Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 131

-

05.17.11

..., ..

T 2014


1.
........................................................................... 9
1.1 ................................................................. 9
1.2 ................................... 11
1.3
.................................................................................. 17
1.4
........................................................................................................ 24
1.4.1 ................................................................. 24
1.4.2 ........................................................ 28
1.4.3 ................................................................. 30
1.4.4 ........................................................................... 33
1.4.5 .............................................................. 35
1.4.6 ......... 35
1.5 .............................................................. 41
2. ................................... 43
2.1
............................................................ 43
2.2 ............... 53
2.3
................ 55
3.

........................................................................................................ 58
3.1
.......................................................... 58
3.2
................................................................................................................. 64
2

4.
,
........................................................................................... 79
4.1 ......................................................... 79
4.2 ...................... 83
4.3
................................................................... 88
4.4
.............................................................................................................. 91
4.5

.......................................................................................................... 93
5. -

....................................... 105
5.1 - ................................................... 105
5.2 - ........................................ 108
5.2.1 ............................................ 108
5.2.2 ............................................................. 109
5.2.3 ........................... 110
............................................................................................................. 112
................................................................................... 114
1. -

.............................................................................................................. 127
2. ............................................................................................... 131


, ,
.
.

, ,
.
, ,
,
300400
1000 , .

,

.
S-Me-S, .
,
, ,
10 250 .

.

(, , )

(,
4

).
() ,

,
, ,
.


. ,
(),
- ,
.

,
.

.

- 2009-2013 . (
1042 31.05.2010 .), -

.
,


.
-
.
5

:
1.

2.

3.


-.

4.

5.


.
:

1.

, ,
3 15 . %


20-30 .
2.

, 0,54,0
0,1 0,3
/ .

3.



. 15 . %
;
Mo2S3,
.

4.

,
, 25 5 ,
6

20 59 %, .
,
, ,
.
:
1.

2.

.
3.


.
:

1.


: 15 . % 3
30 .
2.


.
3
0,15 0,52 /, .

3.


,
400 .

4.


.
.
18 , 5
.
7


: XLIX
- 2011 (. ); XII, XIII
-
XXI (. ); XX

90-

. ..
(. ); VI

-2012

(. -);

VII

The 7th International Forum on Strategic Technology


(IFOST 2012) (. ).

1.

1.1

, 3040 %
.
80 % [1].

,
, , ..
().
,
, .
,

-- ,
.
. [2],
,
250 .
, .
[3],
.


, 400 1300

1015 % 3050 %, ,
9

[4].
1 2,
. ,
, ,
,
.
1.
( 180 , 2,9 /, 30 )
[5]

MoS2

0,047

0,0103

WS2

0,08

0,0116

0,11

0,0219

2.

( 60000 /2, 0,13 /,

813 ) [5]

BN

0,148

360

CdI2

0,088

4320

0,08

8640

WS2

0,034

100460

MoS2

0,034

103680

10

1.2

VI .

() ,
(

P63/mmc.


, S-Mo-S ( 1).
,

..
( ),
, -

(0001),


[6]

( 2).
, ,

S-Mo-S 82 136.

d4sp- [7].
(2H-MoS2)

3R-MoS2

60 ,
R 3m.
18,37 , 1,5 ,
2H-MoS2. , 2-MoS2
, 3R-MoS2 . 3R 2
11

1000-1100 [7]. Mo-S


Mo2S3 ( 3).

2 2H-MoS2 2-WS2 [8]


MoS2 ,
, -
. MoS2 160,1 /, 11,5
[5], 4,8 [9] 5,16 /3
[10],

f H0298 = 235,1

[11].

1500 /2,
30000 /2 [12]. 2H-MoS2: a = 3,16
, c = 12,295 [13],
2H-MoS2 1,91 1,29 , [8].

12

3 Mo-S [2]

( )
. MoS2 , 400600
MoO3.
. [9]
16501700 .
10 1800 [14]. MoS2
1400 [7].

: 2H-WS2 3R-WS2. 2-WS2
, , - , ,
.
248 /, 7,5 /3, f H0298 240,8/
[15]. 2H-WS2,
, : a = 3,154 , = 12,34 [16]. WS2
,
13

. WS2 ,
400 , 700 [9]. MoS2,
,
2H-WS2 2,04
1,45 , [8], 105 -1 [17].
WS2 1000 ,
1500 [5]. -
400 , 500600 WO3 [9],
, [18],
MoO3.
, , WS2
50100 C , MoS2 [18].
,
- ,
.
. 74, 183,85 /,
1,4 . 5d46s2.
W4+ 0,80 ,
1,7 [19]. (-W)
- ( Im3m)
a = 3,1583-3,1592

19,26-19,30

/3 [20]. -W 19,12 /3 -W
520-820 [21].
3380 [20] 3410 [22].
500 ,
WO2. 500
WO3. ,
(),
20-200 , ,
280 [23].
14

. 42, 95,4 /,

1,39 .

4d55s1. -
( a = 3,1403 ) .
10,23 /3 [7]. Mo4+ 0,79
[19], 1,8.
2625 [7]. 300 ,
600 .
. 16, 32,06 /.
0,1 115 445 [24], .
3s23p4.
S-2 1,70 , 2,58 [19].
(S)
95,4 (S) 95,5119 .
( /3) 20 [24]: 2,07;
2,06; 1,92.
,
[2427] 4,
0,14 .

15

1000

900
800
y = 650,91x0,1636
R = 0,9958

700
600
500
400
300
200
0

4
[2427]
, , , .
NH3 , CS2, S2Cl2 [28].
25 3.
3 [24, 28]

, /100

32,9

()

23,3

2,7

1,6

1,5

0,9

16

1.3

MoS2

.

MoS2,
.
, ,
,
1939 . ,

[29].

, .
MoS2 0,5 % [30].

,
85-95 % MoS2 [7]. ,
,
, . %: 99,599,85
MoS2, 0,010,06 SiO2; 0,03 MgO; 0,05 CaO; 0,04 Fe2O3 + Al2O3 [7].
10250 .
,
.
,
, .
. 5


17

[31]. , ,
MoS2 .

5 ,
[31]

, , ,
( SiO2), .
MoS2, , ,
[16].

, .


,
. ,
1-7 ,

. , 25
18

40 39 [2],
(S-S) ( 1) ,

S-Me-S, , , ,
. ,
, .
[32] MoS2 ,

[1010] (0001) 0,003.
,

. ,
,
.
1992
(Inorganic Fullerene-like, IF) WS2
MoS2 ,
[33].


( 6), 120 .
,
[34
36]. IF-
.

19

6 IF-WS2 [36]

20 ,

. 4
,
. ,

, .
WS2 MoS2
,
, [18].

.

20


(
),

()
>3 ,

4 ,

40 ,

120 ,

N = 180 H, = 30 ,
2,9 /.
N = 150 H,
0,44 /.

P = 1 /2,
3 /.
N = 150 H,
0,44 /.

0,047 MoS2
0,08 WS2
0,07 MoS2
0,05 WS2

[2]
[36]

0,2 MoS2
0,22 WS2

[16]

0,03 WS2

[36]

120 ,

, N = 300 .

0,05 WS2

[34]

3 ,
1 ,

, N = 1
N = 33

0,07 WS2
0,06 WS2

[37]
[38]

120 ,

, N = 1

0,024 WS2

[39]

0,001 MoS2

[18]

0,005 WS2

[18]

300 ,
500 ,

, N = 3
10-8
, N = 3
10-7 , T = 130 C


, , 4,
.

. [40]
( 7)
2,110-4 3 110-4 3 0,1
. % MoS2
() 0,034 3 0,019 3,
0,024 3 [41].
21



10 ( 8)
MoS2 c 0,58 0,53 [42].
-, - -- ,
IF- WS2, ,
[33], 120 , 1,72
( 4 ) ,
-
2,74 [34].
MoS2, [43],
,
,

( 9). , [34, 4044]

. ,
, (, ,
, IF-), ,
.
,

10.
MoS2
, [42],
, ,

30 .

22

7 ,
[40]

)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

8 MoS2 [42]

)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

9 MoS2 [43]
23

10 MoS2 [45]


.
WS2 MoS2

.
.
1.4

1.4.1

, .

,
, , .

, ,
pH , ,
. ,
,
[46].
12
24

48 180240 .


.
,
.
,
. ,
,

. ,
.
.
[47] MoS2
Na2MoO42H2O, CH3CSNH2 H4O40SiW12.
220 24 ,
,
12 . ()
.
30 450 .
:

Na2MoO4 + H4O40SiW12 H4SiMo12O40 + 12Na2WO4

(1)

CH3CSNH2 + 2H2O H2S + CH3COOH + NH3

(2)

H4SiMo12O40 + H2S 12MoS2 + H2SiO3 + 3H2SO4 + 25H2O

(3)

Na2SiO39H2O

Na2MoO42H2O + CH3CSNH2
500 ,
[48].
MoS2, ,
25

[49, 50]. [49] MoS2


800
.
[51, 52]
.
, CS(NH2)2 .

24 200 ,
500600
.

( 11).
200 [51].
, WS2
.
, ,
WO [52].
1--3- [BMIM]+

,
( 12, ) [5355].
800
.

26

11 ,
()
500 () MoS2 [51]

12 MoS2 [54]
(NH4)2WS4, NaBH4
WS2
[56]. C25H54ClN
[40].
100 200 .
(50400 )

[40].

:
27

,
; ,

; . ,

( 6 12 ) ;


500800 .
1.4.2
,

, ..
.
,

.
[57].
,
, ,
,
- .
,
,
28

[41, 42, 58].


MoS3,
,
:
4CH3CSNH2 + Na2MoO4 + 4H2O + 6HCl MoS3 + 4CH3COOH +
+4NH4Cl + H2S + 2NaCl
780 C

MoS3 + H2 MoS2 + H2S

(4)
(5)

[59]

(NH4)6Mo7O24,

1:1. 2-

400800 . ,
600 , ,
1020 38 . ,

MoO2, MoS2,
. MoO2
.
[60, 61] MoS2
.
, .
(NH4)2MoS4
N2H4H2O. , MoS2 pH 7 10.
pH MoS3,
MoO2.
[62] 5
10 ,

(),
29

. ,
, 750
WS2.
MoS2
, [63].

,
. , ,
,
.

.
1.4.3

,
/ (,
).
, , ,
, .

/ .

70 ) IF WS2 [64]. CS2 CCl4,


. 350900
2 .

( 13). , W/WS2
30

380600 , 350
. 700 , ,
WS2.

13 IF- W/WS2 [64]


[6568]

950 [67] 900


4 [66, 68]. 600
WS2 WO3,
.

40 [67]. MoO3
, 450 ,
[69].
[70] (MoO3:S = 1:2)
,
31

1:5. 700
2 .
100 10 .

, ,
WO3, [71].

.

,
, WS2
. ,
(~0,05)
60 % WS2.
,
, WS2 MoS2.

. , ,
110-3 380400 (
14) WS2 [72].
WSx
(x = 1,31,5).

32

14 WS2,
[72]

(CS 2, H2S)
(700950 ).
, .
1.4.4

.
,
[73]. [7477] 450

, .
[74] (NH4)2MoS4 ,
450 1 .
10 3001000 .

[77].

33

-
WS2 145 2/, -
38 2/ [77].
:
150 C

(NH4)2WS2 +2C18H37NH2 (C18H37NH3)2WS2 + 2NH3


450 C

(C18H37NH3)2WS2 (C18H37NH3)2S2 + WS2

(6)
(7)

MoS2

(NH4)2MoS4 MoS3 [78].
850 5%-
H2. [79]

100200
.

[80].


200 : H2S/H2.
,

.


. ,

.

34

1.4.5


.
WS2 [81]
700 950 , WS2
[82].
24 ,
500840 C.

MoS2,

, [83, 84]. [84]



Mo(CO)6 . 97 %
35 .
-
[85, 86].
6 ,
.
1.4.6
60- XX
.. ()

()
[87].
: , ,
, , .
35

, ,
,
, .
(, .),
,
.

[88].

.
,
[87].
:

();

; -; .

, ,
.. [16]. MoS2
WS2 40
. ,
10%-
40%- ,
6 , WS2 5
. % Mo+S 2600 ,
W+S 2400 . , 30

.
,
2H-WS2,
-, ,
,
36

( = 0,22)
( = 0,2) ,
[16].
,
3380 [20] 2625 [7], ,

. 0,17
504 917 [26], ..
. ,

. ,
: ,
..
()
[26].

( 11010 /2).
, , ,
.
,
,
[26].

100 50 [89].

300

[90].


37

,
,
. ,
, 1530
, [91].

[26] [89]

450 2/;

[89];


[92].

,
[89].

[26, 27],
.
, ,
30 18,8 2/ [27].

2 /,
2100 , 500 ,
[16].
.
, 60 . % 4
38

99%. 10 30
MoS2 99,5 % 2

[26]. ,
15
( 15),

[93].


, ,
. ,
80-100
[94], .

15
[93]
[95]
, , ,
.
.
:

39

5
1
MoCl5 Na 2S MoS2 5NaCl S
2
2

(8)

WCl6 3Na 2S WS2 6NaCl S

(9)

(8) (9)
.

1 1050 . MoS2
.


.

,

:

, ..
.


.
.

40

2030 60 %
.

.
, ,
,

.

- WS2
MoS2,

,
, .

10

1.5

41

,

,



,
.
,
-
.
:
1.

2.

3.


-.

4.

5.

42

2.
12

()

( ).

:
1.

( )
.

2.

3.

.
2.1


4 12 .
16.
LC-,
: C
Uo P
.
( 17).
. P
,
. , ,
( )
43

t1.
, ,
, . t2
.
, ,
. t3
.
,
.
, t2 [26].
L
~AC

16 -

L

t1

t2

t3

17

44


[26]:
CU 02
;
n2d 4 Z

(10)

l
;
nd 2 Z

(11)

LC
,
d

(12)

: C , ; U0 , ; n
; Z , ; L
, ; l , ; d
, .
,

, . .. [89]
: (, ,
..); (, ); ,
(, ).
, ,
,
, .
.. , ,
, ,

[26]:

d 0,3 106 (e / ec )3 ,

(13)

ec , /,
/. LC-.
.. ,

(0,60,7)e/ec,

45

0,05 ,
, ,
1 , ,

[96].

. ,
,
[97].

, .. [90], ,

, (e), .
0,3 1,510 5
1,9 2/,
, e/ec = 1,7.
e/ec
0,4. ,
, .
, 1,
,
, .

28 .
3,31 2,26 0,76 0,64 ,
.
0,05 0,2 , .
24 ,
, ( 3
5 %), .
46


(
19671-91, 27266-87,
99,95 . %) 250 .

[98, 99],
.

.

[100]:

6
,
S

(14)

d ; ; S
.

() - (),
6 % .
, .

, ,
5 6, . 5
,
, , ,
. e/ec
4,
107 . 81 48
, ,
,
4,0 5,4 2/. (
47

4, 5) ( 3, 6), : = 1,38
0,88 -4-1; = 1,4 1,44 -1-1; = 6,34 4,81 -1.
5

U,

l,

e/ec

e/ec

S, 2/

d,

28

94

0,9

0,6

1,3

250

28

73

0,8

0,9

2,1

148

28

51

0,9

2,5

2,7

115

28

42

0,9

3,7

2,9

107

U,

l,

e/ec

e/ec

S, 2/

d,

28

81

1,3

1,3

4,0

150

28

60

1,6

2,1

4,7

125

28

48

1,3

2,7

5,4

109

18
( 4, 5) ( 3, 6)



. 50-60
( 18, ),
70-80 ( 18, ).
( 19),
SALD-7101, Shimadzu (), 0,2
5 2 .

48

18 () 3,
5) () 3, 6),

49


: 0,1 0,2 0,150,18 ; 0,4 5,0
3,0 .

,
,
,
,
0,1, 0,7 5 [101, 102].

19


( 18), ,
20 21, . 20
50


- - W3O.
[23] W3O, ,

,
5 . %. 21
, ,
. ,
[103] ,
, MoO3, -Mo17O47 -Mo9O26.

[104]:
d

k
,
cos

(15)

d , (CuK) =
1,54184 , , , k = 0,9.
,
, , 63 90 ,
18.

51

20

21

52

2.2

WS2 MoS2
.
,
45 .
50 30
0,650,70 W+S 0,760,80 Mo+S.

,
0,75
, 0,75 [27].

14 23 , . ,
22. (2)
10 ,
5 .
(),
.
(5) ,
(4)
. (6),
- -5 -20.
2 ,
, ,
Tektronix TDS 2014B (7).


53

FUJIFILM FinePix HS10 (8) ( 1000


/).

, ,
, ,

.

.
, ,
1015 % .

22 [105]: 1
; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ;
5 ; 6 ; 7 ; 8

54

10 ,
, ,
45 .


-5/-20 [106].

VirtualDub,
.
2.3

,

. 10
, , 100 ,

-4035-05 ( 35 ,
150 ) 60 .
,
.

.
, ,
.
, ,

Shimadzu XRD-7000S ( -
" "),
55

1/ 0,02.

JCPDS.

JSM

7500F

JEM-2100F JEOL ().



SDT
Q-600 10 /.
,

,
, ,
.

. ,


PC-Operated High Temperature Tribometer -S-0000
CSEM () (-),
Micro
Measure 3D Station, STIL ().
30 4 , 45.

Saphir

320,

ATA

().

5
76, 40 30 ,
Ra = 60 .
3 .
7.

56

7
,

, /

25, 400*

30

*
.
( 12 2)

.
, .
,
( 23).

.
(3):
V ( S S ) D ,

(16)

S+ , 2; S-
, 2; D , .

.

23
57

3.

3.1


:
W + 2S = WS2

(17)

Mo + 2S = MoS2

(18)


600 [9,
15].

WS2 MoS2 2500


35 . [16].

[107], ,
.
(W, S, WS2 Mo, S, MoS2)
(W, S Mo, S, ), .

(32=1), (17) (18).
(17)(18),
, 8.
298 ,
, [15].

58

8 (17)(18)

H0298 , /

S0298 , (/K)

32,60 [11]

Mo

28,70 [11]

31,88 [11]

WS2

240,80 [15]

67,78 [15]

MoS2

235,10 [11]

62,60 [11]


25 ,
:[108]

GT H

T
0
298

CP dT T S

T
0
298

298

0
H 298

CP CP ( .) CP( .)

CP

298

dT
,
T

(19)

/;

0
, /; S298

/.
,
(19), :
0
0
0
H 298
n. H 298(
.) n( .) H 298( .) ,
0
0
0
S298
n. S298(
.) n( .) S298( .)

(20)
(21)
T0T

:
P

1 T 0
CP (T )dT ,
0 T0

CP0 (T ) a bT cT 2

(22)
(23)

59


(17)(18) 9.
9
(17)(18) [108]
a, /

b103, /

c10-5, /

24,02

3,16

Mo

21,67

6,95

S()

14,98

26,11

WS2

68,63

15,61

11,17

MoS2

46,86

56,48

GT RT ln K p

(24)


(17)(18) 10 11, .

.
10 ln G (17)

,
1873

ln G, /
12,02
187,27

2073

10,52

181,56

2273

9,30

175,84

2473

8,27

170,12

2673

7,39

164,40

2873

6,63

158,69
60

11 g G (18)

,
1873

ln G, /
11,51
179,17

2073

10,04

173,20

2273

8,84

167,23

2473

7,85

161,26

2673

6,98

155,28

2873

6,24

149,31

,

(17) (18), ..
.


.
2600 1400
50 %,
.
, ,
.
()
, ..
, -

.
,

.
61

(ni) (V)
:

pi

ni RT
V

(25)

G RTln RTln ,

1
pS2

(26)
(27)


12.
12
, Ts,
1
923
2

1007

1061

1100

(17)
14 10 2273 2673
. 50
12,9 . p
( PAr = 1 TS = 923 , 12):
pS

nS RTS mS RTS 12,9 8,314 923

0,275
V
M S V
36
0,01

(28)

1
1

13,22 2
2
2
pS 0,275

(29)

2273 :
62

G RTln RTln 8,314 2273 ln(13,22) 175,84


118259,6 /

(30)


. 13.
13 G (18)
(V. = 10 , m. = 50 )
Ar,

G, /
T = 2273 K

T = 2673 K

118,26

139,07

121,55

14294

123,53

145,26

124,89

146,87

13

,
-
4 .

63

3.2


() .

, .

,
.

3
24. ,
,
840860
, S. S.
.
, 4.
W+S
Mo+S,
.

2230 ,
(T. = 1740 ). ,
2400
2600 , . ,

64

,
.

24 W+S Mo+S
(P = 3 ) [109]
65

,
,
[87] .
() , , .
, ,
.

.
,
.
,
Mo+S 24 24.


.
.
,
( 25),
, ,
.

66

25
: 1
; 2

3
26 27, . (t = 0 )
,
, .
(2)
, ,
.

( 38) ,
.
67

W+S 23 ,
(19,3 /3)
(7,5 /3).
,
, 26,
.
Mo+S
( 27), , ..
(10,2 /3) (4,8 /3).

26
(P = 3 ) [110]

27
(P = 3 ) [111]


0,54 .
28. [27]
4

68

,
.

28

28 2
3 ,


.
, ,
,
( 25).


,
69

.
0,54 .
[87]
s Ts
,
s < 1, Ts < Tmax, max
. W+S
Mo+S , .
[87]:

(.) (Ts T0 )
,
Q ( (.) ( .) )(Ts T0 )

(31)

T0Ts

1 Ts
C (T )dT ; Q
s 0 T0

, 1 .
W+S Mo+S
Ts .
Ts,
4 ( )
0,1-4,0 , 14.
14 Ts
, Ts,
0,1
708
0,5

849

1,0

923

2,0

1007

3,0

1061

4,0

1100
70


, 9.
s
29. ,
,
, .
,
. [27]
0,8
7 .
[27] 4 .
, 10 ,
( 15).
, , ,
30 , 3

.

71

29 (s)


.
0 20 . %
5 %. 20 . %
,
.

. 30 31.

72

30
(P = 3 ) [110]

31
(P = 3 ) [111]
73



,

:
Q Q. (nS. nMe. ) (C ( S ) (Ts T0 ) nS. Q ( S ) nS. Q ( S ) nS. ), (32)

Q. ; nS., nMe.
; C(S) ;
nS. ; Q(S), Q(S)
, .
s
(31) (
32).

32

74

2
[87]:

RTs 2 k0 exp( E / R Ts )
u
,
Q E
f (s )
2

(33)

; QP ; k0 E
, .
TS = T = const (21) u 2 as m .
u f (s ) 3032 W+S Mo+S

u 0,0335s1,66 u 0,1631s1,41 ( 33),


[112].
, -

, ( )
[113]:

h2 k ,

(34)

h ; ; k
.
,
.

75

33
W+S Mo+S (P = 3 )
76


( 28) 2-
,
s
,
ln(u f (s ) / Ts ), 1 / Ts .

34

W+S Mo+S 90,16,3 81,74,8


/.
, ,
,
[114]
[25], ,
9697 /,
.

,

, , ,
.

.

77

34 ln(uf(s)/Ts) 1/Ts

78

4.
,

4.1

, ,
35.

2H-WS2 (JCPDS 080237) (002), (004),
(006), (100) (101).
(002). , : 10 %-
(004), (006),
(008) (0010); 5 15 %
,
(100), (101), (103) (105). ,
15 %-
.
58 ,
.


( 5 . %).
( 36) ,
10 . %
, .
,
79

.
,
15 . %, ..
20 . %. 15 . %
9697 %.

35
[115]

80

36

,
( 37),
MoS2 (JCPDS 371492),
MoS2 (JCPDS 240515) Mo2S3 (JCPDS
400972). Mo2S3
. ,

Mo2S3 , 15 %- ,
.
78 . 38
15 . % 2,3 . %,
9596 %.

81

37

[110]

38

82

[60] (00l)
,
(h00) (0k0) MoS2. ,
(002) .

,

(002).
,
.

,
15 . %.
4.2

,
, ,
( 39 () 40 ())
.
. 41,
WS2, . ,

.
( 39 () 40 (), ()).

- .

83

39 WS2,
() ()
84

40 ()
MoS2 ()

85



( 19).

,
10 ( 41 42). ,
,

.
,

.

,

, 100 . ,
,
42,
.

86

41

42

87

4.3

, -
,

2-
.
43
(W, Mo) ,
. . I
, ( = 0). ,
,
, II
,
. S S ( III),
.
MexSy
. (MexOy)
SO2 . ,

,
( II III).

. , ,
, ,

, IV ,
.
88

.
( V)
,
. , V
,


( 24)
.

89

43 (W, Mo)

4.4


SDT Q-600 10/.

(-) 44.

160165 C,

.
400450
.

WO3 ,
4,2 % 400700 .
600650
, [9] 2,5
3,0 /.
,
, 350400 .
,
MoO2
MoO3. [41] ,
, MoS3
50 100 , 300 .
, -
,
,

, ,
400450 C [2,
116].

44 -
,

92

4.5

,

, 2.

-7 ( 48-19-133-90).
,

( 0 . %)
( 45 46). ,
,
36
, .

0 . % 7
( 46, ),
, 45.
, ,

, .. 728 46 ()
0,023. ,

( 46, ), ,
.

93

45

46 () ()

94

15 %- 25
400 47.

, ,
0,097
0,109 25 , 0,072 0,076 400 , .
25
0,148. 47 (),

0,041 0,027 5 ,
.

0,026 .

0,0380,067, ,

WS2,

, 0,051. ,
, 0,064.
,

400

( 47, ) .
,
1,5


( = 0,274).
MoS2

, (
48).
95

47
25 () 400 (): 1 MoS2 (); 2 WS2
; 3 MoS2 [105]

96


[18],
.

400 . 400
-. WS2
( 0,15) , ,
, MoS2 ( 15).

48 ,
400

97

15
MoS2
,

WS2

MoS2

MoS2(.)

25

0,051

0,026

0,064

400

0,068

0,274

15

WS2. 400
.
, [16], ,
( 4),
,
,

. WS2 MoS2
.

49. ,

25

WS2

,
MoS2. ,
, ,

.

98

49
25 400 [105]

16.
,
,

( 50). ,
( (16)) .
.
,
. ,
, 16,

, 400450 .

99

16

, , Ra,

310-4/

WS2
0,48
6,9
8
MoS2
0,42
4,4
9
MoS2(.)
0,57
7,8
56
WS2 400 C
2,87
120
MoS2 400 C
3,49
130

50
400



.
8 ( 10541-78),
-24 ( 21150-87). -24

.

.

-4035-05 20 .
5 . %

51.
,
100

0,48 15 , , ,
. 15
(0,11), ,
0,16. 5 . %

(. = 0,14) .
.
MoS2
,
5
0,08.
,
52 17.

MoS2,
.
, MoS2
(4,8 310-5/ 59,6 310-5/).

101

51
: 1 ; 2 + 5 . % MoS2
();

3 + 5 . % WS2 ; 4 + 5 . % MoS2

52
:
) ; ) + 5 . % WS2; ) + 5 . % MoS2
102

17
,

,

310-5/

8,52

620,4

+ 5 . % MoS2(.)

2,08

59,6

+ 5 . % WS2

1,16

51,0

+ 5 . % MoS2

0,57

4,8

0,82

16,3

+ 5 . % MoS2(.)

0,75

10,3

+ 5 . % WS2

0,57

6,7

+ 5 . % MoS2

0,56

3,3


( 53).
,
0,113.

,
.
,
.
.

103

53
: 1 ; 2 + 5 . % MoS2 ();
3 + 5 . % MoS2 ; 4 + 5 . % WS2

,

,


.
WS2 MoS2 ,
,

,
.

104

5. -


5.1 -

55.

.

55 -

56 -
.
,
45 , 1 2, ,

3,

.
. 4

0,70,8, 5.

, ,
, .
.
,
15 .
,
,
.
8 .
.
,
7,
, .

106

56 -
: 1,2
; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ;
6 ; 7
; 8
18

. 15 . %
30
. , [27],
30
1 .

107

18

, 2/

WS2

MoS2

W 2,9

Mo 5,4

45

, . %

15

W 29,7

Mo 46,0

, . %

S 70,3

S 54,0

0,650,70

0,760,80

30

, /

, . %
, %

0,15

0,52

1,5

2,3

9697

9596

5.2 -
5.2.1

, ,
, .

, .

108

, 2.04.14-88 [117]
,
, 60 .
, , .
-,
.
, ,
[118]:

D p
C C ,
2

(35)

D , ;
, ;
, /2; , , ; ,
- ,
= 0,95 ; =,
( = 10 ),
, = 0,1 /.
,
,
121810 14249-80 152 / 2 100 [119].

.
5.2.2

[120]:
Q1,2

T 4 T 4
0 F 1 2 12 ,
100 100

(36)

109

0 , 20412 /2;
; ; F
; ; 12 .
, , ,
, F = F1, 12 1,

1 F1 1
1
1 F2 2

(37)

,
:
F1 r (2h r )

(38)

-.
,
:
F2 2 rh 2 r 2

(39)

h. / V.

(40)

,
,

Q C p m(T2 T1).

(41)

5.2.3
[121]:

t1 t 2

,
t 2 t

(42)
110

: , ;
, /();
(), /(2); t1 ,tc2 , t ,
,
(), C;

111


1.


2,9 5,4 2/, ,
.
2.

0 20 . %
3 0,27
0,12 /, 0,80 0,41 /

, ,
.

3.


u 0,0335s1,66 u 0,1631s1,41 ,
.

90,16,3 81,74,8 /, ,


.

4.


15 . %
. 15 .
% Mo2S3,
.
15 . % 2,3 . %
95-96 %, .

5.



, , 15
. % ,
112

.
15 . % .
6.


, 3 ,
30 15 . %,
,
.


450 350 , .
7.

, 25
- 5 , 0,051 0,026, .

0,064. 400

.
8.


5 . %
MoS2 c 59,6105 3/ 4,8 105 3/.


.

9.

-

3 ,
30 15 . %
9597 %.

113


1.

: / . .. .
.: , 2008. 480 .

2.

, ..
/ .. , .. , .. // .
2011. .32. - 5. . 434-444.

3.

Prasad, S.V. Tribology of tungsten disulfide films in humid environments: The


role of a tailored metal-matrix composite substrate / S.V. Prasad, N.T. McDevitt,
J.S. Zabinski // Wear. 1999. Vol. 203. P. 24-34.

4.

, .. / ..
, .. , .. //
. 1968. - 8. . 25-28.

5.

, .. / ..
, . . .: , 1966. 152

6.

Windom, B.C. A Raman spectroscopic study of MoS2 and MoO3: applications to


tribological systems / B.C. Windom, W.G. Sawyer, D.W. Hahn // Tribology
Letters. 2011. Vol. 42. P. 301-310.

7.

, .. / .. : , 1970.
440 .

8.

, ..
2H-WS2 2H-MoS2: . - .-. : 01.04.10
/ . , 2006. 132 .

9.

, .. / .. , .. .:
, 1972. 304 .

10.

..

..

. .: , 1952. 763 .
11.

- / . ..
.. .: , 1974 . 200 .

12.

, ..

114

/ .. , .. // . 2010. .10.
3. . 381-385.
13.

Brainard, W.A. The thermal stability and friction of the disulfides, diselenides,
and ditellurides of molybdenum and tungsten in vacuum (10 -9 to 10-6 Torr) / W.A.
Brainard // NASA Technical Note. 1969. P. 26.

14.

Cannon, P. Melting point and sublimation of molybdenum disulphide / P.


Cannon // Nature. 1959. Vol. 185. P. 1612-1613.

15.

OHare, P.A.G. Calorimetric measurements of the low-temperature heat capacity,


standard molar enthalpy of formation at 298.15 K, and high-temperature molar
enthalpy increments relative to 298.15 K of tungsten disulfide (WS 2), and the
thermodynamic properties to 1500 K / P.A.G. OHare, W.N. Hubbard, G.K.
Johnson, H.E. Flotow // J. Chem. Thermodynamics. 1984. Vol. 16. P. 4549.

16.

, .. / ..
, .. , .. , .. , ..
// . 1987. 6. . 48-52.

17.

Elmer, K. Preparation routes based on magnetron sputtering for tungsten disulfide


(WS2) films for thin-film solar cells / K. Elmer // Physica status solidi (b). 2008.
Vol. 9. P. 17451760.

18.

Erdemir, A. Superlubricity / A. Erdemir, J.-M. The Netherlands, The


Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, UK: Elsevier, 2007,
525 p.

19.

, 1 / . .. . .: , 1966,
- 1072 .

20.

, .. / .. , .. . .:
, 1978. 272 .

21.

, .. / ..
, .. , .. . . , 1988. 192 .

22.

, .. / .. . .: ,
1968. 141 .
115

23.

..

/ .. , .. , ..
// . 2003.
. 306. 6. . 59-62.
24.

/ . .. . .: , 1971.
744 .

25.

, .. / .. , ..
, .. // . 1988. . 24.
2. . 26-32.

26.

..

/ .. // . . 1996.
4. C. 114-136.
27.

, .. / . .,
.. , .. , .. // .
1994. . 30. 5. . 54-58.

28.

: : . 4: /
. .. . .: , 1995. 639 .

29.

, .. , / ..
. : , 1968. 52 .

30.

SPI Supplies Brand Moly Disulfide (MoS2) [ ].


: http://www.2spi.com/catalog/molybdenum.shtml. . .

31.

Miura, K. Observation of the Amontons-Coulomb law on the nanoscale:


frictional forces between MoS2 flakes and MoS2 surfaces / K. Miura, S. Kamyia //
Europhys. Lett. 2002. Vol. 58. P. 610-615.

32.

Tenne, R. Polyhedral and cylindrical structures of tungsten disulphide / R. Tenne,


L. Margulis, M. Genut, G. Hodes // Nature. 1992. Vol. 360. P. 444-446.

33.

Tenne, R. Fullerene-like materials and nanotubes from inorganic compounds with


a layered (2-D) structure / R. Tenne // Colloids and Surfaces A. 2002.
Vol.208. P. 83-92.
116

34.

Rapoport, L. Friction and wear of powdered composites impregnated with WS2


inorganic fullerene-like nanoparticles / L. Rapoport, V. Leshchinsky, M.
Lvovsky, O. Nepomnyashchy, Yu. Volovik, R. Tenne // Wear. 2002. Vol.
252. P. 518527.

35.

Rapoport, L. Superior tribological properties of powder materials with solid


lubricant nanoparticles / L. Rapoport, V. Leshchinsky, M. Lvovsky, I Lapsker.,
Yu. Volovik, Y. Feldman, R. Popovitz-Biro, R. Tenne // Wear. 2003. Vol.
255. P. 794-800.

36.

Rapoport, L. Inorganic fullerene-like material as additives to lubricants:


structurefunction relationship / L. Rapoport, Y. Feldman, M. Homyonfer, H.
Cohen, J. Sloan, J.L. Hutchison, R Tenne. // Wear. 1999. Vol. 225229. P.
975982

37.

Cohen, S.R. The tribological behavior of type II textured MX2 (M=Mo, W; X=S,
Se) films / S.R. Cohen, L. Rapoport, E.A. Ponomarev, H. Cohen, T. Tsirlina, R.
Tenne, C. Levy-Clement // Thin Solid Films. 1998. Vol. 324. P. 190-197.

38.

Guangyu, D. Tribological behavior of RF sputtering WS2 thin films with vacuum


annealing / D. Guangyu, B. Dechun, T. Zhen, L. Kun // Physics Procedia. 2011.
Vol. 18. P. 256-260.

39.

Scharf, T.W. Growth, structure, and tribological behavior of atomic layerdeposited tungsten disulphide solid lubricant coatings with applications to MEMS
/ T.W. Scharf, S.V. Prasad, M.T., Dugger P.G., Kotula R.S. Goeke, R.K. Grubbs
// Acta Materialia. 2006. Vol. 54. P. 4731-4743.

40.

Jifen, W. Preparation and tribological properties of tungsten disulfide hollow


spheres assisted by methyltrioctylammonium chloride / W. Jifen, Z. Wensheng, J.
Guifen // Tribology International. 2010. Vol. 43. P. 16501658.

41.

Hu, K.H. Morphological effect of MoS2 nanoparticles on catalytic oxidation and


vacuum lubrication / K.H. Hu, X.G. Hu, X.J. Sun // Applied Surface Science.
2010. 256. P. 2517-2523.

117

42.

Hu, K.H. The Effect of Morphology on the tribological properties of MoS2 in


liquid paraffin / K.H. Hu, X.G., Hu Y.F. Xu, F. Huang, J.S. Liu // Tribology
Letters. 2010. 40. P.155-165.

43.

Hu, K.H. Tribological properties of molybdenum disulfide nanosheets by


monolayer restacking process as additive in liquid paraffin / K.H. Hu, M. Liu,
Q.J. Wang, Y.F. Xu, S. Schraube, X.G. Hu // Tribology International. 2009.
Vol. 42. P. 33-39.

44.

Cizaire, L. Mechanisms of ultra-low friction by hollow inorganic fullerene-like


MoS2 nanoparticles / L. Cizaire, B. Vacher, T. Mogne, J.M., Martin L. Rapoport,
A. Margolin, R. Tenne // Surface and Coatings Technology. 2002. Vol. 160.
P. 282-2871.

45.

Kalin, M. Mechanisms and improvements in the friction and wear behavior using
MoS2 nanotubes as potential oil additives / M. Kalin, J. Kogovsek, M Remskar. //
Wear. 2012. Vol. 280-281. P. 36-45.

46.

, [ ]. :
http://thesaurus.rusnano.com/wiki/article729. . .

47.

Lin, H. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of MoS2 nanorods / H. Lin,


X. Chen, H. Li, M., Yang Y. Qi // Materials Letters. 2010. Vol. 64. P. 17481750.

48.

Ma, L. Synthesis and characterization of flower-like MoS2 microspheres by a


facile hydrothermal route / L. Ma, L. Xu, X. Xu, Y. Luo, W. Chen // Materials
Letters. 2009. Vol. 63. P. 2022-2024.

49.

Wang, S. Hydrothermal synthesis of molybdenum disulfide for lithium ion


battery / S. Wang, G. Li, G. Du, X. Jiang, C. Feng, Z. Guo, S.-J. Kim // Chinese
Journal of chemical engineering. 2010. Vol. 18. P. 910-913.

50.

Ma, L. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of MoS2 nanosheets/C hybrid


microspheres / L. Ma, W. Chen, L. Xu, X. Zhou, B. Jin // Ceramics International.
2012. Vol. 38. P. 229-234.

118

51.

Feng, C. Synthesis of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) for lithium ion battery


applications / C. Feng, J. Ma, H. Li, R. Zeng, Z. Guo, H. Liu // Materials
Research Bulletin. 2009. Vol. 44. P. 1811-1815.

52.

Feng, C. Synthesis of tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanoflakes for lithium ion battery
/ C. Feng, L. Huang, Z. Guo, H Liu. // Electrochemistry Communications.
2007. Vol. 9. P. 119-122.

53.

Ma, L. Ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of MoS2 microspheres / L.


Ma, W. Chen, H. Li, Y., Zheng Z. Xu // Materials Letters. 2008. Vol. 62. P.
797-799.

54.

Li, N. Ionic liquid assisted hydrothermal synthesis of hollow vesicle-like MoS2 /


N. Li, Y., Chai Y. Li, Z. Tang, B. Dong, Y. Liu, C. Liu // Materials Letters.
2012. Vol. 66. P. 236-238.

55.

Chen, X. Biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of molybdenum disulfide


microspheres with nanorods / X. Chen, H. Li, S. Wang, M. Yang, Y. Qi //
Materials Letters. 2012. Vol. 66. P. 22-24.

56.

Wu, J. A low-temperature solvothermal method to prepare hollow spherical WS2


nanoparticles modified by TOA / J. Wu, X. Fu // Materials Letters. 2007. Vol.
61. P. 4332-4335.

57.

, .. , , / .. .
.: , 2005. 416 .

58.

Hu,

K.H.

Tribological

properties

of

MoS2

nano-balls

as

filler

in

polyoxymethylen-based composite layer of three-layer self-lubrication bearing /


K.H. Hu, J., Wang S. Schraude, Y.F. Xu, X.G. Hu, R. Stengler // Wear. 2009.
Vol. 266. P. 1198-1207.
59.

Du, K. Synthesis of inorganic fullerene-like MoS2 nanoparticles by a facile


method / K. Du, W. Fu, R. Wei, H. Yang, S. Liu, S. Yu, G. Zou // Materials
Letters. 2007. 61. P. 48874889.

60.

Bezverkhyy, I. Promotion of highly loaded MoS2/Al2O3 hydrodesulfurization


catalysts prepared in aqueous / I. Bezverkhyy, P. Afanasiev, M. Lacroix // Journal
of Catalysis. 2005. Vol. 230. P. 133-139.
119

61.

Bezverkhyy, I. Highly active (Co)MoS2/Al2O3 hydrodesulfurization catalysts


prepared in aqueous solution / I. Bezverkhyy, P. Afanasiev, C. Geantet, M.
Lacroix // Journal of Catalysis. 2001. Vol. 204. P. 495-497.

62.

Panigrahi, P.K. Microwave-assisted synthesis of WS2 nanowires through


tetrathiotungstate precursors / P.K. Panigrahi, A. Pathak // Science and
Technology of Advanced Materials. 2008. Vol. 9. P. 1-6.

63.

Panigrahi, P.K. A novel route for the synthesis of nanotubes and fullerene-like
nanostructures of molybdenum disulfide / P.K. Panigrahi, A. Pathak // Materials
Research Bulleti. 2011. Vol. 46. P. 2240-2246.

64.

Chang, L. Synthesis and thermal stability of W/WS2 inorganic fullerene-like


nanoparticles with coreshell structure / L. Chang, H. Yang, W. Fu, N Yang., J.
Chen, M. Li, G. Zou, J. Li // Materials Research Bulletin. 2006. Vol. 41. P.
1242-1248.

65.

Feldman, Y. Bulk synthesis of inorganic fullerene-like MS2 (M = Mo, W) from


the respective trioxides and the reaction mechanism / Y. Feldman, G.L Frey., M.
Homyonfer, V., Lyakhovitskaya L. Margulis, H. Cohen, G. Hodes, J.L.
Hutchison, R. Tenne // J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996. Vol. 118. P. 5362-5367.

66.

Sun, S. Synthesis and structural characterization of tungsten disulfide


nanomaterials / S. Sun, Z. Li, X. Chang // Materials Letters. 2011. Vol. 65.
P.3164-3166.

67.

Suna, S. Synthesis of tungsten disulfide nanotubes from different precursor / S.


Suna, Z. Zou, G. Min // Materials Chemistry and Physics. 2009. Vol. 114.
P. 884-888.

68.

Li, P.G. Thermal conversion of tungsten oxide nanorods to tungsten disulfide


nanoflakes / P.G Li., M., Lei X.F. Wang, H.L. Tang, W.H. Tang // Journal of
Alloys and Compounds. 2009. Vol. 474. P. 463-467.

69.

Camacho-Bragado, G.A. Characterization of low dimensional molybdenum


sulfide nanostructures / G.A. Camacho-Bragado, J.L. Elechiguerra, M.J.
Yacaman // Materials Characterization. 2008. Vol. 59. P. 204-212.
120

70.

Wu, Z. Novel hexagonal MoS2 nanoplates formed bysolid-state assembly of


nanosheets / Z. Wu, D. Wangn, X., Liang A. Sun // Journal of Crystal Growth.
2010. Vol. 312. P. 1973-1976.

71.

Si, P. Synthesis, structure and tribological performance of tungsten disulphide


nanocomposites / P. Si, C. Choi, J. Lee, D. Geng, Z. Zhang // Materials Science
and Engineering. 2007. Vol. 64. P. 167-171.

72.

Shpak, A.P. XPS studies of the surface of nanocrystalline tungsten disulfide /


A.P. Shpak, A.M. Korduban, L.M. Kulikov, T.V. Kryshchuk, N.B. Konig, V.O.
Kandyba // Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena. 2010.
Vol. 181. P. 234-238.

73.

Afanasiev, P. Synthetic approaches to the molybdenum sulfide materials / P.


Afanasiev // C. R. Chimie. 2008. Vol. 11. P. 159-182.

74.

Santiago, P. Synthesis and structural determination of twisted MoS2 nanotubes /


P. Santiago, J.A. Ascencio, D. Mendoza, M., Perez-Alvarez A. Espinosa // Appl.
Phys.A: Mater. 2004. Vol. 78. P. 513-518.

75.

Rivera-Munoz, E.M. Relationship between structural features of MoS2 nanotubes


and crystalline structure of precursor / E.M Rivera-Munoz. // J. Appl. Phys.
2007. Vol. 102. P. 1-4.

76.

Yu, D. Template synthesis and characterization of molybdenum disulfide


nanotubules / D. Yu, Y. Feng, Y. Zhu, X. Zhang, B. Li, H. Liu // Materials
Research Bulletin. 2011. Vol. 46. P. 1504-1509.

77.

An, G. Solid-phase reaction synthesis of mesostructured tungsten disulfide


material with a high specific surface area / G. An, C. Lu, C. Xiong // Materials
Research Bulletin. 2011. Vol. 46. P. 1323-1326.

78.

Yin, G.L. Spray drying process to synthesize multiple fullerene-like MoS2


particles / G.L. Yin, P.H. Huang, Z. Yu, D.N. He, Z.Z. Xia, L.L. Zhang, J.P. Tu //
Materials Letters. 2007. Vol. 61. P.1303-1306.

79.

Wu, Z. Surfactant-assisted preparation of hexagonal molybdenum disulfide


nanoparticles / Z. Wu, D. Wang, A. Sun // Materials Letters. 2009. Vol. 63.
P. 2591-2593.
121

80.

Romero-Rivera, R. Tungsten disulfide catalysts from tetraalkylammonium


thiotungstates by ex situ activation, their properties and HDS activity / R.
Romero-Rivera, G. Berhault, G. Alonso-Nunez, M. Del Valle, F. ParaguayDelgado // Applied Catalysis A: General. 2012. Vol. 433. P. 115-121.

81.

, ..
/ .. , . ., . .,
.. // . 2008.
46. C. 7-10.

82.

Wu, Z. Synthesis of WS2 nanosheets by a novel mechanical activation method /


Z. Wu, D. Wang, D. Zan, A. Sun // Materials Letters. 2010. Vol. 64. P. 856858.

83.

Mahajan, D. Sono synthesis and characterization of nano-phase molybdenumbased materials for catalytic hydrodesulfurization / D. Mahajan, C.L. Marshall,
N. Castagnola, J.C. Hanson // Applied Catalysis A: General. 2004. Vol. 258.
P. 83-91.

84.

Uzcanga, I. Sonochemical preparation of MoS2 in aqueous solution: replication of


the cavitation bubbles in an inorganic material morphology / I. Uzcanga, I.
Bezverkhyy, P. Afanasiev, C. Scott, M Vrinat. // Chemistry of Materials. 2005.
Vol. 17. P. 3575-3577.

85.

Li, N. Preparation of porous MoS2 via a solgel route using (NH4)2Mo3S13 as


precursor / N. Li, Y. Chai, B. Dong, B. Liu, H., Guo C Liu. // Materials Letters.
2012. Vol. 88. P. 112-115.

86.

Liu, S. Preparation of MoS2 nanofibers by electrospinning / S. Liu, X Zhang., H.


Shao, J. Xu, F. Chen, Y. Feng // Materials Letters. 2012. Vol. 73. P. 223225.

87.

, .., .. / .. ,
.. . .: , 2007. 336 .

88.

, .. / .. .
: , 1998. 512 .
122

89.

, .. :
, , : . .
. : 01.04.07 / . , 2007. 312 .

90.

, ..


: . . . : 05.17.08 /

. , 2006. 275 .
91.

, .. ,
/ .. , .. , .. //
. 2009. . 314. - 3. . 35-40.

92.

..

: . . . : 05.17.11 /
. , 1999. 160 .
93.

, ..
/ ..
, .. , .. // .
1978. 14, 5. . 79-85.

94.

. 2085496 , C01G39/06.
/ .., ..,
.., .. 94003516/25, . 01.02.1994, .
27.07.1997.

95.

Bonneau, P.R. Rapid solid-state synthesis of materials from molybdenum


disulfide to refractories / P.R. Bonneau, Jr. R.F. Jarvis, R.B. Kaner // Nature.
1991. Vol. 349. P. 510-512.

96.

, ..

: . . . : /
. , 1986. 254 .
97.

, .. ,
/
123

.., .., .. // .
.: . 1978. 1. . 21-24.
98.

, ..
/ .. ,
.. , .. , .. // . 2009.
1. . 57-60.

99.

Kotov, Yu.A. Electric explosion of wires as a method for preparation of


nanopowders / Yu.A. Kotov // Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 2003. Vol.5.
P. 539-550.

100. , ..
/ .. . .: , 1987. 264 .
101. ,

..

/ .. , .. , ..
,

..

//

. 2009. . 314. 3. . 31-35.


102. , ..
/.. //
. 2012. . 320. 3. . 9-16.
103. , ..
/ .. //
. 2012. . 320. 3. . 1622.
104. , . . / . . .:
- . 1961.
604 .
105. , ..
/ .. , .. , .. , ..
, .. // .
. 2011. . 54. 11. . 326-331.
124

106. , ..
5/20 / .. , .. , . .,
.. , .. // . 1968. 7.
C. 20-21.
107. , ..
/ .. . .: ,
1973. 256 .
108. , .. / .. . .: ,
1978. 360 .
109. Irtegov, Y. Synthesis and characterization of nanolamellar tungsten and
molybdenum disulfides / V. n, F. Bozheyev, F. Richecoeur, Y. Irtegov //
Materials Letters. 2011. Vol. 65. P. 2381-2383.
110. , ..

/ .. , .. , .. //
. 2013. 5. . 1-8.
111. , ..
, / ..
, .. , .. // .
2013. 8. C. 621-625.
112. , .. / ..
// . 1977. . 233. 6. .
1130-1133.
113. , .. / .. . .:
, 1976. 472 .
114. , .. / .. , ..
// . 1960. .34. 7. . 15851592.
115. ,

..

, , / .. , ..
125

, .. // . .
2012. . 54. 11. C. 140-145.
116. Farr, J.P.G. Molybdenum disulphide in lubrication. A review / J.P.G. Farr //
Wear. 1975. Vol.35. P. 1-22.
117. : 2.04.14 88.

. .: , 1998. 28 .
118. :
/ . .. . .: , 1983. 272.
119. , .. :
/ .. . .: , 1981. 382 .
120. , .. /
.. . .: , 1973. 750 .
121. , .. . I.
.
- / .., .. :
, 2004. 19 .

126

1. -



5 ( 121810,
16 ):

0,16 5
2 152 0,95

0, 0001 10 0, 0028 0, 001 0, 0038 4 .


,

12 , :

0,16 12
0,0001 10 0,0066 0,001 0,008 8 .
2 152 0,95

, ,
.



,

.
10
,
5 . %.
127

,
1,37 /.
33,5 , 0,5
6 ,
7 . :
F1 3,14 0,03 (2 0,07 0,03) 0,016 2.

5
,
: d = 16 , h = 22 ( 57).

57
, , :
F2 2 rh 2 r 2 2 3,14 0,08 0,22 2 3,14 0,082 0,151 2.

128


,
2200 1 = 0,31.
2 = 0,56,
:

1
0,3035
1
0,0132 1

1
0,31 0,151 0,56

h. / V. 7 / 0,2 35 0,0097
,
,
t0 x0 = 0, t = x = h.
T<Tmax.
(1 = 2473
). :

2473 4 298 4
Q1,2 20412 0,3035 0,0151 0,0097

339310
100
100

= 7700 /3
:

m (V 2V ) (2h r 2 r 2 )
(2 0,22 0,008 3,14 0,08 2 3,14 0,082 0,008) 7700 9,32
(p = 462
/ [119]), :

129

Q C p m(T2 T1 )
T2

Q
339310
T1
298 377 K 104
C pm
462 9,32

, 104 ,

.

,
() :
t.=104 ;
t.=50 ;
t.=25 .

, 150 ,
[121]:
9,74 0,07 t ,
t t. t.

(31)
(32)

9,74 0,07(50 25) 9,74 1,75 11,49 / ( 2 )


.=0,098 /(),
:

0,098 (104 50)

0,018 18
11,49 (50 25)

130

2.

131