4.

-
.
,
. ,
.
1.4.4. .
MPP- SMP-
SMP
SMP (symmetric multiprocessing) , (. 1.3).

I/O


. 1.3. SMP

, , ,
. SMP .
. SMP-
(SGI PowerPath, Sun Gigaplane, DEC TurboLaser), : (), / (I/O) . . I/O
(PCI, VME64). SMP-
SMP-c Intel (IBM, HP,
Compaq, Dell, ALR, Unisys, DG, Fujitsu .). ( UNIX-, Intel- Windows NT). ( )
, .
SMP-:
. .

18

1.
1.4.

.
SMP , :
, .
, . ,
. SMP- ;
. , SMP- , , ;
.
SMP- .
SMP- .
, ,
.
. , .
824 . ,
( ) () . . 32 . SMP
NUMA-. SMP-
(shared memory paradigm).
- MPP
- (MPP massive parallel processing) , .
, , (),
() , / /. (. 1.4).
() . . , ,
. .

19

1.
1.4.

.
() MPP-. ()
(front-end),
, .
UNIX- , .

R1

I/O

...

R1

. 1.4. MPP

: SMP- ,
. ,
(ASCI Red, ASCI Blue Pacific).
:
, , . ;

;
, .
- .

1.5. ,

. 1.5.
( ):
-,
. .

20

1.
1.5. ,

,
B, C, D, E,
.
:
,
,
- ,
,
.
, ,
, . ,
, , .

. , (), ()
. 8 .
8-, 16-, 32-, 64- . . . .

. 1.5.

:
() ;
. .

21

1.
1.5. ,

; -
-,
; W Z; ;
.

, - . , .
, , - .
.
, . , , . , ,
. , .
(PC Program Counter), , .
,
, .
, (, ).
(SP Stack Pointer), . , , .
,
. ,

. (2, 4,
), ( ). () , (,
). .
() : .
, 5 ,
.
. .

22

1.
1.5. ,

, .
. , I8080 5 (. 1.6):
S

AC

S (Sign)
Z (Zero)
AC (Auxiliary Carry)
P (Parity)
C (Carry)
. 1.6. I8080


, , . ,
1, , 0.
.
.
1, - , 0
.
1,

,
0.
1,

( ), 0
( ).
1,
,
2 ( 2 0), 0 ( ).
1,

. ,
0.
,
- .

. .

23

1.

1.6.

,
,
.
.
.
.

,
. , ,
,
.

,
,
,
.
.

;
.

IBM, 2001 .
IBM Power4 . 2002 .
AMD Intel
, Intel
Xeon Intel Pentium 4 Hyper-Threading. 2004 .
Sun (UltraSPARC IV), ARM
(MPCore). IBM
IBM Power5.
2005 . Intel
x86. AMD
Opteron Athlon 64 X2.

. .

24

1.

1.7.

1.7.1.
:
1.
,
().
2.
, .

. .

25

1.
1.7.

. 1.7.

. .

26

1.
1.7.

(. 1.7) . ,
. . (),
, , .
1.7.2.
: .
. , , . , .
,
. , (
, ),
. ,
, /. , , ,
, .
,
,
,
.
1.7.3.

. 15 .
/ ().
( )
. .

27

1.
1.7.

. , ,
, - ,
. ,
. , I8080
35 .
. 1.8.

F1 F2, .

SYNC. . . 1.9 -
.
15 .
:
1.
WAIT (Tw),
.
2.
HOLD (Twh), .
3.
HALT, .
F1
F2, ,
. , . ,
.
(1-3, 1-4,
1-5). . , ,
.

F1
F2
Sync
-

. 1.8.

. .

28

1.
1.7.

1
2

Reset
READY V HLDA

HLDA
HOLD * INT
READY
READY

INT * INTE

Tw

HOLD

HOLD

HOLD

HOLD

HOLD

HOLD

HOLD

HOLD

Twh

HLDA

HOLD

HOLD
?

HOLD

HOLD

HOLD

HOLD

INT * INTE

INT

. 1.9.
. .

29

1.
1.7.

- (. 1.9)
:
1.

.
2.
HALT
: RESET, 1.
1.7.4.
-
, .

.
SL (Status Latch). I8080 PSW (Program
Status World), - , . SYNC
, , - , . SYNC
SL. SL
. PSW
/, . ,
:
1.

.
2.
- PSW
. SL -.
1.7.5. .

,
.
. .

30

1.
1.7.

. 1.10.

F1
F2

Sync

Ready

Wait

DBIN

WR

. 1.11.

. .

31

1.
1.7.

(. 1.10)
,
READY,
( HOLD INT ).
1 . .
SYNC , , ,
(SL), -, . , DBIN (. 1.11).
2 , Ready. Wait (Tw). Tw ,
Ready ,
, . , , Tw, . . T2 Tw
3,
. 4 5
, .
1 5 (. . 1.10).
: 1, 2, 3. 1 . , / . , 1
2, . . 4 1. 2
DBIN.
, . 2 . 1 3
, - .
DBIN

. .

32

1.
1.7.

, . PSW.
1.7.6.


. 1.12. -

INT . INT
.
,
TrINT
1, . . (
), ,
(
INTE 1). , 1
.
, 1 , . , SYNC, INTA.
, .

, PC , ,
().
, .

: .

. .

33

1.
1.7.

. 1.12.

. 3 RST (Restart), , . (
, 3 WR ). , RST,
, , , . RST.
. .

34

1.
1.7.

. , , .
,
. , 2 3
( ) .
SP.
1.
, INTE 0. ,
,
.
1.7.7.


. HOLD
.
,
. - / .
. , , .
. - , ,
.
. 1.13
HOLD. , (Ready) HOLD HOLD
. HLDA .
. .

35

1.
1.7.

. 1.13.

HOLD Ready.
, HLDA .
HLDA
, . . .
HLDA, , :
, , . , HOLD , .
, . .
,
HOLD, HOLD,
HLDA
,
.

. .

36

1.

1.8.

, (), () , .
:
, ;
,

( ) ;
, , , , , , .
( )
:
() , ;
, .
( ) , .
() .
, , (Main Memory) ( )
, (, ) (, /, . .).
RAM (Random Access Memory) .

.
, :
( ) , ,
;
, ;
,
, , , .

. .

37

1.
1.8.

,
(,
).
,
, , . ( ) . , ,
, .
,
, .
(access time) .
, .
.

, .
( ), . (1 I8088; 2 I8086, I80286, I386SX;
4 I386DX, I486; 8 Pentium ). ,
, . 32- (
) Pentium ,
, 64 .
, (
, SIMM
DIMM), . .
( ) .
, (bank interleaving).
, ( ) .
, () .
(two way interleaving, three way interleaving).
. .

38

1.
1.8.

(shadow memory)
ROM BIOS .
.
Shadow ROM
(ROM) RAM
RAM, .
Shadow RAM (RAM),
. Shadow RAM
.
,
(
), ,
.
(
) (
).
:
(ROM BIOS 8 ,
8 16 )
(ROM 100 , ).
I486
Burst Cycle.
. (, ,
,...) .
, :
.

, . , , .
, . ,
, . .
,
(
-

. .

39

1.
1.8.

). .
() . (Parity bit),
.
(NMI)
Parity Error Check ( ) Halt.

Memory (Error Checking and
Correcting).
( , ) , . , BIOS
Setup. , :
, ;
, ;
, (
).
, , - .

1.9.
1.9.1.
DRAM (Dynamic RAM) , , . , ,
.
, , , .
, (
. .

40

1.
1.9.

) .
,
( ).
, .
DRAM . (, Multiplexed Address) . ( )
,
(Memory Refresh )
( )
. .
,
, , , ,
.
() .
PC . , , ,
.
() ,
, . ( , )
.
1.9.2.
SRAM (Static Random Access Memory), , ,
. . ( ).
. , . . .

41

1.
1.9.

.
- (CMOS Memory) 100 ,
, PC.

, , . SRAM 1 .
SRAM
.

ADDR

ADDR1

1
(OE Controlled)

ADDR2

2
(WE Controlled)

ADDR3

CS#
OE#
WE#
DATA

D1

D2

D3

. 1.14.

,
, CS#, #
WE#. CS# (Chip select).
# (Output Enable)
, WE# (Write Enable) (. 1.14). # ( 1), WE# ( 2).
CS# , : CSO#, CS1 CS2#.
0, 1, 0 .
.
SRAM 12, 15 20 , 2111 (. . )
. .

42

1.
1.9.

66 .
3222.
1.9.3.
.
: ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, Flash Memory,
,
. , ,
, . ,
,
ROM (Read Only Memory )
( ).
, .
(CMOS Memory CMOS
RTC) ; ESCD (Extended Static Configuration Data) , Plug & Play, .
.
NV
RAM (Non-Volatile RAM),
.
(
) () . ( ) . , , (). (
, ).
. :
, , EPROM (Erasable PROM ),
UV-EPROM (Ultra-Violet EPROM, );
EEPROM (Electrical Erasable
PROM, ), -.
( ) . .

43

1.
1.9.

(BIOS), (,
), (ESCD, EEPROM ).
PC (
BIOS ).

, . ,
, NVRAM (Non Volatile Random Access
Memory).
ROM, FROM, EPROM
(ROM)
( 570 ). - .
(PROM) ( )
BIOS.
, . , (
), (, ).

(EPROM)
BIOS , ,
.
EPROM ,

( ,
). .
.
. , ( ).

. .

44

1.
1.9.

PC EPROM.
EPROM:


.
.

, ,
.

(5 ) Vpp ( ).

.
EEPROM -

. . EEPROM
, . ,
,
. EEPROM
. EEPROM ,
. ,
,
( ) .
-, , EEPROM, .
- :
. (). - ( 30 % DRAM), , , ,
(. 1.15).
-
. 1.16, , .

. .

45

1.
1.9.

. 1.15. -

. 1.16. -
8- DIP PLCC: DIP-32, PLCC-32

- , . , , EPROM EEPROM.
EPROM, .

. .

46

1.

1.10.
- (Cache Memory) (), ( ) .
(cache) ().
. - , , , .
,
. (cache directory) . ,
, : (, , ) (
Pentium 64
).
( )- :
, L1 Cache (Level I Cache), 1- , (Internal, Integrated) I486 ,
I386.
, L2 Cache (Level 2 Cache), 2- .
(External) , .
Pentium Pro Pentium II
. . ,
I386, , ( ).
-
, . , - (cache hit),
-. ,
- (cache miss), .
- (coherency) - ,
( ), (busmaster) , (PCI, VLB, ISA...).
(cache line) . , ,
, . . .

47

1.
1.10.


. (valid)
,
(). , (. . ),
(tag),
(tag RAM).
(sectored) ,
,
. , ,
. , .
- , ,
(Write Policy).
: WT (Write
Through) WB (Write Back).
WT
( ), ,
, .
WB
. ,
, ,
(dirty), , . . .
( ) (clean)
.
-: (direct-mapped cache), (fully associative cache)
- (set-associative cache).
- , , , .
-
, (set).
,
,
.

, . . .

48

1.
1.10.

, () , . -
, .

1.11. .


,
- .

;
,
;
- .
, .
,
, , . I8086 , ()
. , , I8086, (, , ).
, . , I80286,
, ,
.
:
;
;

. .

49

1.
1.11. .

;

;
, , , ;
,
.

,
,
.

1
1. , ,
.
2. .
3. .
4. ,
.
5. MPP- SMP-?
6. .
7. , , .
8.
?
9. .
10. ,
? .
11. ?
.

. .

50

2.

2.1.
(sensor) , . (transducer) .

(, , , ,
). ,
. () / .
. , .
, , .
, . , .
. 2.1 .
, , (, , . .),
,
.
, , .
, , . , . , .

. .

51

2.
2.1.
2.1

. 2.1.


(. 2.1).
(). ()
- (). () . .

52

2.
2.1.

, . ,
. ,
( )
.
,
(smart sensor),
, .

, .
(Analog Devices, Texas Instruments, Philips .)
( ) , ,
, flash-,
.

2.2.
. . 2.2 .


2.2


120 , 350 , 3500
3503500
3503500
100 10 M
1001000
100 10 M

,
, , .

. 2.2.

. .

53

2.
2.2.

Vout
I

R + R

V=
I ( R + R)
out
. 2.2.

,
, ,
.
.
,

, (. 2.3).
VB
R4

R3

+
R1

V0

R2

R1 R2

R1
R2
R4 R3
Vout =
V
V =
V
R1 + R4
R2 + R3

R1 R2
1 + 1 +
R3
R4
R1 R2
V0 0,
=
=
R4 R3

. 2.3.
. .

54

2.
2.2.

(R1/R4 = R2/R3), ().


R1 , R2/R3 = K,
R4,
(, ),
/ R1. , , .
(. 2.4). , ,
(
V = 10 ).

()
(). , 10 , 10 , 1 /.
VB
R

R
+

V0

R + R

R + R

V R
4 R + R

V0

R + R

R
+

VB

VB

VB

R + R

V R
2 R + R

V0

R + R

V
2

R + R

V0

R
R

R + R

R
V
R

. 2.4. ( )

, . , (. 2.5),
.
, . 2.6.
(). RF (). .
.
. .

55

2.
2.2.

IB
R

R
+

V0

R + R
+

R + R

V0

R + R

I R R
4 R + R

R + R

IB

IB

IB

V0

R + R

I
R
2

R + R

V0

R + R

I
R
2

I R

. 2.5. ( )

VB
RF

R+ R

+VS

RF

VS/2

Vout

V
R
=

4 R + R
2

. 2.6.

. .

56

2.
2.2.
V

+VS

-VS

R+ R
VOUT

R
Vout = V
2R
. 2.7.

,
. 2.7.
.
,
, (R). .

2.3.
().
,
. ,
.
.
(, ). , .
. 2.3 .

. .

57

2.
2.3.

()
,

2.3


( ), .
, - (. 2.8). ,
( , L, ), ,
:

L
,
A
R
L
= GF
,
R
L
R=

GF ( 2.04.5 ,
150 ).
, ,
L/L, (. . .).
, ,
, , .

. 2.8.

. .

58

2.
2.3.

, .
(. 2.9).

. 2.9.

, (, , . .).
,
.
2.4

,

,

0.140,000
2.04.5
120, 350, 600, ..., 5000
0. 1 %0.2 %
0.4150 ( 36)

0.0013000
50200
10005000
12 %
15

(),
. , () .
, .

. .

59

2.
2.3.

(, ),
, . (. 2.4).

2.4.
(. 2.10).
, .
, , .
350 , . ,
(. 2.11).

R1

R4

R1

R3

R2

VB

R4

R2

VO

R3

. 2.10.
+ VB

+ SENSE

- Vout

+ Vout
- SENSE
- VB

. 2.11.

. .

60

2.
2.4.

10 3 / 30 .

, .
(, ) .

2.5.

. . , .
, : , [2].
(. 2.12) , ( ,
).

(. 2.13).

. 2.12. ,

. .

61

2.
2.5.

. 2.13.

, [2].

2.6.
. 2.14.
,
. . 177
10 ,
1.235 . 10.25 /1000 . . . AD620
100. ( ) , 100 ,
3500 . . . 3.500 , +5000 . . . +5.000 .

10 . 0.1 1
. - 1.6 .

. .

62

2.
2.6.

100
+15
10

Vout

AD620
+
3
5
4
-15

1
1

499

100
+15

2N2907A

1.7

8.2
6
+15
7

-15
OP177 4
+
27.4
2
+ 1.235 3
30.1

-15

124
+ 1.235

AD589

. 2.14.
+15

-15

+15
2

+15 7
1
2N2907A

+
OP177

-15

+10

3
2

16

13

12

AD588

11

4
4

8 10

475 100
350

350

+15
2

350

350

AD620
+
3
5
4
-15

Vout

8
6

. 2.15.
. .

63

2.
2.6.
28.7

196
+Vs
V(REF)

10

10

2
REF195

6 +5
1

4
350

350
2

S
OP213
+
3
4
350

2
1
G = 100

S
OP213

Vout
6

350

. 2.16.

. 2.15
( ). 350 . 10.000 AD588,
177 2N2219A, 28.57 . .
,
, . 475
100 .
, 350 . . 2.16
. REF195 (30 ) .
213
100. :

. .

64

2.

2.7.
2.7.1.
- :
()
,
,
,
;

,
;

,
.
, . , , , . , . ,
( 55 +150 ).



( 184 +2300 )

200
+850

0
+100

2.5

55
+150
1
1


10 /,
20 / 1 /

. 2.5 .

. .

65

2.
2.7.

2.7.2.
,
,
( + 2300 )
.
.
(. ). , . . 2.6, . 2.17

.
: , ,
, , , , ( ),
( ) ( ).
. ,

(), () (. 2.17, ). , ,
, .
2.6


(6 %)
- (30 %)

(5 %)
- (26 %)

-
-
-
(13 %)
-
(10 %)
-
-

,
38 1800

,
/
7.7

0 2300

16

0 982

76

0 760
184 1260
0 1593

55
39
11,7

J
K
R

0 1538

10,4

184 400

45

. .

ANSI
B

66

2.
2.7.

V1

T1

V1

T1

T2

T2

V1

T3

T4

I
V1

V2

V1 -- V2

T1

V2

T2

T1


R =
I = (V1 -- V2) / R

V2

V = (V1 -- V2), 3 = 4

. 2.17. : ; ; ;

(. 2.17, ),
.
,
, . , , ,

(. 2.17, ) [8].
. ,
.

, (
).
(. 2.17, ).
. ,
.
, , , , , , , .
. , (. 2.18): 1 2
() . 1 = T2, V1 = V2
V = 0. 0 (. . 2.18).
. .

67

2.
2.7.

. , 0 0 .
, 0 . (. 2.19). , , ,
.
(0
).

(V = K2). ,
0 V = K1 + K22 + K33 + ... . , K2, K3 . .
.
, (. 2.20).


V1 -- V(0 )

V1

T1

V(0 )

T2

. 2.18.
,
(0 )

. .

68

2.
2.7.

Vout
Vcomp

V1

V(T1)

V(T2)

V2


Vcomp = f(T2)
Vout = V(T1) - V(T2) + Vcomp
Vcomp = V(T2) - V(0C), Vout = V(T1) -- V(0C)
. 2.19.

(. 2.21).
0 250 [9].
+3,3 +12 10 /. 41 / (. ), 10 /
35. R1 R2 ,
41/.

. .

69

2.
2.7.

V1

V1

T2

Vout = V1 -- V(C)

T2

. 2.20.


, .
20 50 .
250
10.151 .
2.5 , 246.3.
R4 = 4.99 5 = 1.22 M. 1 % R5 1.21 M,
50 . 193
,
,
+0.1 . 0.1 R3 5 . (10 ) . R3
, 3 , . R7
193, 0.1 .

. ,
AD594/AD595 Analog Devices (. 2.22) [9].
. .

70

2.
2.7.

(10 /).

- , . , 10 /. ,
,
, .

3.3--5.5
TMP35

0.1


0 C < T < 250 C

R1*
24.9

Vout
R3*
1.24

R4*
4.99

Cu

0.1

0.1--2.6
100 / C

+
R7*
4.99

1
50

193

Cu

R5*
1.21

R6
100

R2*
102

* - 1%

. 2.21. (35)

AD596/AD597 , , , . , ,

J/K [10].

. .

71

2.
2.7.
+5
0.1

4.7

Vout
10 C

J: AD594
K: AD595
+A

AD594/AD595

. 2.22. AD594/AD595

+3/+5

0.1

35

AIN 1+

AIN 1MUX

PGA

AIN 2+
G = 1 128
AIN 2-

AD77
(16--22 )

. 2.23. AD77XX,
35

. .

72

2.
2.7.

(/C)

70
J

60
50

40
30

20
10
0
-250

250

500

750 1000 1250 1500 1750

, C

()

. 2.24. J, , S
60
50
K
40

30
S

20
10
0
-250

250

500

750 1000 1250 1500 1750

, C

. 2.25.


(. 2.24). . . 2.23
, .

. 1 128, 16 22 ( ).

. .

73

2.
2.7.


[11].
, (
)
, ,
(. 2.25) [8].
, 200 500
J-, , 1 / .
2.7.3.

, /C

0.400
0.375
0.350


100
S

11.50
10.50
9.50
8.50

0.325
7.50
0.300
0.275
0

6.50
400

5.50
800

, /C

()
. ,
. , . 100
1000 .
0.385 / 100 . ,
. . 2.26
100 S. ,
200 800 .

, C
. 2.26. ()

. .

74

2.
2.7.


. , ,
, . , . 0.5 .
, .
- , , , ,
.
+3/+5

+VREF
RREF
6.25
400

-VREF

100
Pt

AIN 1+
MUX
PGA

AIN 1G = 1 128
AD77
(16 - 22 )

. 2.27.

, . . . 2.27 100 , 400 .


AD77XX. ,
2.5 , 6.25 .
,
,
. 6.25
, ,
. ,
( 1 128),
[10].

. .

75

2.
2.7.

2.7.4.
- .
,
, .
. 2.28 () [Negative Temperature Coefficient
NTC] .
, [11].

()

40

30

20

@ 25 C

10

20

60

40

80

100

, C

ppm/C

. 2.28. 10
-60000

-50000

-40000

-30000

-20000
0

20

40

60

80

100

, C

. 2.29. 10
. .

76

2.
2.7.

,
.
,
(. 2.29),
, .
, .
(. 2.30, . 2.31).

R=

RT 2 ( RT 1 + RT 3) 2 RT 1 RT 3
,
RT 1 + RT 3 2 RT 2

RT1 1,
;
RT3 3,
;
RT2 2, , 2 = (1 + 3)/2.
, 10 RT1 = 32650 0 ;
RT2 = 6532 35 RT3 = 1752 70 . R = 5.17 .

()

40

30

20

10

20

40

60

80

100

, C

. 2.30.
5.17

. .

77

2.
2.7.

Vout = 0.994 @ = 0 C
Vout = 0.294 @ = 70 C
Vout / = --10 /C

10

5.17

12 C, 0 C +70 C
. 2.31.

, , .
2.3 +2.0 . (. 2.31). , 10 /, 12-
.
2.7.5.

,
( 55 +150 ). , (, 10 /).
AD592 Analog Devices 17 Texas Instruments (. 2.32).
, 1 /,
[13].
. 2.33 ,
ADT45 ( ADT50),
.

. .

78

2.
2.7.
V+

AD592: -92
17: S-8

V-


@ 25

@ 25
(AD592CN)
@ 25
(17):
AD592
17

1 /
298.2
430
0.5 , 1
0.1
2.5 , 3.5
0.5
25 +105
40 +105

. 2.32. : AD592, 17

+Vs = 4.5 7

(04)
(03)

03/04

. 2.33.

(
)
0.1 , ( ), , [14].

. .

79

2.
2.7.

2.7.6.
. 03/04,
, - (. 2.34). 12-
. -
, ,
-
(. 2.35).
,
, .
35 +25 .
1, 10 [14].

/04:
1 10

1.5

0.5

40 +100
1/2 0
60 %
+25
35
5
6.5
: -92 SO-8 TSSOP
. 2.34. /04

. 2.35. 3/04

. .

80

2.
2.7.

/04 ,
:
400 1
()
= 235
;
2
720 1
= 455
()
.
2

.
, , -
/04. Intel 8051 . 2.36.

+5

0.1

V+
04

1.0

+ 12

8051

. 2.36. 04

, 0 1, 16 . , 12,
. 1.0 0
.
0 1
.
,
1 2 0 1 . ,
[15].

. .

81

2.
2.7.

2.7.7.
,
. .
ADT05 ADT22/23,
ADT14 Analog Devices 01 Texas Instruments. ADT05 2 40 +150
(. 2.37). ADT05
+2.7 +7 ,
, .
(200 3.3 ) , .
, .

+Vs = 2.7 7
0.1

200

ADT05

RPULL-UP

RSET



2
4

40 +150

200 3.3

. 2.37.

. .

82

2.
2.7.

[16, 17].
=
RSET

39
90.3.
TSET ( ) + 281.6

2.7.8. -


, ,
(SPI QSPI MICROWIRE National Semiconductor),
, AD7816/7817/7818. -
AD7816, AD7817, AD7818 . 2.38, . 2.39, . 2.40.

REFIN

+VDD = 2.7 5.5


AD7816

2.5

>

10-

AGND

OTI

DIN/OUT

SCLK

RD/WR

CONVST

. 2.38. 10-
(AD7816)

. .

83

2.
2.7.
REFIN

+VDD = 2.7 5.5


AD7817

VIN1
VIN2
VIN3
VIN4

2.5

>

10-

OTI

DOUT

SCLK
RD/WR
DIN
CS

AGND

DGND

BUSY

CONVST

. 2.39. 10-
(AD7817)

+VDD = 2.7 5.5


AD7818

2.5

>

VIN1

10-

OTI

DIN/OUT

SCLK
RD/WR

AGND

CONVST

. 2.40. 10-
(AD7818)

10- 10 ;
(Intel 8051, SPI, QSPI, MICROWIRE);
55 +125 ;
+2 ( 40 +85 );
. .

84

2.
2.7.

2.5 1 %;
(+2.7 +5.5 );
4 10 ;
;
;
, AD7817, AD7818;
AD7416/AD7417/AD7418 , 12 [16].

2.8. ,


.
: 420 , 1-Ware, CAN, I2C, Ehternet, Lonwork
.

. .
2.8.1.
. 2.41 ,

. ,
, AD420. ,
AD420. ,
. , 4 ( ),
( ) 20 .


, 4 [15].

. .

85

2.
2.8. ,

4-20

Rsense

4-20

uC

AD420

. 2.41. 420

,
12 36 .
, , .
RSENSE,
AD420. AD420 16- - .
.
. 2.42 420
. , 4 .
AD421, 16- , . 420,
, AD421 , RSENSE. ,
, , . -
AD7714/AD7715. , , , 4 . AD421 ,
3, 3.3 5 . , [15].

. .

86

2.
2.8. ,
4--20

AD7714/AD7715

uC

4--20

RSENSE

RSENSE

uC

Icommon

0.75
0.05
2.75
4.00

IAD421
IAD7714/AD7715
IuC+
Icommon

AD421

: Supertex DN2535
Siliconix ND2020L ND2410L

. 2.42. , 420

uC

4--20

Hart Bell
202

Hart Bell
202

HT20C12/HT20C15

. 2.43.
HART, AD421 420

HART (ll202),
, . 420 , . .

87

2.
2.8. ,

. 1 0 1200
2200 .
, , . .
420 , , . .
, 420 ( ). , , HART, (
) ()
. 10
0.01 %
. HART ,
( )
, ( , , )
.
. . 2.43 - - . - , ,
,
. , HART,
- [16].
, HART-
, . 2.43, . HART-
AD421. ,
BELL202, ,
Symbios Logic, Inc
2015 SMAR Research Corporation 2012.

. .

88

2.
2.8. ,

2.8.2.
. ,
, (SOC), . . (. 2.44).

. 2.44.

. . 2.44 , Ethernet Lonwork.


. ( ASI-bus, CAN-bus HART),
,
, .
,
, . . , , , .
Ethernet
CAN-Bus
Foundation Fieldbus
Device-Net
Lonwork
World FIP
Profibus
P-NET
Interbus-S
HART
. .

89

2.
2.8. ,

Universal Serial Bus (USB)


ASI

, () ( ), . IEEE 1451.2 , , .
. 2.45 ,
IEEE 1451.2. ( ) STIM (Smart Transducer Interface
Module) (
). / , / . , TEDS (Transducer Electronic Data Sheet) (
), / . NCAP
(Network Capable Application Processor) (
) , STIM.

. 2.45. IEEE1451.2

. .

90

2.
2.8. ,
Ethernet
Ethernet
NCAP

STIM

Lonwork
Ethernet
NCAP

Lonwork
NCAP

Lonwork
NCAP

STIM

STIM

. 2.46. , plug & play

IEEE1451.2 10- , (Transducer Independent Interface) (


). () STIM NCAP , . 2.46. STIM NCAP, , TEDS, . ,
,
( , , . .), (, 2 ), , .
, , .
(
1451.2) :
,
,
,
.
2.8.3. MicroConverter
MicroConverter Analog Devices , (. 2.7).
. .

91

2.
2.8. ,

Analog Devices

2.7

ADuC816
ZA

> 1 6
/ (-) > 100
.

12-

< 1/2 DNL

ADuC812
8-

AduC810
8-

12 , 5
< 1/2 INL

10
< 1/2 INL

12-

< 1/2 DNL

12-

< 1/2 DNL

MicroConverter: -
, (FLASH EEPROM) .
12- ,

.

2
1. ,
.
2.
.
3. ().
4. .
5. .
6. ,
.
7. .
8. .

. .

92

3.
ATMEL
3.1.
Atmel Corp. (), 1984 .
,
.
Atmel
, ,
,
.

AT90LS2323
AT90S2323
AT90LS2343
AT90S2343
AT90LS4433
AT90S4433
AT90S8515
AT90C8534
AT90LS8535
AT90S8535

RAM

+ +

89 2,7-6,0 012

128 B 128 B

+ 15 1/1 +

128 B 128 B

+ 3 1/-

118 2,7-6,0 04

128 B 128 B

+ 3 1/-

118 4,0-6,0 010

128 B 128 B

+ 5 1/-

+ +

118 2,7-6,0 04

128 B 128 B

+ 5 1/-

+ +

118 4,0-6,0 010

256 B 128 B

+ 20 1/1 + 6

+ + + +

118 2,7-6,0 04

256 B 128 B

+ 20 1/1 + 6

+ + + +

118 4,0-6,0 08

118 2,7-6,0 08

512 B 512 B
512 B 256 B

64
+ 32 1/1 +

7 1/1

+ +

Vcc (V)

+ 15 1/- +

RAM

64 B

EEPROM

AT90S2313

1
KB
2
KB
2
KB
2
KB
2
KB
2
KB
4
KB
4
KB
8
KB
8
KB
8
KB
8
KB

ISP
I/O (Pins)
8/16-bit Timer
AC
ADC
. RC--
WDT
BDC
UART
SPI
RTC

AT90S1200

Flash ROM

Atmel AVR Classic

(M)

3.1

118 2,7-6,0 010

118 3,3-6,0 01,5

512 B 512 B

+ 32 2/1 + 8

+ + + 118 2,7-6,0 04

512 B 512 B

+ 32 2/1 + 8

+ + + 118 4,0-6,0 08

. .

93

3. ATMEL
3.1.
3.2

Vcc,

35 1/1 +

130 2,75,5

8 KB

512 B

512 B 64 +

35 1/1 +

130 4,55,5 016

ATmega8535L

8 KB

512 B

512 B

35 2/1 +

130 2,75,5

08

ATmega8535

8 KB

512 B

512 B

35 2/1 +

130 4,55,5

08

ATmega8L

8 KB

512 B

1024 B

23 2/1 + 6/8 +

130 2,75,5

08

ATmega8

8 KB

512 B

1024 B

23 2/1 + 6/8 +

130 4,05,5 016

ATmega16L

16 KB

512 B

1024 B

32 2/1 +

130 2,75,5

ATmega16

16 KB

512 B

1024 B

32 2/1 +

130 4,05,5 016

ATmega161L

16 KB

512 B

1024 B

35 2/1 +

130 2,75,5

04

ATmega161

16 KB

512 B

1024 B

35 2/1 +

130 4,05,5

08

ATmega162V

16 KB

512 B 1024 B 64 +

35 2/2 +

130 1,83,6

01

ATmega162U

16 KB

512 B 1024 B 64 +

35 2/2 +

130 2,44,0

08

ATmega162L

16 KB

512 B 1024 B 64 +

35 2/2 +

130 2,75,5

08

ATmega162

16 KB

512 B 1024 B 64 +

35 2/2 +

130 4,05,5 016

ATmega8515

. .

RTC

512 B 64 +

8 KB

I2C

512 B

ATmega8515L

SPI

23

UART

8/16 Tmr

22

WDT

I/O (Pins)

21

. RC--

JTAG

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Self Prog Mem

ISP

RAM

EEPROM

Flash ROM

. . RAM

Atmel AVR ATMega

08

08

94

3. ATMEL
3.1.
. 3.2
1

10 11 12 13 14 15

16 17 18

19 20 21

22

ATmega163L 16 KB

512 B

1024 B

32

2/1 +

+ +

130

2,75,5 04

ATmega163

16 KB

512 B

1024 B

32

2/1 +

+ +

130

4,05,5 08

ATmega169L 16 KB

512 B

1B

53

2/1 +

+ +

130

1,83,6 04

ATmega169V 16 KB

512 B

1B

53

2/1 +

+ +

130

2,73,6 01

ATmega323L 32 KB

1024 B 2048 B

32

2/1 +

+ +

130

2,75,5 04

ATmega323L 32 KB

1024 B 2048 B

32

2/1 +

+ +

130

4,05,5 08

ATmega32L

32 KB

1024 B 2048 B

32

2/1 +

+ +

130

2,75,5 08

ATmega32

32 KB

1024 B 2048 B

32

2/1 +

+ +

130

4,05,5 016

ATmega64L

64 KB

2048 B 4096 B 64 +

53

2/2 +

+ +

130

2,75,5 08

ATmega64

64 KB

2048 B 4096 B 64 +

53

2/2 +

+ +

130

4,05,5 016

ATmega103L 128 KB 4096 B 4000 B 64 +

48

2/1 +

121

2,73,6 04

128 KB 4096 B 4000 B 64 +

48

2/1 +

121

4,05,5 06

ATmega103

23

ATmega128L 128 KB 4096 B 4096 B 64 +

53

2/2 +

+ +

133

2,75,5 08

128 KB 4096 B 4096 B 64 +

53

2/2 +

+ +

133

4,05,5 016

ATmega128

. .

95

3. ATMEL

3.1.

3.3

Vcc,

02

ATtiny11

1 KB

1/- +

+ +

90

4.05.5

06

ATtiny12
V

1 KB 64 B

1/- +

+ +

90

1.85.5

01

ATtiny12L 1 KB 64 B

1/- +

+ +

90

2.75.5

04

ATtiny12

1 KB 64 B

1/- +

+ +

90

4.05.5

08

ATtiny13L 1 KB 64 B

64 B +

1/- +

+ +

90

2.75.5

04

ATtiny15L 1 KB 64 B

2/- +

+ + +

90

2.75.5

1.6

ATtiny26L 2 KB 128 B 128 B +

16

2/- + +

11

+ + +

118 2.75.5

08

ATtiny26
ATtiny28
V

2 KB 128 B 128 B +

16

2/- + +

11

+ + +

118 4.55.5

016

2 KB

20

1/- +

+ +

90

1.85.5

01

ATtiny28L 2 KB

20

1/- +

+ +

90

2.75.5

04

BDC

2.75.5

WDT

90

ADC

+ +

ISP
I/O
(Pins)
8/16-bit Timer
AC
USI
1/- +

RAM

EEPROM

Flash ROM

ATtiny11L 1 KB

. RC-

Atmel AVR Tiny

89 Intel MSC51, ,

Atmel.
- Atmel (Alf Bogen Vergard Wollan )
8- , RISC-, RISC AVR-.
AT90.
, .
, . ,
. - . .

96

3. ATMEL

3.1.

, -,
ISP,
- .
AVR , ,
. AVR-
: Smart Card
.
AVR-:
Mega AVR ( ATmegaXXX);
Classic AVR ( AT90SXXX);
Tiny AVR ( ATtinyXXX);
AVR Smart Cards ( AT90SCC).
Mega AVR ,
.
Classic AVR , , .
Tiny AVR 8- ,
, , , .
AVR Smart Cards , .
. 3.1, . 3.2, . 3.3
Atmel AVR.

3.2. AVR-
RISC (enhanced RISC) AVR- (. 3.1) , AVR. (ALU),
, 32 , . , .
RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer), ,
.
. .
AVR- . .

97

3. ATMEL

3.2. AVR-

( ,
16- ) .
,
16 .
AVR
RISC-.
AVR , , .
AVR- FLASH . 16- 512 64 K
.


EEPROM

SPI -

FLASH-

16

Program Counter

32*8

..

ADC



RAM

TIMERS

WatchDog

UART

. 3.1. AVR-

. .

98

3. ATMEL

3.2. AVR-

FLASH-
, . , , . . FLASH , , .
, AVR , , 1000 FLASH-.
, AVR-
, , ( 0 4 K)
( 0 64 ) SRAM- EEPROM- ( 0 4 K).
FLASH- SRAM- , .
, .
, MCS-51
,
, 12
.
. , PIC-
Microchip
.
AVR .
, AVR
.
AVR- /, ,
, .
EEPROM- AVR
, . , ,
. EEPROM-
FLASH ( 4 ), ,
, AVR .
AVR
, SPI-
(Serial Peripheral Interface).
EEPROM- /, .
. .

99

3. ATMEL

3.3. AVR-
. 3.2 AVR-,
AVR.
32 (R0R31), ALU (. 3.3).

rjmp start
rjmp int0

LPM

R0($00)

32 8

rjmp t0

$060

ST, STD, STS


LD, LDD, LDS

SRAM
()

R31($1F)

RamEnd
RamEnd+1

IN

OUT

rjmp acomp

$00($20)

SRAM

/
64 8

Flash-

(flashend+1)
x 16

$3F($5F)
XRAMEnd

flashend

EEPROM

$00

E2End

. 3.2. AVR-

16-
, (AVR
SRAM 16- Z).
,
ALU
. , , (SUBI, SBCI, ANDI, ORI, SBR, CBR),

(R16R31). 16-
ADIW SBIW R24, R26, R28, R30.
. .

100

3. ATMEL

3.3. AVR-

R0
R1
R2

R26

XL

R27

XH

R28

YL

R29

YH

R30

ZL

R31

ZH

. 3.3.



ALU
, . .
SREG
(Status Register) (. 3.4).

I
7

T
6

H
5

S
4

V N
3 2

Z
1

C
0

. 3.4. SREG (Status Register)

(carry) ,
.
Z (zero) , 0.
N , MSB (Most Significant Bit )
1 ( , ).
V , .
S = N + V ( ).
H , 3- .
T (Trase) ,
.
I (Interupt) .
-
.

( ) SRAM
(. . 3.2).
SRAM / / SRE /
MCUSR.
AVR .
SRAM
. .

101

3. ATMEL

3.3. AVR-

. , SRW / MCUSR
SRAM .
- .
. AVR

SRAM .
. : , , .
SRAM
( /), .
,

,
( PUSH POP).
(, SRAM, .)
, SRAM,

, SRW , , .
, ,
.
128 SRAM
SRAM, / SPL.
256 , / SPL SPH.

:
1. , (SPH:SPL) .
2. .
SPH:SPL = SPH:SPL 1.
:
1.

.
SPH:SPL = SPH:SPL + 1.
2. , (SPH:SPL) .
, ,
, ,

. .

102

3. ATMEL

3.3. AVR-

, .
/, . 3.2,
AVR-. / SREG, MCUSR
SPH:SPL, , , EEPROM , , / .

.
/
IN, OUT (. ). /, $00
$1F ( $ ),
.
SBI CBI
(. ). ,
/ SREG, .
- ,
/.
, / ,
. 3.3, ,
32 / ,
SRAM ( ).
. 3.3 . 32 ($0$1F) . 64 ($20$5F) /. SRAM AVR $60.
, / .
IN, OUT, SBI, CBI, SBIC, SBIS, /, (
). /
,
AVR. ,
$20 /.
, / 64 .
,
.
, AVR / .
, , . .

103

3. ATMEL

3.3. AVR-

/, ,
( .INCLUDE)
/.
/ .inc. ATMEL .
/.
/ SRAM,
$20.
,
FLASH- EEPROM- , .
AVR 16- ,
FLASH- 16-
512 64 K .
FLASH-
, . , , . . FLASH-

LPM, ELPM (. ).
. $0000 , . $0001,
.
, (
) RJMP (. 3.3).
,
AVR . ,
/, , inc-.
EEPROM- AVR , . , , . . EEPROM-
, .
EEPROM- .
EEPROM / EEAR (
), EEDR ( ) EECR ( ).

. .

104

3. ATMEL

3.3. AVR-

AVR
AVR-,
, :
/ 8 ;
;
n- /
/;
- ;
;
SPI;
UART;
;
;
(WATCHDOG) ;
/ . .

3.4. AVR
/ ,
, .

. .
/ AVR 5 32 /, .
- 10- / .
. U U , U
, 1
n / /. ,
- (),
.
SPI
/,
SPI.
, UART / .
. .

105

3. ATMEL

3.4. AVR

. ,
.
RC-,
.
,
. . . ,
.
AVR-
Classic AT90S4434/8535.

3.5. /
AT90S4434/8535
/.
, ,
.
(DDRx).
.

.
,
, (PORTx).
, /
(ADC, UART . .).
,


.

3.6. /
AT90S4434/8535 /
8- 16-. / 2
.
32.768 , /
2 (RealTimeClock-RTC).
/ 0 1 10- . / 2 . .

106

3. ATMEL

3.6. /

. / , .
3.6.1. /
/ 0 1
: /8, /64, /256 /1024,
.
,
(stop).
8- / 0 (T/C0)
/0 CK, . / , / TCCR0 (. 3.5).
/0
(TIFR).
/ TCCR0. / / TIMSK (Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register).
3.6.2. / 0-TCCR0
. 3.5 / 0.
. 3.4 / 0.
$33(53)

. 0

6
-

5
-

4
-

1
0
CS02 CS01
/ / /
0
0
0

CS00

. 3.5. / 0

7...3 4434/8535 0.
2, 1, 0 T/C0.

. .

107

3. ATMEL

3.6. /

3.4

/ 0
Cs02
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

cs01
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

cs00
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

K
K/8
K/64
K/256
K/1024
0,
0,

/ .
. ,
(DDRx) (
).
3.6.3. / 0-TCNT0
. 3.6 / 0.
$32(52)

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
MSB

/ / / / / / / /
. 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

LSB

. 3.6. / 0

/0 , ,
. / ,
.
16- / 1
16- / 1
CK, CK .
TCCR1A TCCR1B ,
, . TIMSK /
/ 1. /-

. .

108

3. ATMEL

3.6. /

1
CPU.
/ 1 , A B OCR1A OCR1B , / 1.
. / 1 8-, 9-
10- - .
OCR1A/OCR1B
, .
/ 1 / 1 (ICR1),
(ICP). /
1 TCCR1B (Timer/Counter1 Control Register). ,
.
, ,
. XTAL.
3.6.4. A / 1-TCCR1A
. 3.7 A / 1.

$2F(4F)

7
6
5
4
3 2
1
COM1A1
COM1A0
COM1B1
COM1B0 - /
/
/
/ /
. 0
0
0
0
0 0
0

0
PWM11
/
0

PWM10

. 3.7. A / 1

7, 6 COM1A1, COM1A0; 1 A .
COM1A1 COM1A0
, / 1. OC1A (Output Compare A).
I/O, . .

109

3. ATMEL

3.6. /

1 ( ). . 3.5.
5, 4 COM1B1, COM1B0; 1 B .
COM1B1 COM1B0
, / 1. OC1B (Output CompareB). I/O, 1 ( ). . 3.5.

3.5

COM1X1

COM1X0

/ 1 OC1X

OC1X

OC1X ( 0)

OC1X ( 1)

. X = B.

3.6

PWM1

PWM1

/ 1

/ 1 8-

/ 1 9-

/ 1 10-

. . 3.6.
3..2 .
AT90S4434/8535
0.
1..0 PWM11, PWM10: .
,
. 3.6.
. .

110

3. ATMEL

3.6. /

3.6.5. B / 1 TCCR1B
. 3.8 / 1.
$2E(4E)

7
6
5
ICNC1
ICES1

/ /

. 0
0
0

4
-

3
2
CTC1
/ /
0
0

1
0
CS12
CS11
/ /
0
0

CS10

. 3.8. / 1

7 ICNC1: 1.
0 ICNC1
. / , /
(ICP).
1 ICNC1 (ICP) (/), ICES1, . XTAL
6 ICES1: 1.
0 ICES1 / 1 ( ICP) ICR1. 1 ICES1 / 1 ICR1
( ICP).
5, 4 .
AT90S4434/8535
0.
3 CTC1: / 1 .
1 CTC1 / 1 $0000 , . CTC1 , / 1
.
CPU,
, / 1. 1 C CTC1:
... | C-2 | C-1 | C | 0 | 1 |...
8
:
... | C-2, C-2, C-2, C-2, C-2, C-2, C-2, C-2 | C-1, C-1, C-1, C-1, C-1, C-1, C-1, C-1
. .

111

3. ATMEL

3.6. /

| C, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 |1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1|...
CTC1 .
2,1,0 CS12, CS11, CS10: .

( ).
Stop / / 1. ( ). . 3.7.
3.7


cs12
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

cs11
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

K
K/8
K/64
K/256
K/1024
1,
1,

cs10
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

16- T/C1 TCNT1H TCNT1L


. 3.9 16- /
1. 16- 16- / 1. CPU /
, 8- (TEMP).
OCR1A, OCR1B ICR1.
$2D(4D) TCNT1H
$2C(4C) TCNT1L

15
MSB

/
. 0

14

13

12

11

10

8
LSB

6
/
0

5
4
3
2
1
0
/ / / / / /
0
0
0
0
0
0

. 3.9. 16- / 1

. .

112

3. ATMEL

3.6. /

TEMP,
.
/ 1
( ) /. / 1
, / 1
.
16- c
OCR1AH OCR1AL
/ 1 , / 1. ,
,
/ 1. , / 1 OCR.
TCNT1 OCR1A OCR1B , .
CPU, .
PORTD5 PORTD4 OC1A OC1B.
OCR1A OCR1B 16,
OCR1A/B TEMP. CPU ,
TEMP. CPU
OCR1AL OCR1BL,
OCR1BH OCR1AH OCR1BH. ,
16- OCR1A/B .
, TEMP TCNT1
ICR1.
TEMP,
.
16- c ICR1
(ICP) ( ICES1) / 1 ICR1. 1 ICF1.
16-, . .

113

3. ATMEL

3.6. /

ICR1 TEMP. CPU ICR1L CPU,


ICR1H TEMP,
CPU TEMP. , 16- ICR1L. TEMP TCNT1, OCR1A OCR1B.
, TEMP,
.
3.6.6. / 1
/ 1 A B (OCR1A OCR1B) 8-, 9-
10- ,
PD5(OC1A)
PD4(OC1B). / 1 , $0000 TOP (. 3.8), , . 10 OCR1A OCR1B,
PD5(OC1A)/PD4(OC1B) ,
COM1A1/COM1A0 COM1B1/COM1B0
/ 1 TCCR1A. . . 3.9.
3.8

TOP

8-
9-
10-

TOP
$00FF (255)
$01FF (511)
$03FF (1023)

f TC1 /510
f TC1 /1022
f TC1 /2046

. (CS12..CS10 = 001), ,
.
(CS12..CS10 001 000), , .
, ,
.

. .

114

3. ATMEL

3.6. /

3.9

1
COM1X1
0
0
1

COM1X0
0
1
0

OCX1


.
( )
.
( )

. X = A B.
, 10 OCR1A/OCR1B
.
/ 1 TOP. ( glitches) OCR1A/OCR1B.
1 (TOV1)
$0000.
1 , /, . . , TOV1 1 . 1, .
3.6.7. (WDT)
.
, . 3.10.
WDR (Watchdog Reset) .
. (
), AT90S4434/8535
.
,
.
WDTCR
. 3.10 .
$21(41)
. .

115

3. ATMEL

3.6. /

. .

4
WDTOE
/
0

3
WDE
/
0

2
WDP2
/
0

1
WDP1
/
0

0
WDP0
/
0

. 3.10.

7...5 4434/8535 0.
4 WDTOE: . 1 WDE.
.
.
3 WDE: .
WDE 1 ( )
WDE , . WDE , WDTOE. :
1. 1 WDTOE WDE. 1 WDE,
.
2. 0 WDE. .
2..0 WDP2, WDP1, WDP0:
.
WDP2, WDP1 WDP0 .

. 3.10.
3.10


WDP2

WDP1

WDP0

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1


WDT
16K
32K
64K
128K
256K
512K
1024K
2048K

. .

VCC = 3.0V

VCC = 5.0V

47
94
0.19
0.38
0.75
1.5
3.0
6.0

15
30
60
0.12
0.24
0.49
0.97
1.9

116

3. ATMEL

3.6. /

. . WDR (Watchdog Reset)


. ,

.
, . ,
.

3.7. (SPI)
(SPI)
AT90S4434/8535
AVR-.
SPI :
3- ;
;

;
;
;
Idle-.
CPU, SPI, . 3.11. PB7(SCK) .
CPU- SPI- SPI
PB5(MOSI) PB5 (MOSI) . SPI , (SPIF). SPCR SPI (SPIE), . PB4(SS)
SPI-
.

. .

117

3. ATMEL

3.7. (SPI)

8-

8-

(Master)
MSB

(Slave)

LSB

MSB
MISO

8-

SPI

LSB

MISO
8-

MOSI

MOSI

SCK

SCK

SS

SS
Vcc

. 3.11. SPI- ( )


16-
(. 3.11).
, . . .
. , SPI,
.
, ,
SPI ,
. .
3.7.1. SS
SPI ( MSTR SPCR ) SS.
SS ,
SPI. SS , SPI . SS
,
. .

118

3. ATMEL

3.7. (SPI)

SPI SPI . , SPI


:
1. MSTR SPCR SPI- . , MOSI- SCK-
.
2. SPIF SPSR , SPI, .
, SPI SS
, , MSTR. MSTR
, .
SPI , SS . SS , SPI
MISO, , . . SS
, , SPI , ,
.
, SPI- SS
. SS , SPI
.
3.7.2. SPI SPCR
. 3.12 SPI.
$0D(2D)

. .

7
SPIE
/
0

6
SPE
/
0

5
DORD
/
0

4
MSTR
/
0

3
CPOL
/
0

2
CPHA
/
0

1
SPR1
/
0

0
SPR0
/
0

. 3.12. SPI

7 SPIE: SPI.
SPIE 1 ,
, SPIF SPSR .
6 SPE: SPI.
. .

119

3. ATMEL

3.7. (SPI)

SPE 1 SPI-.
5 DORD: .
1 DORD
LSB. DORD MSB .
4 MSTR: /.
1 MSTR SPI
. SS MSTR,
MSTR SPIF SPSR.
SPI,
MSTR.
3 CPOL: .
SCK 1 CPOL
CPOL.
2 CPHA : .
1,0 SPR1, SPR0: , 1 0.

3.11



SPR1

SPR0

SCK

fCL / 4

fCL / 16

fCL / 64

fCL / 128

,
.

.
. 3.11.

. .

120

3. ATMEL

3.7. (SPI)

3.7.3. SPI SPCR


. 3.13 SPI.
$0E(2E)

7
SPIF

. .
0

6
5
WCOL

0
0
0

4
-

3
-

0
-

. 3.13. SPI

7 SPIF: SPI.
SPIF 1 , SPIE SPCR , . SS
, SPI ,
SPIF. SPIF
. SPIF
SPI SPIF,
SPI (SPDR).
6 WCOL: .
WCOL 1,
(SPDR).
, , , . WCOL ( SPIF) ( 0) SPI WCOL,
SPI (SPDR).
50 Res: .
AT90S4434/8535 .
SPI AT90S4434/8535 EEPROM- .

. .

121

3. ATMEL

3.7. (SPI)

3.7.4. SPI SPDR


. 3.14 SPI.
$0F(2F)

7
MSB
/
. .
0

6
/
0

5
/
0

4
/
0

3
/
0

2
/
0

1
/
0

0
LSB
/
0

. 3.14. SPI

SPI / SPI. SPDR ,


.

3.8.
(UART)
AT90S4434/8535
(UART).
:
, ;
XTAL;
8- 9- ;
;
;
;
;
: (TX Complete),
(TX Data Register Empty) (RX Complete);
.
I/O UART (UDR). UDR
:
UDR , . .
. .

122

3. ATMEL

3.8. (UART)

UDR ,
. , .
10(11)-
( ), UDR . UDRE (UART
Data Register Empty) UART (USR). 1 UDRE . , UDR 10(11)- , 0 0 ( 0 ), 9 10 1
( 1 ). UART (UCR) CHR9 (. . 9- ),
TXB8 UCR 9 .
TXD. LSB-
. ,
, UDR .
UDRE .
UDR ,
UDRE . ,
TXD , UART (USR) TXC (TX
Complete Flag).
1 TXEN UCR UART. TXEN ( 0) PD1 I/O .
TXEN UART PD1 , 1 DDRD.

RXD
, 16 , .
. ,

. 8, 9 10 RXD
. 1, 1 0. ,
. .

123

3. ATMEL

3.8. (UART)

. 8, 9 10.
( ) .
, .
,
( ). 0,
UART (USR) FE (Framing Error).
UDR
FE.
, ,
UDR RXC
UART (USR). UDR
, ,
. UDR
, . 9- ( CHR9 UCR),
UDR RXB8 UCR 9 .
UDR ,
, UCR (OR). , ,
, UDR . OR , UDR .
OR
UDR.
( 0) RXEN
UCR . , PD0 I/O .
RXEN UART PD0,
, 0 DDRD.
UART PD0
PORTD0
.
CHR9 UCR , 9-, .
, , XB8 UCR.
,
UDR.
RXB8 UCR.

. .

124

3. ATMEL

3.8. (UART)

3.8.1. UART
UART UDR
. 3.15 UART.
$0(2)

. .

7
MSB
/
0

6
/
0

5
/
0

4
/

3
/

2
/

1
/

0
LSB
/

. 3.15. UART

UDR ,
/. UART, UART.
UART USR
. 3.16 UART.
$0B(2B)

7
RXC

. .
0

6
TXC
/
0

5
UDRE

4
FE

3
OR

0
-

. 3.16. UART

USR
UART.
7 RXC: .
1
UDR. . UCR RXCIE RXC UART. RXC
UDR. , , UART UDR,
RXC, .
6 TXC: .
1, (
) UDR -

. .

125

3. ATMEL

3.8. (UART)

. ,
.
UCR TXCIE TXC UART. TXC

. TXC 1.
5 UDRE: .
1, ,
UDR, .
, .
UDRIE UCR ,
UDRE, UART. UDRE
UDR. , ,
UART UDR, UDRE,
.
UDRE 1, .
4 FE: .
1
, . . 0. FE 1.
3 OR: .
OR 1 , . . , UDR,
. OR
, , ,
UDR. OR (
0), UDR.
20 Res: .
AT90S4434/8535
0.

. .

126

3. ATMEL

3.8. (UART)

3.8.3. UART UCR


. 3.17 UART.
$0A(2A)

7
RXCIE
/
. .
0

6
TXCIE
/
0

5
UDRIE
/
0

4
RXEN
/
0

3
TXEN
/
0

2
CHR9
/
0

1
RXB8
/
0

0
TXB8
/
0

. 3.17. UART

7 RXCIE: .
1 RXCIE RXC USR .
6 TXCIE: .
1 TXCIE TXC USR .
5 UDRIE: .
1 UDRIE UDRE USR UART.
4 RXEN: .
1 RXEN UART.
, TXC, DOR FE . , RXEN
.
3 TXEN: .
1 TXEN UART.
, UDR .
2 CHR9: 9- .
1 CHR9 9- .
RXB8 TXB8 () UCR. .
1 RXB8: 8- .
1 CHR9 RXB8 .
0 TXB8: 8- .
. .

127

3. ATMEL

3.8. (UART)

1 CHR9 TXB8 .
3.8.4. - (Baud Rate Generator)
- ,
,

BAUD =

f K
,
16(UBRR+1)

BAUD ;
fCK ;
UBRR UBRR (Baud Rate register 0255).


UBRR, . 3.12. UBRR,
, 2 %
. 1 % . .
3.8.5. - UART UBRR
. 3.18 - UART.
$09(29)

. .

7
MSB
/
0

6
/
0

5
/
0

4
/
0

3
/
0

2
/
0

1
0
LSB
/ /
0
0

. 3.18. - UART

. .

128

3. ATMEL

3.8. (UART)

3.12

UBRR

()
1
2400
4800
9600
14400
19200
28800
38400
57600
76800
115200
2400
4800
9600
14400
19200
28800
38400
57600
76800
115200

2
UBRR = 25
UBRR = 12
UBRR = 6
UBRR = 3
UBRR = 2
UBRR = 1
UBRR = 1
UBRR = 0
UBRR = 0
UBRR = 0
UBRR = 84
UBRR = 42
UBRR = 20
UBRR = 13
UBRR = 10
UBRR = 6
UBRR = 4
UBRR = 3
UBRR = 2
UBRR = 1

-,
%
3
0,2
0,2
7,5
7,8
7,8
7,8
22,9
7,8
22,9
84,3
0,4
0,8
1,6
1,6
3,1
1,6
6,3
12,5
12,5
12,5

2400

UBRR = 191

0,0

4800

UBRR = 95

0,0

9600
14400
19200
28800
38400
57600
76800
115200

UBRR = 47
UBRR = 31
UBRR = 23
UBRR = 15
UBRR = 11
UBRR = 7
UBRR = 5
UBRR = 3

0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0

1 M

1,8432 M
4
UBRR = 47
UBRR = 23
UBRR = 11
UBRR = 7
UBRR = 5
UBRR = 3
UBRR = 2
UBRR = 1
UBRR = 1
UBRR = 0
UBRR = 95
UBRR = 47
UBRR = 23
UBRR = 15
UBRR = 11
UBRR = 7
UBRR = 5
UBRR = 3
UBRR = 2
UBRR = 1
UBRR =
207
UBRR =
103
UBRR = 51
UBRR = 34
UBRR = 25
UBRR = 16
UBRR = 12
UBRR = 8
UBRR = 6
UBRR = 3

, %

2 M

2,4576 M
, %
, %

5
6
7
8
9
0,0 UBRR = 51 0,2 UBRR = 63 0,0
0,0 UBRR = 25 0,2 UBRR = 31 0,0
0,0 UBRR = 12 0,2 UBRR = 15 0,0
0,0
UBRR = 8
3,7 UBRR = 10 3,1
0,0
UBRR = 6
7,5
UBRR = 7
0,0
0,0
UBRR = 3
7,8
UBRR = 4
6,3
0,0
UBRR = 2
7,8
UBRR = 3
0,0
0,0
UBRR = 1
7,8
UBRR = 2 12,5
33,3 UBRR = 1 22,9 UBRR = 1
0,0
0,0
UBRR = 0
7,8
UBRR = 0 25,0
0,0 UBRR = 103 0,2 UBRR = 119 0,0
0,0 UBRR = 51 0,2 UBRR = 59 0,0
0,0 UBRR = 25 0,2 UBRR = 29 0,0
0,0 UBRR = 16 2,1 UBRR = 19 0,0
0,0 UBRR = 12 0,2 UBRR = 14 0,0
0,0
UBRR = 8
3,7
UBRR = 9
0,0
0,0
UBRR = 6
7,5
UBRR = 7
6,7
0,0
UBRR = 3
7,8
UBRR = 4
0,0
0,0
UBRR = 2
7,8
UBRR = 3
6,7
0,0
UBRR = 1
7,8
UBRR = 2 20,0
0,2

UBRR = 239

0,0

UBRR = 287

0,2

UBRR = 119

0,0

UBRR = 143

0,0

0,2
0,8
0,2
2,1
0,2
3,7
7,5
7, 8

UBRR = 59
UBRR = 39
UBRR = 29
UBRR = 19
UBRR = 14
UBRR = 9
UBRR = 7
UBRR = 4

0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
6,7
0,0

UBRR = 71
UBRR = 47
UBRR = 35
UBRR = 23
UBRR = 17
UBRR = 11
UBRR = 8
UBRR = 5

0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0

UBRR 8- /, UART
. 3.12.

. .

129

3. ATMEL

3.9. ()

PB2 (AIN0) PB3 (AIN1). PB2 (AIN0), ,
PB3 (AIN1), ACO
1.
/ 1. , . .
ACSR
. 3.19
.
$08(28)

7
ACD
/
. .
0

4
ACO

/
N/A
0

3
ACI
/
0

2
ACIE
/
0

1
ACIC
/
0

0
ACIS1
/
0

ACIS0

. 3.19.

7 ACD: .
1 ACD
.
. ACD
ACIE ACSR.
ACD .
6 Res: .
AT90S4434/8535
0.
5 ACO: .
ACO .
4 ACI: .
1
, ACI1 ACI0. ACIE SREG. ACI . ACI
1.
3 ACIE: .

. .

130

3. ATMEL

3.9. ()

ACIE SREG . ACIE .


2 ACIC: .
1 ACIC / 1 . ,
/ 1. ACIC
. / 1 TICIE1
.
1,0 ACIS1, ACIS0:
.
, . . 3.13.
3.13


ACIS1
0
0
1
1

ACIS0
0
1
0
1

. ACIS1/ACIS0 ACSR.
. SBI
CBI , ACI, 1 ACI, .

3.10. - (ADC)
:
10 ;
0.5;
2;
65260 ;
15 kSPS ;
. .

131

3. ATMEL

3.10. - (ADC)

8 ;
;
;
Sleep .
AT90S4434/8535 10- ADC . ADC 8- , A
ADC. ADC /, ADC
.
ADC : AVCC
AGND. AGND GND
AVCC VCC 0,3 .

AREF. 2 AVCC.
3.10.1. -
ADC 10-
.
AGND,
AREF- LSB.
MUX
ADMUX,
ADC7..0 ADC.
- :
. . ADC
ADC . ADFR ADCSR.
ADC 1 ADEN ADCSR. ,
. ADC , , , ADC , sleep.
1 ADSC. 1
, .
, ADC .
ADC 10- ,
. .

132

3. ATMEL

3.10. - (ADC)

ADCH ADCL.
. :
ADCL. ADCL , ADC . , ADCL, ADCH, , . ADC ADCH ADCL
ADCH.
ADC , . ADC
, ADCL ADCH , .

ADSC. ADSC .
, ADSC .
200 kHz
65 .
3.10.2. ADC ADMUX
. 3.20 .
$07(27)

. .

2
MUX2
/
0

1
MUX1
/
0

0
MUX0
/
0

. 3.20.

73 Res: .
AT90S4434/8535
0.
20 MUX2...MUX0: .
, (07) ADC (. 3.14).

. .

133

3. ATMEL

3.10. - (ADC)

3.14

ADC0
ADC1
ADC2

MUX2.0
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

ADC3
ADC4
ADC5
ADC6
ADC7

3.10.3. ADC ADCSR


. 3.21 ADC.
$06(26)

7
ADEN
/
. .
0

6
ADSC
/
0

5
ADFR
/
0

4
ADIF
/
0

3
ADIE
/
0

2
ADPS2
/
0

1
ADPS1
/
0

0
ADPS0
/
0

. 3.21. ADC

7 ADEN: ADC.
1 ADC.
ADC. ADC
.
6 ADSC: ADC.

ADSC 1. ADSC 1 .
ADSC, ADC ADC, ,
.
ADC. ADSC 1 .
, , ADSC . 0
.
5 ADFR: ADC.
1 ADFR ADC
. ADC . .

134

3. ATMEL

3.10. - (ADC)

( ). .
4 ADIF: ADC.
1 . ADC , 1 ADIE I
SREG. ADIF . ,
ADIF 1.
3 ADIE: ADC.
1 ADIE I SREG
ADC.
20 ADPS2...ADPS0:
.
3.15


ADPS2
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

ADPS1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

ADPS0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1


2
2
4
8
16
32
64
128

XTAL ADC (. 3.15).


3.10.4.

, (
) .
. :
.

ADC .
ADMUX ,
.
. .

135

3. ATMEL

3.10. - (ADC)

ADMUX ,
.

3.11. AVR-
.
ATMEL AVR Studio ATMEL AVR In-Circuit Emulator. , AVR. , . Microsoft Windows 3.11,
Microsoft Windows95 Microsoft Windows NT. MS-DOS.
AVR
. .
, , . , ,
.
. 120 .
,
, .
, ,
. :
[:] [] []
[:] [] []


:
; []
. (;) . ,
.
:
label: .EQU var1=100 ; var1 100 ( )
.EQU var2=200 ; var2 200
test: rjmp test
; ( )
;
. .

136

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

;
, , , .
AVR
. 3.16, . 3.17, . 3.18, . 3.19
AVR, AVR Data
Book.

. .

137

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

3.16

ADD
ADC
SUB
SUBI
SBC

Rd,Rr
Rd,Rr
Rd,Rr
Rd,K8

Rd,Rr







(. )
()

SBCI
AND
ANDI
OR
ORI
EOR
COM
NEG
SBR

Rd,K8
Rd,Rr
Rd,K8
Rd,Rr
Rd,K8
Rd,Rr
Rd
Rd
Rd,K8

CBR

Rd,K8 ()

INC

Rd

DEC

Rd

TST

Rd

CLR
SER

Rd
Rd

ADIW Rdl,K6
SBIW

Rdl,K6

MUL
MULS

Rd,Rr
Rd,Rr

MULSU Rd,Rr
FMUL

Rd,Rr

FMULS Rd,Rr
FMULRd,Rr
SU

Rd = Rd + Rr
Rd = Rd + Rr + C
Rd = Rd - Rr
Rd = Rd - K8

Z,C,N,V,H,S
Z,C,N,V,H,S
Z,C,N,V,H,S
Z,C,N,V,H,S

1
1
1
1

Rd = Rd - Rr - C

Z,C,N,V,H,S

Rd = Rd - K8 - C Z,C,N,V,H,S
Rd = Rd Rr
Z,N,V,S
Rd = Rd K8
Z,N,V,S
Rd = Rd V Rr
Z,N,V,S
Rd = Rd V K8
Z,N,V,S
Rd = Rd EOR Rr
Z,N,V,S
Rd = $FF - Rd
Z,C,N,V,S
Rd = $00 - Rd
Z,C,N,V,H,S
Rd = Rd V K8
Z,C,N,V,S
Rd = Rd ($FF Z,C,N,V,S
K8)

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Rd = Rd + 1

Rd = Rd -1

Rd = Rd Rd


Rd = 0

Rd = $FF
Rdh:Rdl =

Rdh:Rdl + K6
Rdh:Rdl =

Rdh:Rdl - K 6

R1:R0 = Rd * Rr

R1:R0 = Rd * Rr
R1:R0 = Rd * Rr

R1:R0 = (Rd *

Rr) << 1
- R1:R0 = (Rd *Rr)

<< 1
R1:R0 = (Rd *

Rr) << 1

. .

Z,N,V,S

Z,N,V,S

Z,C,N,V,S

Z,C,N,V,S
None

1
1

Z,C,N,V,S

Z,C,N,V,S

Z,C
Z,C

2
2

Z,C

Z,C

Z,C

Z,C

138

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

3.17

1
2

PC = PC + k +1

None

(Z)

PC = Z

None

EIJMP

STACK = PC+1,
PC(15:0) = Z,
(Z)
PC(21:16) = EIND

None

JMP

None

RCALL

None

3/4*

ICALL

None

3/4*

EICALL

None

4*

CALL

None

4/5*

RET

PC = STACK

None

4/5*

RETI

PC = STACK

4/5*

CPSE

Rd,Rr

if (Rd ==Rr) PC =
PC 2 or 3

None

1/2/3

CP

Rd,Rr

Rd -Rr

CPC

Rd,Rr

Rd - Rr - C

CPI

Rd,K8

Rd - K

SBRC

Rr,b

SBRS

Rr,b

SBIC

P,b

SBIS

P,b

BRBC

s,k

BRBS

s,k

,
,
,

, SREG

, SREG

if(Rr(b)==0) PC =
PC + 2 or 3
if(Rr(b)==1) PC =
PC + 2 or 3
if(I/O(P,b)==0) PC
= PC + 2 or 3
if(I/O(P,b)==1) PC
= PC + 2 or 3
if(SREG(s)==0)
PC = PC + k + 1
if(SREG(s)==1)
PC = PC + k + 1

RJMP

IJMP

PC = k

- STACK = PC+1,

PC = PC + k + 1
STACK = PC+1,
(Z)
PC = Z
STACK = PC+1,

PC(15:0) = Z,
(Z)
PC(21:16) =EIND
STACK = PC+2,

PC = k

. .

Z,C,N,V,H,
S
Z,C,N,V,H,
S
Z,C,N,V,H,
S

1
1
1

None

1/2/3

None

1/2/3

None

1/2/3

None

1/2/3

None

1/2

None

1/2

139

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

. 3.17
1

BREQ

BRNE

BRCS

BRCC

BRSH

BRLO

BRMI

BRPL

BRGE

BRLT

BRHS

BRHC

BRTS

BRTC

BRVS

BRVC

BRIE

BRID

, ( )
, ( )
,
,
, T
, T
,
,
,
,

4
if(Z==1) PC = PC
+k+1
if(Z==0) PC = PC
+k+1
if(C==1) PC = PC
+k+1
if(C==0) PC = PC
+k+1
if(C==0) PC = PC
+k+1
if(C==1) PC = PC
+k+1
if(N==1) PC = PC
+k+1
if(N==0) PC = PC
+k+1
if(S==0) PC = PC
+k+1
if(S==1) PC = PC
+k+1
if(H==1) PC = PC
+k+1
if(H==0) PC = PC
+k+1
if(T==1) PC = PC
+k+1
if(T==0) PC = PC
+k+1
if(V==1) PC = PC
+k+1
if(V==0) PC = PC
+k+1
if(I==1) PC = PC +
k+1
if(I==0) PC = PC +
k+1

None

1/2

None

1/2

None

1/2

None

1/2

None

1/2

None

1/2

None

1/2

None

1/2

None

1/2

None

1/2

None

1/2

None

1/2

None

1/2

None

1/2

None

1/2

None

1/2

None

1/2

None

1/2

.
. CALL, ICALL, EICALL, RCALL,
RET RETI
PC 16 (128 KB ).
128 KB
.

. .

140

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

3.18

1
2

MOV

Rd,Rr

Rd = Rr

None

MOVW

Rd,Rr

Rd+1:Rd =
Rr+1:Rr, r,d even

None

LDI

Rd,K8

Rd = K

None

LDS

Rd,k

Rd = (k)

None

2*

LD

Rd,X

Rd = (X)

None

2*

LD

Rd,X+

None

2*

LD

Rd,-X

None

2*

LD

Rd,Y

LD
LD
LDD
LD
LD
LD
LDD

- Rd = (X),

X=X+1
X=X-1, Rd = (X)

Rd = (Y)

None

2*


Rd,-Y

Rd,Y+q

Rd = (Y),
Y=Y+1

None

2*

Y=Y-1, Rd = (Y)

None

2*

Rd = (Y+q)

None

2*

Rd = (Z)

None

2*

Rd = (Z), Z=Z+1

None

2*

Z=Z-1, Rd = (Z)

None

2*

Rd = (Z+q)

None

2*

Rd,Y+

Rd,Z


Rd,-Z

Rd,Z+q

Rd,Z+

STS

k,Rr

(k) = Rr

None

2*

ST

X,Rr

(X) = Rr

None

2*

ST

X+,Rr

(X) = Rr, X=X+1

None

2*

ST

-X,Rr

X=X-1, (X)=Rr

None

2*

ST

Y,Rr

(Y) = Rr

None

2*

. .

141

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

. 3.18
1
ST
ST
ST
ST
ST
ST
ST
LPM
LPM
LPM
ELPM
ELPM
ELPM
SPM
ESPM

3
4
Y+,Rr
(Y) = Rr, Y=Y+1

-Y,Rr
Y=Y-1, (Y) = Rr

Y+q,Rr
(Y+q) = Rr

Z,Rr


-Z,Rr

Z+q,Rr

Rd,Z

Rd,Z+



Rd,Z

Rd,Z+


Z+,Rr

None

None

None

(Z) = Rr

None

(Z) = Rr, Z=Z+1

None

Z=Z-1, (Z) = Rr

None

(Z+q) = Rr

None

R0 = (Z)

None

Rd = (Z)

None

Rd = (Z), Z=Z+1

None

None

None

None

(Z) = R1:R0

None

(RAMPZ:Z) =
R1:R0

None

R0 =
(RAMPZ:Z)
Rd =
(RAMPZ:Z)
Rd =
(RAMPZ:Z), Z =
Z+1

IN

Rd,P

Rd = P

None

OUT

P,Rr

P = Rr

None

PUSH

Rr

STACK = Rr

None

POP

Rd

Rd = STACK

None

.
. LD, ST, LDD, STD, LDS, STS, PUSH
POP
.

. .

142

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

3.19

1
2

4
Rd(n+1)=Rd(n),

Rd(0)=0, C=Rd(7)
Rd(n)=Rd(n+1),

Rd(7)=0, C=Rd(0)
Rd(0)=C,

Rd(n+1)=Rd(n),
C
C=Rd(7)
Rd(7)=C,
Rd(n)=Rd(n+1),
C
C=Rd(0)
Rd(n)=Rd(n+1),

n=0,...,6
Rd(3..0) =

Rd(7..4), Rd(7..4)=
Rd(3..0)

Z,C,N,V,H,S

Z,C,N,V,S

Z,C,N,V,H,S

Z,C,N,V,S

Z,C,N,V,S

None

LSL

Rd

LSR

Rd

ROL

Rd

ROR

Rd

ASR

Rd

SWAP

Rd

BSET

SREG(s) = 1

SREG(s)

BCLR

SREG(s) = 0

SREG(s)

SBI

P,b

I/O(P,b) = 1

None

CBI

P,b

I/O(P,b) = 0

None

BST

Rr,b

T = Rr(b)

BLD

Rd,b

Rd(b) = T

None

SEC

C =1

CLC

C=0

SEN

CLN

SEZ

Z=1

CLZ

Z=0

SEI

I=1

CLI

I=0

SES

S=1

N=1


N=0

. .

143

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

. 3.19
1

CLN

SEV

S = 0

V = 1

CLV

V=0

SET

T=1

CLT

T=0

SEH

CLH

NOP

None

SLEEP

None

WDR

None


H=1

H=0

( - )


. .
:
Rd: ( ) .
Rr: .
b: (3 ), .
s: (3 ), .
P: (56 ), .
K6; (6 ), .
K8: (8 ), .
k: ( ),
.
q: (6 ), .
Rdl: R24, R26, R28, R30. ADIW SBIW.
X,Y,Z: (X=R27:R26, Y=R29:R28,
Z=R31:R30).

,
. , ,
. . . 3.20.

. .

144

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

AVR

BYTE
CSEG
DB
DEF
DEVICE
DSEG
DW
ENDM, ENDMACRO
EQU
ESEG
EXIT
INCLUDE
LIST
LISTMAC
MACRO
NOLIST
ORG
SET

3.20



EEPROM



EEPROM


EEPROM







. .
BYTE .
BYTE .
, BYTE
.
, .
(. CSEG
DSEG). .
:
: .BYTE
:
.DSEG
var1:
.BYTE 1
; 1 var1
table:
.BYTE tab_size ; tab_size
.CSEG
ldi r30,low(var1) ; Z
ldi r31,high(var1) ; Z
ld r1,Z
; VAR1 1
. .

145

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

CSEG .
CSEG . ,
.
.
, , . ORG
. CSEG .
:
CSEG
:
.DSEG
;
vartab: .BYTE 4 ; 4
.CSEG
;
const: .DW 2
; 0x0002
mov r1,r0 ;
DB EEPROM.
DB
EEPROM.
, DB . DB .
( CSEG)
EEPROM (ESEG).
, , , .
(-128..255), , , .

, ( ), , , , DB.
:
: .DB _
:
.CSEG
consts:
.DB 0, 255, 0b01010101, -128, 0xaa
.ESEG
const2:
.DB 1,2,3
DEF .
DEF . .

146

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

. .
. .
:
.DEF _ =
:
.DEF temp=R16
.DEF ior=R0
.CSEG
ldi temp,0xf0 ; 0xf0 temp (R16)
in
ior,0x3f
; SREG ior (R0)
eor temp,ior
; temp ior
DEVICE , .
DEVICE , . , , . ,
EEPROM ,
. , , .
:
.DEVICE AT90S1200 |AT90S2313 | AT90S2323 | AT90S2333 |
AT90S2343 | AT90S4414 | AT90S4433 | AT90S4434 | AT90S8515 |
AT90S8534 | AT90S8535 | ATtiny11 | ATtiny12 | ATtiny22 | ATmega603 |
ATmega103
:
.DEVICE AT90S1200 ; AT90S1200
.CSEG
push r30
;
; AT90S1200
DSEG .
DSEG .
,
.
BYTE . . ORG . .

. .

147

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

:
.DSEG
:
.DSEG
var1: .BYTE 1
table: .BYTE tab_size
.CSEG
ldi r30,low(var1)
ldi r31,high(var1)
ld r1,Z

;
; 1 var1
; tab_size .
; Z
; Z
; var1 r1

DW EEPROM.
DW
EEPROM.
, DW . DW .
(CSEG)
EEPROM (ESEG). , , , .
(-32768..65535),
, , .
:
: .DW expressionlist
:
.CSEG
varlist: .DW 0, 0xffff, 0b1001110001010101, -32768, 65535
.ESEG
eevarlst: .DW 0,0xffff,10
ENDMACRO .
. .
MACRO.
:
.ENDMACRO
:
.MACRO SUBI16
;
subi r16,low(@0) ;
sbci r17,high(@0) ;
.ENDMACRO
EQU .
EQU .
. .

148

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

. ,
,
.
:
.EQU =
:
.EQU io_offset = 0x23
.EQU porta = io_offset + 2
.CSEG
;
clr r2
; r2
out porta,r2 ; A
ESEG EEPROM.
ESEG EEPROM.
EEPROM, . EEPROM
DB, DW . EEPROM . ORG EEPROM. .
:
.ESEG
:
.DSEG
;
var1: .BYTE 1
; 1 var1
table: .BYTE tab_size ; tab_size .
.ESEG
eevar1: .DW 0xffff
; 1 EEPROM
EXIT .
EXIT, . (. INCLUDE), , INCLUDE. ,
.
:
.EXIT
:
.EXIT
;
INCLUDE .
INCLUDE,
, , . .

149

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

EXIT, ,
INCLUDE. INCLUDE.
:
.INCLUDE "_"
:
; iodefs.asm:
.EQU sreg = 0x3f
;
.EQU sphigh = 0x3e
;
.EQU splow = 0x3d
;
; incdemo.asm
.INCLUDE iodefs.asm ;
in r0,sreg
;
LIST .
LIST
. , . , NOLIST .
:
.LIST
:
.NOLIST
;
.INCLUDE "macro.inc" ;
.INCLUDE "const.def" ;
.LIST
;
LISTMAC .
LISTMAC
.
.
:
.LISTMAC
:
.MACRO MACX ;
add r0,@0
;
eor r1,@1
.ENDMACRO
;
.LISTMAC
;
MACX r2,r1
; (
)
. .

150

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

MACRO .
MACRO . .
.
10 , @0-@9. . ENDMACRO. , LISTMAC.
+.
:
.MACRO
:
.MACRO SUBI16
;
subi @1,low(@0)
; 0 1
sbci @2,high(@0)
; 0
2
.ENDMACRO
;
.CSEG
;
SUBI16 0x1234,r16,r17 ; 0x1234 r17:r16
NOLIST .
NOLIST . , . , .
,
LIST .
:
.NOLIST
:
.NOLIST
.INCLUDE "macro.inc"
.INCLUDE "const.def"
.LIST

;
;
;
;

ORG .
ORG
, . SRAM (),
, EEPROM EEPROM.
( ),
. .

151

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

, . EEPROM , 32
( 031 ). ,
EEPROM ,
.
:
.ORG
:
.DSEG
.ORG 0x37
variable:
.BYTE 1
.CSEG
.ORG 0x10
mov r0,r1

;
; SRAM 0x37
; 0x37H
; 0x10
; 0x10

SET .
SET . .
EQU SET.
:
.SET =
:
.SET io_offset = 0x23
.SET porta = io_offset + 2
.CSEG
;
clr r2
; 2
out porta,r2 ; A

,
, .
32-.
:
, ( );
, SET;
, EQU;
, :
( ): 10, 255;
( ): 0x0a, $0a, 0xff, $ff;
: 0b00001010, 0b11111111;
( ): 010, 077.
PC (Programm Counter).

. .

152

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

,
. 3.21 ( , ).
, .
3.21

1
14
14
14
13
13
12
12
11
11
10
10
10
10
9
9
8
7
6
5
4

2
!
~
*
/
+
<<
>>
<
<=
>
>=
==
!=
&
^
|
&&
||

:
LOW() ;
HIGH() ;
BYTE2() , HIGH;
BYTE3() ;
BYTE4() ;
. .

153

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

LWRD() 015 ;
HWRD() 1631 ;
PAGE() 1621 ;
EXP2() 2 ();
LOG2() log2().
MVI
MVI
INR
ADD
DCR

i8080:
B, 1Eh
1. B 1h
A, 00h
2. 00h
B
3. B 1.
B
4. .
A
5. 1.

; .
; PORTB LEDS PORTD SWITCHES. LEDS.
.include "8515def.inc"
.def Temp =r16
;
.def Delay =r17
; 1
.def Delay2 =r18
; 2
;*****
RESET:
ser
Temp
out
DDRB,Temp
; PORTB
;****
LOOP: out
PORTB,temp
; LEDS
sbis
PIND,0x00
; (Port D, pin0 == 0)
inc
Temp
; .
sbis
PIND,0x01
; (Port D, pin1 == 0)
dec
Temp
; .
sbis
PIND,0x02
; (Port D, pin2 == 0)
ror
Temp
;
sbis
PIND,0x03
; (Port D, pin3 == 0)
rol
Temp
;
sbis
PIND,0x04
; (Port D, pin4 == 0)
com
Temp
;
sbis
PIND,0x05
; (Port D, pin5 == 0)
neg
Temp
;
sbis
PIND,0x06
; (Port D, pin6 == 0)
swap Temp
;
;**** .
DLY:
dec
Delay
brne
DLY
. .

154

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

dec
brne
rjmp

Delay2
DLY
LOOP

; ""
; D
; 1 () INT0
; 2 () 4 D
; 3 ()
; 4 () STK
; 5 (+5) STK
;
;
; .
;
;
; -32 0
; 1- F0
; "" 11- (1-, 8-, 1-, 1-
; 33-
.include "8515def.inc" ;
.def tmp1_r
=r19 ; 1
.def Count_bit =r20 ;
.def Main_count =r21 ;
.dseg
; RAM
Store_bytes:
.byte 4
; 32
.cseg
; ROM
.org $0000
;
rjmp START
; 0
rjmp W_int0
; Int0
reti
;
reti
reti
reti
reti
reti
reti
reti
reti
reti
reti
;------------ ----------------------------------------START:
ldi tmp1_r,LOW(RAMEND)
;
. .

155

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

out spl,tmp1_r
ldi tmp1_r,HIGH(RAMEND)
out sph,tmp1_r
ldi
r25,$ff
; -
out
DDRB,r25
;
;
ldi
r25,0
; D
out
DDRD,r25
;
;
ldi r16,0b00101010
; sleep - , int1 int0
;
out MCUCR,r16
ldi r16,0b11000000
; int0 int1
out GIMSK,r16
clr
r20
;
clr
r21
;
ldi
r30,low(Store_bytes)
;
ldi
r31,high(Store_bytes)
;
ldi
r17,0b10000000
;
sei
;
m1:
rjmp
m1
;
; ------------- --------------------------------------------W_int0: cpi
main_count,32 ; ?
brlo
go_1
;
sbis
PIND,0x04
nop
nop
; -
ldi
r30,low(Store_bytes)
;
ldi
r31,high(Store_bytes)
inc
ZL
;
; ------------ -------------------------------------ld
r1,z
; R1
lsl
r1
; 4
lsl
r1
; 8
lsl
r1
;
lsl
r1
; 4
inc
ZL
;
ld
r2,z
lsr
r2
; 2-
lsr
r2
lsr
r2
lsr
r2
or
r1,r2
; ..
;
. .

156

3. ATMEL

3.11. AVR-

go_1:

clr
clc
rol
ror
rol
ror
rol
ror
rol
ror
rol
ror
rol
ror
rol
ror
rol
ror
out
clr
clr
ldi
ldi
reti
cpi
brlo
st
clr
clr
ldi

r2

; R2
;
; r1
; .
;
; ""
;
; R1 R2
;

r1
r2
r1
r2
r1
r2
r1
r2
r1
r2
r1
r2
r1
r2
r1
r2
PORTB,r2
; ""
r21
;
r20
;
r30,low(Store_bytes)
;
r31,high(Store_bytes)
;
r20,8
; ?
go_2
;
Z+,r25
; R25
r20
; Z Z
r25
;
r17,0b10000000 ;
; "" 1 R17

reti
; ------------------ ---------------------------go_2: sbis
PIND,0x04
; 4 D
rjmp
to0
; 0 - 0
rjmp
to1
; 1
to0:
lsr
r17
; 0-
inc
r21
;
inc
r20
;
reti
;
to1:
or
r25,r17 ; 1
lsr
r17
;
inc
r21
;
inc
r20
reti
;
. .

157

3. ATMEL

3
1. ATMEL.
2. AVR-?
3. AVR- .
4. AVR.
5.
AVR.
6. ? ?
7.
, .
8. - .
9. ?
10.
, .
11.
.
AVR
, I2C.

. .

158




,
, .
. .
, .
,
, , , , . ,
64-
. ,
, , . .
, . , .

, , , , . ,
- .
,
.
, , , .
,
. :

. .

159

( , ,
),
;
(), ;
, -
;
;
, ,
, , - .

.
,
, , .

,
.
- , , .
,
.

. .

160


(AC) , , ,
.
1. , , , /,

. 2. ,
.
( ) , , ,
.

.
, , .
, .
, .
( ) ,
, , , , , / .
(, ) 1. ,
, ( )
. 2. , , ,
.
, , , , ,
, .
. .

161

, ,
.
, .
, .
( ) ,
, .
- ( , Infrared port)
,
. . 115 /. , -, ,
.
( ) ,
, ,
.
1.
. 2. (), ,
.
, ,
.

, ( , ).
() ,
( )
( , -, - -) .

. .

162

() 1. ,
. 2.
, , (, , ).

.
1.
. 2. ,
.
,

.
, , , .
, ()
.
,
, , ,
. .
,

.
,
.
.
( )
,
. .

163

; , , , , , , . , . .
(), (, )
, .
.
, .

.
,
.

,
.
, , , ,
, ,
.
(, ) 1. , , . 2. , .
, -
.
,
.
1.
,
. .

164

, : , ,
. . 2. , .
, .
,
.
.25 , ( ) .
- ,

, -
.
(, ) 1. , . . ,
() . 2. ,
() ,
.


.
() 1. , () , . 2.

()
,
( . .
), , CD-ROM , , .
Architecture , , . (closed architecture),
(open architecture) (distributed architecture).

. .

165

(Advanced Technology Attachment ) , .


IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics ).
IBM PC AT . Ultra /33, Ultra ATA/66, Ultra ATA/100 Ultra ATA/133,

. (
). . Serial ,
.
AGP (Accelerated Graphic Port) , 32- , 66 .
AGP 8 ( AGP 30) 533 2,1 /. AGP
.
BUS () ,
, . ,
:
, ;
( ), , ;
, .
IBM PC PC- :
(ISA);
();
(EISA);
(PCI).
CPU (Central Processing Unit )
, . - (), ( ).

. .

166

Cache memory (-) , , . ( ) . ( ), , DRAM.


- ,
. - .
, .
CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) ; CISC-, CISC- RISC. 8086 6800 CISC, CISC-
RISC-.
Controller () , , .
CD-ROM Drive (Compact Disk-Read Only Memory)
-. , , .
,
. - CD-ROM
Caddy, ,
- .
CD-changer ,
-.
.
15 .
, -.
Computer architecture (
), ( ), , ,
. IBM System/360.

. .

167

DMA (Direct Memory Access) ()


(, ). , . DMA .
PDP-1 DEC.
DMAC DMA Controller , .
DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory, Dynamic RAM) , ,
, , ,
, 60 . 72- SIMM-. - ,
, (refresh) , , ( dynamic ).
.
, ,
, 23 .
DVD (Digital Versatile Disk )
() . CD-ROM 30
( 17 ).
Enhanced ISA (EISA), Enhanced ISA (EISA) expansion bus ( ) 32- ,
Micro Channel Architecture () IBM. 33 /, PCI.
EPROM Erasable (Electrically) Programmable Read-Only Memory
(,
).
, ( 20 ) . . .
.

. .

168

Eeprom Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory


(, , , ,
() ). 10
100 . . -.
Flash memory (-)
, ,
EPROM.
FDD (Floppy Disk Drive )
, . 3,5",
1,44 . , ,
, .
FireWire, IEEE 1394
, Apple. USB FireWire
. 63 . ( 400 /)
FireWire - . IEEE 1394.2, .
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) 1. ,
( ), , TCP/IP. 2. ,
.
HTTP, http (HyperText Transfer Protocol) , WWW-.
Harvard architecture ( ) , (
, ,
), . () ,
. .

169

,
.
HDD (Hard Disk Drive ) ,
.
,
,
, /
. ESDI, IDE, SCSI .
.
Interrupt () , .
, , . : , , / .
, , . , .
Interrupt controller ( ) (,
I8259A, I82489),
( /, , . .).
ISA (Industry Standard Architecture
)
PC AT 16/24 (16 ), 8 5,55 /.
Magneto-optical drive ( ) , .

/.

, .
Memory Management Unit (MMU) ,
,
. , , . MMU, , . , .

. .

170

Microcontroller () ,
, , ,
. , /
/.
(Micro Channel Architecture )
32- , IBM PS/2. 32/32 ( 8/24, ). Bus Mastering, , ( ),
40 /. . (20 ). EISA,
EISA IBM
.
MPU ( ),
. Intel 1972 .
Nonvolatile memory ( ) ,
. ,
, , - ,
.
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) .
32/32 ( 64/64),
33 (PCI 21 66 ), 132 /
(264 / 32/32 66 528 / 64/64
66 ), Bus Mastering ( ). . ,
(bridge).
PCI-X, PCI AGP.
PC Card (PCMCIA) 16- ,

, -, . 1990 . PCMCIA Personal
Computer Memory Card International Association, (1995 .) . .

171

PC Card.
, ,
, , CD-ROM. . , ,
PC Card . CardBus, .
PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory) () ,
. .
RAM (Random Access Memory) , ()
. , . (ROM)

. - ,
, (
). ,
.
ROM (Read-Only Memory)
() ,
( ) . nonerasable storage.
Register file ( ) .
RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) . , , . RAID- , . :
RAID-0 ;
RAID-1 ;
RAID-5 ;
RAID-10 .

. .

172

RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing, technology)


. RISC- , .
, ,
, . RISC (John Cocke) IBM Research, (David Patterson). RISC-
,
.
Streamer () . . , ,
. ,
,
.
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
. 1986 . SCSI , , . SCSI- 15
. : Fast
SCSI, Fast Wide SCSI, Ultra SCSI, Wide Ultra SCSI, Ultra 2 SCSI, Wide Ultra 2
SCSI, Ultra 160 SCSI, Ultra 320 SCSI. 16- 32-
1280 2560 / .
SDRAM synchronous DRAM , . . / .
168- DIMM- 144-
SO-DIMM.
SIMM Single In-line Memory Module
, SIMM
.
30- 72- .
SRAM Static RAM
( 5 ) .
Superscalar architecture ( )
,
. .

173

()
, . . .
System architecture ( )
, (, , , . .).
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) ,
.
USB (Universal Serail Bus) ,
127
, .
USB Compaq, DEC, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, NEC
Northern Telecom 1995 . USB- (
), 5 . USB
. USB 11
12 /. USB 20,

480 /.
ZIP- , / .
,
. ZIP Iomega.

. .

174


1. . : . . : , 1990. . 1421.
2. , . . . , ,
/ . . , . . . . : , 1999.
3. , . . 8/16- Motorola / . . // .
1999. 1. . 3234.
4. , . .
/ . . , . . , . . //
. 1999. 1. . 6266.
5. , . .
/ . . , . . . . : , 1987.
6. , . . :
16- INTEL MCS-196/296 / . . . . : - , 1997. 200 .
7. , . . / . . . . :
, 2000.
8. , . . / . . ,
. . . . : , 1998.
9. , . . . , , / . . , . . . . :
, 1998.
10. , . . : . / . . , . . . /. : , 2001.
11. , . . /
. . . . : , 1977.
12. : . / . . , . . , . . . . : , 1995.
13.
: : 2 . / -. . , . . , . .
. ; . . . . . : , 1988.
14. , . /
. , . , . : . . . : , 1982. 200 .
15. , . . / . . ,
. . : . . ; . . . . . : , 1979.
16. , . . /
. . . . : , 1986.
17. , . / . : 2 .
. 1, 2. . : , 2001.

. .

175

18. , . /
. , . : . . ; . . . . . : ,
1973.
19. , . 05 Motorola /
. // Chip News. 1998. 1112. . 2226.
20. , . . / . . , . . , . . . . : , 1990.
21. , . / . : . . ;
. . . . . : . , 1979.
22. , . . / . . . . :
, -, 2000.
23. , . .
/ . . ; . . . . . : ,
1988.
24. , . . IBM PC / . . . . :
, 1994.
25. : . / . . , . . , . . . . : , 1995.
26. , . .
Motorola / . . . . : . 1998.
27. , . . . . : / . . . . :
, 1993.
28. , . . : . / . . , . . . : , 2003. 503 .
29. , . .
/ . . , . . . . : , 1987.
30. : . / . . , . . , . . . . : , 1995.
31. , . .
IBM PC : . / . . , . . , . . ; . . . . . . : , 1997.
32. , . : 2 . . 1, 2. . :
, 2001. 416 .

. .

176