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APPLICATION

S OF THE
MOLE

Molar Mass of a Compound


The molar mass of a compound is the
mass of a mole of the representative
particles of the compound.
Because each representative particle is
composed of two or more atoms, the
molar mass of the compound is found by
adding the molar masses of all of the
atoms in the representative particle.

Molar Mass of an Element

To determine the molar mass of an


element, find the elements symbol on the
periodic table and round the mass so
there is one digit beyond the decimal.
For example, the molar mass of carbon
(C) is 12.0 g/mol, of chlorine (Cl) is
35.5 g/mol and of iron (Fe) is 55.8
g/mol.

Molar Mass of a Compound


In the case of NH3, the molar mass
equals the mass of one mole of nitrogen
atoms plus the mass of three moles of
hydrogen atoms.
Molar mass of NH3 = 14.0 g + 3(1.0 g)
= 17.0 g/mol

Molar Mass of a Compound


You can use the molar mass of a
compound to convert between mass and
moles, just as you used the molar mass
of elements to make these conversions.

Molar Mass Conversion


1.How many moles of magnesium are in
56.3 g of Mg?
56.3 g Mg

__
1 mole Mg
__
24.3 g Mg
(2.32)

Molar Mass Conversion


2.How many moles are in 146 grams of
NH3?
(Answer: 8.59 mol)

Molar Mass Conversion


3.How many moles are in 295 grams of
Cr(OH)3?
(Answer: 2.86 mol)

Molar Mass Conversion


4.How many moles are in 22.5 grams of
HCl?
(Answer: 0.616 mol)

Molar Mass Conversion


5. How many grams of sodium chloride in
3.45 moles of NaCl?
3.45 moles NaCl

58.5 g NaCl
__
__
1 mole NaCl
(202 g)

Molar Mass Conversion


6.How many grams are in 0.120 moles of
AlF3?
(Answer: 10.1 g)

Molar Mass Conversion


7.How many grams are in 13.0 moles of
H2SO4?
(Answer: 1275 or 1280 g)

Molar Mass Conversion


8. How many grams are in 1.6 moles of
K2CrO4?
(Answer: 311 or 310
g)

STOP
HERE

Percent Composition
Recall that every chemical compound
has a definite composition - a
composition that is always the same
wherever that compound is found.
The composition of a compound is
usually stated as the percent by mass
of each element in the compound.

Percent Composition
The percent of an element (X) in a
compound can be found in the
following way.
%X=

(molar mass of X) (# X s)
molar mass of compound

x 100

Example
Determine the percent composition of
chlorine in calcium chloride (CaCl2).
First determine the number of atoms
of each element. A mole of calcium
one mole of
chloride consists of ______
two moles of
calcium ions and ______
chloride ions.

Calculating Percent Composition


Next, gather molar mass information
from the atomic masses on the periodic
table.
One Ca
has a
mass of
40.1 g.
______

Two Cl has
a mass of
_____
35.5 x 2 =
71.0 g.
______

111.1
CaCl2 has a mass of 40.1 + 71.0 = ______
g.

Calculating Percent Composition


Finally, use the data to set up a
calculation to determine the percent by
mass of an element in the compound.
The percent by mass of chlorine in CaCl 2
can be calculated as follows.

Calculating Percent Composition


CaCl2
%X=

(molar mass of X) (# X ions)

molar mass of compound

% Cl =

( 35.5 g) ( 2 Cl ions)
111.1 g

x 100

X 100

% Cl in CaCl2 = 63.9%

Problem
9.Determine the percent composition of
carbon in sodium acetate (NaC2H3O2).
%X=

(molar mass of X) (# X ions)

molar mass of compound

x 100

Calculating Percent Composition


NaC2H3O2
%C=

( 12.0 g) ( 2 Cs)
82.0 g

X 100

(% C = 29.3%)

Problem
10. Calculate the percent composition
aluminum of aluminum oxide (Al2O3).

52.9% Al

Problem
11. Determine the percent composition of
oxygen in magnesium nitrate, Mg(NO 3)2.

64.7% O

Problem
12. Determine the percent composition of
sulfur in aluminum sulfate, which has the
formula Al2(SO4)3.

28.1% S

Problem
13. Determine the percent composition of
oxygen in zinc nitrite, which has the
formula Zn(NO2)2.

40.7% O

STOP
HERE

Percent Water in a Hydrate


Hydrates are compounds that
incorporate water molecules into their
fundamental solid structure. In a hydrate
(which usually has a specific crystalline
form), a defined number of water
molecules are associated with each
formula unit of the primary material.

Percent Water in a Hydrate


Gypsum is a hydrate with two water
molecules present for every formula unit
of CaSO4. The chemical formula for
gypsum is CaSO4 2 H2O and the
chemical name is calcium sulfate
dihydrate. Note that the dot in the
formula (or multiplication sign) indicates
that the waters are there.

Percent Water in a Hydrate


Other examples of hydrates are:
lithium perchlorate trihydrate LiClO4 3 H2O;
magnesium carbonate pentahydrate MgCO3 5 H2O;
and copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate CuSO4 5 H2O.

Percent Water in a Hydrate


The water in the hydrate (referred to as
"water of hydration") can be removed by
heating the hydrate. When all hydrating
water is removed, the material is said to
be anhydrous and is referred to as an
anhydrate.

Percent Water in a Hydrate


Experimentally measuring the percent
water in a hydrate involves first heating a
known mass of the hydrate to remove
the waters of hydration and then
measuring the mass of the anhydrate
remaining. The difference between the
two masses is the mass of water lost.

Percent Water in a Hydrate


Dividing the mass of the water lost by
the original mass of hydrate used is
equal to the fraction of water in the
compound. Multiplying this fraction by
100 gives the percent water.

Problem
14. Determine the percent water in
CuSO4 5 H2O (s).
% H2O =

% H2O =

(molar mass of H2O) (# H2Os)


molar mass of hydrate

18.0 (____)
5
(_____)
molar mass of hydrate

x 100

x 100

Problem
14. Determine the percent water in
CuSO4 5 H2O (s).
% H2O =

(18.0) (5)
molar mass of hydrate

x 100

1 Cu = 63.5
249.7 = molar mass
1 S = 32.1
of the hydrate
4 O = 16.0 x 4
5 H2O = 18.0 x 5

Calculating Percent Composition

% H 2O =

( 18.0 g) ( 5 H2Os)
249.7 g

X 100

% H2O = 36.0%

Problem
15. Determine the percent water in
MgCO3 5 H2O (s).

51.6% H2O

Problem
16. Determine the percent water in
LiClO4 3 H2O (s).

33.7% H2O

Empirical Formula
You can use percent composition data to
help identify an unknown compound by
determining its empirical formula.
The empirical formula is the simplest
whole-number ratio of atoms of elements
in the compound. In many cases, the
empirical formula is the actual formula
for the compound.

Empirical Formula
The formula for glucose is C6H12O6.
The coefficients in glucose are all
divisible by 6.
The empirical formula of glucose is
CH2O.

Problem
17. Determine the empirical formula for
Tl2C4H4O6.

TlC2H2O3

Problem
18. Determine the empirical formula for
N2O4.

NO2

Empirical Formula
from Percent Composition
The percent composition of an unknown
compound is found to be 38.43% Mn,
16.80% C, and 44.77% O. Determine
the compounds empirical formula.
Because percent means parts per
hundred parts, assume that you have
100 g of the compound.

Empirical Formula
from Percent Composition
Then calculate the number of moles of
each element in the 100 g of
compound.

Empirical Formula
from Percent Composition
The number of moles of manganese
may be calculated as follows.
Given: 38.43% Mn
38.48 g Mn 1 mol Mn
54.9 g Mn

= 0.7009 mol Mn

Empirical Formula
from Percent Composition
The number of moles of carbon may be
calculated as follows.
Given: 16.80% C
16.80 g C

1 mol C
12.0 g C

= 1.400 mol C

Empirical Formula
from Percent Composition
The number of moles of oxygen may be
calculated as follows.
Given: 44.77% O
44.77 g O

1 mol O
16.0 g O

= 2.798 mol O

Empirical Formula
from Percent Composition
The results show the following
relationship.
mol Mn : mol C : mol O
0.7009 : 1.400 : 2.798

Empirical Formula
from Percent Composition
To obtain the simplest whole-number
ratio of moles, divide each number of
moles by the smallest number of moles.
0.7009 mol Mn
0.7009

= 1 mol Mn

Empirical Formula
from Percent Composition
1.400 mol C
0.7009
2.798 mol O
0.7009

= 2 mol C

= 4 mol O

Empirical Formula
from Percent Composition
The mole ratio for the compound is:
1 Mn : 2 C : 4 O
The empirical formula for the compound
is MnC2O4.

Problem
19. Determine the empirical formula of the
following compound.
31.9 g Mg, 27.1 g P

Problem
The number of moles of magnesium
may be calculated as follows.
Given: 31.9 g Mg
31.9 g Mg

1 mol Mg
24.3 g Mg

= 1.31 mol Mg

Problem
The number of moles phosphorous may
be calculated as follows.
Given: 27.1 g P
27.1 g P

1 mol P
31.0 g P

= 0.874 mol P

Empirical Formula
from Percent Composition
The results show the following
relationship.
mol Mg : mol P
1.31 : 0.874

Empirical Formula
from Percent Composition
To obtain the simplest whole-number
ratio of moles, divide each number of
moles by the smallest number of moles.
0.874 mol P
0.874

= 1 mol P

Empirical Formula
from Percent Composition
1.31 mol Mg
0.874

= 1.5 mol Mg

Empirical Formula
from Percent Composition
The mole ratio for the compound is:
1.5 Mg : 1 P
You cannot have a fraction, so multiply
both numbers by 2.
3 Mg : 2 P
The empirical formula for the compound
is Mg3P2.

Problem
20. The composition of an unknown acid
is 40.00% carbon, 6.71% hydrogen, and
53.29% oxygen. Calculate the empirical
formula for the acid.

CH20

Problem
21. The composition of an unknown ionic
compound is 60.7% nickel and 39.3%
fluorine. Calculate the empirical formula
for the ionic compound.

NiF2

Problem
22. The composition of a compound is
6.27 g calcium and 1.46 g nitrogen.
Calculate the empirical formula for the
compound.

Ca3N2

Problem
23. Find the empirical formula for a
compound consisting of 63.0% Mn and
37.0% O.

MnO2

STOP
HERE

Molecular Formulas
For many compounds, the empirical
formula is not the true formula.
A molecular formula tells the exact
number of atoms of each element in a
molecule or formula unit of a compound.

Molecular Formulas
The molecular formula for a compound
is either the same as the empirical
formula or a whole-number multiple of
the empirical formula.

Molecular Formulas
In order to determine the molecular
formula for an unknown compound, you
must know the molar mass of the
compound in addition to its empirical
formula.

Molecular Formulas
Then you can compare the molar mass
of the compound with the molar mass
represented by the empirical formula as
shown in the following example
problem.

Problem
24. The molecular mass of benzene is
78 g/mol and its empirical formula is
CH. What is the molecular formula for
benzene?

Determining a Molecular Formula


Calculate the molar mass represented
by the formula CH.
Here, the molar mass is the sum of the
masses of one mole of each element.
Molar mass CH = 12.0 g + 1.0 g
Molar mass CH = 13.0 g/mol

Problem
As stated in the problem, the molecular
mass of benzene is known to be
78.0 g/mol.

Determining a Molecular Formula


To determine the molecular formula for
benzene, calculate the whole number
multiple, n, to apply to its empirical
formula.
n=

78.0 g/mol
13.0 g/mol

=6

Determining a Molecular Formula


This calculation shows that the molar
mass of benzene is six times the molar
mass of its empirical formula CH.

Determining a Molecular Formula


Therefore, the molecular formula must
have six times as many atoms of each
element as the empirical formula.
Thus, the molecular formula is
(CH)6 = C6H6

Problem
25. The simplest formula for butane is
C2H5 and its molecular mass is about
60.0 g/mol. What is the
molecular formula of butane?

Determining a Molecular Formula


To determine the molecular formula for
butane, calculate the whole number
multiple, n, to apply to its empirical
formula.
n=

60.0 g/mol
29.0 g/mol

=2

Determining a Molecular Formula


Therefore, the molecular formula must
have two times as many atoms of each
element as the empirical formula.
Thus, the molecular formula is
(C2H5)2 = C4H10

Problem
26. What is its molecular formula of
cyanuric chloride, if the empirical
formula is CClN and the molecular
mass is 184.5 g/mol?

C3Cl3N3

Problem
27. The simplest formula for vitamin C is
C3H4O3. Experimental data indicates
that the molecular mass of vitamin C
is about 180. What is the molecular
formula of vitamin C?

C6H8O6

Problem
28. Maleic acid is a compound that is
widely used in the plastics and textiles
industries. The composition of maleic
acid is 41.39% carbon, 3.47%
hydrogen, and 55.14% oxygen. Its
molar mass is 116.1 g/mol. Calculate
the molecular formula for maleic acid.

Determining a Molecular Formula


Start by determining the empirical
formula for the compound.

Problem
The number of moles of carbon may be
calculated as follows.
Given: 41.39% C
41.39 g C

1 mol C
12.0 g C

= 3.449 mol C

Problem
The number of moles of hydrogen may
be calculated as follows.
Given: 3.47% H
3.47 g H

1 mol H
1.0 g H

= 3.47 mol H

Problem
The number of moles of oxygen may be
calculated as follows.
Given: 55.14% O
55.14 g O

1 mol O
16.0 g O

= 3.446 mol O

Determining a Molecular Formula


The numbers of moles of C, H, and O
are nearly equal, so it is not necessary
to divide through by the smallest value.
You can see by inspection that the
smallest whole-number ratio is
1C : 1H : 1O, and the empirical formula
is CHO.

Determining a Molecular Formula


Next, calculate the molar mass
represented by the formula CHO.
Here, the molar mass is the sum of the
masses of one mole of each element.
Molar mass CHO = 12.0 g + 1.0 g + 16.0
g
Molar mass CHO = 29.0 g/mol

Problem
As stated in the problem, the molar
mass of maleic acid is known to be
116.1 g/mol.

Determining a Molecular Formula


To determine the molecular formula for
maleic acid, calculate the whole number
multiple, n, to apply to its empirical
formula.
n=

116.1 g/mol
29.0 g/mol

=4

Determining a Molecular Formula


This calculation shows that the molar
mass of maleic acid is four times the
molar mass of its empirical formula
CHO.

Determining a Molecular Formula


Therefore, the molecular formula must
have four times as many atoms of each
element as the empirical formula.
Thus, the molecular formula is
(CHO)4 = C4H4O4

Determining a Molecular Formula

Determining a Molecular Formula

Problem
29. The composition of silver oxalate is
71.02% silver, 7.91% carbon, and
21.07% oxygen. If the molar mass of
silver oxalate is 303.8 g/mol, what is
its molecular formula?

Ag2C2O4

Problem
30. The composition of a compound is
85.6% carbon and 14.4% hydrogen.
If the molar mass of the compound is
42.1 g/mol, what is its molecular
formula?

C3H6