UNIT – 1 BUSINESS AS A SOCIAL SYSTEM Business is an integral part of social system and it is influenced by other elements of society which, in term, is affected by the business. Today the whole society is a business environment. Davis and Blomstorm point out that in taking an ecological view of business in a systems relationship with society; three ideas are significant in addition to the systems idea. The three ideas are: 1. Values 2. Viability 3. Public visibility 1. VALUES: Business like other social institutions, develops certain belief systems and values for which they stand, and there beliefs and values are a source of institutional drive. These values drive from a multitude source, such as the mission of business as a social institution, the nation in which business is located, the type of industry in which it is active and the nature of employees. These values become guides for employee’s decisions in the interface of business. Second, they become strong motivators for people in a business.


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2. VIABILITY Davis and Blomstorms define viability as the drive to line and grow, to accomplish the potential not yet reached, and to achieve all that a living system is capable of becoming. If a business is to be a viable, vigorous, institution in society, it must initiate its share of forces in its own environment rather than merely adjust to outside forces. Every business needs a drive and spirit all its own to make it as a positive actor on the social stage rather than reactor or a reflector. 3. PUBLIC VISIBILITY The term public visibility refers to the extent that organizations activities are known to person outside the organization. Public visibility is different from idea of public image. The term public image refers to what people think about an organizations act, while are known. The importance of public visibility is that it subjects business activities to public examination, discussion and judgment. These are became business is integral part of social system. It is a social organ to help accomplish the social goals. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF BUSINESS [TYPES OF ENVIRONEMTN] I. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT FACTORS

1. Value system: The value systems of the founders and those at the helm of

affairs have important bearing on the choice of business, the mission and objectives of the organization, business policies and practices. It is a widely acknowledged fact that the extent to which the value system is shared by all in organization is an important factor contributing to success.


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2. Mission and Objectives: The business domain of the company, priorities,

direction of the development, business philosophy business policy etc are guided by the mission and objective of the company. Example: Ranbaxy’s thrust in to the foreign markets and developments have been driven by its mission – “to become a researcher based international pharmaceutical company.”

The organizational structure, the composition of board of directors, extent of professionalization of management etc, are important factors influencing business decisions. Some management structures and styles delay decision making while some other facilitate quick decision making. The Board of Directors being the highest decision making body which sets the direction for the development of the organization and which oversees the performance of organization, the quality of the Board is a very critical factor for the development and performance of company. 4. INTERNAL POWER RELATION Factors like the amount of support the top management enjoys from the different levels of employees, share holders, and Board of Directors have important influence on the decision and their implementation. The relationship between the members of the board and between chief executive and the Board are also critical factors. 5. HUMAN RESOURCES The characteristics of the human resources like skill, quality, morale, commitment, attitude etc., could contribute to the strength and weakness of the organization.
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6. COMPANY IMAGE AND BRAND EQUITY The image of the company matters while raising finance, forming joint ventures or other alliances, soliciting marketing intermediaries, entering purchase on sale contracts, launching new products etc. Brand equity is also relevant in several of these cases. 7. OTHER FACTORS A) Research and development determine a company’s ability to innovate and compete. B) Marketing – quality of marketing men, brand equity, distribution network have direct effect on marketing.
C) FINANCE 0 financial policies; financial position and capital structure are

also affecting business performances. D) Physical Assets – production capacity, technology, distribution logistics EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT FACTORS It consists of 2 types. 1. Micro environment 2. Macro environment I. Micro Environment The micro environment is also known as the task environment and operating environment became the micro environment forces have a direct bearing on the operations of the firm. These include the factors like … 1. SUPPLIERS An important force in the micro environment of a company is the suppliers, i.e. those who supply the inputs like raw materials and components to the
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company. The importance of reliable source of supply is for the smooth functioning of business. It is very risky to depend on a single supplier became of skills, lock out or any other production problem with that supplier may seriously affect the company. Hence multisource of supply often helps reduce risks. 2. CUSTOMERS A business exist only became and its customers. A company may have different categories of customers like individuals, households, industries and other commercial establishment and govt. and other institution. 3. COMPETITORS A firm’s competitors include not only other firms which market the same products but also all those who compete for the discretionary income of the consumers. 4. MARKETING INTERMEDIARIES The immediate environment of the company may consist of number of marketing intermediaries which are “firms that aid the company in promoting, selling and distributing its goods to final buyers.” The marketing intermediaries includes middlemen such as agents and merchants who “help the company find customers or close sales with them.” 5. FINANCIERS Another important micro environmental factor is the financier of the company. Besides the financing capabilities, their policies and strategies, attitudes, ability to provide non financial assistance etc are very important.
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6. PUBLICS “A public is any group that has an actual or potential interest in an impact on an organizations ability to achieve its interests.” Media publics, citizen action publics and local publics are some examples. MACRO ENVIRONMENT It is also called as general environment and remote environment. The macro environment is generally uncontrollable than micro environment, the success of the company depends on its adaptability to the environment. The important macro environment factors as follows: I. TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT Technology is one of the important determinants of success of a firm as well as economic and social development of nation. It includes both hardware and software to solve problems and promote progress. 1. Innovative drive of company The term innovation means introduction of new product, the use of new method of production. “The technical, industrial and commercial steps which leads to marketing of new products and to commercial use of new technical process and equipment.” 2. Customers Needs / Expectation Technological orientation and R&D effects of a company may also be influenced by the customer needs and expectation. In several cases the customer and the supplier have a collaborative relationship to develop the product or solutions. If the customers are highly demanding, companies would be compelled to be innovative.


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3. Demand conditions The size of demand influences the choice of the technology . The size of demand influences the choice of the technological scale. Fast growing trend of demand would encourage development of technology of large scale. 4. Suppliers offering Many times technological changes are encouraged by the suppliers of a company, like a capital goods supplier etc. 5. Competitive dynamics Competition compels the adoption of the best technology and constant endeavor to innovate. 6. Substitutes Emergence of new substitutes or technological improvements or substitutes which alter technological change. 7. Social forces Certain social forces like pretext against environment pollution or other ecological problems demand for eco-friendly products. 8. Research organization The technological environment of business is enriched by researched organizations which develops new technologies and provide other technical inputs. 9. Govt. policy The govt. contributes to the development to the technology by its own direct involvement by establishing research organization and funding R & D. The govt. may encourage private R & D by various incentives.
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II. DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT The importance of demographic factors to business is clear from the facts that “Management is men” & “Market is people.” i.e., Management in Men, Material, Machinery and Money, and market is people in the sense that the demand depends on the people and their characteristics – the number, income levels, tastes and preferences, beliefs, attitudes and sentiments. Important demographic bases of market segmentation include the following: 1. Age structure 2. Gender 3. Income distribution 4. Family size 5. Occupation 6. Education 7. Social class 8. Religion 9. Race 10. Nationality Demographic factors such as size of population, growth rate, age composition, ethnic, density of population, rural – urban distribution, nature of family have very significant implication for business. III. ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT Business partners and strategies are influenced by the economic characteristics. The economic environment includes the structure and nature of the


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economy, the stage of development of economy, economic resources, level of income, global economic linkages, economic policies etc. 1. Nature of the Economy The general level of development of the economy has lot of implication for business – it has significant bearing on the nature and size demand, govt. policies affecting business. The widely used method of classification of the economies is on the basis of per capita income. Accordingly the low income, middle and high income economies. Low income economies are economies with very low per capita income. High income economies are economies with very rich income per capita. Middle income economies are sub divided into lower middle and upper middle income where income per capita is neither very high nor low. 2. Structure of the economy Factors such as contribution of different structure like primary (agricultural), secondary (industrial) & tertiary (secondary) sectors, large, medicine, small sectors to economy. These factors and the nature of each sector have business implication. For example, India is one of the largest producers of agricultural products, because of the small and fragmented nature of land holdings, efficient collection and processing of products become difficult. The land holding pattern also makes productivity improvements difficult. 3. Economic policies There are several economic policies which can have very great impact on business. Important economic policies are


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a) Industrial policy It defines the scope and role of different sectors like private, public, joint and cooperative. It may influence the location of industrial undertakings. Choice of technology, state of operation, product mixes etc. b) Trade policy It can affect the fortunes of firms. For example a policy of protecting the home industry may greatly help the import competing industries, while liberation of the impart policy may create difficulties for such industries. This mean the firm should come up with quality, cost, and marketing and after sales service etc. c) Foreign exchange policy Exchange rate policy and policy in respect of cross border movement of capita are important for business. d) Foreign investment and technology policy Foreign investment and technology policy will increase domestic competition at the same time it would benefit many domestic firms – by permitting global sourcing of capital and technology, by increasing the quantity and quality of domestic supply of many goods and services. e) Fiscal policy Govt. strategy in respect of public expenditure and revenue can have significant impact on business. The pattern of public expenditure may affect the develop of industries. Such as govt. often use tax incentives or disincentives to encourage or discourage certain activities. For ex: when industry suffers from recession, a reduction of taxes like excise duty or sales tax may help improve the demand.


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f) Monetary policy The central bank, by its policy towards the cost and availability of credit, can significantly influence savings, investments and consumer spending in economy. For example – 1% reduction in cash reserve ratio will significantly increase loan able funds with commercial banking systems. IV. NATURAL ENVIRONMENT The natural environment ultimately is the source and support of everything used by business – every raw material, energy resource, life sustaining factor etc. The natural environment determines what can be got done in a society and how institution can function. Resource availability is the fundamental factor is the development of business in the society. Thus geographical and ecological factors, such as natural endowments, weather and climatic conditions, topographic factors, vocational aspects in the global context etc., are all relevant to business.
1. Geographical factors: differences in geographical condition between

markets may sometimes call for changes in the market mix. It influences the location of some industries. E.g. Industries with material index tend to be located near the raw material sources. 2. Climatic and weather conditions: It affects the location of certain industries like cotton textile industry. Topographic factors may affect the demand pattern in some cases. E.g. in hilly areas Jeeps are greater demand than cars.


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Weather and climatic factors affect the demand of certain types of products. E.g. in region where temperature is very high in summer, there is good demand for desert coolers. Weather and climatic factors can affect the demand pattern of clothing, building materials, food, medicines etc. further, weather and climatic conditions may call for modification to the products, packaging storage conditions etc. 3. Ecological factors: It assumes great importance, the depletion of natural resources, environmental pollution another disturbance of the ecological balance have carried great concern, govt. policies aimed as preservation of environment purity and ecological balance, conservation of non-replenish able resources have resulted additional responsibilities and problems for business. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY The important generally accepted responsibilities of the business to different sections of the society are described below. 1. Responsibility to shareholders The responsibility of a company to its shareholders, who are owners is a primary one. The fact that the investments in the business should be recognized. To protect the interests of the shareholders and to provide a reasonable dividend, the company has to strengthen and consolidate its position. 2. Responsibility to employees The success of an organization depends to a very large extent on the morale of the employees and their whole hearted co-operation. The responsibility of the organization to the workers include –
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1. The payment of fair wages 2. The provision of best possible working condition 3. Establishment of fair working standards and norms
4. The provision of labor welfare facilities to the extent possible and desirable

5. Arrangements for proper training and education of the workers 6. Reasonable chances and proper system for accomplishment and promotion 7. Proper recognition, appreciation and encouragement of special skills and capabilities of workers. 8. The installation for efficient grievance handling system 9. An opportunity for participating in managerial decisions to the extent desirable. 3. Responsibility to consumers The customer is the foundation of business and keeps it in existence. It has been widely recognized that customer satisfaction shall be the key to satisfying the organizational goals. Some important responsibilities of business to customers are – 1. To improve the efficiency of the functioning of business so as to increase productivity and reduce prizes, improve quality, smoothen the distribution system to make goods easily available. 2. To do research and development, to improve quality and introduce better of new products. 3. To take the steps to remove the imperfection in the distribution system including black marketing or anti-social elements. 4. To supply goods at reasonable prizes 5. To ensure that the product supplied has no adverse effect on the customer.


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6. To provide sufficient information about the product including adverse effects,

risks and care to be taken while using the products. 7. To avoid misleading the customers by improper advertisement. 8. To provide opportunity for being heard and to redress genuine grievances. 9. To understand customer needs and to make necessary measures to satisfy these needs. 4. Responsibility to community A business has a lot of responsibility to the community around its location and to society. The responsibilities include – 1. Taking appropriate steps to prevent environmental pollution and preserve ecological balance. 2. Rehabilitating the population displaced by operate of the business 3. Assisting in the overall development of locality 4. Taking steps to conserve scares resources and developing alternatives 5. Improving the efficiency of the business operation 6. Contributing to research and development 7. Develop of backward areas 8. Promotion of small scale industries 9. promotion of education and population control 10. Contribution to the national effort to build up a better society


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BUSINESS ETHICS The term business ethics refers to the system of moral principles and rules of conduct applied to business. This means that the business should be conducted according to certain self-recognized moral standards. Business, being a social organ, shall not conduct itself in a way detrimental to the interests of society and the business sector itself. A profession is bound by certain ethical principles and rules of conduct which reflect its responsibility, authority and dignity. The professionalization of business management, should therefore, be reflected in the increasing acceptance of business ethics. NOTE: In the 1930’s Rotary International developed the code of ethics that is still used extensions. It uses 4 questions that are called the 4 way of ethical behavior for any business forces – • Is it truth? • Is the fair to all concerned? • Will it build goodwill and friendship? • Will it be beneficial to all concerned? LIST OF IMPORTANT ETHICAL PRINCIPLES THAT A BUSINESS SHOULD FOLLOW: 1. Do not deceive or cheat customers by selling substandard or defective products by under measurements or by any other means. 2. Do not resort to hoarding, black marketing or profiteering. 3. Do not destroy or distort competition
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4. Ensure sincerity and accuracy in advertising, labeling and packaging. 5. Do not tarnish the image of competitors by unfair practices. 6. Make accurate business records available to all authorized persons. 7. Pay taxes and discharge other obligation promptly 8. Do not farm cartel agreements, even informal, to control production, price etc to the common detriment. 9. Refrain from secret kickbacks on payoffs to customers, suppliers, administrators, politicians etc. 10. Ensure payment of fair wages to and fair treatment of employees. ISSUES IN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Corporate governance is defined as the process and structures by which business and affairs of corporate sector is directed and managed. The concept of corporate governance primarily hinges on complete transparency, integrity and accountability of the management. Corporate governance is concerned with the values, vision and visibility. It is about the value orientation of organization, ethical norms its performances, the direction of development and visibility of its performances and practices. Objectives 1. To build up an environment of trust and confidence amongst those having completing and conflicting interest. 2. To enhance shareholders value and protect the interest of other shareholders by enhancing the corporate performances and accountability. Transparency Accountability Investor protection
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Societal needs Value creation for stakeholders

ECONOMIC ROLE OF GOVERNMENT The government plays an important role in almost every national economy of world. Business fortunes and strategies are influenced by the economic characteristics and economic dimension. The government normally plays four important roles in an economy. They are, 1. Regulatory Role Government regulation of the business may cover a broad spectrum extending form entry into business to the final results of business. The reservation of industries to small scale, public and co-operative sectors, licensing system etc., regulate the entry. Regulations of product mix, promotional activities etc., amount to regulation of conduct to business. The state also regulates relationship between enterprises. 2. Promotional Role The promotional role played by the government is very important is developed as well as in duping countries. In developing countries, where the infrastructural facilities for development are inadequate and entrepreneurial activities are scarce, the promotional role of the govt. assumes significance. The state will have to assume direct responsibility to build up and strengthen infrastructure such as power, transport, finance, marketing, institutions for training and other promotional activities. The promotional role of the state also encompasses the provisions of fiscal, monetary and other incentives and development of priority sectors and activities.
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3. Entrepreneurial Role Entrepreneurial role includes establishing and operating business enterprises and bearing risks. A number of factors such as socio-political ideologies, dearth of private entrepreneurship, absence of inadequate competition in certain segments and resultant exploitations of consumers have contributed for the growth of state owned enterprises. 4. Planning role State plays an important role as planner. GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT Globalization is an attitude of mind – which views the entire world as a single market so that the corporate strategy is based on the dynamics of the global business environment. Globalization encompasses the following: 1. Expanding business globally 2. Giving up distinction between domestic and foreign market and developing global outlook of business. 3. To maximize profit 4. For growth

Essential conditions for globalization
1. Business freedom: There should not be necessary govt. restriction like import

restriction, foreign investments etc. 2. Facilities: Enterprise can develop globally from home country bare depends on facilities available like the infrastructural facilities.
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3. Govt. support: Govt support can encourage globalization, like infrastructural facilities, R & D support, financial market reforms. 4. Resources: It decides the ability of firm to globalize. Resourceful companies may find it easier to thrust ahead in global market. Resources include finance, R&D, company and grand image, HR etc. 5. Competitiveness: A firm may drive a competitive advantage from any one or more of the factors such as low costs and price, product quality, product differentiation, technology superiority, marketing strength etc.

How to go global? Important foreign market entry strategies –
1. Exporting: Exporting the most traditional mode of entering global market.

2. Licensing & franchising: It involves minimal commitment of resources and effort on the part of international marketer, are easy way of entering foreign markets. Finalizing is a form of licensing in which a parent company grants another independent entity the right to do business. 3. Contract manufacturing; a company doing international marketing contracts with firms in the foreign countries to manufacture the products while retaining the responsibility of marketing the product. 4. Management contracting: In this supplier brings together a package of skills that will provide an integrated service to clients without risk on owner. 5. Turnkey contracts – A turnkey contracts is an agreement by seller to supply a buyer with a facility fully equipped and ready to be operated. 6. Wholly owned manufacturing facilities: It provides the firm with complete control over production and quality. It does not have risk in the development.
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7. Assembly operations: Assembly facilities in foreign markets are very ideal

when there are economies of scale in the manufacture. When an assembly operations are labour intensive and labour is cheap in foreign country. 8. Joint ventures: Joint venture is a very common strategy of entering foreign market. Any form of association which implies collaboration for more than a transitory period is a joint venture. A joint venture may brought about by a foreign investor buying an interest in a local company.
9. Third country location: Third country location is also an entry strategy,

when there is no commercial transaction between two nations for some reasons, a firm in one of their nations which wants to enter the other market will have to operate third country base. 10. Mergers and acquisitions: It have very good market entry strategy as well as expansion strategy. It provides instant access to markets and distribution network. 11. Strategic alliances: It is also used as market entry strategy it is also known as coalition, this strategy seeks to enhance the long term competitive advantage of the firm by farming alliance with competitors. 12. Counter trade: It is a form of international trade in which certain export and import transaction are directly linked with each other.

Types of Mergers
1. Horizontal Merger: Takes place where the two margin companies’ products

similar product in the some industry. E.g. in 1998 – combination of Chrysler cooperation and similar sense to create Dainles Chrysler. 2. Vertical Merger: Occur when two firms each working at different stages in the production of the same good combine. E.g. General Motors acquisition of fisher body company (an auto parts manufacturer).
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Conglomerate Mergers: takes place when two firms operate in different industries. E.g. Acquisition of Montgomery Ward and Co., (a retailer) by Mobil Oil Company)


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Mixed economy of India consists of public and private sector. Policy on the public sector has been guided by the Industrial Policy Resolutions 1956 and 1991 which gave a strategic role in the economy. India was based agrarian economy with weak industrial base, low level savings and investments and near essence of infrastructural facilities. Public sector The object of accelerating the pace of eco-development and the political ideology, gave the public sector a dominant role in the industrial development of the nation led to rapid growth of the State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) sector in India. These enterprises came to cover a wide spectrum of activities in basic strategic industries like steel, coal, minerals and metals, petroleum, heavy engineering, chemicals, fertilizers and pharmaceuticals etc., on one hand and consumer goods, trading and marketing activities, transportation, services, contracts and consultancy services, tourist service, financial services, development of small industries etc., on the other. Objectives: It was promoted as an instrument for implementation of the govt.’s socioeco policies. 1. To help in the rapid eco growth and development and industrialization of the country and create the necessary infrastructure for economic development.
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2. To earn return on investment and thus generate resources for development. 3. To promote redistribution on income & wealth 4. To create employment opportunities 5. To promote balanced regional development 6. To assist the development of small scale and ancillary industries 7. To promote import substitution, save and earn foreign exchange for the economy. Growth & performance of public enterprise The Industrial Policy Resolution of 1948 made it clear that the manufacture of arms and ammunitions, the production & control of atomic energy and the ownership and management of railway transport would be the exclusive monopoly of the company. After 6 months industries were coal, iron and steel, aircraft manufacture, ship building, manufacture of telephone, telegraph and wireless apparatus, excluding radio receiving sets and mineral oils. IP of 1956: All the industries of basic & strategic importance or in the nature of public utility services should be in public sector. At the beginning of the 1990, public sector was dominant in many industries. Entire output in case of petroleum, lignite, copper & primary lead, about 98% of zinc with 90% of coal, more than ½ of steel and aluminium and 1/3rd of fertilizers. PSEs as a whole have made huge profits mainly because of the enormous profits made by several public sector monopolies. Many of the loss making PSE have been either in non-priority sectors or in the sectors where the private sector has proved to be more efficient.


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Why PSE fails? Even though formulation of plan is good. 1. Huge cost, time over runs in project implementation 2. Land acquisition 3. Procurement of equipment 4. Civil work and other imponderable [not able to estimate] 5. Locational & investment decisions 6. Irrational product mix 7. Imposed marketing arrangements 8. Foreign financing 9. Technology upgradation, inadequate R & D, over manning. Why PSE? 1. PSE not only for commercialization but to generate employment, promoting balanced regional development etc. 2. Low return on investment on account of price constraints imposed on certain infrastructural goods and services of PE. 3. Sick industries taken over by PU. 4. Promoted with long gestation period 5. Periodical wage revision. New PS policy: Policy announced on 24-7-1991 the priority areas of growth. 1. Essential infrastructure goods and services 2. Exploration & exploitation of oil and mineral resources 3. Technology development & building of manufacturing capabilities, long term development of economy 4. Manufacture of goods where strategic considerations
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1. Arms & ammunition: defence equipment, aircraft

2. Atomic energy 3. Coal & Lignite 4. Mineral oils 5. Mining of iron ore, manganese ore, chrome ore, gypsum, sulphur, gold and diamond. 6. Mining of copper, lead, zinc, tin, molybdenum, wolframite 7. Mineral specified in the schedule to the AE (control of production & use) order 1958. 8. Railway transport The new industrial policy also indicated that the public sector would withdraw from the following cases: 1. Industries based on low technology 2. Small scale and non strategic areas 3. Inefficient and unproductive areas 4. Areas with low or zero social responsibility or public purpose 5. Areas where private sector has developed sufficient enterprise and resources Govt. policies: 1. Bring down govt. equity in all non-strategic PSU to 26% or lower, if necessary. 2. Restructure & revive potentially viable PSUs 3. Close down PSUs which cannot be revived 4. Fully protect the interest of workers


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A disinvestment department was also set up. Public Sector Ratnas Govt. in 1997 July unfolded its strategy to grant autonomy to come PSUs on an experimental basis was to select some vanguard PSUs to support them in their drive to become global giants. After in-depth interministerial discussions. Nine PSUs were selected. These are Navaratnas. 1. Bharath Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL) 2. Bharath Petroleum Corporation Ltd (BPCL) 3. Hindustan petroleum Corporation Ltd (HPCL) 4. Indian Oil Corporation Ltd (IOC) 5. Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Ltd (IPCL) 6. National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd (NTPCL) 7. Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd (ONGC) 8. Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL) 9. Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd (VSNL) GAIL & MTNL were given same status. All these were given freedom to incur. 1. Capital expenditure 2. Decide on joint venture 3. Set up subsidiaries/officers board 4. Enter into technology & strategic alliances 5. Raise funds from capital markets (international & domestic) 6. Enjoy substantial operations and managerial autonomy 7 other PSUs have been given the title ministers.


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Private Sector The Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956 has made it very clear that “as an agency for planned national development, in the context of the country’s expanding economy, the private sector will have the opportunity to develop & expand. Outside the schedules of A&B would be undertaken ordinarily through the initiative and enterprise of the private sector. It was the policy of the state to encourage the development of these industries in the private sector, in accordance with the programmed formulated in successive Five Year Plans, by ensuring the development of transport, power and other services and by appropriate fiscal and other measures. The IPR of 1956 has clearly stated that the “private sector have necessarily to fit into the frame work of the social & economic policy of the state and will be subject to control & regulation in terms of industries (Development & regulation) Act and other relevant legislation. Private sector is dominant in the FMCG, Capital Goods Industries. New IP of July 24, 1991 – Expands the role of PS due to privatization. Economic Planning in India: From Mixed to a Market economy. These are three types of economy. These are the free enterprises/market economies or capitalist economy and at the other end are the centrally planned economy or communist countries. In between these two are the mixed economy.
1. The communist countries have a centrally planned economic system. Under

this rule, the state owns all the means of production, determines the goals of production & controls the economy according to a central master plan. No


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consumer sovereignty. Consumption plan in a centrally planned economy is dictated by state. Ex: USSR, Chez Republic, Hungary, Poland and China. 2. In b/n capitalist and free market economic system is the mixed economy, under which both public & private sector co-exist as in India. In many mixed economies, the strategic & other nationally very important industries are fully owned or dominated by the state. 3. The freedom of PS is the greatest in the market economy. In market economy a. The factors of production (labour, land, capital) are privately owned. b. Income is in monetary form – from sale & profits c. Members have freedom of choice – consumption, occupation, savings and investment. d. Not planned, controlled and regulated by govt. This is far from real one. Ex: US, Japan, Australia and Canada Structure of Economy The contributions of sectors like primary (agri), secondary (industrial) and tertiary sectors form structure of economy. As economy develops share of primary sectors in development, employment & GDP declines. Manufacturing also declines. The service sector is largest & fast operating sector. They contribute upto 60% of world GDP and is less in developed countries. 1980 – 70 1990 – 98 Developing 3.5 3.7 Developed 3 3.3

The share of service sector increased from 1980 – 39% to 46% in 2000 in India. Internationally it has increased 1990 – 12%.


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This indicates decrease in price, increase in quality, increase in competitiveness of downstream industries. Economic Planning of India The pattern of economic development in India is very significantly affected by govt. planning. The Planning commission Planning Commission was set up in 1950 March functions: (i) make resources available, (ii) Balanced and effective utilization of country’s resources. National Development Council: It is presided over by PM and is composed of UCM, CM of States and Union Territories and Members of the Planning Commission. Union State Ministers are also invited to participate in deliberations. Secretary of PC acts as secretary of NDC. Functions; i) To prescribe guidelines, ii) To consider national plan iii) To consider important question of social & economic policy iv) Review working of plans Formulation of Plans: To prepare five year plan usually spread over a period of 23 years. Review of the Plans First Five year Plan – April 1st – 1951 Third Five year plan – 1966


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Fourth got delayed due to disrupted the development process like the aggressions of China & Pakistan and severe drought in the country. 1965-66 – Fall income, increase in price, decrease in savings, devaluation of rupee by 36.5% in June 1966. 4th Five Year Plan was put off by 3 years. This period had annual plans (66-67, 6869). This period is referred to as “Plan Holiday. Central Change: Premature end to five year plan, Janata Party in 1977 terminated the 5th plan at the end of 4th year i.e. March 1978 instead of 1979 and formulated a draft five year plan for 1978-83. It also introduced the concept of “Rolling Plan.” Under this plan “when one year elapses another year is added to the planning – horizon so that we will always have a ‘Five year plan.’ Formation of Congress Govt. in 1980 terminated 5 year plan formed by Janata Govt. within 2 years and formulated a 5 year plan for 1980-85 (6th Plan) 7th Plan – April 1st 1985 8th plan – 1992 9th – 1997-2002 Objectives: 1. utilization of the natural resources 2. Ultimate removal of unemployment & poverty 3. Increased standard of living Five year Plan (2002-07) Should aim at an indicative target of 8% GDP Gross for 02-07.


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Increase in GDP, increased human well being, consumption of food and other consumer goods, but also education, health, availability of drinking water and basic sanitation. 1. Decreased poverty – 20% by 2007 and 10% by 2012 2. Increase in employment 3. Universal access to primary education by 200% 4. Decreased population – 2001 – 2011 – 16.2% 5. Increase in literacy 72% by 2007 & 80% by 2012. 6. Decrease in Infant Mortality rate (IMR) 45%, per 1000 live births by 2007 and to 28% by 2012.
7. Decrease in Mattress Mortality Ratio (MMR) decrease 20% per 1000 live

births by 2007 and to 10% by 2012. 8. Increase in forest and tree lover to 25% by 2007 and 33% by 2012. 9. Villages – access to drinking water (portable) by 2012. 10. Cleaning of all major polluted river by 2007 & notified stretches by 2012. Performance Although we have failed to achieve targets & 30% still under poverty line. India is one of the largest industrial powers in the world and has the 3rd largest stock of scientific manpower. Characteristics of Industries Until 1991, the development of the private sector was under strict Govt. control, was exercised through industrial licensing. Low like the Industries (Development & Regulation) Act, the Companies Act gave enormous control over the management and control of functioning of the industries. The M.R.T.P. Act controlled merges, amalgamations and takeovers.


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Capital Goods Vs Consumer Goods Basic and capital goods were considered as pride of place and the consumer goods given low priority. In the process of capital accumulation, certain capital intensive or large scale, sectors producing non-importable commodities, transport, electricity are bound to grow. Imports cannot be expanded. In case of consumer goods, the growth of consumer non-durables was more than durables. Establishment of basic and heavy industries has been a reason for self-reliance in respect of capital goods and modern technology build defence strength. The Development of Industries 1. Private Sector 2. Public Sector 3. Joint Sector has been promoted to facilitate the utilization of the resources and talents of the private sector and function with social orientation of public sector.
4. Co-op. sector: Made progress in industries like sugar, cotton textiles and

fertilizers. Growth of this sector promotes industrial democracy & discourages concentration of economic power in few hands. 5. Village & small industries – Not given the deserving importance. Some units are reserved for them and the products too. Import Substitution & Export Contribution Import substitution assumed importance after the second plan. In early decades of planning, considerable import substitution took place in many important areas – in capital goods, organic chemicals, pharmaceuticals, dyestuffs etc. The Export Policy Resolution of 1970 emphasized the importance of development and expansion of export oriented production. The Import
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Substitution Industrializaiton Strategy (ISI) followed in India has had adverse effects. The high protection from foreign competition, resulted in high costs, poor quality, indifference towards consumers and lack of innovativeness. In mid 1950’s Jute & cotton industries (textiles) were denied foreign exchange and with liberalization non-essential industries were given import substitution. The import restrictions, high costs and poor quality also very severely affected India’s export performance. Capacity Utilization Under utilization – amounts to wastage of scarce resources, leads to costpush inflation. Creates demand supply imbalance, affect balance of trade, employment, saving and investment. Under utilization of Industrial policy is due to factors like as “planned excess capacity” calculated to meet the demand in the foreseeable future, tech “invisibilities” which may create capacity in excess [present demand]; and “initial testing” troubles of new industries which is incapable in the developing economy. Regional Disparities: Removal – Third Plan Large investments were made in backward areas. Incentive system was introduced in 4th plan. The backward area development by industrialization is not given importance.


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An Evaluation Since 1951, large investments have been made in building up capacity over a wide spectrum of industries. India is a major industrial power in world. 7th year revival states: 1. Substantial diversification 2. Produce large & broad range of industrial products 3. Self-reliance [achieved] 4. Capital & basic goods contribute 1½ of total value added in manufacturing 5. Virtual sufficiency achieved • Between 1950 & 2000, IP increased 22 fold. • GDP increased by 13% in 1950-51 to 25%, 50 years of industrialization • Technological, managerial, operational development • Development of skilled manpower was also achieved. Agricultural Sector Agriculture contributes over 1/4th of India’s GDP, provides 2/3rd of population livelihood, supplies raw materials for number of industries and contributes 1/5th of the export earnings. The rural market accounts for well over 55% of the demand of FMCGs. Phases of Development: From 6th Plan Phases I 1900-1947 – No growth, 0.3% annual growth, stagnation period II. 1950-1980 – Advance in modernization of agriculture, due to steps taken in 1. Technology based on scientific research 2. Wide range of services 3. Growth annually by 2.8%, 1967-68 to 1978-79.
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4. Eighties – Attention to markets & trading investments frame work to minimize the handicaps of small & marginal farmers and maximize benefits of agri. Expansion & Development of Inputs & Services: Central & state Govts. Role in development of agriculture sector. 1. Irrigation: Increases agri productivity & employment opportunities. Union & State governments are developing the area under irrigation by executing major, medium and minor irrigation projects and exploiting ground water potential. Rural electrification programs (energisation of pumpsets) is also being implement. This supports industries like cement, steel etc., Irrigation electrification (aluminium cables, steels etc) will also increase demand for pumpsets, PVC pipes, agri implements, insecticide and pesticides and fertilizers, banks etc. Private sectors like [farmers organization, voluntary bodies and general public] are taking interest in irrigation. Ground water development is done through own financing or institutional financing or both. States like Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Andrapradesh have initiated the action for privatization of irrigation projects through projects like build own operate (BOO) or build own operate transfer (BOOT) or Build own lease (BOL) basis. According to these projects the Irrigation department may use water in bulk from the agency at mutually agreed price for distribution to the farmers. It also been mobilized through issue of public bonds.


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The most far reaching event was the introduction of high yielding varieties (HYV) of a number of field crops and hybrids of millets in particular. This covers wheat, rice, maize, jowar and bajra. Has revolutionalized agri and increased production of foodgrains in country. The HYV increases demand for plant nutrients and protectants like fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides. 1963 – National Seeds Corporation (NSC) 1969 – State Farms Corporation of India (SFCI) – For quality seeds After liberalization – foreign firms were also set up. Farm Research Institute is run by public and quasi public institutions. 1973 – Indian Council for Agricultural Research set up for research, educating & extensively educating the farmers, animal husbandry and fisheries. This council helps in inter and intra collaboration with National & International Institutions. Ex: International Atomic Energy. Banks are also giving credit to agri projects (RRB), commercial banks and primary co-operative are the major source. For all related activities and finances relating to it. NABARD – National bank for Agricultural & Rural Development was established – plays financial and development roles of RBI and Agri Refinance and development Corporation (ARDC). 1971 – The Agro Service Centre Scheme – Employment for trained entrepreneurs, Inputs at door step of farmers. 1965 – The Food Corporation of India Rice Milling Storage Production of nutrition’s processed foods. The Central / State Warehousing Corporation.
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Agricultural Marketing: 6th Plan – Three essential elements of marketing. 1. Support prices adjusted with cost of production to ensure fair returns to the farmers. 2. Arrangements for procurement of agri produce at support prices, if prices decrease. The organization look after this is Food Corporation of India, The Cotton Corporation of India, The Jute Corporation of India and the Co-operatives with the National Agricultural Cooperative Federation of India (NAFED) as their Apex Organization. Directorate of Marketing & Inspection Functions are to give advice to the Central & State Govts., Promote grading and standardization, market practices, extension, research, cold storage. Agmark for Cotton, vegetable oils, ghee, cream, butter, rice and wheat. Regulated Markets: The regulated market is a market where the activities are regulated by law and is meant for dealing in a specific commodity or group of commodities. The main objective of the regulated market is to save the farmers from the exploitation of unscrupulous market intermediaries and to ensure a fair price for their produce. Co-op Marketing: It was started to help small farmers, grains & agri products are graded and stored and sell at advantageous price. Marketing is the important function of co-op. marketing. Agri Price Policy: Is decided by The Commission for Agri Costs and Prices (CACP).
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Agri commodities like wheat and paddy have procurement prices fixed for them. Minimum Support Prices: for barley, gram, moong, urad, mustard, ground nut, sunflower seed, soyabean and cotton (kapas). Statutory Minimum Price: for sugarcane, jute and tobacco. Trends in Service Sector: As an economy develops the share of the primary sector in the GDP and employment declines and those of other sectors increase. The service sector is the largest and fastest growing sector. The service sector now contributes more than 60% of the world GDP. 1980 – 1990, the average annual growth rate of value added in the service sector in the developing economics was 3.5% compared to the GDP growth rate of 3%. 1990-98 – 3.7% & 3.3% The service sector of India grew at 6.9% and 7.9% during the above periods, compared to the corresponding GDP growth rates of 5.8% and 5.9%. The share of services in the GDP of India increased from 39% 1980 to 46% 2000. The growing importance of services is reflected in the international trade too. Between 1970 and 1990 international trade is services increases by an average of 12% & 8% during 1990-97. The growth rate of trade in services has been faster than that of goods. Growth in services and in additions the electronic commerce has added to the new trade pattern. Exports of commercial services have been borrowing on every continent throughout the 1990s. Services are used in production of goods and other services. Due to competition in services there is reduction of prices and improvement in quality.


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Contribution of service to value added as % of GDP. Region/country World High Income Economics Low and Middle Income (developing countries) India Trends in GDP Govt. expenditure as % of GDP 10% in 20th century 20% in 1960 50% in 1995 In developing countries, the central govt. expenditure was nearly 15% of GDP. 1960 in 1990 it was double of 1960. 1997 – 1998 – Economy growth 2001 – 4.4% total industrial stood at 2.7% 2002-03 – 4.0% 2002 – 03 – 5.7% increase Consumer durables has a negative growth of 6.3%, 2003-04 – 8.5% industrial production by 7.0%. economies 1980 56 59 42 39 1990 60 64 46 42 1999 61 64 54 46

Unit – III
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Monetary and Fiscal Policy
Monetary and Fiscal policy are two powerful instruments of economic management. Why? Necessary? In free enterprise economy. 1. Prices in free market fluctuate (govt. debits and credits) 2. Balance of payment is in disequilibrium 3. Involuntary unemployment 4. Inequality in distribution of income and wealth 5. Sluggish economic growth I. The Monetary Policy Def: Hary G. Johnson: Policy employing the central banks control of the supply of money as an instrument for achieving the objective of general economic policy. According to economists: Monetary policy is the changes in the supply of money. Credit policy is the changes in the supply of credit (different in broader sense) Both policies 1. Central Bank administers both 2. Instruments of control are some at aggregate level 3. Determines the supply of money as well as the supply of bank credit Main objectives are: 1. Maximum feasible output 2. High rate of economic growth 3. Fuller employment 4. Price stability 5. Greater equality in the distribution of income and wealth
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6. Health balance of payments These objectives are met under long-run price stability at maximum feasible o/p. There are two theories. 1. Keynesian theory It states that changes in the money supply work their way through the system in a way that does not result in a close and stable linkage between changes in the money supply and changes in the level of income. 2. Monetarist theory: See the close and stable linkage. The monetary transmission mechanism is the mechanism by which changes in the money supply produce effects that interact with the real sector to create changes in income and in the price level. Two primary mechanisms is applied, Portfolio Mechanism: The way monetary policy affects the assets portfolio of households and firms. This consists of two major schools of thought. 1. The Keynesian school: Treats changes in the market rate of interest that result from changes in money supply as the significant aspect of the monetary policy. It emphasizes on credit effect. To understand this, the households keep their resources in the form of cost, financial assets (bonds, securities, shares and real assets (plants and buildings, apartments and land etc.) Assume that, Central Bank of the country conducts an open market (exchange) purchase and increase the money supply. With this cash balance is increased in individual portfolio and securities with them are exchanged for the central bank notes. This
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creates temporary imbalance of excess cash. To correct this they buy financial assets. This will continue until no further substitution can be made and is profitable. By this substitution they increase the value of these assets and reduce market rate of interest. The reduced rate of interest will inturn encourage the firms to increase via the investment multiplier. The money supply increase demand – increase national income and product via changes in the market rates in interest. 2. The Monetarist School: The direct change in the money supply as the most relevant aspect of monetary policy. They follow Keynesian school but do not hold the changes in the interest rate as a pre-requisite for the changes in the demand for goods and service. An increase in money supply can lead directly to on increase in spending on real assets. They regard money and real assets as close substitutes. The household maintain a desired stock of money relative to their income. The monetary policy changes cause the actual stock to differ from the desired stock and household always want desired stock of income and money balance. This directly changes the level of aggregate demand, income and prices. According to this “as a consequence of an increase in money supply, there is a portfolio adjustment involving a movement out of money directly into goods. The end result may need not be change in interest rate at all, it may be a change in the general price level on its output. II. The Wealth Mechanism: Its based on the manner in which changes in the quantity of money affect non-human wealth and how this in turn affects aggregate demand. Where, WNH = H + PNK
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H = Quantity of nominal high powered money [is the sum of currency, required reserves and excess reserves] PVK = Market [on nominal present value of cash] If price level falls, H ↑ ↑ H will ↑ Net wealth of households and since consumption is a function of wealth, consumption ↑. The consumption ↑ if central bank ↑ quantity of money and price levels remain constant. ↑ H - ↑ WNH and consumption of current income ↑ “Real balance effect is one mechanism through which monetary policy can affect aggregate demand by changing non-human wealth. The second way is : Changes in PVK E.g. If Central Bank conducts an open market operation that increases demand for government securities, thereby raising their prices and lowering their interest rate. This inturn increases the desirability’s of equities (common stocks) relative to govt. bonds and prices will ↑ of equities, causing ↑ in PVK. Therefore equity owners will consider themselves wealthiest and consumption expenditures will rise. Instruments Targets of Monetary policy: The instruments of monetary policy refer to the exo variable that the Central Bank can change at its discretion with a view to controlling and regulating the money supply and the availability of credit. The measures of monetary policy are classified under two categories.
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I. II.

Quantitative measures of monetary control Qualitative and selective credit controls

I. quantitative measures of monetary control: 1. Traditional measures are open market operations Effectiveness of Open Market Operations 1. When commercial banks possess excess liquidity the open market operation does not work effectively. 2. During the period of depression, open market, operations are not effective for lack of demand for credit. 3. Open market has limited effectiveness due to under developed security and capital market. 4. Govt. bonds & securities are not popular due to low rate of return. II. Discount Rate (on Bank rate policy) Is the rate at which the Central Bank rediscount the bills of exchange presented by the commercial banks. The RBI Act, 1935, defines Bank rate as the standard rate at which (the bank) is prepared to buy or rediscount bills of exchange or other commercial papers eligible for purchase under this act. It rediscounts only approved bills and the first class bills of exchange. Why Rediscount? When commercial banks, faces a shortage of cash reserves, they approach the Central Bank to get their bills of exchange rediscounted. …. Of its functions – it is lender of lost Resort Central Bank. For rediscounting the bills of exchange, the central bank changes the rate. This rate is traditionally called “Bank rate or discount rate.”
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Bank Rate is the rate which the Central bank charges on the loans and advances to the commercial banks. The Central Bank can change this rate - ↑ or decrease depending on whether it wants to expand or contract the flow of credit from commercial bank. It ↑ credit creation capacity – reduces discount rate and vice versa. This is called Bank rate policy or discount rate policy. This was first adopted by Bank of England in 1839. It was an effective bank of market was introduced in 1922. Generally, the Central Bank rate is 1% point higher than the discount rate charged by the commercial banks. E.g. Central banks want to control the flow of bank credit, to achieve this objective, it will raise the discount rate. This action of the Central Bank reduces the flow of the credit in three ways.
1. ↑ Discount rate (interest rate) decrease net worth of govt. bonds (treasury

bills and promissory notes), against which commercial banks borrow funds from the Central Bank. Reduces the banks capacity to borrow.
2. When discount rate of Central Bank ↑, Commercial Bank raises their

discount rate. ↑ DR, ↑ cost of credit, discourages business sector to get their bills of exchange discounted. It also ↑ interest rate structure and decrease demand for funds. This policy is called “Dear Money Policy”. A reverse process is “cheap money policy.”
3. Bankers lending rate is adjusted to deposit rate. ↑ Bank rate, ↑ deposit rate.

This turns borrowers into depositors, savings in bank are in form of deposits. Limitations


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1. Effective only when commercial bank borrows from Central bank, because they have their own financial resources. 2. With growth in credit institutions & financial intermediaries, the Capital Market has widened. The share of banking credit has declined. 3. Variations in the discount rate become effective only where demand your credit is interest elastic. iii) The CSR & SRR: Cash reserve ratio, CRR is the percentage of total deposits which commercial banks are required to maintain in the form of each cash reserve with the Central Bank. Objection: 1) Prevent shortage of cash (Depositors) CRR depends on govt. rules and keep only small ratio in the form of reserves. CRR is non-interest bearing often keep their cash reserves below the safe limits. It might lead to financial crisis in banking sector. Central bank imposes CRr, to control money supply. It controls legal powers to change. It is a legal requirement. Therefore it is called statutory reserve ratio, SRR. When economic conditions demand monetary contraction the Central bank cRr, when it demands monetary expansion, Bank decrease CRR. E.g. If deposit of commercial bank = Rs. 100 Million, & cRR = 20% a) Banks can loan Rs. 80 million b) Credit or deposit multiplier = 5 100 x 5 = 500 million or 80 x 5 = 400 million If money supply decrease CRR increase by 25%, credit, multipliers decrease = 4. Loan = Rs. 75 M (100-25) = 75 M Total Credit = 400 m
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& Additional credit = 75 x 4 = 300 M 100 M decrease considerable impact on money market and if it is CRR = 20% then situation changes. SLR: Statutory Liquidity Ratio The proportion of total deposits which commercial banks are required to maintain with them in the form of liquid assets (cash reserve, gold & govt. bonds) in addition to CRR. II. Qualitative or Selective Credit Controls The qualitative methods of monetary control affect (when effective), the entire credit market in same direction. They lead either to expansion or to contraction of the total credit. The impact is uniform. Authorities face problems like, i) ii) iii) Rationing the credit Diverting the flow of credit from non-priority sectors Curbing speculating tendency based on the availability of bank credit. These are not served well by quantitative measures, qualitative or selective credit controls is used. i) Credit Rationing: When there is shortage of institutional credit available for the business sector, the large and financially strong sectors or industries tend to capture the lions share, in the total instalments. Credit priority sectors and weak industries are starved of necessary fund and bank credit goes to non-priority sector.


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a) Imposition of upper limits on the credit available to large industries and firms. b) Charging higher interest rate on bank beyond a certain limit. ii) Change in lending margins: Banks lends Jew % only on value of the mortgaged properly. The gap between the value of the mortgaged property and amount advanced is called lending margin. E.g. if value of stock = Rs. 10 M, amount advanced = Rs. 6 M, Lending margin = 40% [can be increase in central bank with view to increase or decrease credit]. This was used by RBI first time in 1949. objective is to control speculative activity in the stock market. By 1956, extensive use in scarce agricultural products – like food grains, cotton, oil seeds, vegetable oil, sugar, Khandsari and gur, cotton textile and yarns, decrease price secures loans. This increases the buying, power and stocking and future mortgaging and borrowing. Therefore prices shoot up due to artificial scarcity. This is widely used in India. iii) Moral Suasion Method by persuading and convincing the commercial banks to advance credit in accordance with the directive of the central bank in the economic interest of the country. But not effective in underdeveloped country. In this method, the central bank writers letters to and holds meetings with the banks on moey and credit matters, with clear directive to the banks to carry out their lending activity in a specified manner.


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Limitations of Monetary Policy: 1. The time lag: the time taken in checking out the policy action, its implementation and working time. Its divided into two parts: i) Inside tag or preparatory lag: a) Identifying nature of probability b) Identifying sources of probability c) Choice of appropriate policy action d) Implementation of policy action ii) Outside lag or response lag: The time taken by households and the firms to react in response to the policy action taken by the monetary authorities. This lag is long. 2. Problems in forecasting Reliable assessment of magnitude of the problem recession or inflation as it helps in determining the appropriate policy measures. 3. Non-Banking financial intermediaries: Structural change reduces effectiveness of monetary policy. Although financial intermediaries cannot create credit thro’ the process of credit multiplier, their huge share in the financial operations reduces the effectiveness of monetary policy. 4. Under development of money & capital market Effectiveness of monetary policy is less developed countries is reduced considerably because of the under developed character of their money and capital markets.


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FISCAL POLICY Def: As the govt’s programme of taxation expenditure and other financial operations to achieve certain in national goals. Objectives: 1. Eco growth 2. Promotion of employment 3. Economic stability & higher priority 4. Eco justice or equity Two instruments used are taxation and public expenditure. I. India’s taxation policy 1950-1990: Was formulated to meet the financial needs of the country in the postindependence period. Role of RBI in Regulatory Banking Sector The structure of Indian Banking System evolved during the preindependence period without any control and direction. The country had no Central Bank prior to establishment of RBI. The imperial Bank (SBI) of India – though commercial bank, performed certain central banking functions such as acting as banker’s bank and banker to the govt. the Central govt. had the sole authority to issue currency. But the result was unsatisfactory for the development of the money market and commercial bank. RBI was originally established as share holder’s bank in 1935 with the nationalization in the west central government on January 1, 1949 acquired entire capital and became a state owned institution.
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Functions of RBI I. General Central Banking Functions: The model for RBI is the Bank of England and its Central banking functions are similar. 2. Issue of currency notes Originally provision was for issuing currency notes according to proportional reserve system but not elastic and did not suit the developmental planning. According to RBI (Amendment Act), Reserve system was introduced, a minimum reserve system of Rs. 515 CR (Rs. 400 Cr in foreign securities, Rs. 115 Cr in gold coins) was to be kept. The provisions regarding maintenance of reserves was again amended on October 31st 1957, which foreign exchange reserve to Rs. 200 G,. of this value of good was not to be at any time less than Rs. 115 Cr. 2. Bankers to Govt. It is bankers agent & advisor. The RBI has obligations to transact the banking business of the central and state govts. It accepts money and makes payment on the govt. behalf and carry out exchanges and remittances, manages the public debts and issues new loans. RBI [Govt] 1. Advices Govt. on quantum and terms of new loans 2. Sells treasury bills 3. Makes wages and means of advance short term loans, repayable within 90 days from the date of advance.
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4. RBI is the sole agent for transacting govt. receipts and payments. 5. Advices on banking policies, financial matters and planning & resource mobilization. 3. Bankers Bank: Controls commercial banking system under the RBI Act, 1934 and Banking Regulation Act 1949. Assists scheduled commercial banks [Banks where affairs are not conducted in a manner detrimental to depositors interest must maintain a cash reserve (as decided by RBI). With RBI against their demand and time liabilities RBI can also direct the bank to maintain 100% CR against all deposits received after a specified date; these banks should submit weekly statement of their transactions to the RBI] and state Co-op. Banks. RBI considers factors such as the financial its tending policy and securities offered. While making advances to it. It can deny residenting without any reason. The regulatory functions of RBI under Banks Regulatory Act 1949 are: 1. Licensing of Banks 2. Branch Expansion 3. Liquidity of assets of commercial bank 4. Management and methods of working 5. Amalgamation 6. Reconstruction and liquidation According to RBI (Amendment) Act, Reserve system was introduced, a minimum reserve system of Rs. 515 Cr (Rs. 400 cr in foreign securities Rs. 15 Cr in gold coins) was to be kept. The provisions regarding maintenance of reserves were again amended on October 31, 1957 which reduced. The amount of gold (coin and billion) and foreign exchange reserve to Rs. 200 Cr, of this value of gold was not take at any time less than Rs. 15 Cr.
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2. Banker to the Govt. It is banker, agent and advisor. The RBI has the obligation to transact the banking business of the central and state government. It accepts money and makes payment on the govt. behalf and carry out exchange and remittance, manages public debt and issues loans. RBI Govt. 1. Advices govt. on quantum and term of new loans 2. Sells treasury bills 3. Makes ways and means of advance – short term loans, repayable within 90 days from the date of advance. 4. SBI is the sole agent for transacting govt. receipts and payment 5. Advices on banking policies, financial matters. Developmental activities RBI established the deposit insurance corporation of India in 1962 with the 12% of period of security to deposits. Established UTI in 1969 to mobilize savings. To small investors, UTI offers the advantages of reduced risk, steady income, liquidity etc. Assisted development of short term coop credit for agri and also participated in establishing the agri refinance and development coop covers in 1963. Half of capital (Rs. 100 Cr) of NABARD has been provided by the RBI. Control of Credit by RBI RBI Act of 1934 & BR Act of 1949 RBI like any central bank resort sto bank rate manipulations, open market ops, reserve requirement changes, direct action, rationing of credit and moral
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suatium. It also influences commercial banks lending policy, rate of interest, form of securities against loans and portfolio distribution. Stabilises external value of Rupee and therefore its function is of an custodian of nations foreign exchange reserves. Its obligatory for the RBI to budget sell currencies of all IMF members. 5. Credit control Has all authority to use qualitative and quantitative methods of credit control, but are ineffective. 6. Agricultural Finance Other integrated scheme of agriculture credit was implemented, RBI role from lender of last resort changed to that of an active agency for promotion of appropriate specialized agencies of agricultural, finance the setting up of NABARD in 1982. 7. Collection and publication of data The RBI has been entrusted which the task of collection of compilation of statistical into related to banking and other financial sectors of economy. RBI bulletin – monthly – presents was only above function but also provides results important studies and investigations conducted by RBI. Report on currency and finance is an annual publication which provides comprehensive review of various development of economic and financial importance.


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Effectiveness depends on 3 factors Commercial banks in the country should not be oversee to availing rediscounting facility from the central bank. Bank do not maintain any excess can be reserve agreement deposit and if extra ordinary demands are made by the depositors, they should get bills rediscounted from central bank. Banks must hold adequate quantity of such credit instruments which will be rediscounted by the central bank as per the legislation. Last two conditions are not satisfied in India. Firstly commercial bank are not much dependent on RBI for financial assistance. Sedcondly in the absence of a will organize bill market, they lack adequate quantity of eligible bill which can be rediscounted from the RBI. Carries of money market each pre requisite for the success of RBI bank rate policy. Open Market operations RBI can authorizes the RBI to conduct purchase and sale ops in the govt. securities, treasury bills and other approved securities. The silver several little purposes. RBI has been extensively undertaking “Switch operations” (purchasing of one sale of another or vice versa). Fiscal Policy Def: Is the government’s programme of taxation, expenditure and other financial operations to achieve certain national goals. The objectives are derived from the aspiration and goals of the society. Objectives are: i) ii) iii) Economic growth Promotion of employment Economic stability &
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Economic justice or equity

These objectives vary from country to country and from time to time. The objectives are growth, employment and equality. The two basic instruments that are used to achieve the social goals are taxation and public expenditure. RBI attempted to raise resources by selling govt. securities for meeting development as well as defence requirements. There is fiscal bias. RBI’s sales of govt’s securities has been kept up by imposing a statutory condition on various financial institutions to invest a portion of chair income/deposits in the govt. and other approved securities. Now RBI doesn’t purchase securities against each payment. CRR – RBI Act 1956 – RBI acquired the power to change reserve requirement of CB’s between 5 & 20% in reserve respect of their demand liabilities between 2 & 8% in respect of their time liabilities. RBI direct scheduled bank to keep certain reserves of their liabilities created after a specified date in cash. RBI Act was again amends in 1962 which fixed CRR at 3% for all liabilities. Range is 3-15%. This tech is been implied for last 2½ decades for controlling inflation. SLR: BR Act 1949, enabled the CB’s to liquidate their govt. security holdings wherever RBI increase CRR. The logphole was what a minimum of 25% SLR could be maintained. RBI can raise amounts 15% System of different rates In 1960 RBI introduced a system of lending rates on slab basis. It was effective for 4 years till it was replaced by her liquidity ratio system.
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Formulation of Tax Policy Tax policy existed due to recommendations of dozens of tax enquiry committees and review panels and deliberations on the recommendations in the parliament. It is formulated, reformulated to make it fair, equitable and efficient. This started in early 1950’s by appointment of a number of committees. 1. Taxation Enquiry Committee (TEC) 1953-54 to suggest suitable tax measures for mobilizing additional tax revenue. 2. Nicholas Kaldor Committee – 1956 under chairmanship of Prof. Nicholas Kaldor, tax expert of Britain to suggest new tax measures to augment govt. revenue. 3. Direct Taxes Administration Committee: (Tyagi Committee) 1958 i) ii) iii) iv) A scheme of integration of direct taxes To prevent tax evasion To simplify the procedure of tax compliance The committee on rationalization & simplification of the tax structure (Bhoothalingam committee) – 1967 to suggest measures to reform the tax system and to prevent tax evasion. v) vi) Direct taxes enquiry committee (Wanchoo committee) 1971 – to suggest tax reform measures to prevent tax evasion. Indirect taxation enquiry committee (Jha Committee) – 1976 – To find and examine the sources of anomalies on the indirect tax system and to explore the possibility of implementing Value Added Tax (VAT) system in place of excise duties. vii) Direct tax laws committee (Chaksi committee) 1978 to suggest measures to simplify and rationalize tax laws to improve the implementation viii) Basic Function of tax policy: Tax policy was designed to perform two basic functions.
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India’s Taxation Policy 1950-1990 Was formed primarily to meet the financial needs of the country in the postindependence period. The problem faced was how to mobilize adequate financial resources to finance the development programmes chalked out in 5 year plans. Financial resources has to be increased 4 times, so that rate of capital formation could be stepped up from 5% of national income to say 20%. The known source of development finance taxation, domestic borrowing, external borrowing on foreign aid had the potentials of yielding adequate development finance. Taxable potential was very low as income was low and per capita borrowing was lower. The repayment near slow. So taxation policy was formulated. Revenue function Revenue collection is the primary objective of India’s tax policy. The state and central government levies taxing power extensively and intensively. The taxes imposed are from 1950, 1. estate duty 2. Wealth tax 3. Gift tax 4. Expenditure tax 5. Capital gains tax A tax rates were imposed on direct indirect taxes. Central Excise duty is imposed on all imaginable non-agriculture products. High import duty is imposed on almost all items of exports. Estate government imposes tax on
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New in 1950

1) Agricultural income tax on large holding tax 2) Surcharge of cash crops 3) Profession tax 4) Tax on urban property 5) Sales tax on motor spirit 6) Motor vehicle tax 7) Tax on passengers and goods, entertainment Industrial Finance Sources of finance for small and medium scale industries Both medium and small scale industries require capital for plant and machinery, production and final disposal. The capital varies in rural areas they have to borrow from money lenders or land owners and pay high interest rate. In urban areas, capital is better mobilized. The banks charge rate of interest often ranging between 24 to 36% and not be able to raise necessary capital. a) Loans by Commercial Banks For long time CBs did not bother small and medium scale industries. SBI with RBI took the initiative of setting up a pilot scheme for the provision of credit for small scale industries. The schemes was extended to all branches of SBI. Others CBs were slow in lending by March 1966 they had made advances amount to Rs. 90 crores to small units with nationalization more advance to S & M industries. b) Credit Guarantee Scheme for S & M I Came into force in July 1980. this is a important phase, the objective of the scheme was to provide a measure of protection to specified banks irrespective of their loans to small borrowers in the priority sectors of S & MI. the administration was with RBI, but was transferred to the Deposit Insurance & Credit Guarantee
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Co-op (DICGC). This operates 5 schemes – 4 for small borrowers and one for S & MI. The advances to small borrowers is Rs. 25,600 crores. 515 Credit institute are participating in the 5th scheme. c) National Small Industrial Co-op. (NSIC) Was set up in February 1955, for the purpose of assisting, financing, protecting and promoting the S / I in India. Functions are 1. To secure govt. order for output of SI unit. 2. To provide financial, technical and other assistance to fulfil orders. 3. To secure coordination between large and small scale industries to enable small scale. In order to manufacture ancillaries and component parts required by the large-scale industries. 4. To underwrite and guarantee loans from banks and other credit institute. It also introduced hire purchase of machineries on easy payments. It conducts surveys and secures contracts from central government. SIDBI Set up by Govt. of India under a Special Act of the Parliament in April 1990 as wholly owned subsidiary of SIDBI. It has taken over the outstanding portfolio of IDBI relating to the small scale sector worth over Rs. 4,000 crores. Authorised capital of SIDBI is Rs. 250 crores – which can be increased to Rs. 1,000 crores. Role: 1. Principal interest for SBI 2. Coordinate functions of other banks and financial institutions
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3. Administer small industries for fund and national equity fund. Functions: 1. Refinances loans and advance extended by primary lending institute and provide resources support system. 2. Rediscount on discounts bills arising from sale of machinery. 3. Grants direct assistance as well as refinance loans extended by primary lending institute for financing export of products manufactured by last for industrial concerns in SSI. 4. Extends financial support to state small industries development corporation for providing scarce raw materials to marketing the end products of industrial units in the SSI. 5. Provided financial support to NSIC for providing leasing, hire purchase and marketing support to IU. SIDBI was set up to ensure larges flow of financial assistance to SSI. Technical upgradation and modernization of existing units, expanding channel for marketing. Mission: 1. Stimulate the promotion of new industries 2. Assist the expansion and modernization 3. Furnish technical and managerial aid 1. Long term or medium term loans, both rupee loans and foreign currency loans. 2. Participates in equity capital and in debenture and underwrites new issues of shares and debenture. 3. Guarantees loans from other private investment sources.
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4. Provides financial services such as deferred capital, leasing credit, instalment sale, asset credit and venture capital. 5. The total financial assistance amounted to Rs. 12,480 crores in 1955 up to March 1990. While its disbursement amounted to Rs. 8090 crores. This consisted of foreign currency, loans, rupee loans, guarantee and subscription of shares and debentures. Commenced leasing operation in 1983. It provide leasing assistance for computerization, modernization / replacement, equipment of energy conversation, export orientation and pollution control etc. In 1977, KICI promoted the housing development finance corporation (HDFC). Apart from HDFC, other institute are 1. CRISIL – Credit Rating Information Services of India Ltd set up ICICI in association with UTI to provide credit rating services to corporate sector. 2. Technical Development and Information Company of India Ltd (TDICI) promoted by ICICI to finance the transfer and upgradation of technical provide technical information/ 3. Programme for the Advancement of Commercial Tech (PACT) set up with a grant of us $ 10 M provided by US AID to assist market oriented R & D activity, jointly undertaken by Indian companies, ICICI has undertaken the administration and management. 4. Programme for acceleration of commercial energy research (PACER), funded by US AID with a grant of US 40 M to support selected research and technical development proposal in Indian energy sector.


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UTI – Unit Trust of India UTI was formally established in February 1964, to extend facilities of investment in equity capital of companies, by the large and growing number of small investors in the middle income group of the community. Initial capital was 5 Crores which was subscribed fully by RBI, the LIC, the SBI and scheduled banks and other financial institutions. The management and direction is entrusted in the hands of the trust and in hands of Board of Trustees. Primary objective: [two fold] 1. Stimulate and pool the savings of the middle and low income group. 2. Enable them to share the benefits and prosperity of the reply granting industrialiszation in the country. It could be achieved in three fold: 1. By selling units of the trust among as many investors as possible in different parts of the country. 2. By investing the sale proceeds of the unit and also the initial capital fund of Rs. 5 crores in industrial and corporate securities. 3. By paying divides to those who have bought the units of the trust.


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Industrial Reconstruction Bank of India (IRBI) Was set up in 1971 April an institution named IRCI – Industrial Reconstruction Corporation of India under Indian Companies Act to look after “sick” industries and for speedy reconstructions and rehabilitation and developing infrastructure facilities like transport and marketing etc. On August 1984, the Govt. of India passed and act converting the IRCI into Industrial Reconstruction Bank of India (IRBI). IRBI was established in March 1985, for revival, assisting and promoting industrial development and rehabilitating industrial concern. IRBI extends credit to sick small scale units emphasis on continuous modernization, improve productivity and upgrade technology. Export – Import Bank of India Commonly known as Exem Bank, was set up on January 1982 to take over operations of the internal financial wing of the IDBI (to provide financial assistance to exporters and importers). It provides refinance facilities to CB’s and FI against export – import. Capital Resources Authorized capital of Exim Bank is Rs. 200 crore and paid up capital is Rs. 100 Cr. Wholly subscribed by the Central Govt. can raise currency from govt. and foreign currency from other countries. Functions: 1. Financing for exports and imports of good and services 2. Financing for exports & imports of machinery 3. Financing of joint ventures in foreign countries
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Presently 9 lending operations are undertaken: 1. Loans to Indian companies a) Direct financial assistance to exporters b) Technical consultancy services c) Oversees investment d) Pre-shipment credit 2. Loans to foreign govt. companies & PI are provided under: a) Overseas buyers credit scheme b) Lifes of credit to foreign govts and relending facility to banks overseas. c) Overseas Investment d) Pre-shipment credit 3. Loans to cities in India include a) Export bills re discounting schemes of short bills b) Refinance of export credit. IDBI – Industrial Development Bank of India Set up 1947 to provide long term finance in industry. Till 1976 it was a wholly owned subsidiary of the RBI. In 1976, IDBI was delinked from RBI and was taken over the Govt. of India. Functions of the IDBI
1. Direct Assistance: By way of projects loans, underwriting of a direct

subscription to industrial securities, soft loans, technical refund loans and equipment finance loans. It subscribes to purchase and underwrite the issue of stocks, shares and bonds or debentures. 2. Indirect Assistance: 1. Can refinance term loans to industrial concerns repayable within 3 to 25 years given by the IFCI and State finances.
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2. Refinance term loans repayable between 3-10 years given by scheduled banks or state cooperative banks. It can refinance bank and state cooperative banks. 3. Special Assistance: IDBI Act 1964 has provided for the creation of a special fund known as the development assistance fund. It provides assistance to backward areas in relation to industrial development with the financial institute gives advances to small scale sector for regional development and soft loan scheme. Industrial Finance 1. Short-term finance: Refers to the funds required for a period of less than one year required to meet variables seasonal or temporary working capital requirement. Banks are primary sources. 2. Medium term finance 1-5 years may be regarded as medium term. Is required for permanent working capital, small expansions, replacements and modifications etc. Corporate Securities Corporate securities are instruments by capital is raised by joint stock companies. There are two classes: 1. Ownership securities Are the shares by which the owned capital is raised.


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Kinds of shares: 1. Preference shares: are those which have preference that right to the payment of dividend during the life time of the company and a preferential sight to the return of capital when the company is wound up. Characteristics 1. Dividends are fixed 2. Those who hold PS get their dividends before others 3. During wind up also they get the money first. Kinds 1. Cumulative PS: Have fired dividends whether these are profits or no profits. If profits are not sufficient then dividend are accumulated and paid the next year. 2. Convertible cumulative PS: Introduced in 1955. the CCP share can be converted to equity any time between the third and fifth years of the issue. 3. Non cumulative PS: They cannot claim arrears of dividends of any year out of the profits of subsequent year. 4. Participating preference shares: Shareholders receive a fixed rate of dividend in priority to ordinary share, have sight to participate in the balance of profit in an agreed proportion together with ordinary shareholders have voting rights. 5. Non-participating PS: Entitled to only fixed share of dividends and have no claim in surplus profit, do not have voting right. 6. Redeemable PS: Shares which can be purchased back by the company at any time. 7. Irredeemable PS: That cannot be purchased back


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Equity Shares Shares that are not preference shares are equity shares. They don’t have fixed rate of dividend. Once the claims of dividend of PS are complete the FS get them. They are irredeemable and holders handle normal voting rights. Two types of equity shares: According to company’s act. 1. With voting rights 2. With differential rights as to the dividend, voting or otherwise in accordance with such rates of subject to conditions as may be prescribed. Included by the Act by companies (Amendment) Act 2000. 3. It may consolidate and divide all or any part of share capital into shares of a large amount. 4. May correct all or any of its fully paid up shares into stock and vice versa. 5. Can sub divide the existing shares into shares of lower denominations. 6. Can also cancel shares which have not been take up and reduce its capital 7. Can be done by company and don’t need court permission. Creditorship Securities Consists of Debentures and bonds and credit instruments that are used by companies to raise funds. The complaint raised is known as “Borrowed Capital or Debt Capital.” Debentures: A document under the company’s scale which provides for the payment of a principal sum and interest thereon at regular intervals which is agency secured by a fixed or floating charge on the company is property or undertaking which acknowledges a loan to the company.


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Classes: 1. Redeemable and sure deemable (perpetual) 2. Mortgage and simple 3. By a charge on the assets or property of the company 4. Spread over in different cities 5. Estimates of deposit and annual turnover is not available 6. RBI has no control over the lending activities Nidhi operate – South India Some kind of mutual funds Restricted only to the member Indigenous bankers are individual firms which receive deposits and give loans and thereby operate as banks. The activities not regulated. They do not constitute a homogeneous group. Organized Sector Commercial Banks, FI, Mutual Funds and Discount and Finance House of India Limited. The principal constituents of the Indian Money Market is 1. The Call Money Market: Overnight and money at short notice for periods upto 14 days. It is meant to balance the short term needs of banks, exist in developed markets. 2. Market which deals with treasury bills is called treasury bills market. They are short term liability of the Central Govt. Issue to meet revenue deficits. The market is undeveloped. RBI is the captive holder of these bonds. It is also auctioned. 3. The Repo Market: Is a money market which helps in collateralized short term borrowing and lending through sale purchase operations of debt
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instruments. It is sold by their holder to an investor with an agreement to repurchase them at a predetermined rate and date. 4. The Commercial Bill market: Is sub market where commercial bills trade bill are handled. The commercial bill is a bill drawn by one merchant firm on the another. They arise only out of domestic transactions. Purpose is to reimburse seller, but buyer delays payments. 5. The Certificate of Deposit Market: Issued by bank to depositors of funds that remain on deposit at the bank for a specified period. They are similar to term deposits but are negotiable and trade able in the short term money market. 6. Commercial Paper: Is short term instrument of raising funds by corporates. It’s a sort of unsecured private placement: Is the sale of an entire issue of securities by a company directly to one or few investors, usually financial institutions. The appeal made to sell and buy through brokers. E.g. Insurance companies, investment companies, trust accounts, pension and provident funds etc. the growth of institutional investors ha increased the scope of private placing. Methods: 1. Standing Behind the issue: Underwriter guarantees the sales of a specified number of shares within a specified period. If it doesn’t sell underwriter buys it. Convertible and unconvertible Convertible debentures the holders have the option to convert their debenture holdings into equity share of the company at a specified rate after a specified period.


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New Issues – Marketing of Securities The securities market may be divided into: i) New Issue Market and ii) Stock Exchange Limitations: 1. For a new company with new and unknown promoters, it is not advisable. 2. If company fails to generate sufficient response, this is a flop. Money Market Money market refers to a mechanism whereby on the one hand borrowers manage to obtain short term loanable funds and on the other, tenders succeed in getting credit worthy borrowers for their money. The Indian Money Market: Is not integral – of two types 1. Organised and 2) Un organized Unorganized sector Confined to small towns and villages. The indigenous bankers are financial intermediaries. Among these the most prominent are financial companies, chit funds and Nidhis. They give loans to retail on wholesalers, artisans and other selfemployed persons. They charge from 36-48% of interests. The chit funds are saving institutions. Chit Funds – Not in Kerala and Tamil Nadu 1. Have regular members who make subscription 2. Collection is given to member of the fund


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Outright Purchase The underwriter purchase the issue outright and resell the securities to investors. Purchase price may be negotiated or may be determined by competitive bidding. The Consortium Method: Syndicated Method Underwriting is jointly done by a group of underwriters who form a syndicate for this purpose. Adopted for new issues, risk is widespread. Advantages 1. Relieves the issue of the risk. 2. To fulfil minimum requirements 3. Reduces specialized functions 4. Have expert knowledge of the capital market conditions 5. Assist in mobilization of funds in the capital market 6. Help stabilize capital markets Participation Certificate Like certificate of deposits PCs are also issued by banks normally for periods ranging from three months to 6 months. Maximum period to one year. In need of funds, it allows a bank to obtain from other banks and financial institutions. Money Market mutual Funds Was introduced by RBI in April 1992, the objective was to provide an addition short term avenue to the individual investors. Initial guideline were not attractive, as didn’t receive any positive response. To make is attractive Rs. 50 crore is been given as limitation to the banks and FI from November 1995.


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Characteristics 1. Lack of integration No coordination between organized and unorganized sector. One doesn’t have effect on others. There is no coordination and cooperation between them. The indigenous bankers have no connections with RBI. 2. Lack of Rational Interest Rate Structure Due to lack of coordination between banks. Too many concession rates, no fixed interest, inappropriate lending and borrowing. Shortage of funds in the MM The loanable funds far exceed its supply. Due to small savings, low per capita income, poverty, population and wasteful consumption. Seasonal stringency of funds and fluctuation in interest rates India, basically farm regulated, and has bearing on funds demand and supply. Oct – June require additional finance a monetary stringency is crated. Inadequate Banking facilities Though we have opened CBs everywhere, but still lack in banking facilities. Rural areas still to be covered. Reform measures 1. Introduction of stamp duty 2. Deregulation of interest rates from May 1985 by RBI have activated MM 3. Many MM Instruments are realtered 4. The introduction of Repo in December 1992, its an agreement with CBs and RBI.


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Capital Market Capital – Health used in the production of funds wealth. It is the money and money value investors in business unit. A business enterprise can raise capital from various sources. Long term trends can be raised either through issue of securities by borrowing from certain institutions. Borrowers of Capital are: Central & State Govts and Local Govts. Public Corporations Business units Lenders are: Individual investors Institutional investors Banks Special Industrial financing institutions The MM and CM are interdependent 1. Suppliers / refers to operate in both markets within their frame work of investment. 2. User also opt for both markets. 3. Short term and long term rates are interdependent. 4. Some institution serve both money and capital market.


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Role of Capital Markets in India’s Industrial Growth 1. For financing Five Year Plans 2. Mobilization of savings and accusation of capita formation Paucity of resources and increasing demand for investments by industrial organization in India. Capital upto is important. 3. Promotion of Industrial Growth Stock exchange is a central market through about resources are transferred to the industrial sector of the economy. Encourage people to invest in productive rates than non productive channel. 4. Raising long term capital Permanent capital is raised for a permanent present born companies require funds permanently. The exchange gives investors to buy on sell their securities while permanent capital with the companies remain same. 5. Ready and continuous market: Stock market is every element of marketability makes investment with more liquid as compared to other assets. 6. Proper channelisation of funds Not only creates liquidity through its pricing mechanism, but also functions to allocate resources to the most efficient industries. To channalise their funds in a particular company. 7. Provision of a variety of services FI provide variety of services i)

Grant of long term and medium term loans in entrepreneurs.
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ii) iii) iv) v)

Provision of underwriting facilities Assistance in promotion of companies Participation in equity capital Expect advice i\on management of investment in industrial service

Function Provides services to both corporate and investor class sectors useful services. 1. Ready and continuous market Provides a convenient place where shares can be bought and sold. Easy marketability make investment in securities more liquid as compared to other assets. 2. Protection to Investors The functioning is regulated and conducted by well laid rules. Provides safety to investors. After 1992 scare everything comes under (SEBI). 3. Provides information to assess the real worth of securities Trading is continuous and prices are determined by their supply and demand. The prices are openly communicated to the public known as “Market quotations.” 4. Proper channelisation of funds Flow of funds is into most efficient industries. The prevailing market price of a security and relative yield are the guiding factor for the people in channel is their funds in particular company.


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5. Promotion of Industrial Growth The funds are invested in productive channels than unproductive sections like real estate, building etc. this stimulates industrial growth. 6. Accelerates capital formation The positive features of the stock market encourage peoples to save and invest in corporate securities. The twin fee market of recoverable return and liquidity are definite incentive to the people to invest in securities. 7. Raising long term capital Stock exchange offers investors opportunity to investors to buy and sell their securities while retaining the permanent capital. 8. Impact of company performance 9. Economic barometer Stock exchange prices are important economic indicated of the performance. Advantages 1. Benefits to community: a) Promotes industrial growth and eco. Development Inculcates habits of saving and accelerates the process of capital for margin Optimum utilization of saree resource Give picture of the economic of state and country Manages fund for public sector


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Management: It is managed by an Executive Committee Council of Management / Governing body which is an elects body. The government is empowered to nominate not more than three members on the government body. Functions 1) Ensure – Rules are observed by members 2) To protect the interests of the investing public 3) To approve the quotation of new shares. Membership: It is registered and governed by various regulations. It ensures that the person is of good moral conduct, component, possess enough experience and are financially sound can become its members. They enjoy special privileges. Non members are not allowed to enter the floor. Remisieres act as agents for the members and receive commission on the business procedure by them. Also known as they commission men. Authorised clerk: Act on behalf of their members employer do not get commission. Types of Dealings 1. Ready delivery contracts: These involves investment transactions care known as cash trading. The settlement is done within a fixed time, noted seven days from date of contract. When settled same day it is spo delivery contracts. 2. Forward Delivery contracts: Involves speculative transactions are known as forward. Trading the speculators are interests in dealings. It is done on fixed settlement days on the end of every fortnight through clearing house only. 3. Clearing house: An institution share accounts brokers are settled. All transactions are taken into account.
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4. Speculation and speculators: Speculation – Refers to making quick profits by anticipating the changes in the prices of shares. Speculative transactions are carried out in the stock exchange day in and day out. 5. Bulls: Speculators who are optimist and crytallise in prices and purchase shares. 6. Bears: Speculators who sell in anticipation and fall of prices in future. 7. Stages: who buy large amount of a new issue of share enabling them to sell these shares at a profit. Growth of Indian Stock Markets The first organized stock exchange was established in India at Mumbai in 1857 and was styled as the native share and stock brokers associations. Mumbai was followed by Ahmebad share and store brokers association in 1894, Calcutta Stock Exchange association in 1903 and the Madras Stock Exchange Association (Private) Ltd in 1931. when the Securities (Contracts) Regulation Act 1956 was passed only % stock exchanges viz., Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Kolkatta, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad and Indore, received recognition. 23 stock exchanges are recognized. National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) Was set up in November 1992 by IDBI, UTI and other finance institutions. NSE commenced operations in the whole debt market (WDM) in June 1994 and trading in equities was started in the Capital Market (CM) segment in November 1994. The WEM is concerned with trading in govt. securities, treasury bills, PSU bonds, CDs and CPs and corporate debentures and the main participation in this market are bank, financial institutions and large corporate. All transactions in debt securities through brokers. This is aimed to ensure transparency and facilitate regulation. The capital market segment of NSE
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provides facility for trading of equal instruments, warrants, debentures, preferences shares etc. both the segments of the NSE have grown substantially over the years. The regime in which trading on NSE operates is characterized by 4 key innovations: 1. The physical floor was replaced by anonymous computerized order matching with strict price time priority 2. The limitations of being in Mumbai and the limitation of India’s public telecom network, were avoided by using. Satellite communications NSE has a net work of 2,000 satellite terminals all over the country. 3. NSE is not owned by brokers. It is a limited liability company and brokers are franchises.
4. Traditional practices of unrealiable fortnightly settlement cycle with the

crepe clause of badly were replaced by a strict weekly settlement cycle without badla. Export Contribution Export contribution can be divided in three phases. Phase I – a) 1952-66 – First three year plan [passively b) 1966-73 – export insufficient expansion 1) FD loans because of Jute, tea, cotton, textile, oil seeds and vegetable oil, raw cotton, hide a etc. 2) Export duties affected the export commodities 3) Growing strength of domestic demand was increased.


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Phase II – started in 1973 and lasted for decrease. Exports were given high priority. Effective nominal exchange rate of the rupee depreciate in the 1970. Import Substitution Objectives are: 1. To save scarce foreign exchange for the import of more important goods. 2. To achieve self reliance in the production of as many goods as possible. Import Policy 1. I Phase – Import substitution mostly took the form of domestic production of consumer goods. 2. II Phase – Emphasis shifted to the replacement of the import of capital goods. 3. III Phase – Emphasis was on reducing the dependency on imported technology by developing and encouraging the use of indigenous techniques. The immediate aim of import substitution in this country was the conservation of foreign exchange. It long fun objective was to initiate structural changes of far reaching significance in the economy. The result is industrial sections as achieved diversification and depth necessary for future growth. Indian Society Social system is a very broad concepts. It includes the people, the government, political, educational and industrial economic environments imbibed in it. Indian Society basically a traditional society. Now in the recent times changing towards modernity. The family values, traditions and culture is rich in
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India than any other country. The quality of life have improved due to employment and high earning. The society stands for certain beliefs, values which are a source of institutional drive. The different languages keep people bonded together. Indian society is very sensitive culture of Indian society has changed slowly, but will require much more time to adapt to modernization. No. of prejudices exists in these environment. Acceptance of new is not immediate. The society is also turning into liberalization. Women in middle class families enjoy greater freedom. The change is gradually taking place, from ethical and tradition to modern and silicon. Culture Refers to that part of the total repertoire of human action (15 product) which is socially as opposed to genetically transmitted. E. B. Taylor defines, “culture of civilization is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief art, morals, law, custom and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of social. Culture is There is human product of social interaction Provides pattern for meeting biological and socio needs. Handed down from generation to generation Symbolic quality Learned by each person
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A basic determinant of personality For continued functions of society

Elements of Culture 1. Knowledge and belief: Refers to a peoples prevailing motions of reality. They include myths and metaphysical beliefs as well as scientific realities. 2. Ideals: Refers to societal norms which define what is expected; customary, right or proper in a given situation. Follows norms of proper behavior. References: Refers to society’s definitions of those things in life which are attractive or unattractive as objects of desire. Organization of culture Refers to the social structure and the integration of traits, complexes and patterns that make up the cultural system. Stratification i.e. differentiation based on criteria such as age, sex, caste, occupation, education, income is an important aspect of social status and cultural organization. Each stratum has its own role limitation and rank. The organism of culture is determined to a large extent by major social institutions. The important common institutions of modern cultures are the eco system, the political administrative system, the educational system, religion, family, expressionistic, aesthetic and recreational institutions. They are established to mice and common societal needs. Cultural traits (unit as observation [like normal behavior, shaking hands or saying namaste, or an articraft like wooden bowl). Cultural pattern (specific and enduring system of trait complexes) [Refers to major segments of the culture.]


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Cultural adaptation Refers to the manner in which a social system or an individual fits into the physical or social environment. Adaptation is essential for survival e.g. oil energy crisis. Culture Shock: Environment changes produces culture, shock – a feeling of confusion, in security and caused by strangers of new environment. E.g. movement from urban to rural and vice versa. Cultural Transmission The important character is its transmissive quality. It is transmitted from one generation to the next and to the new members admitted to the culture. Culture accumulates more techniques, ideas, products and skills. Cultural transmission takes place by means of symbolic communication. A symbol is any sign signal or word that conveys a meaning. It also facilitates cultural diffusion is the spread of cultural elements from one place to another. Can be done through high educational change and communication. Cultural conformity Individuals in a community either conform or deviate from cultural norms. Cultural conformity follows that the most important process in society is that which ensures that people do indeed meet their role obligation. By William F. Orgburn says that various parts of modern culture do not change at the same rate; and that since there is a correlation and interdependence of parts, a rapid change in one part of our culture requires read. Investments through other changes in various co-related parts of that culture. The important factors that contribute do cultural lag are ignorance, wrong nations, conservation, sentiment factors, political factors and vested interests.
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Cultural Traits 1. Low context and high context cultures: High context is one that places great value on the intangible aspects of a negotiation or business deal. They look beyond facts and figures and take into consideration factors like personal relationships, atmosphere and attitudes towards respect, religion and trust. Low context: Assumes a high degree of shared knowledge on the behalf of a transaction partner and thus deals only with tangible aspects of the deals as facts, figures and performance. Atmosphere and personal relationship means little. Business can be done without meeting face to face. 2. Masculine and Famine culture: Masculine: Appreciates aggressiveness and assertiveness while respecting the goal of material acquisition. Achievements is more important than building long term relationship. Success is the function of individual and society is made up of leaders follows. Feminine: Appreciates inter-personal relationship put quality of life before material acquisition, appalled concern for individuals and less fortunate. Mitchell observes “Business tends to be more pedestrian in cultures with a majority of feminine trail. Business hinges more on personal relationships – friends doing business with friends, rather than on pure efficiency and written contracts. 3. Monochromic and Poly chronic societies; Monochronic: How a culture views time. It is used for ordering one’s life, prioritizing and for doing task in sequential order – one thing at a time societies of developed world.


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Polychronic: uses time to accomplish diverse goals simultaneously and to interact with as more individuals as possible – even at same time. 4. Universalism vs. particularism: Fans Tompenaalis identified five cultural dimensions. Universalism: ideas and beliefs can be applied Particularism: holds that the environment dictates how ideas should be applied. 5. Neutral Vs. Emotional Emotional are held in check E.g. Japan Emotions are openly and naturally UR expressed. People smile a great deal, talk loudly when exited, greet each other enthusiastically E.g. India, Mexico and Swiss 7. Specific Vs. Diffuse Individuals have a large public space Both public and private space are and they readily let others enter and similar in size & individuals guard their share & a small private space they public space affords entry into private guard closely and share with only close space as well. E.g. China, Spain friend association. E.g. UK, US & Swiss Individuals are open & extra separation No open to public space of work and private life open to public space.


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8. Achievement Vs. Ascription People are accorded status based on Status is attributed based on who or how well they perform their functions. what a person is. Accords status based Give high status to high achievers Politics There are not radical differences in the philosophic of major political parties in some countries, the situation is quite different in others. The government system in a number countries, including several countries which are making rapid eco progress and having liberal policies towards foreign capital and technical is not very democratic. Indian politics believes in nationalism, but now with the liberalization, globalization, the countries are in a competition to woo foreign capital and technology. As a result there has been an influx of foreign investment to the countries like ours. The restrictions and regulations, trade policies, procedures, incentive system as all very different in Indian political system. Coalition governments of different political practices are becoming common. The constituents of the coalition are parties with very different economic ideologies, making the scenario complex or confusing / uncertain. Some political leaders are so powerful that they wild enormous control over the party. E.g. Mamta Banerjee, Jailalitha, Uma Bharathi, Advani, Chandrababu Naidu (CEO). There is a universal trend towards political decentralization. Thisnindicates some shifts in the power centres firms have to deal with. Universally, the desire of ethnic groups to become independent of the supremacy of others is growing. on age, gender, or social connections.


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Positive of modernization on business and society 1. Leads to innovations 2. Increases productivity 3. Produce technically superior goods 4. Cost reduction 5. Spread of competition outside the national boundary 6. Greater output 7. Short working hours 8. Skilled jobs 9. Safe working conditions 10. Efficient use of raw materials 11. On standards of living increase Negatives 1. Displacement of labour [unemployment] 2. Lower wages 3. Aged immobility [idleness] 4. Gap between management workers 5. Old crafts and craftmenship declines 6. Loss of identity as man becomes machine 7. In fast changing society Even after 58 years of independence, Indian economy is still under developed. The per capital income is very low and 60% to 70% seek employment. Widespread unemployment is a normal feature. The increase of life expectancy has increased the population.


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Poverty level is as high as 48.44% and the per capita income (2004) is as low as $ 620 which is not even 1/6th of the USA’s income. In rural India 37.3% and urban 32.4% are under poverty line. Indian society is dependent on agricultural sector. Low productivity is a cause of worry. In India life expectancy is 33 years compared to 70 years in middle income economies. In 2001 India’s population was 1,027 million against 361 million in 1951. The feeding increases and usage of natural resources also increases. This rapid growth in population has resulted in unemployment. Another factor is low capital formation results in slow growth and it is also due to technological backwardness. Racisim, casteism is also a major social issue. This has led to harassment of the workers. Child labour and corruption has creped into the society as a devil which cannot be fought. With increase in population the rise in the slum population has also caused problems. Land acquisition, deforestation is also part of this evil. Water, air, noise, pollution has increased. A shift to urban cities have brought in urban culture and values, beliefs of traditions are decreasing.


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Environmental Issues Till recently the business had not cared for ecological effects of its activities. Guided entirely by its profit maximization goals the industry caused tremendous damage to exhaustible natural resources such as minerals and forests. It also contaminated water and polluted air. Environmental degradation is in the process. Expensive of industrial towns has caused for pollution to reach population. The pollutants discharged by these industries damage the health and reduce output from local agriculture and industry damage infrastructure and buildings. Excessive usage of non renewable resources have caused threat to the extension of distinction. Some of the wastes that are thrown are not disposable safely. The ability of natural environment to absorb waste is not infinite. Parts of natural environment may serve more than one function. E.g. ocean are important in delimining the life support system of the global and micro climates; they are sources of many minerals and other resources, they assimilate many different wastes; and they also provide the space and opportunity for marine past times. With increase in income, municipal wastes increases and carbon dioxide emissions per capita increase With increase in income some problems decrease. 1. Public sanitation system 2. Rural electricity


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World development Report 2003 categorizes cites into low income cities, lowmiddle income, upper-middle income and high income cities. The low and lower-middle are facing environment issues like – 1. water supply service 2. Sanitation 3. Drainage 4. Water resources 5. Solid waste management 6. Air pollution 7. Land management Environmental degradation causes soil erosion and productivity. The hazards caused to environment will exhaust those resources that are basically needed for survival. Modernization has brought in change in the Indian society. This includes significant alterations in social structure, cultural definitions and in the products of socio-economic-cultural action. Social structures change in size, degree of formality and informality and in the types of social relationships and in the systems of statutes and roles. Materialism has creeped in his modernization. Modernization has resulted in changes in size of society, social institutions, occupational patterns; positions, status and roles, values, beliefs and attitudes, social interactions, social mobility. The development of new techniques, inventions, modes of production, new standards of living has resulted in modernization.


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Modernisation has brought women from home to office differentiated their tasks and distinguished their earnings. New techniques of cooking ranges have reduced the time spent in kitchens. Role of communication in educating common man, has bought a social change. It has reduced the social distance between the urban and rural areas; dams are built to control floods and generate power, to irrigate land. Production of artificial rains have shown positive signs of success. Modernization have made material progress rapid and widespread, though unequal. Modernization has number of adverse effects on society. Films has immoral effect on society. There is concentration of economic power in few hands. Developments in the field of nuclear science, though they offer great scope for advancement, pose a serious threat to the very survival of human race. Modernisation has also and is also saving lifes, makes desert bloom and brings music in our living rooms. Demographic Environment and Gender The demographic environment includes age structure, gender, income distribution, family size, FLC, occupation, education, social class, religion, race, and nationality. There is an explosive growth of the global population. Modernization has led to fall in birth rates even though the population is growing over one percent annually. Due to the gender bias there is tremendous fall in the birth rate. There is a steady raise in income. Machines have taken over man. The technologies, automation and even rationalization are hinderance to labour.


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Heterogeneous culture is being adopted. The immigration problem gets reduce due to political friendline between the countries. But this will increase multi cultural complexities and adds new challenges and opportunities. The marketers have to involve in diverse roles to satisfy each and every member of the society. Space of modernization of Indian society Modernisation has brought in change in the Indian society. This includes significant alterations in social structure, cultural definitions and in the products of socio-economic-cultural action, social structure change in size, degree of formality and informality and in the types of social relationships in the systems of statutes and roles. Materials has creeped in win modernization. Modernization ahs resulted in changes in size of society, social institutions, occupational patterns; positions, status and roles, various, beliefs and attitudes, social interactions, social mobile. The development of new techniques, inventions, modes of production, new standards of living has result in modernization. Modernisation has brought women from home to office, differentiated their tasks and distinguished their earnings. New techniques of cooking ranges have reduced the time spent in kitchens. Role of communication in educating common man, has bought a social change. It has reduced the social distance between the urban & rural areas. Dams are built to control flood, generate power, to irrigate land. Production of artificial rains have shown positive signs of species. Modernization have made material progress rapid and widespread though unequal.


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Modernisation has number of adverse effects your society. Films have immoral effect on society. There is concentration of economic power in few hands. Govt. policy till 1991 India was following a very restrictive policy town foreign capital and technical. Important of technical was consider on merits it substantial exports were guaranteed over a period of 5 to 10 years and reasonable proposals for exports. Govt. was issued lists where lists of industries were, a) i) Foreign investment may be permitted b) Only foreign tech collaboration (but no foreign investment) may be permitted. Tech collaborations were to be considered on the basis of annual royalty payments which were linked with the value of actual production, % of royalty depended on production and limit to 5 years (payment). The Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA) 1973 served as a tool for implementing the national policy on foreign private investment in India. FERA empowered RBI to regulate or exercise direct control over the activities of foreign companies and foreign nationals in India. RBI has given general permission to hold title of immovable properties. New Policy The industrial policy statement of July 24, 1991, which observes that while freeing the Indian economy from official controls, opportunity for promoting foreign investment in India shall also be fully exploited has liberalized the Indian policy towards foreign investment and tech.
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The new policy has also made the import of capital goods automatic provided the foreign exchange requirement for such import is ensured through foreign equity. Silent Feature 1. FDI is eligible for automatic approval. Unit Dec. 1996, only 36 industries were eligible for automatic approval of FDI upto to 5!% of the total equity. Now there are different types industries depending on the ceiling of foreign equity participation. 1. Industries in which FDI does not exceed Statistic: 1. Definition, scope and application, classification and tabulation, histogram, standard deviation, strawness, correlation, Regression. 2. Probability multiple and partial correlation pass on distribution 3. Hypothesis or anova Segmenting Consumer Market 1. Geographic a) Region b) Urban, suburban, rural c) Climate d) Cety size e) Population Density


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2. Demographic Income Age Education Stage in life cycle Social class Sex Occupation Religion Race I Stage – single or mallied head, under increase no children II stage – married head, under 40 young children with or without older children III Stage – married head, under 40, older children IV stage – married head, 40 or older, no children under 20 V Stage – head living along over 40, no children

3. Psychographic Bases: How people act Different to measure a) Personality b) Life style c) Readiness to buy Segmenting Industrial market: 1. Kind of business activity 2. Users geographical location 3. Usual purchasing procedure 4. Six of user: Give lower prices to those buyers who buy in large quantities.


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Segmentation – Need 1900’s markets were segmented automatically each product was tailored to the needs of the buyer who had ordered it. When main industries shifted to mass production, to standardize, achieve greater production efficiency, lower product cost, segmentation was need. They took single market notion with them. With the changing preferences of the customers the producers, produced “differentiated products” to serve different market segments. Market segmentation requires a balancing of production and marketing cost and price. Why? Concept of market segmentation is based on the fact that market is not homogeneous, but heterogeneous in the potential buyers are homogeneous. But a group of potential buyers do share contain characteristics of distinctive significance to marketing and each group is a market segment. To apply market segmentation successfully a particular segment must be measurable accessible of sufficient size to make it, worthwhile cultivating. Segmentation Industrial Industrial users Large quantities industries Employ professional to buy Specialised buying Consumer Ultimate consumers Buy in smaller quantities For consumption over short period No systematic in buying Use little time to buy Buys broad spectrum goods

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Protection of intellectual property rights has become an issue of wide and serious discussions. Intellectual property rights may be defined as “information with commercial value.” The Uruguay Round (UR) agreement on trade related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) covers seven intellectual properties – 1. Patents 2. Copyright and related rights 3. Trademarks 4. Industrial designs 5. Layout designs of integrated circuits 6. Undisclosed information (trade search) 7. Geographical indication 1. PATENTS Patent is a legal protection granted for an invention that is new, nonobvious and useful. The patent grants the patent holder the exclusive right to make use or sell the patented products. The main purpose of the patent system is to benefit the society. Patent, by providing an opportunity to recoup the cost of inventions and to make profit out of inventions, encourage research and dup and thereby contribute to society. According to Indian patents Act 1970, inventions mean any new and useful (i) process of manufacture, (ii) machine, apparatus, article, (iii) substance produce by manufacturer and any new and useful improvements in them.


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While the patents grant the exclusive right to the inventor to exploit his inventions for commercial gain for a specific period of time, it also imposes on him the duty of fully disclosing the inventions. Under the 1970 Act, patent expiry period is 5-7 years for some and 14 years to other products or 20 years. Not patented: Atomic energy, traditional knowledge, scientific principles, abstract theory, discovery of natural substances, new form of known substances, and mixture of known compounds. Disadvantages: charging higher rate 2. COPYRIGHT Exclusive privileges to authors to reproduce, distribute, perform or display their creative works. Criteria: Life of authors & 70 years from creation of work Copy right act 1957 3. TRADEMARKS Brands and trade marks used very extensively in modern marketing to maintain product identity and to help product promotion, have become very popular terms. Trademark is a brand a part of a brand that is given legal protection because it is capable of exclusive appropriation. A trade marks protects the sellers exclusive rights to use brand name or brand mark. According to Trade Mark Act 1999, trade mark means a mark capable of being represented graphically and which is capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one person for those of others and may include shape of goods their packaging and combination of colors.
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It includes words, symbol, logo used by manufacturer to identify goods which are distinctive and non-descriptive in nature. Subject matter: 1. Reputation, 2. Goodwill and 3. To avoid duplication Term of Protection 10 years from the date of registration. 4. DESIGN ACT 2000 A registered design is a monopoly right for the appearance of the whole or a part of a product resulting from the subject matter – lines, contours, colors, shape, texture, configuration, patterns, materials which is new or original which has eye appeal of the product or its ornamentation. MULTINATIONAL COMPANY Why to go global? 1. To achieve higher rate of profit 2. Expanding the production capacities beyond the demand of domestic country 3. Secure competition in the home country 4. Limited home market 5. political stability and instability 6. Availability of Technology and managerial competition Multinational companies are that companies: 1. Which produce in abroad as well as in headquarter
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2. Which operate in certain minimum number of nations 3. Which drive some minimum percentage of its income from foreign operations. 4. Which have certain minimum number of ratio of foreign to total number of employees. 5. Possesses a management team with geometric orientation Favorable impact of MNC’s 1. It helps increase the investment level and thereby the income and employment in host country. 2. The transnational corporations have become vehicle for the transfer of technology. 3. The work to equalize the cost factors of production around the world. 4. MNCs provide an efficient means of integrating national economies.
5. It also helps increase competition and break domestic monopolies.

6. MNCs enable the host countries to increase their exports and decrease their imports. 7. Help to improve standard of living 8. Employment of highly sophisticated management techniques 9. They kindle management revolution in the host countries 10. MNCs stimulate domestic enterprise 11. The reasons resources of MNCs enable them to have very efficient research and development systems.

Harmful effects of MNC’s 1. The MNC’s main objective is profit maximization, not the development needs of the countries.
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2. MNC’s may destroy competition and acquire monopoly powers 3. MNC’s retard growth of employment in the home country 4. Interference in the other affairs of the country 5. Faulty technology transfer 6. Depletion of non-renewable resources 7. They undermine the local culture and traditions, change the consumption habits for their benefits against interest of local community. FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN INDIA [FDI] Foreign investment is playing an increasing role in economic development. Economic reforms and the far reading political changes have resulted in very substantial changes in international capital flows. FDI now contributes to a significant share of the domestic investment, employment, exports etc. the India began to experience a surplus on the balance of payment and very remarkable improvement in the reserves positions. Foreign investment has assisted and is assisting the economic growth of country. 1. FDI shifts the burden of risks of investment from domestic to foreign investors. 2. FDI is only capital inflow that has been strongly associated with higher GDP since 1970. 3. FDI generated large employment opportunity. The flow of direct foreign investments to India has been comparatively limited because of the type industrial development strategy and the very cautious foreign investment policy followed by nation.


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Direct foreign investment in India is adversely affected by the following factors – 1. The public sector was assigned as monopoly or dominant position in most important industries, and therefore, the scope of private investment, both domestic and foreign was limited. 2. When the public sector needed foreign investment, there was a marked preference for the foreign govt. sources. 3. Foreign investment was normally permitted only in high technology industries. 4. Foreign equity participation was normally subject to 40%.
5. Payment of dividends abroad, repatriation of capital etc., as well as inward

remittances was subject to stringent laws like Foreign Exchange Registration Act (FERA) 1973. These discourage foreign investments. 6. Corporate taxation was high and tax laws and procedures were complex. These factors either limited the scope of foreign investment in India. INDIAN INVESTMENT IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES Until 1991, India companies made very little investments abroad. Although Govt. of India’s policy had been one of the encouraging foreign investments by Indian companies, subject to certain conditions, several factors like domestic economic policy and domestic economic situation were deterrent to foreign investments by Indian companies. By restricting the areas of operations and growth, the govt. policies seriously constrained the potential of Indian companies to make a foray into the foreign countries through investment. Added to this was the attraction of protected


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domestic market which was, in many cases, a seller’s market and this made Indian companies to ignore foreign markets. Indian companies have established subsidiaries and joint ventures in a number of countries in different manufacturing and service sectors. The new economic policy of India is expected to encourage foreign investments by Indian companies. The curbs on growth, even by mergers and acquisition, have been removed, financing restriction has been based, areas of business opened to private companies have been substantially enlarged and foreign tie up policies have been liberalized. Further, the domestic market is becoming increasingly competitive. All these factors should encourage the Indian companies to invest in other countries and to take advantage of the economic liberalization in many countries.


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GATT General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs The predecessor of WTO was born in 1948, as a result of the international desire to liberalize trade. Objectives The primary objective of GATT was to expand international trade by liberalizing trade so as to bring about all round economic prosperity. And the other important objectives are 1. Raising the standard of living 2. Ensuring full employment 3. Developing full use of resource of the world 4. Expansion of production and international trade Rules of GATT 1. Any proposed change in tariff, or other type of commercial policy of a member country should not be undertaken without consultation of other parties to the agreement. 2. The countries that adhere to GATT should work towards the reduction of tariffs and other barriers to international trade, which should be negotiated within the framework of GATT.


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