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PREFACE

THE

subject
fiction
of

C.

the

mass

book

which

The

type.

in

publish

work

of

Reference

their

many

the

psychic

or

impossible

Even

in

thousand

first

at

of

the

intended

is far

to

ous
volumin-

too

be

probably

my

titles, I

examples

volume,

brought

out

novels

in

novel,

England,

bibliographical

Colton

Williams,
McCrea,

Library

out-of-print

attendance

English

Columbia,

Dr.

English
on

given

some

by

several

Dr.
years

suggestions

Dorothy

Professor

John

for

assistance

the

indebted

am

Columbia

to^Miss
and

in

the

authorities

fiction

was

courses

in

Brewster,

CunHffe,

tion.
Collec-

the

have

Professor
Professor
and

use

increased

J. Carlyle,

from

to

Kennedy

ago.

the

Mudge,

Isadore

permission

the

A.

to

University

to

for

the

prosecute

to

me

save

of

libraries

Society

interest

for

book

City, particularly

helpful

Glenn

available

persons.

York

my

University,

by

the

of

priceless

the

the

will

so

Librarian

My

of

write

of

York

New

during

to

or

given

New

the

three

impossible

been

officials

various

here,

it.

of

save

Tragedy,

manifestly

over

this

it,

ghostly

all

which

with

have

generously

of

connection

would

research

and

bibliography,

to

no

itself.

by

It

list aU

to

included

be

to

effort

no

been

related

is

mention,

numbers

has

Supernaturalin

It

to

there

introducing

enormous.

even

bibliography
made

itself

because

with

deal

to

none

The

on

English

modern

While
and

topic,
work

simply
or

difficult

material.

the

in

supernatural
found

of

fiction

discuss,

later

been

on

of
is

have

the

E.Whitmore's

motifs
to

has

its wealth

previous
Mr.

of

Dean

history
in

Oxford
received

Blanche
Nelson
Talcott

vi

Preface

Williams,
Harvard.

book

in

it,
in

me

of

Professor

Ashley

English

whose

Wright

and

made

others

the

^who

of

only
their

wish

book

the

and

of

me,

published

To

cerning
con-

material

with
is

gratitude
the

to

Department
in

kindly

possible.

aided

of

Literatiure

criticism

have
that

Head

Comparative

"

debt

Thomdike,

H.

stimulating

have

chief

my

advice

the

over

read

kindly

valuable

going

Philip

George

very

gave

of

Kittredge,

L.

Trent,

Wright
and

But

G.

P.

Hunter

manuscript

detail.

Professor

WilUam

Ernest

and

Professor

and

Professors

Krapp,
the

Columbia,

of

Columbia,

encotu-agement
all

of

these

and
"

am

volume

deeply
were

and

grateful,
more

worthy

assistance.

D.

Columbia

University,

April,

1917.

S.

CONTENTS

FAGB

Introduction

CHAPTBR

I.

The

Gothic

Romance

"

II.

Later

Influences

54

"

III.

Modern

Ghosts

8i

"

IV.

The

Devil

"

Supernatural

V.

His

and

Allies

Life

174

"

The

VI.

Supernatural

in

"

VII.

Supernatural
"

VIII.

Conclusion
"

Science

130

Folk-Tales

242

251

281

The

Supernatural

Modern

in

I2.n^lisK

Fiction

INTRODUCTION

supernatttral

THE

It

colors

and

that
elements
how

is

There
old
of

or

new,

any

who

not

has

from

exception

no

and

Shakespeare,

the

are

would

seem

the

Hearn

.English

literature

time

the

of

to

in
I

how

recently
:

says

literature,
his

treatment

believe

there

is
to

poets
And

day.

own

the

books,

the

Anglo-Saxon
our

all

residue,

European

himself

it

to

our

in

in

dramas,

If

of Literature,

author

literature.

wonted

so

from

Shakespeare

from

and

removed

distinguished
In

epics

were

great

supernatural.

the

in

magic.

Interpretations

scarcely

force

and

Lafcadio

feelings!

we

wonder

value

volume.

published

its

our

till

prose

of

in

otir

shapes

unearthly

shrunken

forlorn

our

sense

the

of

ever-present

an

poetry,

our

fashions
lose

we

is

this

introduces

us

fact,
but

books,
there

is

fact

'

The

the

word

is

something

us

consideration

that

which

music,
within

to

do

of

that

relates

ghostly

is

used

great

art,

architecture.

or

to

all

to

and

have

philosophical

great
in

ghostly

general

remember

not

very

sculpture,

of

It

able
remarkin

seen

any

importance:

whether
touches

of

ature,
liter-

something

infinity.'

here

in

its
I

earlier

sense

signifying

spiritual.

Introduction

TViiffrnntinninp

The

alone

spirit feeds

but

frozen

.touch of^f ear,

touched

by the

do, and

create

heaven,

people them
loves

Man

because

perhaps

the

beyond

the

life,create
the

forces

To

his

his

trivial

is

so

^must

rut

narrow

hours

add

trivial

eternity
and

has

so

whatever

in

poetry

supernatural,

excrescence

loose

can

his

days by flight
and

mortal
marshal

firmament

unspaced
his

be

for his commands.


; to

finite,infinity. He

piteously little thaLllfL


in the

and

the

be

the

reasons,

there

has

ghostly in literature, with

interest.

likewise

with

may

of his

tents

gods

; to

him

grant

literature

supernatural.
of the

fall of

of his

companionship,

join the

literature

life

he

yet

look,for JbiaiargerJife in dteams

But,

him, and

in

They

the

widen

unknown

can

of power,

jnoods

for

material

and

and
he

as

more2ten''yarL"h3y7""Df

own

for his

of demons

soul

the

awe

or

suggestion

var5ang

denied.

His

can

universe

can

petty tragedies

He

stars.

greedy

of the

'

the

when

by giving his existence

of powers

center

escape

other

no

elements

supernatural

circumscribed

fancy and

only

beings.

supermortal.
conflicts^
however

terror

Man's

they dignify him

being the

of

the

loves

faery wonder-lands

feeling of infinity otherwise

4gnse

as

highest

no

spectral sotmds

of

of fear

grave.

strange

the

hint

shapes

hell, and

with

pure

imagination

hurnan

beyond

from

The

unmortal.

no

those

realizes

and

is

fact

by

not

Man

supernatural.

quickens the

presences
can

the

without

mystery

lives

there

and

unknowable,

the

by

the
It

mystery.

on

in

basis
jome
soul attoactFus

have

for it and_must
thfijxyptUardemand
The
night side of
JhumaJLpsjzchosiSr--

all.

shows

in literature

weird

the

prgsgnceof

with

Gothic

that

There
and

is in
the

wide

diversityof
that

romance,

yet has

had

enormous

certain

rise

tinuity
con-

and

English fiction, as

modern

drama,

been

great

elements.
curious

extent

of

the

Beginning
architectural

influence

on

our

Introduction

novel, the supernatural


form

every

air"guises,and
serious

answer

in

in

ever;yL-period and

unearthly beings

our

satiric

awed,

or

is found

fiction. The

of

in

us

whether

mood,

every

meet

it

be

humoresque.

or

"

Literature, always

beliefs

for

entrance

made

us,

is
"

Our

supernatural.
reveals

and

aware

of

there

^and

situations,

the
emotions

mock

pubUc

places, and

invite

or

day
-d^gfegaflc^"!e="*te=s"a-any
Our-Town.

Street

of

garden

fence

of the

way

and

chauffeur, but
whirring

to

with

us

price

of butter

is

Island
AAV

its

potent
and

cheeks

We

gate and

may

the materialist

The

is

pass

the

the

may

we

ferry that

demons

by
that

creature

is not

his

an

aeroplane

on

the

to

be

if

Yon

prey.

but

pavement

bear

us

away

tmtroubled

transports

Boat

Sending
old

with

woman

that

presses

that

argument

wear,

shall

the

articles lost in last week's

glitteringeye,

traverse

than

where

Main

on

only

by
wash.
from

us

knew

we

""

erf"

the

hoofs

golden

in

now

street

for

is not

are

across

with

winter

questing
blue

We

discarnate

fetches

presently alight

magic

7*^

the

in

far

the

or

paiies!*"

early fall

souls.

gray-furred

lands

a
%

with

us

upon

That

middle-aged

sedate

Staten

of

thundering

lovely

That

time

the
will

distant

the

for

in

thing

hippogriff that

beside

the

us

reading,

our

Qpntralor
day

the

t"r:|3;^ffi:dtis;::^^

up

with

were-wolf

in Grand

earthly
un-

as

a-ghosting

go

chat

before

us

of

We

dumb-waiter.

suddenly

glooms

pass

by

us,

glide

specter may

to

live in.

we

We

the

us

commonplace

colored

about

us.

of

natural

world

our

given

sense

most

so

imagination,

unbodied

that

the

nothing

is

transforms

moods

The

in

even

us,

Hfe, has formed

spirits,and

countries.

with

ever

with

free

us

immortal

to

of

little ahead

witch

at will

wishful

imagined,

too-pink

August

bargains

will be

in

to

lure

Under-world.
is

that

the

actual

that

the

aeroplane

style

away

by the guardian of the

regions of the
argue

they

the

our

narrow

True,
more

is

velous
marmore

Introduction

thing
is

of wonder

the

was

the

that

hippogriff

ferry

really the

enchanted

would-, write
th'O

than

if he -coiild

lufezna

new

all, af34 4barfe--"ante

boat, after

-safeway

the

see

at-

ruohheu^-b^ut-thaA4frytotjyer^'Ssue
.

We

would

we

have

might

only keep

than

more

Victorian

our

admit

we

be

to

We

wrong.

be

the

this

discussion

establish

of

better

'"-"In this book


in

I have

them;

them.

love

touched

"am

look

out

in the

they

rain
care

give

and

hear

to

cordial

Gladsome

sympathy,
that

on

are

While
I have

now

devoted

much
more

own,

discussing
in

been

their

so

the

more

last

more

interest

as

the

no

in

than

the

the

Scotch

of it in that

wizards

say.

the
or

time

occult,

dragon

more

no

box.

glides

up

all need

and

as

whole,

fiction of the

so,

than

bogles

'ii^

century

to

years

subway,

stray dog I recognize

poor

nineteenth

thirty

holier-than-thou

mortals, they

us

left

mothers

own

hurdy-gurdy

in every

Like

relations

in the

when

attention

in the

only

mortals.! I

to

whose

me

up

mine, and

more

varigtyiand.am

poor

vampire

shut

Beast.

none

about

causation.

of

gives

sit beside

in

to

large,

much

likeness

devils

or

how-do-you-do

his paw

puts

their

It

banshee

of

-wraiths

night,

to

help

thjg..
Rejected,dog-eared ghosts

for them.

feeling of horror

hoped that

by and

know

their infinite

at

were

all

for

out

may

devils

don't

theories

all, even

if

as

wouldn't

panic

way.

learned

of them

is all

that

It is

ghost-lore

were

ghost-guests

our

newspaper.

ghosts and

__I only marvel

that

with

by their humanity,

fond

if it

singled

report

early-

an

as

But

have

do

us

if

do

we

of values.

sense

no

have

being

should

comparative

impressionistic

an

We

them.
of

proud

of the

I deal

of

ghostly things

with

and

society columns

most

neighbors.

the

associated

should

but

open,

concerning

spectral confidences
to

eyes

to

reticence

scandalous

psychal experiences than

more

because
before.

natural
super-

there

has

Iliere

is

Uterature^^^pduced

Introduction

with

dealing

It

tory.
the

and

psychal

is

short

IhaxLever^hefoxe

powers

in

apparent

in_the

poetry,
I

story.

have

inotir
the

dranaa,

novel,

attempted,

not

his-

in

even
.

bibliography,

my

since

to

would

that

be"

mentioned

however,

here

treatment

revival

of

seeks

wonder

in

characterization

^^Echj

"those
traditions
weird

has

for
where

science

Art,

is

been

the

result

in

fact

once

really

or

men

less

there

is

It

without

in

fiction.

believed

mysterious?

our

genuine

in

includes

material

If

blindly

now

the

effecT^

study

we

in

the

of
its

losing

also

on

carry

the

not

but

supernatural,

of

than

changes

unearthly,

yet

The

rather

beings.

Much

magical.

and

forms,

certain

-strictly

rationalized,
us

various

have,

examples.

with

considered

type,

suggestive

supernatural
are

the

the

that

time,

our

formerly
of

wonder

of

of

be

show

to

thethenies_that

only

of

to

the

of

impossible.

important

meant

and

exhaustive

fiction

manifestly

more

is

the

all

specimens
the

listed

have

include

Black

CHAPTER

TKe

real

THE

GotHic

Romance

of

precursor

literature

English
form

odd

be

called

brief

modern

novel.

Gothic

the

was

might

in

supernaturalism

That

behalf

in

of

banished

since

romance,

Too

century.

of

pendulum

the

inevitably

fiction
it

so

with

was

familiar
And

used

to

Castle
in

change
manifests

of
the

appeared

other

poetry,

novel.

Now,

tired

The

natural

in

and

of

mysterious

of

the

noonday

had

become

supernatural.

being.

Gothic

eighteenth-century

some

Otranto.
form

into

flow

extreme,

any

the

craved

of

is

novel

of

here

terror

materials.

to

itself.

have

eyes

swing

and

The

period.

men

came

of

of

use

Walpole,

conceded

generally
The

the

been

Horace

before

hence

ebb

against

the

invited

medieval

had

There

of

always

must

eternal

the

the

eighteenth

early

the

reaction

novel

designate
with

dealing

As

formalism.

Gothic

the

so

the

restraint

history,

fiction

the

monotony,

to

in
and

literary
bring

Augustan

of

glare

realism

against

protest

liberty.

medievalism

of

twilights

voiced

correctness

great

proportionate

in

result

and

rationalism

of

excess

it

but

the
the

begin

with

The

Gothic

literature

his

in

the

in

however,

folk-tales,
for

English

novel

supernaturalism

the^pic,
not

considerable

distinct

supernatural

but

is

curiosity,

marks

which

fiction

proper

Romantic

novel

the

drama,

in

terror

Heretofore

in

weird

in

element's^!
ballads

noticeably
time

the

and:
in

the

ghostly!

Gothic

The

themes

"with the
vehicle

short

for the
and

in
this

in the

vacillation-

of

materials

This

The

between

and

will

be

comes

ghostly

narration.

epic has

the

is

Fate

distinct

Uturgical plays introduced

Deity

characters

as

Elizabethan

in

drama

we

as

dramatis

persona.

as

metrical

and

so

material
of

present

our

in

early

or

the

to

while

On

of

less influenced

by

through

devils, and

even

to

though

does

heaven

and

of

considerable

the

we

devil remains.

been

revival

Gothic

not

There

able to find, though

popular

so

the

to

drama

Faerie

Queene
stories,

and

lavish

the
the

are

the

use

of

of

no

epic

angels,

m3rthological
fiction,

in Gothic

seen

more

The

romance.

in
that

Tales

tradition, show

hell, the

find

much

to-day.

The

as

dramatic

extent

well

as

medievalism.

poetry

are

and

magicians,

fairy-lore,of magic,

the

the

even

undoubtedly

Deity, the introduction

Gothicism

In

I have

than

figureswhich

and

characters

times.

trace

while

geste, lais, and

hand, the later novels


the

the

classical

closely related

such

to

and

supernatural for complicating

from

strong

more

other

tours

appear

is

or

the

on

logical
mytho-

prose

de

forms, and

the

epic

the

romances,

comes

show
novel

of the

as

element

epic

Comus.

In

alliterative, chansons

romance,

Gothic

The
than

Medieval

in various

in

dramas,

ghosts, witches,

see

Celtic Otherworld,

of the

action.

considerably

forth, drew

older

conflict

and

devils,angels, and

the

such

themes,

demigods,

the

general

of super-

brings

and

powers,

in

in

elements

various

figure

moving

tinct
dis-

of super-

Poetry

certain

divine

is

later.

world, visions of heaven,

and

form

as

corresponding change

characters, gods, goddesses,


like.

of

discussed

the

it

supersede

development

in form

lower

mortal

is to

of the

freely used

has

visits to the

as

weird.

literature

naturalism.

lengthy fiction, contrasted

later

change

in all times

story which

interesting aspect

naturalism
With

in

prominent

most

are

Romance

stories

of

recent

Deity disappears
vampires,
were-

wolf

so

and

far

the

The

Gothic

Romance

lycanthrope

appear,

which

(save

Duchess

of Malfi)

such

in

The
the

as

which

is to

Wandering

become

prominent

Jew

and

in

terror

horrific

and

emphasized
it

Hall

satirize

the

terror

it out

of

laugh

between

ordered
in
the
and

he

castle.

From

his

of

feudal

castles

was

study

writing of

ghost-haunted
author's

terror

Strawberry

at

mysteries

dtranto

is

Gothic

of the

step to the

gloomy

weather

expressed

building

In

of

the

slight degree,

the

as

Gothicism

not

Humor

save

itself

Austen

Jane

effect

is

writers

have

we

and

Barrett_

burlesques that

plan, and

the

architecture,

Everything

fad

in

for

that

Walpole,

medievalism,
extraordinary

Hill, courteously called


Gothic

architecture
that

cloisters

of

the

shotald

medieval

terrors.

dream

a
was

of

the

but

The

the

ancient,

shades

suggested

structures.

Gothic

reproduce

shadows

suggested

is

conformity becomes

enthusiasm

of

ship
relation-

Horace

novel, had

fiction, of morbid

thinking about

Gothic

monotonous.

times, for

outcome

and

tale the

strongly stressed.

romance

and

the

stories

literature.

In the terror

conventionally

father

with

court.

to fit the

time

greatly

associated

itself in delicious

supernatural

and

scenery,

novel

of Gothicism.

Elements

be

Eblis, though

romance,

satire, though

no

of

modern

more

unintentionally.

practically

inanimate

to
to

in

present

are

largely lacking in the Gothic


furnish

pernattiralis
su-

aspects of later fiction, are

Vathek's

in

as

Mechanical

romance.

symbolism

Melmoth

the

mi^thological

the

to

more

and

Allegory
as

the

to

in the

noted

both

of life and

origins here,

Supernaturalism

The

times.

given

power

their

on.

related

animals,

elixir

importance.

uncanny

have

to

further

developed
past

the

later

in

the

and

achieve

stone

and
seem

the

in

comes

seen,

are

supernattiralism

scientific

of

so

elements

beginnings

philosopher's
objects

Other

drama

the

from

absent

were

Castle

by

of

of
the

The

The

Gothic

all the
and

castle

and

vaults

and

chapel,

form

other

in

scenes

medieval

The

harassed

spacious in the

unearthly

the

ghosts
horrific

its architecture.

kinship with

their

invariably lay

astery,
mon-

inquisitional prison.

an

wandering

structure.

And

phenomena

is

through
indeed, the

much

piles of antiquity than

vast

for

that

in

more

lows
bunga-

our

apartment-houses.

or

Mrs.

Radcliffe

fiction.

with
with

black

dropping
in

waving

depicts

the

pieces from

whose

great

pressed

chill

"

surely

gloomy

keys

other

of

the

black

chilled

"

she

marble,

portals of

prophetic

velvet

stairways

the

in

groan

scoted
wain-

romances

treacherous

halls

or

palls of black

with

dust-covered

furniture

with

heart, and

my

upon

and

terror

In

I entered

says:' "When

structtire

with

rooms,

rusty

castle,

rotting tapestry,

age,

castles

decaying

in

winds.

ghostly

mysterious

heroine

with

larch-wood,

to

leading
vaults

to

Gothic

in

structures

shows

Udolpho

0/

hung

rooms

ruinous

many

all

chateau,

secrets,

erected

Mysteries

Her

convent,

and

domicile

forever

of Gothic

for

opportunity

or

is

spectral

castle, a convent,

abbey,

heroine

corridors

midnight

underground

and

class

the

of mystery

visitants

unearthly

close

of

or

its

suitable

buildings,

chateau

effect

revenants,

shows

novels

possessing

as

trap-doors, its mouldy,

supernatural
The

the

passage-ways,

its

throughout

romance

increase

hall is the

feudal

represented

fit setting for the

is

that

secret

dungeons,

it.

haunt

its

Romance

itself

antique glooms

awe,

and

Gothic

locks.
this
my

scarcely allowed

and
One

Gothic

veins,
me

to

breathe."
The

Ancient
of

says

seemed

conjure

terrific

and
'

setting: "The

its
to

In

The

of the

Records

ten

up

imaginary

Romance

of the

damp,
thousand

cold, awe-inspiring hall

superstitious horrors

apparitions."

Castle.

of St. Oswyth"

Abbey

^By

In
T.

Maturin's

Al-

J. Horsley-Curties.

""

"-"

The

lo

Gothic

Romance

bigenses the knights assemble


baronial

hall

outside.

In

and

tell

often, yet it is always


with

its

ruined

diabolical

abbey

marriage

madhouse,

and

horror

In

Zofloya,

is

the

the

'

that

to

of the

its material

has

Gothic

true

the

erects

with

up

crumbling
whose

keeps

them.

dominates
will

In

setting.
convent,

place

show

to

serve

the

laid

its

the
of

of the

becomes

has

of

not

sea

and

was

those

in

fiction

of the

laid

antique

on

that

gables,

merely haunted

character.

personality,

its bounds.

the

Synge's drama.

important

leading

It shows

Hawthorne

or

chateau,

an

malignant

finally gives

brooding,
The

itself but

that
novels

Gothic

such

the

within

character

seven

donjon-

and

architectural
names

built

novels

abbeys,

it seemed

his

meet

abbey

number

the

devil

the

Gothic

romance

castle, abbey, monastery,

events

spell upon

of

his house

power

old

wrote

that

story
the

something
to

Shelley's other

general importance

fact, the

It dominated

\ that

In

inquisitionprison occupied

or

in

likewise

list of the

the

novel

Zastrozzi, which

show

This

for his

and

with

castles, awesome

titles

undergrotmd

an

SheUey

desolate, dear
Roche

in

which

structure

Maria

Regina

characters.

and

castles.

freedom

setting.

same

the

by

incidents

gloom

add

cells, which

by other

boasted

his

celebrant,

the

priest for

imprisoned

is

appropriated
the

dead

castle, the

celebrates

wanderer

supernatural

maiden

changes

scene

ancient

the

inquisition

the

rages

"

the
a

the

storm

terrible, ^the monastery

and

with

significant because

victim

Wanderer

which

by

to

similar

he

the

punishments,

midnight

at

the

cave

tales

Gothic

the

while

ghost

Melmoth,

great fire in the

the

round

relentless

ancient

is the

castle

haunter

as

well.

Not

only

of Gothic
"By

Mrs.

'Riders

is architecture

fiction, but
Dacre,
to the

Sea.

better

the
known

made
scenery
as

"Rosa

subservient
likewise
Matilda."

to

is

the

needs

adapted

to

The

fit it.
with

Before

in

the

fluent

fervent

subjectively

is

the

to show

unearthly
of the
and

and

Like

of

the

scenery,

subjectively
between

harmony

of

as

The

stroke
as

some

heroines

is

and

moods

always

of

itself

seeks

of the

for their

is little of the
but

do

to

do

they
storms

rarely

of twelve

crimes

and

light.of day,
scenes

the

glooms

of

Gothic

novel

is

Mrs.

ever

artistic

an

the

atmospheric

walk

The

the

to

the

generally witnesses
restless

winds

fiendishly

laugh

take

operations

in

most

place

at

in

Gothic
some

on

are

instead

of

of

romances

midnight,

and

fiction.

The

uproar

spirit.

tales start

of

accompaniment

Albigenses

seneschals

Radcliffe's

and

approach

of nature

Whenever

their

fi

the

lightning,supernatural thunders,

usually

of

is
and

peaceful night

appearance
in

There

and

as

the

ters,
charac-

only the

with

in

moods

In

diabolically possessed

is

the

the

ghosts

presaging tempests.

there

imitated

emphasize

to

harmony

announce

devil, and

terror.

tains
moun-

writer

world

treated.

play

roaring tempests

moaning

awesome

novel

the

weather

man's

The

conditions.

the

in

are

tures.
vividly pic-

itself

ordinary nature,

that

so

sufferings.

the

always

There

experiences.

phenomena

in

fitting background

cheerfulness

crimes

reflect

that

fact

successors

Gothic

What

to

features.

impressionism.

Nature

outer

the

dizzy abysses with

her

dark

the

of man,

of

and

general in the

of

she

scenes

crags

thing.

both

by the

scenery

with

represented.

states

combined

to

morose

castles, and

hampered

the

dread

nattu-e

important

and

of

the

by descriptions

mental

on

paid

style for

glooming

genre

all

been

had

the

set

adjectives, and

in

scenery

is not

for

forests, beetling

sketching

The

had

eyes

painted

and

in

laid

never

and

she

at

stories interlarded

notice

But

not

was

ii

her

wrote

of the

romances

She

her

novel.

Radcliffe
had

Radcliffe

Walpole

as

succeeding
Mrs.

Romance

descriptions, scant

landscapes

she

Mrs.

nature

scenery

Gothic

the

midnight

VI

The

12

ramble

"The

that

not

equal that

the

unhappy

suit

to

thunder,

like

accusingly
Monk,
the

the

river's

brink.

and
with

sheeted
the

forests;

into

them

No
the

the

river

writer

Charles

Robert

dreadful

life till he

exchange
search, the
mock

midnight

'St.

with
^

find

can

more

with

despair.
his

after

banners
Oswyth.

tmcle's

after
of

an

As

As

Melmoth,

cloud

"In

Melmoth,

stream,

spot
with

than

soul

reads

earth
both

the

fated
on

whose

march

the Wanderer

and

The

in

his

reflect
alone

sweeping
host

to

willing to

nephew

young

does

doomed

of weather

comes

approaching

now

harmonizing

the

traverses

death

up

the

storms

tortured

the

the

carried

of

outer

him,

rent

despairing monk.

the

preternatural aspects
his

abated,

cliff

clouds,

reached

they

power

some

the

fury

with

is

Lewis's

from

in

and

scene

of

; it swelled

they

of the

Maturin.

"cloud

dark

when

Victoria

This

chapter

black

the

arises

storm

winds

the

last

hurls

Ambrosio

banks;

corse

soul

destinies

last

now

shows

of the

tempests

and

and

clouds,

at

river.

fell in torrents

their

the

the

was

lay, and,

Gothic

and

rain

the

arose;

sky

of black

When

devil

throws

storm

the

fire ; the

Ambrosio

where

devil

over-flowed

waves

in

one

violent

into

weather

plots they make,

sympathetic

body

the

where

Instantly
rocks

top,
her

the

accompanied
The

background

as

the

forest with

nature.

lightning.

himself

sweeps

of

lurid

and

mountain

the

flood

to

against

announces

from

of

thoughts

the

the

in

meetings

dark, unholy

the

they plan murders

Moor

could

in

passed

manifestations

by supernatural

hellish

tremendous,

really the devil in disguise,are

is

is ordered

says:

captive."

who

Moor,

was

which

tempest

another'

And

moment

Zqfloya Victoria's

In

that

at

halls of horror,

and

passages

agitated.

becomes

storm,

Romance

subterranean

through

barometer

the

Gothic

at

script,
manu-

like

the

is for

Albigenses.

destruction."
"Clouds

The

Gothic

Other

references

portentously

go

return

with

heavy

thunder-clouds

shrouds

of

thunder
of

added

In

of

specters

the

effectiveness.

becomes

period is there
Lear

and

the

idea

the

of

murmurs

decided

of

added

in

work

as

the

to

suggestive-

at

are

and

nature

convention,

heath

in

the

used

fiction

with
of

the

Shakespeare reveals,

as

in the

of

pitilessclutch
in his

soul.

inter-relation

of the

passions

original with

little of the

their

is

tragic tempest

of the
is not

to

such

the

Yet,
of

Gothicists, and

inevitabilityof genius, they


effect

supernatural

is less barometric

Origin of Individual

origin of

the

the

individual

Supernaturalism

note.

believed

this

by

method.

less architectural

as

in then

than

at the

now,

they had

present time.

more

conducive

to

unsocial

seemed

leisure ; and
the

of the

Gothic

uncanny

and

Dreams

enjoy

novel

played

Gothic

romances

and

people

and

all the

One

reason

their

gave

the

The

than

great

romances

The

ical
psycholog-

is

probably

radiators.

to

the

Tales.

retailing of

steam

frankly

Gothic

was

telling of ghost stories

than

our

Peals

Gothic.

The

to

and

like the

seem

forces

with

man,

distinct

power

more

they show
fiction

terrible

Nowhere

on

nature

greatly

Later

the

with
the

although

add

dark

exhausted

there

agencies
a

wanders

storm,

though

the

supernatural

varying

man

novel

passions of

This

the

...

greatness.

peal like the

use

events.

where

slowly

motif.
to

war

"The

fury."

advance

Gothic

to

dark

where

ness

of

the

heart."

attempt

reflect

ships

departed

every

general, in the

definite

off like

that

13

illustrate

may

strength and

sounded,

spent

Romance

interesting
generally

more

were

more

folk-tales
for this
open

to

this

be

fires were

of

natural

love

that
more

shudders

eighteenth

to

of terror

may

pleasures of fear, and

rein

given

than

century
the

rise

for the

gruesome.
an

important

part in the

inspiration of

the

tales

of

Walpole
Shall

I waked

I could

(a

castle

staircase

down

saw

dream.
the

and
after

at

the

gigantic

hand

Frankenstein

"Monk"

Lewis

fireside

each

others.
and

The

it is said

girl should

unable

hit

to

discussion

student

had

put

shut

show

eyes

and

signs

of

behold,

looking

him

with

from

The

acute

this

relation

she

the

saw

the

on

the

that

so

compositions
stein,
Franken-

save

that

annoyed
Mrs.

Shelley
after
to

was

hearing
Hfe

create

idea

vision
beside

in

half

saw

the

of

artist

thing

"

the

phantasm

working
The

horrid

watery,

of dreams

Polidori,

write

the

an

mental

hideous

life.

wrote

had

should

attempts

kneeling

arts

and

And

but

then,

awakened;
on

she

of

Byron

evening

one

born

says

first

Darwin's

of unhallowed

out,

At

experiments,

together.

stretched

him.

least

stories

group

much

hands.

much

so

with

was

plot, but

the

the

Byron,

tales

great

my

on

likewise

with

evening

in

grew

negligible

Byron

excel

She

with

"

pale

engine,

work

terror

were

the

knowing

compared

of Erasmus

dream.

saw

of

that

upon

laboratory

waking

member

results

of

interested

German

be

banister
In

was

of

to

romance

mine

armor.

The

had

recital

that

ghostly

by

relate.

or

Shelley's

proposed

mere

in

ancient

an

filled like

uppermost

write, without

to

to say

head

Shelleys in supernatural

of the

for

in

myself

thought

all

of which

dream,

this

of

origin

the

was

from

I had

dream

began

and

Mary

what

morning

that

nightmare.

architectural

an

you

that

was

and

I intended

what

to

natural

very

of

the

as

was,

romance

one

recall

story)

Gothic

sat

letter

initial

result

confess

even

romance?
that

the

in

says

Romance

The

terror.

tells us,

author

Gothic

The

14

stands

of

sleeps
at

to the

story
uncanny

of

the

he

man

powerful

some

but

he

is

his bedside,

yellow yet speculative


her

thing

eyes

man-monster.

tale is

interesting.

The

Gothic

Dreams

and

of

future, played

the

(as they
would
the

authors

visions

attributed

dreams

discover

dreams.

Gothic

fiction.

and

second

sight in the

naturalism

becomes

and

contributes

De

Quincey's

how

in

The

in

The

for

interesting by-path

an

even

^.

It

instances

many

influenced

in

presaging

dreams

and

appear

quently
fre-

agency

novel

terror

their

between

relation

close

'

form

might

investigation. Dream-superin

prominent

more

extraordinary

of

passages

drama

tradition.

the

supernatural

to

the

'

motion-picture scenarios)

in

subconsciously
by

prophetic

in

part

continues

to

were

of material

choice

used

novel

impossible

past and

important

an

widely

now

Gothic

be

15

visions, revelatory of the

are

the

and

Romance

Dream-Fugue

of which

power

mentioned

be

may

fiction

later

as

an

example.
The

germinal

contained

in

doomed,

moment,

resign

to

such

not

"

True,

the

folk-tales

Doctor

dramatic

his

own.

that

man

the

hope

of his

the

drama

of

story

of

could

would,

who

us

the

may

regarded
disthis

at

earth

could

No,. there

is not

bestow

or

salvation?

were

we

will, and

His

of mankind

enemy

to

one

mortal,

forced

devil-pact

to

seek

to

the

by

an

lowe's
Mar-

gives the idea

here

by

another's

buy

with

cursed

across

in

previously, notably
Maturin

in

appeared

had

psychologic poignancy

and

ceaselessly harried
fate, forever

such

of

Faustus, but

the

the

own

offer !

in

twist

being

earth

on

theme

and

one

all

the

author's

present, however

us

disobeyed

Lord,

is there

"

of

one

the

fool

it with

traverse

human

word

accept

aSord,
one

from

departed

for

theme

the

of

one

was

soul.

is there

moment

His

from

Wanderer

the

Melmoth,

suggested

fate-pursued

this

have

for

paragraph

which

sermons,

At

idea

making

soul

to

save

physical immortality,

world

irresistible

by

hounds

the

tirge

to

make

of
his

The

impitiable offer

Gothic

Romance

Maturin's

and

Clara

Reeve's

English
be

that

earlier

tended

the

"We

to

Her

certain

the

to

the

and

work

; and

the

result

Mrs.

Anne

other
was

her

on

later

and

hands,

night,

that

During
all those

she

to

waiting loneliness
that

terrors

nervous

Her

while

keep

and

passages

that
but

she
that

Matthew

Monk

in

by

went

is

midnight
ghosted
mad

she

engage

did

she

an

time

mix

not

voured
de-

was

for

journalist husband

from

describes
whose

that

of

explanation
for him

being

doubtless

wanderings

she

scared.

experienced

being

as

emotional

gone
under-

anguish

through subterranean
There

apartments.

from

to

ability
prob-

air of

sittingup

herself

by her palpitating maidens,


is suffered

attention

manipulator

had
be

may

so

the

time.

literary attempts.
at

required,

pathetic

energetic

which

of

fiction

an

indigestible though

of her

"

annotmced

ingredients

because

frightful stories

wrote

her

wished

appearance

give

of the

rather

was

machinery

she

excite

life to

But

wrote

till late

away

the

to

Radcliffe, that

enginery,

wasting

for

enough

readers

by hungry

Gothic

allow

in its behalf."

heart

well

work, though

of real

manners

paternity.

the

supernatural

degree of the marvelous

of the

enough

disclaimed

impressiveness and

own

She

literary offspring of the

recipe for Romantic

prim

should

that

Walpole's.

than

of the

her

and

Old

ghost story

Walpole

in

The

in

the

its

danger

conceive

can

ghost."
a

defeat

writing

purpose

was

violence

order

power.

realistic

though

that

avoid

' '

book

romance,

deplored

that
to

her

and

high

dreadful

produce

to

was

probable

stated

avowed

Baron

more

She

story has

of
possibilities

tragic refusal, offers dramatic

meeting

always

souls, and

tormented

to

over-much

is

brooding

report

one
on

mormo,

generally discredited.
Lewis

Gregory
reading

Radcliffe, together

the
with

was

impelled

romances

Schiller's

of

to

Walpole

Robbers,

write
and

which

The

Mrs.

triple

The

influence

is discernible

that

in

story

book

of his

indecency
from

Gothic

The

impressed

He

by asserting

he

Shelley,

St. Irvyne,

amounts

actual

to

imitation.

In

stories, and

The

him

the

of

novels.

Gothic

sorcery,

Zofloya,

Mrs.

in

And

novels

known

the
in

times

of the

various

the

to

the

periods

and

of the

the

become

for

specter

glides

"The

colorless

and

and

indicates

Barsis," The

study

of

supemattualism
of

modern

Gothic

bution
contri-

significant,though

is the

Ghost

reader

History of Santon

less

and

developments.
merely

up

ments
experisatanic

in the

The
is

with

science.

and

discoveries

the

by

ing
part in furnish-

of

The

novel.

Gothic

do

to

imitative

interest

literature

the

of the

theme

ha.a

the

novels

performs

plays

ghostly fiction
The

in
was

and

sorcery,

plot material.

Ghosts.

tigation
inves-

supernatural

of the

later

and

seen,

the

Moor,

is much

with

these

apparent

Vathek

science

to

of

"in

was

productions

thought

with

phasesof

genre

slight in comparison
Gothic

deal

number

show

wrote

the

dream,

telepathy,

There

this form

we

diabolical

furnishing

as

The

other

of science

relation

as

Beckford's

in

so

material.

the

he

with

scientific

Mattirin

hypnotism,

chemistry.

when

Darwinian

Dacre's

titles

Shelley said he

have

and

St. Leon

adaptation

the

Even

in

matter.

crude

William

than

Zofloya

the

Frankenstein,

Shelley, and

plot

strongly

so

Dacre's

is

Godwin,

the

Godwin's

is familiar

Romantic,

alchemy,

was

eighteenth century

of

elixir of life.

Mrs.

sickness"

the

outcome

and

turn,

Godwin,

in the

influenceof

his

by William

to

who

one

will contradict

in

plagiarism.

writing

no

took

reprehensible

Rosicrucian, that

intellectual

of

state

The

or

less

is

Monk,

writing his Zastrozzi, and


in his

that

the

defended

Guardian,'' ingeniously intimating

Lewis's

by

17

in his lurid tale.

plagiarized immorality

original material.

Romance

real hero

human

dull

the

Number

ine
hero-

characters
moment

willingness

Guardian,

or

to

148.

relate

The

the

Gothic

story of his life.

shade

in literature

finds

fear

be

the

delight
haunts

in

the

is

ideas

in

horrors,

of

all.

primitive culture,
influence

in

dramatic

the

is

the

Gothic

and

of the

peculiar
a

several

are

pin faith

figment

dungeons
their

"while

of

souls

deliberate

or

the

related

are

imitative

characteristics

have

others

tion
considera-

demise

back

to

to

do

have

only their
wanderlust.

ask

the

Christian

penance

guilty conscience
There

for

own

are

their

; we

sins

castle
appear

premises,
innocent

circumstances
burial

; and

habitation

proper

There

only

ghosts

are

local

in

can

is

; others

Some

reveal

that

retiringshades

will.

and

anybody

the

free

to

ghosts

sometimes

"

for

the

called,

haunt

of

that

specter.

hoax

paged

have

ghost

of

or

to be

and

name

classes

imagined apparition

when

only

own

sent

is the

real

hysterical fear

spirits returning
violent

is the

to ; there

is the

Ccesar

greatly worth

are

clearly marked

There

come

and

and

certain

the

not

Though

poor.

strong

approaching

they

yet

in

study of literary supematuralism.

Gothicism.

that

Macbeth,

ghosts they have

themselves

to

There

there

of

ghost

share

have

Julius

or

altogether

not

are

dramatic

in

The

ever.

phantoms

logue-ghost
pro-

fiction, but

tradition, with

dramatic

suggestiveness

them

of

the

and

The

talkativeness, his

psychologic subtlety of Hamlet

horrific

his

classical

in

as

the

of

animistic

specter.

needed

ghost

its association

of

Shakespeare's apparitions, nothing

of

power

Gothic

not

the

to

the

see

may

prominent

as

The

touch.

we

the

personage,

action, reflect

Senecan

to

is

revenge-ghost

as

addition

ish
child-

trail

the

superstitions, survivals

naturally,
the

In

to

all events,

fiction, and

terror

them

over

ancient

Elizabethan

At

due

be

it may

or

and

emotions

of

pleasurable

the

of

that hiamanity

fact

the

to

sensational.

pages

supernatural
with

the

due

most

truly enjoys vicarious

popularity

continuing

The

may

of

one

Romance

of
meet

in the

their

guilty
place

Gothic

The

of

their

commission;

multiple variety.
and

The
the

shades

times

his

coming

larger than

sword

ghost

which

later

an

foot

and

hand

his

stands

forth

as

the

"is

fashioii

and

mortal

of

see

last

specter

his
in

armor

the

castle, the

the

gloomy

prayer

in

round

discovers

of

There

be

remembered

skeleton

That

of which

interesting
slowly

"turning

in

wrapped

in

kneeling

fleshless

the

he

"

glory."

seen

who,

and

chapel

After

nose-bleed

of

is

and

lacking

is another

who

monk

Frederick

to

sockets

empty

made.

are

he

scene

automobile

singular, considering the weighty material


and

chapters

shade.

the

The
Brob-

few

are

blaze

hall, and

it in.

an

will

with

in

eyes

the

that

Alfonso

"

portentous

afflicted

statue

from

wrapt

seems

he

famous

specter

then

He

hundred

the

first

In

is

ghosts

bear

to

We

limbs

the

imposing

an

receiving Alfonso's
as

the

into

men

match.

to

supplies

of Otranto.

body,

no

parts, after

demonstration,

Castle

sections.

leg, with

enormous

assembles

in

appears

It

of Gothic

helmet,

hundred

prayers

family

crashes

of

inextricably.

cross

enormous

size, which

requires a

himself

dignagian

life

The

an

yield to
exorcism.

lines

of the

ghosts

revenge

resist

the

in

by

are

that
for

giant apparition

19

specters that

are

classifythem,

to

there

genealogical founder

heralds

There

strong-minded

difficidt

is

and

Romance

jaws
a

and

hermit's

cowl."

Clara
the

Reeve's

heir

unrecognized

night in the haunted


a

of

such

two

the

and

woman

appalling

vanish

after

he

cliffe'

introduces

chatty

personage

'

In

Gaston

to

the

estate,

apartment,
other

size

as

the

is estated
the
who

de Blondeville.

his

in

haunts

of
a

spending
though

armor

in

Otranto.

long-lost parents

murdered

baronial

apparitions, one

suitably wed.

and

shade

is

who

revenant

as

English Baron,

Old

two

sees

gentleman

themselves

announce

in The

peasant

young

Mrs.

not

The
and
Rad-

knight,

hall full of

men,

The

20

and

time

another

at

Gothic

Romance

in

engages

slaying

tournament,

his

opponent.

old

shows

Bonhote'

Mrs.

Only think, Miss, of


business

own

him

follow

to

ghost that

In

here

minute

this

land

on

the

romance

heard,
or

minding

at home

be

trouble

castle, taking the

own

four

or

I have

as

can,

should

it has

special business

on

travelling three

However,

miles

Baron's

the

at

that

ghost

the

whom

ghost of

migratory

in vexation

complains

servant

its

us

miles

hundred
the

at

go

communicate!

to

is

nothing

of

rate

to

thousand

sea.

baron

and

vault

visit the

to

goes

has

curdling experiences.
"A

deep
'

You

vocal

the
from

objects

story

same

almost

Thomas,

specter

or

the

at

Castle

Castle

armored

in the

'

In

By

who

fire

his

to

son

has

Gothic
Bungay
Charles

Times,
the

manner

killed
do

an

not

him,
cry

third

"

bones

my

heels, and

departure

ghost
the

spook

The

of

one

pursues

ing
finally vanish-

of brimstone

behind.

shakes

its

Smith,
head

hoary

pistols at it.
shows
son

demanding

and
appears

in

father

Baltimore.

dicating
in-

vengeance.

Count

Roderick's

Philadelphia novel,

anonymous

of his

murdered

murder,

to madness.

"Vindicta!"

and

The
as

scaring

revenge

frequently as
3

By

P.

H.

the

ghosts

Castle.

Lucas,

his

second.

History of Jack

and

claims,
ex-

matrimonial

conceded

odor

an

in

ghost

revenge

telling his

well

oj Caithness^

Castle, or Gothic

king,

his

his

the

voice

pieces, whereupon
and

woman's

Donats,

who

men

in

sees

making

on

and

will crush

burial

apparently

young

of Saint

of

group

from

his wounds
An

has
a

his

to

stamping

rises

coffin

baron

sky-rocket, leaving

The

the

coffin
you

or

decent

Later

she

the

the

demand

though

like

knocks

He

wife, who

the

from
Forbear

me

castle.

venture,
In

"

bones

the

first

hurt
'

powder!

to

issues

groan

P.

in

The

the

but

early drama,

In Ancient
of

Records,
who

nun

wicked
She

Suddenly

the

what

orbits

the

of

of

Scant

and

the

wonder

and

appears

dagger

up

with

angry

the

by

reproach.
dead

infant

baron

forbids

his

Another

interested
brother

with

dreadful
a

becomes

suddenly

for

will, when

has

intent, when

spook

and

countenance

his

specter

Gondemar

Again,

wicked

gestures

ghost

beckons
Gondemar

departure."

who

searchers

and

has

him

his foot

find

headless
over

guilty

on

corpse

Another
of

and

mutilated

soul."

certain

in

to

stone,

recreant

The

young

where
heroine

the

beneath

in the
who

nun,

she

ghastly

investigation,

figure through the


bed

sleep,

subterranean

accusing spirit appears


a

his

shows

On

winding-sheet

convent

J. Horsley-Curties.

him

his

on

from

man

vanishes.

and

Benedicta,

the

wakeg

to

inconsiderate

Another

follow, leads

throat
a

spot.
that

to

punishment

him.

volume

repeatedly

appears

demands

slain

same

his

in

marquis

ing
Accus-

in The

excitement

creates

murdered

parties

vault, stamps

T.

bans.

sunken

beckoning

hovers

hollow

his couch.

on

against her

hollow,

specter in the

"

"

filled with

now

specter

story Rosaline, the distressed

same

the

throat

revenge

Spirit.

wound

The

their

Three

chamber

the

falls senseless

wed

to

from

Oh

departs

By

spirit

animated.

Vortimer!

light.

In the

her

at

"lifts

"

hate.

the

alive

her

dart

anger

horror-stricken

heroine, is about

her

with

specter become

appalling

sulphurous

invisible

'

silent, tormenting

ring pealing through

blaze

story

buried

and

midnight,

at

of the

eyes

flashes

on

shrieks

and

in their

Abbey of St. Oswyth,

with

him

21

relentless

as

wronged

returns

beside

are

The

or

Romance

breast.

her

then

they

been

has

baron

stands

on

Gothic

same

glides

cloisters

"breathed
who

dicated
in-

has

as

and
out

taken

The

22

refuge in the

temporary
cell with
old

derive

the
Another

that
for

understudy

her, who

characters

Ghosts

begin

Gothic

novels.

retinue

of

and

alone
countless

their

sockets, bare

picture of the
of

pressed above

the

soul's

living

Hall

given
of

with

burning

"the

was

enough
;

with

forms

life to be
one

here

hand

forever
own

precious boon,

there
of

'

immortal

carrying his

most

less
eye-

spirits in

shows
his

of Eblis

they regard

him

Darite

that

Beckford

lost heaven's
Hall

toward

unhappy
in

of

women,

Astdsrfrom

Vathek

no

ing
pass-

"clattering bones,

of

in

appear

phantoms

move

heart, each

fleshless

still possess

dfeplorablecondition

in

Eblis.

the

Yathek presents

the

meets

breast, all

souls, each

In

hope!

have

Beckford

grinning jaws."

doomed
his

in later

to

religiouspersecution. Men,

him, having

corpses,

kings, who

forest,

reproach,

is

not

as

poor

impressive description

large number

hell within

so

heels

others'

assembly.

at the

and

the

for

individuals, spooks

one

dark

babes

unspeakable

times

TheAlbigenses,deMontfort,

of his

with

concourse

as

InMaturin's
a

in

nun

an

boldened
least, a ghost-of-all-work. Em-

specters in

maidens,

is

success

through

provides

confusion

Vi/iUiamJi"ckf ord in his

victims

most

each

upon

at

or

pioneer

reader.

romance

mobs.

young

the

for the

No

thousand

niggard^

the

room!

in Lewis's

He

horrors.

impersonates

crowd

to

specters,

by
groups

and

theless,
Never-

the

Nun

Bleeding

can

they may
her

of

one

providing complicating

emergency,

other

ghost,

of Gothic

hall

earth

which

changing

on

of note, is the

apparitions

Monk,

two

cloistered

famous

female

of

girl insists

nervous

the

imagination."

our

an

mysterious

for

that

but

us

by

is informed

over

the

share

to

spiritswho

of

weakness

the

from

injure

to

power

no

has

permissiori to wander

receive

possess

and

room-mate,

damned

that, "Those

purposes

Romance

convent

disturbing

this

nun

The

Gothic

the

are

the

pre-adamite

conscious

another

still

with

of their,

looks

The

of

the

deepest

motionless

beholder

James

As

he

him

lies

We

of babes

that

wi'

When

"the

corpse

its hands

and

stares

round

watchers

body

similar

modern

There

is

number

priests

novels.

forth

story

one

but forgets and


the

firmly

news

thousand

of
The
whose
Mrs.

them

to

But

years.
or

of

bids

strong

will,

incantation, and

imagined ghost
writers

lack

Radcliffe, for

the

the

The

to

in

candle

to

the

away

In

over.

In

for

'

standing
under-

the

up

ter,
spec-

breaks

of feeble

break

to

nounce
pro-

another,

return

cannot

the

visitants.

scare

monies
cere-

priest into hysterics.

the

of the

in many

of their

instance, loves

Spirit of Turrettville.

Ambrose

occasions

and

they

ghostly horrors, yet explains


'

found.

ghosts depart and

scares

courage

face!"

spirits in

restless

bogle, whether

appears

bed,

moments,

of

various

legs

comes

sounds

never

one

troublesome

that

one

is

later

in the

few

in

presently tumbles

priestperemptorily

the

On

his

crosses

in

bodies.

against the

monk

pitiful

its dead

and

bell, book,

with

anathema

for

exorcise

to

attempt

Gothic

come,

of dead

motif

wi'

occurs

evil

supematuralism

sits up

room

instance

stories

some

of

the

is visible.

supernatural

disappears

mysteriously

somewhat

Bierce's

leave

around

the

nothing

effective

dead, the

as

wronged.

women,

invisible

that

the

the

of the

is

man

01

dreadful

so

pawls

the

has

only he, but those

and

sin

in flames.
of very

man

he

bed, though

frequent

so

After

become

his

of those

not

is

of his

enveloped

pleading voices

suggestion

becomes

fiction.

the

Soliman

breast, transparent

heart

wraiths

around

here

have

the

right hand

prophet

Wool-Gatherer,

death-bed,

well, hear

as

cries

his

his

his

tragic words

his

see

The

by

on

lips come

can

Hogg's

life is haunted

The

Through

23

holding

heart."

livid

punishment.

In

his

whose

glass, the

Romance

dejection, each

above

there, from
and

Gothic

to

them

Gothic

tales,

supematuralism.
build
away

up
on

tissue

natural

Gothic

The

24

ghosts that

The

of

The

after

otherwise

ville two

lagging

at

skeleton

follow

old

an

hands

"stalks"

the

on

of

out

occasion.
out

the

singing

But

the

reader,

later

that

she

Accusing
of

means

between

to

apparition

young

anonymous

novel,

veil

attends

aided

to

and

further

formances,
per-

for

composed
thrills,

the

resents
to

of murder.

man

his

the

victim's

life.

for

ghost

up

funeral

midnight

resemblance

strong

mysterious

is constructed

makes

save

while

spook

innocent

makes

man
'

waves

intrusion

such

by

an

dramatically

cadaverous

She

living wife, attempting

bogus

accuse

just in time

unmasked

their

turns

confession.

Spirit

men,

only

see

apparition

skull."

song

music

woman

they

gives

after

is the

phosphorus,

two

the

She
a

see

near,

for

oratory.

frighten the villain into


The

they

draw

rebuke

Turrett-

plaintive

of

and

keys

haughty

however,

In

sounds

they

enliven

to

Spirit of

grinning, mouldering

with

hands

As

restitution

merely

or

The

In

the

harp.

"a

them

finding

crime,

story.

poses
pur-

Gothic

of

into

deserted, spookish apartment,

toward

frighten criminals

further

to

the

for

up

tions
spectral impersona-

the

behind

to

youths

playing

The

spirit around

interesting feature

an

reasons

confession,

till,in

form

various,

are

by

sees

deliberately got

are

deception

methods.

her

he

corner.

every

the

fancies

reader

after the

grounds

Romance

in

charge,

woman

the

in

but
A

is

tall,

in
a

an

black

castle, then

accountably
un-

disappears.
In

Melmoth

the

images

and

burn

mocking
In
'

In

of

fiends, over

sulphur
cries

Lewis's
Ariel, or

persecute

spirits in his

impersonating
with

monks

Monk

as

of

demons,

there

the Invisible

which

assist

to

is

cell.

Monitor.

the

They

they

cover

smear

deception.

seeking
false

despised brother

to

drive

Bleeding Nun

the

by

walls

phosphorus,
They
him
as

utter

mad.
well

as

The

the

bona

fide specter.

various

their

The

period.

appear

through

the

white

blackness

are

then

vealed,
re-

altogether dispel

for

In

origin.)

definite

its

its shade

bells

that

terrify his murderer,

herald

tower

or

by night.
them

light

to

their

coming

the

by

form

of

in real life have

specter in

of

labyrinths. Several

ghosts
"

fiction

walks

ghost takes

many

the

lamps

or

and

the

another,

ing
pliace,haunt-

haunted

of architectural

(Doubtless

cow.

similar

there

and

figure in

candles

romance,'

one

in

has

with

carrying

fondness

In

rings.

novels

not

familiar

castle

apartment

or

Gothic

home

at

is

Every

Several

evince

25

cleverly planned,

stays

demesne,

own

dungeon

other

explanation does

ghost that

its

Romance

impression they make.

uncanny

the

In

spectral frauds
but

the

Gothic

armor

had

to

appears

in

supernatural lightning aids

and

his revenge.
would

It
Gothic

be

fiction
in the

appear

they

not

do

brute

force

that

by

as

impresses

the

from

that

haunt

dreadful
that

the

'

'

The

the

haunting
Spirit of

Ethelwina,

or

specters

with

us

oppress

the

of

death-bed

The

life.

forgotten, but
has

voices

bodiless

are

titanic

in the

ghosts, mouldy
than

We

their

Hall

wronged
and

It

with

of Eblis.

The

that

less

are

egotisticclamor,
is

Otranto
tive
vindic-

appalling

corpse

flamboyant

children
back

to

personality,
may

of other

inescapable.

their

by the

and

women
a

dividual
in-

so

not

less moved

ghostly suggestiveness

power

is

in

bring

whole.

not

adversary

vault,

the

and

fiction,though

later

effects.

us.

the

phantoms

the

spiritsin

the

creepy

and

the

on

Some

be

soon

spirits
of

Castle.

the House

of Fitz-Auburne,

in

They

command,

or

characteristics

some

knight

armored

comfort

to

ghosts

haunting.

definitely personated,

so

realistic

achieve

wholesale

warn,

human

very

are

they

to

all the

designate

to

is

there

plot

and

than

for

have

to

seem

Yet

impossible

by T. J. Horsley-Curties.

the

The

26

Gothic

Gothic

ghosts have

where

be

would

early

and

the

excitement

in

Gothic

the

witch

real

and

genuine

of
In

an

the

there

such

dandy

mystic

and

which

She

is
be

to

stands

"the
the

is to

uttered

by

Albigenses

three

in The

Monk

in the

subterranean

her

unhallowed
of

witch

by

rare

are

Hunt

are

captured

of Eildon,
and

burned

being

of the

and
work

being

the

turns

brink

the

into

futurity,

'Who

holds?'

lover."

or

that

In
not

are

Matilda

own.

of enchantment

all

potions

things
in

James

mischief

They

have

holy

but

last

at

choice
with

and

water

will.

Hogg's

but

the

and

her

to

much

baptized,

works

Vathek, is

in

magic

warlocks

and

she

monastery

her

the

they struggle against

cries

has

spells and

on

appear

power

forces

or

demon

Shakespeare's

convicted.

alive

pit,

question

concocts

who

pected
sus-

who

She

hag Carathis,

witches

the

wrongly

"by

inquirer

Sisters
of

means

novel, the

doctor

the

her
of

daemonic

skill,who

several

The

voice

passages

supernatural

There

to

The

both

spirits.

element."

Weird

arts.

change

have

we

dark

results

into

answer

possesses

little

is

woman

weird
our

imitations

altogether poor

the

shivering

the

to the

fortunes, gives spells against

dropped

whether

The

tells

add

terror

girl who

old

an

beyond

doubtful
be

their

given her from

powers

with

produces

as

yarn

is

the

in

young

alliance

unholy

eye

has

beautiful

ability.

evil

witch

who

is but

tradition, for

reputed
hag

Melmoih,

uncanny

of

the

the

devil, and

all,

equal in

all

at

warlocks

and

There

fiction.

dramatic

of

antique

not

ghosts, witches

to

the

for

but

to-day

of

While

Warlocks.

importance
from

phantoms

the

after

vitality,-^and,

strange

services

Witches

Romance

face

of

wild
the

flames.

Hogg's

In
her

daughter

own

given

the

of Bodbeck,

Brownie

trial

by

is

fire

witch
or

and

water.

Marion
thinks
There

Linton
she
is

believes
should

an

be

innocent

The

witch

reputed

young

sentenced

The

to

death

Devil.

The

figures in

the

Gothic
in

The

for her

art.

devil

the

we

of

epic tradition.

the

magician
than
not
a

the

to

sympathies
later

the

as

Yet

deserves

who

man

just when

he

in

recognized
whole

The

darted
he

of

into

away

his

waved

is

shake

the

to

our

devils
the

to

right hand

psychologic
he

Later

is

his

ascended,

he

fiery

yell that
forthwith

and
As

flames.

in

changed

was

uttered

He

in

similar

him.

creature

shook

and

remember

inspired

its foundations

air, wrapt

king and

can

clever

on

fiend.

strange

the

to

one
a

as

Magdalen.

of the

furious

in

comes

no

thrown

visage
a

abbey

and

ants
interesting vari-

in

perhaps

water

that

all the

made

holy
and

as

greatly fear

nor

familiar

There

him.

form
to

moment

curiously

play, The Eternal

and

is

or

Monk

misunderstood

devil

the

herejwhich

recent

The

appealing

as

appear

him, though

sees

knew

suggestiveness

He

study.

seems

who

rather

Milton.

of

scenes

love

does

of Eildon

yet

everyone

he

our

Hunt

Hogg's

neither

working
wonder-

terrifying, almost

human,

as

the

than

rather

physically

assume

closing

of

case

Faustus

and

lonely, misjudged,
We

demon.
and

idea

Dr.

is

familiar

Calderon's

to

of Dante

does

is he

fiction.

Gothic

he

the

Neither

Zofloya.

to

the

dramatic

is akin

creations

epic proportions

old

the

Marlowe's

personality, though

In

of

in

as

who

of the

one

dread, awe-inspiring figure either

in

is

Here,

He

and

satanic

of Eildon,

incarnate

influence

ghost,

27

Hunt

novel.

terror

see

Romance

locks

at

his

inquisitors.
There

his

about

dubious

nothing

is

personality here,

certainly!
Satan

appears

first visits

Ambrosio,

dramatically

are

made

in

who

has

been

the

led

in

The

form
into

Monk
of

sin

as

well.

attractive

by

the

His

youth.
daemonic

Gothic

The

28

Matilda,

agent,
when

she

comes

soul

selling his
refuses

awaiting

to

see

Then

himself, described

His

thunders;
his

form;
Over

hands

his

and

hair

roll

of

lightnings flashed
to

Ambrosio

with
devil

of

dissolution

mountain

shaven

he

crown,

and

caves

demon

to

height, he released
He

plunges

the

evoked

by

similar

Victoria
who

been

her

her

and

He

appears

lightning flash.

the

bind

Moorish
powers.

holding
where

sometimes
He

comes

he

rock.

The

shrieks.

The

in the

of

servant

grants

is heralded

with

Evil

flood.

One,

impressive
her

conferences

many

like

the

is

Zofloya.

in

occurs

' '

monk.
storm

away

He

dreadful

fell the

to

top

monk's

the

which

herself

the

to

till,reaching
Headlong

him,

release

the

Ambrosio's

body swept

to

signs the

and

into

brink, after

his

special

forest

seemed

bursts

to

from

manifestation

as

Still

pen.

thunder

talons

him

with

river's

enemies,

dark

in the

sounds.
like

to

and

his

aloft

induced

appeared

personality
hostile

devil

held

he

taking his victim

stifferer.

daemonic

has

has

the

to

twined

which
hand

wings;

sable

iron

convention.

with

soar

the

talons.

his agreement

that

us

rang

continued

the

per

to

sprang

mountains

long

one

an

gigantic

his

snakes

In

Almighty's

over

enormous

other

"darting

and

the

of

selling his soul

as

keep
tells

"

itself

living

and

into

doesn't

Lucifer

visitant,

of ^nature.

blood,

his

for Lewis

however,

two

the

him

is overawed

compact
The

in

around

the

announce

waved

and

blue

of

temper

with

armed

frightful hissings.

parchment,

in

marks

spread

supplied by

was

with

themselves

the

were

shoulders

huge

his

feet

monk

repentant

darkness

and

the

by

release

win

he

dread

more

still bore

swarthy

But

departs

follows

as

limbs

blasted

she

so

that

urge

devil.

has

he

to

Inquisitioncell,

in the

death

him

the

to

advice,

her

flame.

is

Romance

wishes
with

by flute-like

flame, sometimes

the

swiftness

of the

The

wind

and

tells

At

last, he

own

hideous

Behold

but

she

The

old

created

in

devil

is

in

loud

be,

to

called

men

Moor

peared
ap-

the

foaming

in

Vathek

laugh,

mangled

he

for

impressiveness,

yells of

weak

are

Nor
of

in

of the

the

has

him

uses

devil

epic

devil

ugly

rather

The

in

of

use

which

human

the

in

of the

or

later

On

the

fiction

lack

dramatic

have
sentations.
repre-

that

appeal

fiction

is

diablerie

tempter.

in Gothic

Wool-

psychologic subtlety, and

they

have

fell,

she

corpse

Hogg

Satanic

of the

either

incarnations

his

Confessions of a JustifiedSinner,

appearances

force

dreadful

preternaturally

James

powers.

the

below.

waters

a"

Victoria,

of

neck

down

daemonic
and

demon,

the

religious superstition, of the

whole, the

the

by

of the

headlong

witchcraft, introducing

not

his

assumes

appeared

nature,

firmly

her

ears;

seen

the

Gatherer, and
of

her

strange

for

story

his

into

with

man

and

semblance

more

whirled

fell

echoed

penchant

which

that

under

grasped

he

received

was

of all
I that

he

she

as

triiunph

him.

summoned

Satan, and

as

longer

no

was

push

"

thoughts

gigantism.

enemy

spoke,

one

abyss!

her

29

thee.

to

with

of

I am,

as

Yes, it

he

that

Romance

himself

form

sworn

Satan.

As

her

announces

me

the

Gothic

make

the

to

our

sympathies.
In

devil

addition

in

the

of

with

horror

novel

beings, but

more

often

to

extends

be

than

his

agents,
in

such

by
to

no

beasts

first announced

by

the
the

as

to

locks
war-

fiction

other

associated

with

Supernaturalism

well.

to

human

Animals

are

ghostly impressions,

appearance
extreme

witches,

confined

means

peculiarly sensitive
and

that

objects.

inanimate
is

the

Gothic

as

the

possessed by

powers

see

we

men,

so

to

daemonology,

and

supposed

unholy

magicians,

and

animals

the

given by him

and

aspects

to

terror

of
of

specter

some

house-

is

Gothic

The

30

hold

pet,
for

noses

ghosts

Ravens

approaches.

of evil powers,

believes

that

spends

somewhat

in

Friday

head

in The

Albigenses

loup-garou,

In this

her

This

of

"

is

motif

together

"

in

that

fancies

There

also

over

In

in

are

are

into

deer

for the

dogs

are

aware

men

are

too

changed

of the

stupid

into

to

hog,

follows

in

a
'

The

him

stampede

Wool-Gatherer,

his

brings

Albigenses

human

being

his company

realize

in

tracks

in

the

it.

in

uses

them

The

eat.

other

affairs,while

clownish

old

drove

and

The

cows

Hunt

is

almost

dog knows
of

the

Croudy

approach, for they, too,


"

snow.

enchantment,

brings amusing

the

transform

of

The

going

ately
immedi-

king

by

to

state

James

from
that

beings then

pathetically,and
at

wolf
were-

he

hare

that

tragic complications into his life. His


and

of the

The

In

bound

unnatural

which

no

beagles

slay human
king and

no

Bisclaveret.

is saved

of

left

reality maidens
to

return

variants

hideous

Sandy

warning

white

two

to

satisfactoryending

the

young

phosis
metamor-

supematuralism

one,'

the

in

wolf.

mad

vanishes, having

forced

who

described,

In

another,^ the

hunting

demon's

gruesome

savage

Gorlogon.

of animal

use

precipice by
after

and

romances.

not

beautiful

frequency

by

story,

is

himself

is much

Hogg's

does
the

little lai, Le

the

shown

Arthur

his

less

charming

medieval

in

lycanthrope

and

one

disappears

with

suggestive
has

of

during his

pieces then

to

Kittridge

Professor

devil

figures extensively

husband

who

de France's

Marie

which

the

case

werewolf

tears
more.

the

story of

the

introduces

werewolf,

or

folk-tales.
is

darkey

Monk.

Maturin's

woman

of

around

writhed

that

forget the snaky coiffure

the

showing

And

torment.

apparition

Southern

ally

keen

very

an

as

the

as

is the

jay-bird

the

every

represented

are

presence

when

lugubriously

howl

and

dogs have

Gothic

animal.

other

or

Romance

sense

him

off

go

the

of Eildon.

The

supernatural
killed for
the

to

spell.

pork,

into

the

consternation

of

with

night in

one

In

the

toast

is

drink

the

and

worked

night before

the

The

ghostly
htunan

to

execution

quite

innocent

proposing

is

his hand.

from

the

by supernatural
tenced
girl,sen-

young

fairy has

her

and

taken

lover

of the

fly out

are

prison
the

eternally on

live

shape

experiences.

thus

because

and

the

shores

to

scenes.

sends

his

father.

head-gear has

The

with

its

plumes

excitement

to

the

at

into place of itself,after


hundred
of

statue
a

having

Alfonso

sheds

turns

the

in its frame

and

and

danger

from

leaps

sword

entrance

of

it,while

from

its

strolls out

nose

into

open.

Pictures

motion

to the

weight

drops of blood

three

round

borne

to

generally adds

titanic

been

fainting under

men

portrait

Later

scenes.

and

villain

ghost^
of his

hopes

heroine

the

the]

in

hall

the

the

and

by their

giant

of voluntary

power

the

the

in

general

portrait of

take

murdered

lively part
man

in The

for it

own,

audibly

into

crashing

agility,saves

by waving

of Otranto,

would-be-bridegroom

around

moves

Castle

well

as

costumes

visitants

clanks

Armor

helmet

immense

the

of their

recognize spectral

The

In

and

Armor

immortality

accouterments.

objects

inanimate

to

animals.

and

material

or

terror

shatter

beings

common

garments

The

An

extends

power

have

to

seem

the

has

that

changed

Idng learns that

till the

dog

birds

is

mortal

cup

enchantment,

white

does

far lake.

and

the

suddenly

he

resume

be

to

Croudy

so

his feline

for witchcraft

into

by

But

may

dog dashes

life.

block

back

king of Scotland

the

his

saved

transformed

is

him

butcher.

relate

story the

death

form

as

the

and

year

poisoned, and

to

of

the

on

fairy changes

repeated several times,

is

put

life. He

his favorite

knowledge
her

endless

same

when

This

is

31

well after his transformation,

cat

Romance

Croudy

when

behave

not

Gothic

in horrific fiction.

Spirit of the Castle

Gothic

The

32

picks itself
while'
at

portrait in

in

nephew
the

desperation

picture

him.

in

might

be

This

Picture

The

of

statue

place with

its

back

come

the

in

room

is

portrait

of the

cry

any

transform

going

is

The

changing

his

movements

to

There

are

volume

preternatural

In

Arid.

The

key

to

diabolic

like the

sound

uncanny

mirrors

after
such

wands

crystal balls that


parts, but
describes
to

be

objects.
powers

Spirit of Tmrettville.

show

magic
read
These

possessed

fashion

he

of

that

used

by

with

power

to

in

as

one

distant

the

as

vice versa,

or

wherein

how

matter

no

show,"

beasts

hieroglyphics

the

The

with

enchanted

are

in distant

other

In

wronged

Melmoth's

magic

watch

and

'

the

till."

to

which

its lock

wishe"

men

on

same

of

by

it, rendering it "spell-

in

he

There

Ambrosio.^

Eildon.

and

groan."

great

ghost

impossible

moving-picture

private

great

grounds obtained

the

person

be, and

may

with

abbey

contains

romance

see

from

moves

all roimd

"march

to

upon

in

stories.

support, and^

again

house

turns

it,

dead.

Gothic
can

old

the

kept,

of

by

and

blighted, unproMc,

later

other

means

curse

burns

Oscar

Walpole's Castle

soil of the

inflicts

who

nun

and

the

as

Wilde's

with

injustice is haunted

gross

and

its

with

its place

the

for

power,

mocks

is said

marble

head

flames, ironically,and

in

visible

into

Oswyth

St.

and

wall,

portrait of

The

its frame

compared

Alfonso

no

eflfigyof black

In

Grey

of Dorian

the

the

its

meaning,

it from

tears

writhes

awful

with

beholder

the

follow

eyes

on

supernatural

-with

been

wags

bed.

the

making

endowed

is

Melmoth

is

who

servant

chamber

has

it

itself back

deserted

where

heap

hangs

itself and

cleans

thrown,

lumber

the

from

up

Romance

The

reveal

not

the

future

Hunt

oj

only what

swords

well,

as

that

bear

only by enchantment
will

to

illustrate

by inanimate

objects

serve

"

In

The

As

in Vathek.

Monk.

The
in

the

is

used

Gothic

literature.

terror

with

could

in

tales, and

besides

the

for

we

magic

potion

There

have

is

the

where

of

order

of

the

to

that
The

gives
Monk,

as

diabolical

of

chemistry

j-gpntriloquism,

into

peer

modern
writes

earlier,of

of

his

see

medicine.

is

her

him

of

secrets

He

laboratory,

into

in

and

Vathek
various

astrology, alchemy,

uses

Romeo

drink

magic

death, like that

course,

an

of prominent

powerful potion.
leads

on

messages

assembly
in

however

mother

and

Vathek,

serpent's oil,mummies,

sciences.

semblance

disease

patent

cadavers

the

In

ghostliness, we

Vathek'

with

up

kindred

the

science

characterization

any

who

their

use

in

idea.

supernatural

cures

curiosity that

to

and

sorcery,

of

strangling an

them

stews

experiments,

of the

uses

have

themselves.

uncurbed

an

later

array

skulls, concocting therefrom


has

istic
mechan-

important

supematuralism.

magician

alchemist

she

the

crude, yet of interest

in the

as

instantly

heavens

in

become

are

We

regular

Indian

industrious
citizens

twists

progenitor

an

high

well

here

see

itself in the

as

that

the

"

motif

supernatural-

astrology, hypnotism,

scientific

where

deadly,

the

philosopher's stone, 'iiifernal


biology,

the

other

is to

his confreres.

alchemy,

search

do not

suggesting

as

novels

and

We

manifests

Gothic

that human

way

effects here

and

Dasmonology
the devil

instances

some

which

the

in themselves

in the

accomplish.

not

supematuralism,
later

In

33

effectiveness, definitely heightening the

impression of the weird


ism

Romance

used

later

in

Juliet, and

and

elsewhere.

-^

^_"

The
He

tells of
do

to

hate

in

Moor

Zofloya

chemical

his

into love

will
or

or

die.

his

love into hate, and

da;monic

loves, then

By

commits

Under

temptress
suicide

in daemonic

versed

experiments

produces semi-insanity.
weds

is well

the

where

can

when

he

he

give

influence

thinking

forces

he

potions

her

wakes

science.

can
a

drug

of this
the
to

woman

the

one
every-

change
which
a

man

he
truth.

The

34

This

reminds

diabolic
In

the

is

neglects

branded

in

birth

whose

in

invisible
The

remain

must

her

story

the

young

in

than

student

the

thrust

suddenly

from

it.

She
of

because
takes
created

The

the

it but

his

that

slow

dear

by him.

of

Frankenstein

recoils

its

shuddering

on

till at

the

remorse

whom

it stands

griefas

it has

doom.

first,is effective, as, in tragic solitude,

the

it, as
on

its

the

ice-floe,it

toward

moves

the

The

harried

of

own

has

impressive.

goes

to

it

struggles that
are

of

who

man

The

last

death, then

away

Mrs.

lonely, tragic thing

in an' agony

weeps

more

intelligence,

it meets,

and

thing

distilled in its heart

hate

only

hate

size

sight of it.

ever

not

body

the

of the

the

visage, its

the

revenge,

being

in

ment,
experi-

supernatural

human

from

treatment

between

soul

in

compounds

study and

of less than

the

all held

and

by its dreadful

world

remain

Matilda

Uquid.

of

harsh

on

wretched

over

into

will

which

morbid

emotions

reveals

diabolic

rend

the

letters

with

gives it life. But

flees in horror

Shelley describes

nizable
recog-

supernatural biology

.of

and

size, its look

be

must

its side

frame

its creator

appalls

who

Frankenstein, the story of

human

babe

experiments.

after

who

child

new-born

chemistry

idea

grotesqueness

human

and

the

story

certain

prescription

same

chemical,

man-monster,

constructs

created

on

subterranean

scientist

hideous

mark,ed

satanic

uses

of the

yet

with

in her

Shelley

Mary

secret

strange

dabbles

evil,potions

and

is

till rubbed

Monk

the

In

point of

the

at

drug whose

peculiar fashion.

with

by

state.

to

emergency,

in

burnt

lying

woman

cured

miraculously

author

is

Castle

of

stories

Fu-Manchu

produce insanity.

that

hypodermics

Romance

Rphmer's

of Sax

us

Ankerwich

death

Gothic

last

desolate

to

sight

ing
tower-

North

to

death.

In

the

characterization

conception,

Mrs.

of this

Shelley

has

being,

as

introduced

in the

unusual

something

The

poignantly
the

mind

for

youths

in

new

of

Gothic

fiction.

twenty

There

is

early

Gothic
in

illustrates
The

the

anew

search

novels

of

relates

the

the

of

story

unlimited

gold by

stranger who

dies

awe-inspiring

an

Brown's

den

had

in

been

"at

the

The

This
Master

Dramatic

that

of the

becomes

The

the

success

account

Godwin's

Last

in

ous
mysteri-

suggests

gives

hypnotism

thought

could

have

moned
sum-

brought

of this

trial
terres-

of Ibsen's

illustrate the

may

is

Brock-

Mervyn

foreshadowing

These

There

Charles

extremity

as

in

the

are

use

of

discovery
are

life.
Laugh.

the

tiresome

Gothic

still. The
be

not

of

story

Godwinistic
'

In

thought

laid

down,

in

fiction

appeared

Struldbrugs,
is

novels.

potion, the

magic

may

has

intolerable

St. Leon
The

the

poignant

more

of

divers

psychological experiences

mortality, life that

Swift's

perpetual
'

intense

burden

before.

Builder.

life is brewed

with

endless

since

of

and

connected
effects

they

faint

produce

life.

Victoria's

further

seems

Godwin,

in Gothicism.

elixir

The

that

"

in various

by

Arthur

Zofloya

her,

York,'

Shelley^ brings in this

while

that

stein
Franken-

to

given him

gift of endless

saying

of the

New

how

ventriloquism

to

he

of science

of

armored

William

knew

formula

the

Moor

globe."
idea

with

of

appears

by

in his home.

use

hj

the
him

who

man

somnambulism.

mesmerism

or

Leon,

novel, Wieland,

in

study

secret

incidentally

power

St.

stein's
Franken-

idea.

the

philosopher's stone

period.

in

duced
pro-

in

of the

recently

Monk

have

horrors

employment

vitality of

for the

awfulness

for

abnormal

could

accompanying

The

The

the

only

museum

play produced

and

through

the

and

novels.

motif

and

in

ghosts. Bleeding Nuns,

startling theme

Vathek

were

curdling

more

35

she went

than

monster

was

years,

psychological conditions
it.

It

girl,as

young

of

Romance

and
the

hero

perhaps
secret

of

is visited

St. Irvyne.

The

36
by

decrepit old

Gothic

man

incommunicability

of

endless

life

nobleman
he

has

what

will

give

wealth.

pledge

on

of

him

the

The

impoverished

power

than

enjoyable

less

consequences

The

theme.

has

discovered

elixir

the

Shelley's later

Mary

rather
of

character
their

the

in

identity but

The

in

immortality
the

Here
endless
becomes

with

him

world

in

offering

his

man

nor

when

will

woman

the

willing

his

offers

wealth

them

win

as

buy

to

the

well

of death

change
He

extreme

tinies
des-

traverses

to

the

sons
per-

torments,

life eternal.

at

of

existence

exchange

as

life

fleshly

power

boon

soul.

suffering the

and

of

us

Melmoth.

in

lay it down

mortal

and

found

the

price of

search

need

give

to

the

of

theme

possesses

can

another

at

direst

to

Melmoth

find

can

right

the

another

as

informing

the

is

wanderer

the

not

burden.

only if he

of

early novels

in

explain it.

to

instance

with
Events

again

Shelley

"

who

eyes,

falls dead

life

to

comes

mitted
adthe

uses

compared

be

villain

troubling

not

book,

Frankenstein.

of

the

as

Shelley

as

burning

life,may

story,

mysterious

in

the

the

life,but

with

but

impressive

most

student

picture

devil

later

Godwin's

of

here,

confused

presence

from

came

young

idea,

whose

romance,'

Stockdale,

same

no

to

anticipated.

to

the

wishes

with

accepts

tell him

who

boundless

and

Shelley's hectic

are

Romance

Yet.

price of

the

soul.
Aids

ringly
found

Gothic

to
as

Effect.

first aids

supernatural
size which

visitants

they

colossal.
St.

Irvyne

or

Gothic.

the

to

is

last

the Rosicrucian.

while

of

others

them

or

Th^^stle

he is

are

belong

interesting aspect
the

more

of the

superhuman

of Otranto, the

size,and
scene

recur-

appear

Some

gigantism,

enormous

In the

themes

fiction.

An

In

assume.

ghost is of

'

terror

equally in later literature

particularly

are

to

Certain

his

accouterments

-astounding :

sational
sen-

The

of

clap

earth

rocked

heard

behind.

thunder
and
.

of

said

an

ruins.

reminds

Mr.

of

one

Isaacs, where

as

the

Moor

incident
Indian

pursues

with

Monk

is

much

of

the

Insanity
affords

many
a

of

the

aweinthe

in combat

evil

to

the

difficulties of

special

of the

curse

to

the

studies

gruesome

gods

various

instances

The

devil in

Zofloya, at Victoria's

Spirit of

the

of its

Castle.

giaiitis

TEe

genii,

giant has

Gothic

place in

use

stage

effect

of

the

torment

or

in

occur

drama,

presentation.

supernaturalism
Madness

psychiatry.

in

seems

only occasionally in

practicallyno

contributing

and

power

along with

the

The

man
superhu-

He
Oriental.nrigiria1^

mere

he has

in

that

creature's

beholder.

but

feet

nine

or

stature,

appearsmFa^^e^,
personages,

fierce

man-monster

the

from

to

devil

enormous

by

and

The

The

sink

Victoria

engages

him.

fiction, appearing

tfom

as

'""

mense,
im-

as

to

seem

most^ases_jjgantisnijConnotes

doubtless

owing

being

of

youth

knight

slays

it round

wraps

eight

awful

to

wicked

handsome

the

arises

kindred

uof

scene

apparition

created

stories,while

In

in

Crawford's

spoken

frequently

excited

flloreTfiabDiisffl: tfiaiTEHe
fade

and

the

and

supernatural

dwart's, and

"

of

Alfonso!"

expands

last

from

as

an~Ortentanigufeand

seems

of

objects

giant who

In

rouses

later

form

appeared

"common

horror

the

size.

is

the

'

represented

Frankenstein

to

was

Manfred

the

Marion

mist

diabolic

monk,

dasmonic

and

In

in F.

magician

down

that

change

gigantic figure.
high

and

heir

true

the

armor

behind

force,

"Behold

an

it is said

presence.

the

sees

castle

magnitude,

Zofioya
"

his

of the

foundations;

mortal

immense

the

cloak.

and
in

than

more

mighty

size, miraculously draws


him

its

to

vision.

the

This

of

walls

with

to

the

castle

37

down

Alfonso, dilated

Romance

the

clank
The

thrown

center

shook
the

were

Gothic

the

from
Gothic

devil

fiction.

request, gives Henrique


'

In

The

Spirit of

Turrettville.

The

38
enchanted

an

time

Lilla whom

he

of what

he

The

In
mad
he

has

in

he

has

dashes

frenzy, he

maniac

prison walls.

dishonor

to

corridors

of the

accusing

specter.

Poor

Bodbeck

is described

as

her

the

and

songs

devilish

talks

the

their

also, shows

us

day

by

Melmoth,

may

be

in Scott's
in

scene

hopeless situation

delight in,

things, of

yellslike

hundred

the

who

mother
the

has

great
voices

alternately
Charles

lost

are

and

Brockden

insanity

for

the

but

her

Another

rivals

supernatural

sane

to

man,

offer

change
ex-

others

by

"

the

^the

all,

reason,

shrieks

impressive figure in
himself

stilled

are

lamentation,
children,

his
mad

go

echoed

cry,

appalling

thinks

blasphemes

ness
mad-

cruelly with

the

her

home,

At

he, too, will

wild

begins

husband,

Brown

him

that

of demons,

preacher who

prays

where

taunts

power

Maturin

visits

Stanton's

hushed.

mysteriously

with

compared

Melmoth

fire.

is

The

supernatural

mad-house,

mother

London

is the

mad-house

hear
those

mad

the

prophecies

and

bride

of Lammermoor.

Bride

Melmoth

We

despair.

of

of wild

of

sings wild, unearthly

whose

husband

of destinies.

use

child's

special effectiveness.

with

confined, whom

is

Stanton,

other

She

his

Brownie

Hogg's

'a beam

"

wedding

wife

of the

idea

young

accompanying

in

'

having

of his

sight

deliriously of incomprehensible

uses

on

when

in

Nanny

sold

through the

madness

the

escape

has

struggles.

insanity of the

from

to

joy of madness.

Melmoth

slain

dungeon

against the

out

who

father

ones

pit of hell,imtil,

brains

shrieking in

flies

daughter

eye,

the

Ethehmna

In

goes

different

the

the

into
his

suicide.

to

misanthrope

that

imagines

hurling him

are

him

drives

be

to

realization

the

to

wicked

the

He

remorse.

awakes

madness

Caithness

murdered

Victoria, imagining her


he

real

temporarily insane,

him

renders

When

done,

of

Romance

marries

loves.

Castle

from

which

drug

during which

Gothic

demon

all
the
and

Lord

Maturin
effect.

in his
The

terrible

demented

The

murderer
and

that

mania

is

the

he

by diaboHc

Brown

human

makes

the

unusual, while

produced

impressive.
on

Romance

Edgar Huntley gives an

in

awe

Gothic

knew

mind
feel

us

of pure

Gothicism

morbid

mentality

could

has

few

subtlety, for haunting horror,


dismembered

What

itself ?

What

he

mania,
voice

feels

of God
is

"

sacrifice

the

which

"

Deity?

Such

intolerably powerful;
gloom-haunted
terrible

to

and

human,

Perhaps

the

is that

of the

tragic

wolf-man
in his

from

the

insanity
illustrate.

has

The
horror

use
romance.

novel

of the

at

portents

are

of

children

of

who
of

as

in later

is

Calamity

be

to

insanity, the

is

more

are

of Gothic
is

real, who

terror

The

wolf

and

mad

insanity and

all

snatched

other

these

at

eyes

head

various

will

uses

of

serve

to

the

natural
super-

literature.

distinct
is

is

reason

Albigenses.

human

anguish.

The

in

the

quist
ventrilo-

mind,

man

pathies
sym-

religious

windings

period, but

between

marked

our

that

gleaming, awful

There

relation

been

himself

lair,glaring with

The

of

is

lycanthrope

graveyard.

to

aspect of insanity in the

imagines

in the

human

set

in upon

with

and

labyrinths

extremity

approach^ him, gnawing

who

when

turned

trick

his wife

here

hideous

most

fiendish

or

Wieland?

appeal

so

midnight

of

psychologic

Brown's

mind

the

the

suffering the

novel

cowers

of

than

studies

vindictiveness

dark

feel that

We

dungeons.

the

ery
machin-

tragedy of dethroned

dread

crashing helmet

with

murder

passages

traverse

For

conviction

the

more

and

In

overwhelming

to

even

unwieldy

racked

is but

religious

suggestion

despair, when,

calling him

to

is

could

torture

Wieland's

as

what

unbalanced

an

exterior

the

equals.

raekings of monkish

against the agonies of

is

achieve.

ghost compared

the

are

its

cumulative

that

awe

never

of mystery

effect of mystery

by slow,

he

with

ventriloquism

creeping

impression

Wieland

the

and

39

characteristic

generally preceded by

of the
some

The

40

sign

of the
of

ment

Gothic

influence

supernatural

dread.

Romance

Crime

work,

at

catastrophe

and

present-

some

forefelt

are

by

premonition
The

of

Accusing

discovery

"Yes,

says,

nature

vain.
a

will be

This

from

three.

awful

is

behold!"

letters

all that

was

it held

which

of

sent

in

story,

dread

signs

final

from
fixed

while

that

that

my

issued

fascinated

laws

announces

from

scroll which

not

appeal, by

no

These

anonymous

foretold

"

hand.

are

and

two

sent

there

approached

in its hand
in

strike

the

the monk

common

portents

messenger

power

fate

"Catherine,

doom,

at

whose

my

lips,but

clock

an

the

In

heralds

at

of the Castle, an

the

dead

night

foretold

awful

Romance

hears

woman

she

The

In

is

when

miraculous;

violated, the

horror.

winding-sheet, and

discovery

dread

are

are
"

in its

corpse

some

phenomena

thunder

Spirit supernatural

of the

of

accompaniment

and

woe

terrific

moment.

the

specter's

irrevocable

my

they

bunal
tri-

appalled

my

sight.
She

her

keeps

might

be

of death

with

compared
Amos

to

and

name,

appointment
Judd
the

to

the
in

promptly.
vision

Her

which

revealed

Mitchell's

James

in

foreknowledge

experience
his date

novel

of that

Eliot's

George

The

Lifted Veil.
In

Spirit of the Castle,

The

knocks

three

times

heir, and

approach

of the

been
the

black

kept by
ancient

"The

VWhen

doors

door

ghost

flies away
heir

in The

fly

the

to

Old

open,

casque

to

exclaims, "What

'

W.

C.

Proby.

concert
mean

the

receive
sees

marquis

the

the

which

he

has

the

doors

these

servants

their

of

cry,

master!"

plumage

with

of the
At

enters.

from

which

old

arrival

English Baron,

upon

in

the

he

as

estate

of themselves

shaken

of the

preceding

Walpole's usurping Manfred

\trumpet,he
By

true

fraud

open

the

on
raven

castle

\miraculous

the

'

the

on

the

brazen

portents?

If

The

have

offended

shaken

still

the

"

At

the

employ

to

be from

omens

thou

heaven

41

point

the

the

helmet

thy

carry

hell,Manfred

or

"

But

cause.

equallycries

these

ness
righteous-

to

bad

bring

omens

wilt

If

power.

trusts

the

is

are

knight, thou

true

plumes

Manfred

leaps in.

art

to

sorcery

protect his

to

this

sword

great

apparition, "If

scorn

Romance

strenuously, and

more

agitated when
to

Gothic

luck

Manfred.

to

There
of the

is much

of portent

use

Wanderer

just before

appearing

predicts the spiritual doom


is almost

brings

The

cry,

is
to

here?"

you
' '

and

walking

when

music

the

sound

where

bride

the

and

the

priest falls dead

preceding

the

derer,
Wan-

the

ous
viper-

turns

in the attempt

Mysterious
in several

of

strains

Gothic

heard

are

devil

priest is unable

bread

power.

of disaster

old uncle

themselves

Melmoth,

communion

death

the

cross

the

inexplicable strains

groom

the

out, "What

' '

specter

old man's

of evU, for the

fiendish
heralds

as

The

As

servants

in his mouth

and

the

dying.

cries

the

portent

he is there

exorcise

as'

which

at

devil

of the

last, he

in his presence,

pray

to

his

breathing

in Melmoth.

novels,

only by the

strange tragedy that

befalls

visitant

terror

them.
At

the

novel
and

of

approach

the

fire

such

portentous

take

drops of blood

while

ridiculed

idea
a

Prof.

evil.

did

not

by

"

The

the

shed

the

from

critics,are

Lyon

William

originate

with

Dryden's
'

'

In

Amboyna,

IV.,

i.

itself tends

to

draws

Phelps

Walpole,

but
of

in

nose

points

as

out^

Beginnings of the English Romantic

Otranto,
portent
that

ill,as referred

instance

Movement,

the

familiar

was

may

Melmoth.

In his

The

near.

simply

meant

This

fire,

for

statue's

superstitionregarding premonition

is

ample opportunity

ghost

in the

there

thermometer

when

path

downward

where

blue,

usually affords

blaze.

three

of

burns

always

great hearth

the

supernatural

p. io8.

be

as

to in
com-

The

42

with

pared
later

the

drama,

The

much

and

The

fiction.

in

the

terror

supernatural

haunter

Gothic

The
the

and
is

the

especially to
stroke

the

appallingly by

sounded
other

birds

adding

the

screech

while

"night

prey,"

In St.

flock

Oswyth,

birds,"

the

corridor

toward

of

night that

sat

similar

portent,

Ashley

Professor
the

Restoration

are

reduced

to

night

Than

romance

three

and

drops

in his

Thomdike,

John

no

sooner

just three
of blood

the drama,

Banks

decorum:

peculiar

' '

and

or,

the

forth.

so

midnight

through

ill-bodingbird

the

of the

prison

Self-Abandoned,
in

notes

his

shows

The

Life

and

Heywood.

dramatist

"Last

These

H.

at

the

"birds

anonymous

birds"

Whicher

Frisbee

George

Eliza

Mrs.

of

Romances

Dr.

as

and

the battlement

Lasselia:

romance,

The

gloom.

bat

steals

on

tales,

owl, the

helplessvictim,

screeching

Heywood's

'Eliza

his

keeper,
time-

as

common

"gloomy

murderer

the

as

or

the

by

is increased

clock

are

aviary

"screeching"

or

the

Gothic

in the

be

medieval

these

general

the

to

to

sure

castle

or

ments
mo-

toll.

to

flyfreelythrough

wings

is

to its services

predisposition

has

principal specimens

of

bell

abbey

some

bell

dark

raven,

o'clock

one

In addition

Melancholy

owl,

or

rusty horologue.
the

their

twelve

houses

crucial

At

of fear.

impression

of

brightest sun,

Certain

night.

at

chosis.
psy-

garish day,

the

the

under

the

over

uncanny

an

love

not

even

darkness

unimaginable

of

add

ghost does

castle, gloomy

terror

triple veil

The

to

of

of grue-

use

usually hangs

silence

and

good

to

effects

the

by

up

suggestions.

and

used

are

cumulative

The

haunted, predisposing

the

and

ghostly

the

carefully built

night, desolation,

of

portents of ill

other

Various

and

accompaniments

/some

Ibsen's, particularly in

and

romance.

are

awe

in

omens

'

of dread

symbols

effect

skillfully handled

more

Galilean.

in Gothic

appear

Romance

Maeterlinck's

as

Emperor

Gothic

I laid

of blood

probably

which

(p. 273),

in

speaking

says:

of the

"Even

the

plays

of

portents

"

was

drops

Tragedy,

have

it would

be

to

rest

fell from
much

more

nose!"

my

extended

interestingto

trace

history in
out.

The

tower,

whose

hoarse

croaking

deter

not

the

prominent
the

of

be

birds

his

clambering

over

light and

adding

vaults

accessories, and

large

skulls

as

The

element

of mystery

family

feature

of

proper

thrill

without

explain
strive

with

astounding
Roche
courage

the
of

are

care

the

the
the

Even

to

noted

to

the

mystification

where,
else-

ornaments

of morbid

persons

exhumed

furnish

to

in certain

seen

of

antique

build

attained

suspense

that

novels

in the

ghosts

Radcliff

Mrs.

this
as

desired

by
end

and

they

they have

tear

Maria
not

the

thrilled

the
and

basis

contain

Regina
have

constructed

natural
super-

natural

down

no

carefully

but, after they have

extent,

is

shall

They

respect.

such

on

plots which

up

is another

There

suspense.

ghostly phenomena

in

that

of the

gruesome

mystification

and

novel

discoveries.

of their

reader

and

all the

away

are

out

Mexico.

in

mystery.

ivy
effect

The

all their

by

be

may

churches

Italy

dark

location

the

mural

as

skeletons

pile of bones

in countless

general gloom.

used

are

instances,

of the

with

doleful

architecture, shutting

graveyards

Enough

temperament.
as

the

the

as

of the

occur

frequently by

and

the

having. caused

Similar

made

library appointments

as

or

is also

to

of

one

Oswyth

cry

anguish.

medieval

is increased

in

for

condemning

use

is

in St.

as

special nomenclature,

in its

scenes

owl"

remorse

mental

Much

horror

in

alive, the

novels.

of

does

Accusing Spirit,emphasizing

suspense,

quaking

Gothic

the

by the

terrifies but

screech

in The

special

buried

without

or

echoed

were

raven"

melancholy

lies

increases

with

notes

ominous

personages

baron

to

nun

of the

43

villain.

moments

wicked

Romance

harsh, discordant

"moping,

The

Gothic

fabric

lously
meticu-

explain everything.
The
with

black
Mrs.

veil constitutes

Radcliffe.

On

favorite

various

method

occasions'

of suspense

Emily

pales

The

44

and

Gothic

quivers before

in the

wind, and

midnight

aside

the

curtain

dropping

decay, lying

to

Many

chapters

further

figure

made

serve

Again

she

fold

shrieks

She

bandits

that

Black

house.

veils

and

romances
arras

when

waves

that

taken

In

The

she

drapes them

likewise

in other

reads, "Oh,

misfortune
reveal

you

them."

the

story of

This

Spirit of the

off:

"Already

close

my

strong

corpse

of my

"Beneath

discovery."
one

I will

But

in Melmoth

that

fate-harried
A

"

against reading

In

in

frequent

most

cases.

that

and

the

ruin

lies buried

the

the

old uncle's

document,

but

whose

clay-cold
says,

recorded
all mortal

from

of

course

is the

of the
he

tortures

will advises

not

avoid

paper

wanderings

those

shall

are

to

of the

St. Oswyth
of the

starts

dagger that

side

to

avenge

impressive manuscript

records

to the

the

to

slight attempt

Oswyth

most

man

codicil

make

expire by the

of

the

the

speak,

you
is

ask

to

you

ask

chance

that

dusty document

foundations

house

of the

to

decaying

are,

wrongs

brandishes

and

deep

its

the

scripts.

(Mysterious manuscripts

Antoinette.

the

avenge

the

tion.
mystifica-

in such

ye

and

much

has

hand

grammar

figures.)

mystery

Castle

my

mixed

to

in

Radcliffe's

discovers

spot,

wrongs

rather

forever.

eyes
on

my

company

of

abound

whoever
this

seen

abode

means

Adeline

to

injunction

though

assignment,
The

direct

may

out

well.

as

also

ye,

its

peers

effectively, while

another

novels

of

one

secret

very

are

sinner.

has

she

in all of Mrs.

tales

of the Forest

which

paper
or

Radcliffe's

Romance

their

in fashion

are

only

it is

up

Mysterious manuscripts
Mrs.

repulsive face

flees, thinking

and

have

ancient

an

wax

inky curtain, watching

of the

later

discovers

for

is

this

that

pall.

the

behind

learns

penance

as

unaccountably,

ghost, but
of

she

and

putrid

corpse,

couch

on

on

in front

shivers

move

her.

at

to

hideous

draws

she

ramble

such

one

on

finds

and

pall uncannily swaying

velvet

dark

Romance

his

he

ized
agon-

nesses.
wit-

nephew

does

read

The

it, since

what

for, but

Reference
written

fill

breast,
which

and

shall

hear

his

he

to

the

curse

to

man

speak

I could

world

and

shun

of this

whole

Inexplicable

music
in

strains
The

heroine's

suspected
of

appearance

theme

recurrence

of the

monotony

of

Groans

and

wails

Maria

Roche's

'

Regina
A

Sicilian

on

is

so

at
to

you

the

bind
ties of
the

develop

elements

constant

been

rence
recur-

victrolas

chiefly instrumental,
a

The

on.

and

Maria

Regina

at

with

all hours

supernatural

the
constant

as

and

that

Roche

doleful

the

Moor'

Spirit of

The

harp

times
some-

performance.

masquerading
in

in

ally
occasion-

violin, though

sounds, and

specter plays

rettville the

'

of

it will

have

musings

devil

the

by flute-like

is heralded

is
on

be

to

forego

Its

Radcliffe

Mrs.

the

accompany

music

harp, sometimes

it is vocal.

to

romances.

must

one,

"

which

of the commonest

one

there

The

times.
a

these

so

in

any

tempt

claims

must,

And

forms

that

suggests

on

"

to

would

ready

sorrow

cries, "Were

those

Time

society.

of mystification

medieval

be

secret

Oswyth

St.

questioned.

Castle

detest

would

mystery

be

my

mystery

seem,

tale unfold

even

You

man.

and

nature

should

In

his

at

of "a

dreadful

"a

on

of cureless

it should

prisoner in Bungay

dimgeoned

of

labors

cold!"

was

in

presentiment

marquis

cloud

there

unwilling

was

told

are

which

the

to
run

as

than

another,^ Vincent

impenetrable
and

we

have

secret

blood

destiny, unknown,

which

liberty

"an

In

novels

otherwise

now

speaks

your

Sir Alfred

over

Gothic

heroine?

or

tale,'

horrid

Abate

in

occur

horror!"

make

that

life

and

elucidation

the

hero

favored

speaks of "a
"

the

secrets

one

with

me

death-bed

hung

In

whose

would

we

dread

to

45

manuscripts

deciphered by

form.

mystery

Romance

mouldy

are

be

to

Gothic

it

sings.

TurThe

acquires

the

tantalizing refrain.

Romance,

of

unexplained origin also

aid in build-

Clermont.

by Mrs.

Radcliffe.

'

In

Zofloya.

The

46
.ing

In

upjsuspense.

that

so

the

Gothic

Gothic

pages

and

open

the

ghosts

horrific

well

Gothic

as

father

forth

says,

gloom,

The

of Mrs.
dominant

imitated

ous
vari-

mystery

"

of gray,

only unrelieved
heroine

Romantic
and

swooning

She

tumbles

but

her

into

worst

supernatural

desks, and

manuscripts
The
In

and

verse

vice

is that

horrors

secret

she

she

she

does

invention

Inquisition and
show

gloating in
are^no

and

restful

white

she

emergency

sketching
of

not

at

lay her hands

on,

Gothic
human

much

is

In

her

given
clad

in

surprised.

search

midnight

belong, breaks
read

ish
fiend-

slightprovocation^

on

curiosity.

wanders

the

characters.

yet always impeccably

hiding-places to
can

temper,

Raleigh,'

monasteries

black

hero

is of Rad-

the

was

peculiar creature,

nocturnal

where

apartments

like the

weeping,

what

matter

is

hero

Walter

be

There

tortures.

the

saturnine

Sir

and

ing
breath-

to oppress

The

officials of the

convents

and

as

fering
inter-

The

in threats

to

not

temperaments

past and

tried

must

scenes.

helpless inmates,

their

over

and

Byron.

Byron
The

cruelty toward

The

terror

are

est
of inter-

center

characters

marriage.

by

that

man

figures in

diabolism

human

frequently

in

of vague

person

the

occupy

relative,brutal

loathed

Radcliffe.

shades

the

'"^There

over.

other

or

and
' '

'

aid in Gothic

castles, tempests,

into

admired

no

volition, doors

assistance, and

human

devils

slaughter, comes

heroine

cliffian

and

romancBj^

lightlypassed

to

tension.

mystification.

in the

or

terious
Mys-

the

alarming

supernatural phenomena

Although

be

with

visible

no

turned.

are

increase

likewise

vanish

close with

other
and

and

appear

they

as

groan

arises

lugubriousness

of

fact, a chorus

disappearances

Lights

Romance

whatever

for

through

open

boxes,

letters

or

behaving generally

yellow journalist of fiction.


pages

The

of the

English Novel,

Gothic
p.

228.

novel

are

smeared

with

gore

The

and

with

turn

nothing
the

ghostly

land

on

tadpoles

Gothic

like

Gothic

Austen's

school

inimitable

written

her

as

till after

her

other

satires

which

might

she

the

it.

well-known

modern

vicious, merely
is not

beauty,
pencil

she

sketch

to

the

mostly

adventures
She

lover

who

all the
with

is the

young

men

the

abbey

Gothic

pered
tem-

is not

not

heir

to
are

has

palpitating

supphed

being

she

Radcliffe's

Mrs.

county

that

through

goes

no

snatch

nor

told

are

lover

has

heroine

sonnets

on

unrecognized
in

present, yet how

The

we

she

in

satiety of

dents.
inci-

with

estates, since

vast

properly provided

parents.

The
the

hampered

is

into

modelled

work

for her

pursuing, repulsive

for

Yet

accompHshments.

no

her

wrote

for her

all

sillybore.

scene,

tor
edi-

the

interfering father

the

roristic
ter-

tive,
story itself is imita-

setting is

topple

appear

so

she

save

are

ill-natured; the

does

nor

begun

comfort;

times,

immortality

won

The

Though

justifythe

meantime

materials

villain, only

the

Jane

is to ridicule the

of her

title of the

The

differentlyemployed!
to

In

been

have

never

romances.

and

ahead

ture.
litera-

is

in 1797, it did not

in itself would

society and

on

literature

Its purpose

was

publish

to

medieval

sold

book

the

school, but
feared

and

best

contribution

valuable

English

yet

the

English

to

thors
au-

humor,
of

one

reader

The

it,Northanger Abbey.

death, in 1818.
and

earth, for
the

of

sense

known

to

satire of

first novel

Romanticists

in

most

made

the
and

whole, is

the

is like

disquisitions.

humor

Perhaps

under

whales

Godwinistic

totally lacking

Conclusion.

conversation

waters

Johnsonian

as

47

The

in the

or

of unconscious

the

Romance

flutter.

novel, taken

specimens

that

sea

under

almost

are

the

or

talk

restless

grows

Gothic

delicious

fiction

of the

between

persiflage in which.
day
two

may

young

be

Jane

illustrated

girls.

Austen

by

bit

hits
of

off

versation
con-

Gothic

The

48
"My

dearest

yourself

all the

the

to

got

"Are

wild

not

"Oh,
would
I
with

assure

have

Dear
have

and

I have

kind
' '

for

from

creature

to

ton;
skele-

reading

life

I would

not

"

am

; and

you

Italian

The

twelve

or

Castle

glad

How

their

you

the

of

"Yes,

when

together;

of the

more

am

same

of the

Black

Horrid

all ? "

they

are

they

in my

are,

Clermont,

Wolfenbach,

and

What

directly; here

names

of

Rhine,

Mysterious

Forest, Midnight
These

Mysteries.

Bell,

will

last

quite
a

"

"

Mr.
of

this

he

has

never

mistaken

as

of

Are

sure

you

as

Miss

authorship,

In his introduction

to

his

out

and
pocket

should

for

doubt, however,

investigation

Miss
in

creatures

the

their

since

of the

volume

like

during
the

of Tales

other

some

existence.

eight have

doubtless

sceptical

as

stating that

romances,

and

Andrews

four

mine,

himself

expresses

of them

one

of

sweetest

catalogue of actual

read
than

the

friend

of them!'"

one

every

Saintsbury"

in his

to

particular

girl, one

sweet

George
list

for

sure;

read

has

authority
of this

all horrid?

they

are

all horrid?"

are

Andrews

well; but

pretty

"Yes,

'

you,

will read

list of ten

meet

"

delighted

am

whole

my

obliged

we

be

me

time."

some

world

out

to

world.

much

Necromancer

Warnings,

they

How

indeed

you,

pocket-book:

us

it for the

Udolpho,

made

been

not

Oh,

spend

to

tell

not

it must

skeleton.

like

If it had

do

But
I know

account.

I should

away

will read

Orphan

you

you."

Have

"I

finished

you

it be?

can

any

on

you.

come

' '

What

it is Laurentina's

book

the

it, I

told

sure

am

Are

world!

the

for

tell

not

"

quite!

be

not

veil

black

that

know?

yes,

I would

delightful! Oh,

How

indeed?

to

I have

"

veil.

is behind

what

you

and

I woke,

since

ever

Udolphol"

with

on

with

doing

been

you
gone

you

it

reading

been

have

Have

morning?

black

you,

what

Catherine,

I have

"Yes;

Romance

He

the

progress

been

others
of Mystery.

is

are

fied
identilurk-

The

ing in

Mysterious

Midnight

1796;

Warnings
Bell

by

Mysteries by Marquis
Austen's

Jane

the

Tilney,
Gothic

to

been

the

hair

standing

the

since
he

end

on

real

of

Gothic

read

cleverness

of the

of

fiction,goes

add

that

there hasn't
The

in two

She

her

sunny

induced
her

on

in

with

no

skeleton

Opening
flickers

her

it is

that

the

prowlings

by

win.

sarcastically

but

tipped
and

give it

because
novel

parody
But
In

The

died

shafts

of
will

oi tortured

nun.

of

his

bilious

the

at

Jane

riddle
time

same

Austen's

remembered,

The

that

she

his

not

she

in

of
such
to

father

is not

immiired

in

delicately

of medievalism
of

permanency

if for

it

wishes

These

armor

of

treatment

read

to

caught

attack.

finds

only result

is

is

the

she

sunshine

esteem

mother

of Gothic

is about

she

her

assures

of ridicule

be

list.

for

wife,

morning

whose

man

young

that

wife-murderer,

dungeon,

the

laundry

she

as

North-

imprisoned

midnight,

at

explbrings is that

suspicious

He

just
In

out.

old

an

chest

but

manuscript,

candle

finds

black

of

search

Tilney's ironic jests satirize all the elements

never

of

excess

visit to

wings

secret

lesque
bur-

because

by

Mr.

her

his

in the

Catherine,

with

rooms,

and

consists

mind

explores

to find

work

that

through

single maniac,

yellowed

Monk,

days with

Mr.

their comment

not

romance.

and

Thorpe,

yawn

Udolpho

Horrid

1796.

Jones, except

experiences

Abbey.

and

all the time.

condition

horrors, only

with

Regina

Parsons, in London,

John

Tom

by Maria

Latham;

bore,

saying

that

the

excited

anger

Mrs.

Francis

stupid

novel

other

romantic

by

is

Grosse, London,

fiction,one

and

But

49

impeccable, pedantic hero,

decent

Romance

antique library. Clermont

some

Roche;

Gothic

it.

nothing

interest

The

Gothic

else, for

her

of it.
Miss

Austen

is not

Heroine, Eaton

burlesque

of it.

It is

the

Stannard

only

satirist

Barrett

interesting to

note

of the

gives an
in this

genre.

amusing
connec-

Gothic

The

50

tion

that

1797

it

while

by

introduction,

the

Cherubina,

one

1813.

epistle,supposed

an

in

the

that

the

and

May

ascends

immediately

arrives

the

at

of the

valleys

By

of

heroines, and

far

as

to

say

was

she

tells her
he
for

reading romantic

tales.

private

that

he

her

"

discovering
She

fleshy agricultiuistthat

the

convex

in

experiences
of the

Radcliffe's

and

She

search

one

Gothic

she

may

of

She

decides

is gone

be

her

father

Maria

scrap

"to

There

pages.

desk

that
note

she

to

wander

parents,"

Roche's

since

in his

with
is much

heroine, particularly those

Regina

that

seclusion, and

torn

imagine.

so

girl, becomes

flies,leaving
her

me

went

some

rvunmages
a

told

lives.

possibly

cannot

desires.

earth

their

on

Rochian

and

and

unwarranted

farmer.

papers,

to

in

kept

the

comic

sisterhood,

design

and

heads

country

fat, funny

interprets

their

imsophisticated

father

is "a

the

on

tant
living inhabi-

Radclyffian

an

heiress

an

the

descriptions

earths

I had

after

is

slur

literary prototype.

I became

tossed

they

till it

becomes

the

to

of the

that

Cherry,
Cherubina

with

others, but
I

that

pertly

of the

origin

Heroine,

I met

moon.

their

landscapes

The

book.

and

air

villages,rivers, hills, and

towns,

owe

of the

give

means

of the

also

moon

writers

all the

the

embodied

precise counterpart

that

of

acquire

flightand

takes

regions

it is

thereto,

therein

sketched

the

is written

attached

spirit which

or

where

the

farther

Know

soul

Finis

or

be

to

through

moon,

living creature,

End

word

1813.

i,

manuscript

mortal

happen

creating

of

quality

which

the

characters

whatever

that

moment

legible hand

endited

be

to

says

Moon,
Know

book,

Barrett's

and

in

published

later, was

sold in

and

written

was

till 1818,

published

not

written

In

Northanger Abbey

while

was

Romance

from
The

tell
over

what
cussion
dis-

Mrs.

girl

The

Gothic

sprinklesher letters
explores deserted
her

ancestral

Garden

castle

and

goes

property.

She

mother,

to

and

whole

insists

it is

amusing,
than

round

she

into

face, which
finds

Cherubina
and

and

that

in

It

In

in

makes
a

of

in

Gothic

shut

of the
the Anti-

in Thomas

Love

satire

By

of

the

excited

of

oaths,

throwing
mortal

the

the

rapee

fashion.
.

in

Gothic

some

ancestor.

an

and

pages

directed

had

giving

ghostly themes

feature

struggles with

of mutton

ludicrous

the
an

to

the
at

novel

Peacock's

small

from

he

Jacobin parodies

infiuenced

however,

the

Radwhole

weaknesses

fiction.

terror

literature, and

it is

spectral apparitions

sputter in

across

general, Gothicism

degree.

the

bone

cotirse,

every

closet, after

the

strange,

seems

that

bone

it for

but, of

"

because

architecture, the Gothic-

delightful parody

pronounced

language, the

him

blade

is considerable

gained

mother.

fat farmer

more

burlesques

It

him

takes

excesses

Likewise

genre

playing

possession

the

theme,

muscular

adjectives reel

up

there

so

locks

as

plays

captive

is her

Northanger Abbey

high-flown

is

heroine

cliffian

she

has

and

furniture, the medieval

of which

garbage

all her

it furnished

She

little known.

so

feudal

his

is

Gwynne's

woman

takes

orders

romance.

Gothicism

fiction, the

one

thinks

demand

fat

that

she

disgust

is Nell

to

enormously

and

she

cellar to find her

weather, the supernatural tempers,


"

she

person

great literary value.

so

terror

that

in the

an

is very

story turns

that

the

to

what

to

madhouse.

on

of

not

around

through storms,

but is told that it is Co vent

amiable

place in

book

parody

that

else's castle

in the
The

decides

drunkenly

style, according
up

She

discovers

that

somebody

London,

51

passes

comes

in

pokes

frogs, who

Leaving

She

verse.

houses, and

Theatre.

niece

with

with

Romance

Gothic
the

ghost and

whole

Gothic

Nightmare Abbey.

tonic

effect

fiction

continental
interest

on

and

fiction, the

English
to

no

excitement
terror

writers

made

popular

romance

has

lost the

never

ghost
various

it.

to

gave

period has found

times,
is

there
effect.

of

Yet

the

achieve

certain

became

conventionalized

later

the

to

ridictdous, the

they
the

host

Gothic

do

class

and

degree

these

to

narrow

absurd

an

the

judge the

we

Though

laughable, while

are

type

is

range

effects.

impressive

examples

made

their

While

to-day.

apply

by which

standards

same

and

naturalness

the

fair to

it is not

from

detracts

lacks

to

audibly

mechanically,

too

often

every

which

on

creaks

unreality that

air of

in

and

Gothicism

move

supernaturaUsm

early efforts
novels

of

specters

is necessary.

then

supernaturaUsm

of

form

Gothic

the

through the

increased

has

since

machinery

general

The

which

interest

of the

some

This

some

the

True,

on

novel

The

that

popular fancy

hold

and

before

been

never

of its readers.

range

of Romanticism

aspects

feed.

Romance

it had

as

the

extended

immensely

at

Gothic

The

52

the

of imitations
has

novel

niable
unde-

an

force.
the

Besides

fiction,which
In

well.

is

distinct

of many

novels

that

and

ridicule

in

far cry

from

them,

but

dreadful

the

Wells's

Dr.

perambulating

with

by which

Moreau,

or

human
over

be

to

the

the

in

measured,
who

clearly enough
Frankenstein's

revolting

utterly to

their

our

arouse

seems

It

Lord

to

stony steps
have

defied
The

seen.

is

monster

vivisections

operations described

beings lose

ginnings
be-

later

excites

Otranto

mortals

on

may

akin

diabolized, given

statue

move

vengeance

close

whereby

in

things that

as

crude

are

laughter, it has great value.

experiments
are

Machen

of

the

power

novel

terror

find

that

special

respects, yet, like other

the connection

created

closely,we

The

benefits

other

supernaturaUsm

stories.

terrible

examine
of

jade gods that

Dunsany's

find

we

develop into

to

are

some

measure

wreak

forms

short

certain

to

gain,

Gothicism, if we

here, but

definitely into

bringing of supernaturaUsm

souls

unspeakable

of

by Arthur
and

become

evil.

The

The

psychic

elements

in

of

psychic

suggestive

the

Barry

Pain,

animal

supernaturalism

novels

is

and

be

to

like

those

and

others.

the

this

the

in

fiction

influence

Its

Lovell

Thomas

Book,

Jest

is

method,
be

impossible

in

the

and

drama

goes

in

its

back.
earlier
that

really

vital

lineally

naturalism

the

the

the

from

or

it
of

the

has

be

Death's
and
It

in

of

our

which

the

drama.

than

of

most

flood

since
from

own

is

attempts.
fiction

would

supernatural

that
to

in

seen

Gothicism

rather

time.

Specter.

well.
the

the
been

materials

as

Gothic

ghostly

to

tragedy,

and

successful
the

The

Castle

in

conventional

are

that

may

Lewis's

beginnings,

of

drama

since

day

Gothic

the

forms

effect

poetry

literature
of

the

romance.

appreciate

or

of

epic

and

Bierce,

impetus

its

the

to

beasts

ghostly

of

Elizabethan

the

descended
of

and

Gothic

Ambrose

extraordinary

and

most

of

The

in

on

Gothic

and

most

followed
and

in

of

knowledge

forms,

stories

fiction

Mother

related

Like

example.

touched

and

drama

nineteenth-century

it

has

romanticism

understand

to

without

day

of

largely

closely

for

yet

Blackwood,

of

tremendous

Beddoe's

while

work

number

least,

gave

Mysterious

conceived,

KipHng,

later

at

the

on

Walpole's

the

greater
in

period

elements

seen

the

germ

the

lightly

Wharton,

fact,

in

of

Dreiser,

in

found

discoverable,

uncanny

horrors

53

crudely

are

only

Edith
In

of

Zqfloya

elaborated

by

Romance

Theodore

supernatural

work

Gothic

crude
of

But
that
the

tations
imiit

time
super-

is

II

CHAPTER

Influences

Later

Gothic

THE

supernaturalism.
had

been

medievalism

was

naturalism

and

poetic,

it

the

fiction

thought
this

is

fiction

the

Gothic

is

case

has

has

retained
and

imagination
the

that

epic,

the
the

But
at

it.

to

has

to

part

credible.

from

developed,

most

ballad,

seem

evidenced

times

terror

introduced,

the

dying

novel

and

channels,

the

admixture

we

out

the

It

is

succeeding
of

the

of

the

might

of

that

period

Romanticism
to

expect
it

since

true

definitely

genre

turning

element,

ghostly

terrorism.
for

the

the

antagonistic

seems

than

the

of

super-

first
That

fact

that

elements

of

greatly

added

known

as

them.
With

the

really

not

for

materialistic

more

supernaturalism

since
then

awe

much

so

novel,

poetry

The

ghostly

the

the
since

to

stretch

unearthly.

made

is

related

form.

specific
into

in

as

prose,

the

were

such

the

and

in

drama,

noteworthy,

dramas

early

to

is

closely

require

not

had

drama,

prose

new

did

credence

give

to

the

the

frankly

over

ghostly

the

or

was

That

more

as

drama
it

thing.

new

seems

prose;

the

brought

epic

metrical

romances,

literature

Gothicism

which

to

the

the

in

of

vehicle

the

times

ancient

In

in

change

expressed

in

Elizabethan
But

marked

period

the

or

54

various

the

disappearance

of

been

overworked

in

prevailing
realism,

was

supernormal

had

see

into

the

of

type
but

supernatural.

with

The

fiction
a

large
super-

Influences

Later

natural

machinery

fiction
the

that

Thackeray,

some

with

using

it.

rationalistic

Man

would

counteract

serve

"

alchemy

of literature
in

We

have

novel

drew

its

which

to

influences
Gothicism.

for

following it
and

veins

of

and

from

sources

plots, its motifs

draw,

Modern

In the

everything

various

fiction

supernatural

that

of folk-lore

field

unearthed

material
and

modem
the

to
"

all

suggested

the

the

England
with

and

respect

became

less

efliect of certain
The
in

their

England

of the

and

in

of

definite

of

the

its range

of

France

interestingbut intricate study.

in

of

unseen;

scientifically,
hitherto

in fiction.

the

greater

writers

the

of

influences

new

Their

work

subject-matter

fiction

our

patient

this world

link

supernatural

by

new

in that

their

supernatural.

outside

influences

America,

of its

supernatural

with

to

to

open

plots; the

languages,

and

methods,

overlapping

not

complications,

affected

were
use

other

miracles

new

studied

the

other

insular, wider

of technical

attempts

The

sources

various

general reading, and

from

America
to

its

of

Gothic

same

had

forces

the

continuing

of translations

range

societies
of

with

extension

earthly
un-

effect.

the

wealth

themes, novel

new

the

scholarly investigations

wizardry of dreams

elements

With

and

the

next;

unknown

the

records

Spiritualism

inexplicable

the

literary inspiration

Psychical Research

sympathetic

might

which

ghostly

addition

in

unguessed

an

one

to

still had

science, with

and

natural
super-

turns

laboratories,.proved suggestive of countless


study

the

other.

or

the

seen

have

tically
prac-

thought, invention,

its force.

almost

form

some

will

"

to

and

explanation, but

it, modern

feeders

as

using

Dickens

even

"

elements

very

in prose

by it, some

and

must

The

established

moved

were

baritering apology

fiction.

science,

well

so

with

in his
suppose

on

become

realists

even

motifs

all

had

55

we

find

the

forces.
the
and

Romantic

Germany,

It is difficult to

movement

form

point

an

out

Later

56
marked

points

Influences

evident, for literary influences


to cry

effect

certain

of

but

it is not

literature.
the

that

If

influence

on

Scott

much

of

evil

and

novel
later

as

in

been

of

this

He

was

kind

are

and

with

student

others.

among

of

German

in his

Avengers,

scholarship
well

as

as

as

he

His

Klosterheim, has

of the

natural,
super-

which

horror

he

was

not

was

German

Tieck.

likewise

Quincey

Scott.

subjects

and

ballads

literature, though

forth,

so

ghostly Lenore,

De

treating

with

Meinhold

German

especially Burger's
translated

ruins, and

dealings

his

between
the

literature

in

an

ghostly fiction.

German

that

midway

the

showed

turn

American

in the

of him

fascinated

but

considerably affected
it in

England,

interested

to

essay

ever.

had

English

critic says

certainty

elaborate

an

magic, apparitions, castles

one

absolute

thing
any-

explain

not

composition for The Raven,

Romanticism

Gothic

was

of

wrote

enigmatic

as

German

the

Poe

cessors,
suc-

or

Shakespeare's plots, would

of

art?

would

so, that

point with

one

to the

reference

with

put the finger on

to

easy
even

every

processes

remains

As

And
could

explain his

poem

' '

be
may-

elusive.

very

contemporaries

their

on

always

one

for

source

analyze his

by

writers

tangible.

very

to

usually

are

Lo, here ! lo,there

"

It is easy

general effect

the

though

of contact,

so

curate
ac-

tale. The

setting and

tone.

There

has

been

Hawthorne's

from

speak
differs

not

charge that

Ludwig

The

from

relation

the

made

fact
of
in
any

discussion

some

Hawthorne

Tieck, saying in

is, he

him

as

his

manner

author

extending

German

to

to

is not

or

of
the

tone,

their
German

question

Romanticism.
drew

his ideas

of

Poe
and

style

criticism:

original in

original mean

the

over

nothing
and

in

than

more

his

acquaintance

Those

sense.

any

"

choice
their

Tieck, whose

of

who

that

he

subjects,

acquaintance

manner

in

some

Later

of his works

is

absolutely identical
The

Influences

critic

single tale by

57

with

that

habitual

(unacquainted

with

Tieck)

Hawthorne

be

may

thorne.
Haw-

to

whd

reads
him

justifiedin thinking

original.

Various

critics have

definite

conclusions.

was

famous

his

Poe

referred

according

his

to

use

allegory
choice

and

of

the

as

for
as

dreamy

subject-matter

spiritualism

supernaturaHsm

an

that

by

the

in

his

Fable

John Bunyan
There

are

between
As

affected

by

influenced
called

the

still
the

by

Tieck.

work

of Poe

and
to

was,

legends and
horror

dreamer,

and

his

to

where.
else-

of the attaining
in

is franker,
and

evasive

of

deep

the idea

to

each

in

is present

Puritan

more

striking similarities

more

Hoffmann's

Germanic

is

speaks

Critics

Fouque,

Hawthorne
German

novel

for

give

supernaturaHsm

suggestion

same

and

Faun,

akin

proved
im-

Tieck.

scarcely found

suffering,is

There

and

effect

Marble

in The

what
some-

from

cloudy symbolism,

charm

the

and

superior

borrowed

in their

human

use

the

in
as
yet in st^'-le

the

have

may

of Hawthorne's

yet
Lowell

is much

theme

Undine.

Fouque's
while

soul

Both

unearthly

Hawthorne's

of

employment

literary form.

individual

are

similarities,as in

truths, and

mystery,

vague

difficulty

of Tieck.

supernaturaHsm,

he

thought, and

teaching moral

Hawthorne

whatever

Hawthorne's

be

may

it with

certain
the

Poe

literature, while

volume

show

very

that

it is

journal, read
a

no

his comments

German

to

element,

legend

same

to

do

dream

medium

of the
the

Tieck

with

remembered

German,

spoke of his struggles with

the

out

knew

writings often

Hawthorne

"a

be

It should

Yet

Hawthorne,
and

this matter

plagiary-hunter, hence

discounted.
in

discussed

Hawthorne

cate,
delicase.
as

"

pointed

be

to

T.

A.

mann.
Hoff-

slight extent,

at

least,

that

of E.

wonder
stories.
various

tales, Poe
Poe

has

German

was

been

and

Influences

Later

58
English
Mr.

critics mention

Palmer

Cobb'

connection

The

with

in the

in

the

the

the

with

the

Mr.

Cobb

theme

the
be

is to

in

last.

thought

like

Maupassant

of

the

his

associated

other

Elixihre

Hoffmann's

the

as

the

treatment

idea.
of

In

hypnotism

'

Hoffmann''

The

Influence of E.

'

In the

'

In

his

In

Die

"t

Doppelganger,
Tale

in the

and

Poe'

T. A.

in

Murr,

was

obsessed

by

and

he,

him,
of

mind,

In

Poe's

of

good,

William
sort

evil.

Poe

the

has

Edgar

Allan

Elixiire

des

In

The

we

find
the
Poe

supema-

Poe.

Teufels.
Oval

here

and
that

story of

of

while

Mountains.
G.

wrote

Hoffmann

combination

relate
on

idea

metempsychosis

same

and

of this

Magnetiseur

and

Hoffmann

Kater

of the Ragged

Jesuit-kirche

the

Hoffmann's

larly
particu-

Markheim,

Stevenson's

represents

dream-supernaturalisni
uses.

in

use

madness.

embodiment

of the

use

Hoffmann,

personality."

self is the

conscience,

incarnate

reversed

of double

with

psychosis
metem-

between

German

conditions

of the

story.

haunting

was

similar

and

same

he

that

ground

tion
conjunc-

similarities

the

of this

soul

in the

exaggerated

double

under

theme
the

Wilson

the

on

that

the

Novalis, and

Hoffmann's

supematuralism

uses

detail

in

existence

the

the

with

examples

mesmerism

personality and

Fouque,

explained

the

in

existence, the

agreement

and

one

dence
evi-

combined

has

dual

evil forces
of

in

out

of dual

found

as

motives

points

stories

and

be

to

motives

same

Poe

of double

idea

is

convincing

most

Notable

combination

the

leading

as

Poe's

of the

struggle of good

and

individual,

of the

exact

Hoffmann.

says

German

to

which

in

forth, in

by

employment

He

The

way

in

interesting facts

metempsychosis,

so

employed

grouping
are

and

element,

dream

the

by

Hoffmann.

to

owes

treatment

authors.

of mesmerism,

themes

some

of the

both

furnished

is

out

he

indebtedness

Poe's

of

of

that

romanticists.

two

similarity

work

debt

brings

the

verification

sought

the

Portrait.

Later
tural

portrait, where

the

painting.

Both

Hoffmann

to

the

in

in

and

individual.

art,

with

artist.
His

his

effect

He

is the

the

the

he

is

genius of compression,

great

as

The
the

cult
work

extent

of horror
of

Chamisso,
literature

as

of

use

dream

ghosts, the
have

to

literary elixir

degree in the
the
A

that
wrote
'

as

Balzac
a

well

title Phantasie

as

Poe's

the

dream

uses

poignant,

as

to

of life

are

"

is likewise
Gothic

in

Germany,

which

bearable.
un-

evidenced

in

Fouque,

and

American

The

grotesque
psychosis,
metem-

theme

reflected

appears

to

certain

lowing
generation fol-

manifest

novel
a

it. "

The

had

as

the

is the

novel
of

Melmoth

fact

that

he

the. English,

phantasy pieces with


'

later

itself felt in

made

Maturin's

interrelations

of his type

in

proof of which

impressed by

definition

Stucke.

more

elements, magnetism,

The

so

was

sequel

Compare

dream

general.

"

done.

romance.

influence

English fiction.

greater

His

English

of life

suggestion.

English ghostly tales of the

Gothic

French

France

elixir

have

have

literature,

on

tales

few

more

in

of the

horrors

as

Hoffmann

influence

his

ghostly

Kleist, Tieck, Amim,

supernaturalism

diablerie, the

than

incomparably

of

in German

an

His

an

are

"

Hoffmann,

had
of

Poe

greater

fewer

his

of thrills

economy

much

employs

Hoffmann's.

owes

original

is

effect

supernatural,

elements, for instance, though


to

with

he

and

Poe

he

to

almost

are

in theme

manner

powerful

Though

because

knows

his

super-

adds

charge that

themes

and

than

tmearthly

awftol

more

of

generic titles

for

sacrifice

that

similarities

In

dramatic

machineries
more

these

uses

contemporary.

crude
are

He

of horror

the

basis

no

the

as

grotesquerie of

element

to Hoffmann.

more

German

is

dies

the

use

spite of

grouping, there
stylisticdebt

Poe

ghostly. Even

But

'

59

wife-model

fantastic

effect of the

identical.

the

and

the

naturaUsm,

Influences

RSconcilie.

Hoffmann's

6o

Later

French,
better

German

and

illustrated

than

and

youth

but

the

and

decaying,

from

Idiot, tell

which

Haunted,

the

is

or

of

the

and

drama

in

as

Gothic

desires, yet each

shrink

perceptibly, with

theme,

symbolic

of the

supernaturalism

that

Hawthorne's
it in part.
often

makes

in the
for

soul

gives the

his

man

the

talisman

decrease.

chose

tinued*
con-

symbolic

pledge of

life,is such

Wilde's

has

is

used

inexorable

Masterpiece

Unknown

Balzac's

wish

Oscar

influenced

doubtless

granted

Strange

supernaturally

theme,

skin

of

Haunters
A

influenced

magic

truth

in the

influence

The

as

suggests

Hawthorne

allegorically as

used

Balzac's

Skin

of the

an

dead

man,

Brain, and

of

have

romance,

heart's

the

old

life

to

itself loose

stories

that

the

gratification. A

earthly

"

Magic

may

application of

theme

supernaturalism

new

and

Balzac's

allegoric symbolism
It is

horrible

brain, shrieking out,

God

in such

the House

life is used.

story

is

old

an

tears

the

to

seen

of which

each

Story, in

abbot

of

that

head

the

if there

now

me

remains

body

Bulwer-Lytton

and

admits

He

is restored

head

the

where

the

bites

and

over

nowhere

are

of Balzac.

work

in the

story of reanimation,

' '

literature

supernatural

inspiration of his Elixir of Life, that

Hoffmann's

church

Influences

This

spiritual idea

and

frequently

Picture

of Dorian

Grey.

is another

example

of his

had

its

suggestive

doubtless

influenced

effect

on

English ghostly fictions.


de

Guy
tales

of

Maupassant

horror
As

the

over

to the

of

mark,

and

supernatural

exercised

more

like

Ghost.

And

of

putting into
horror

definite

F. Marion

hundred

The

it, making
goes

words
O.

Furnished

technique
Crawford's

as

mann.
Hoff-

ence
strong influ-

in its effect.

story,

Maupassant's

surely

few

English
since

and

fatal bullet that

relentless

delicately,perfect ghost
reminiscent

foreign writer

any

short-story form, condensing

economical,

more

than

more

stylisthe

has

seen

it

straight
a

story

Henry's
Room,
in

Screaming

is
The

Skull

Influences

Later

and

Ambrose

from

the

terrible

Bierce's
same

body

corpus

it must

the

mystery,
mutilated

stories

decay,
his

among

his

constant

so

his horrible
the

drowned

miles

down

the

supernatural,

that

so

between

could

out

of

that

parrot

by Poe,
plot material
his

La

of years,

the

do

It ? A

Thing
A

Louquier's Third
Maupassant
Horla

As

subject

reflects

that

Coward.

is

the
cause

unusual

sociation
as-

Who

fiction.

enced
influ-

was

technique,

And

O'Brien's

Fitzjames

anticipated
impress
stories

of

it

on

so

in both

his time

supernatural.

the

story by Katherine

The

Tress,

which

say

since

by

number

Bierce's

The

supernatural

method

Maupassant's

visibili
in-

Gerould,

FuUerton

clearly to indicate

influence, reflecting the


and

The

and

matter

strongly

seems

hundred

Maupassant

writers

succeeding

self,

own

story of ghastly hideousness

swears?

Act,

of his

uncanny

of

recent

ing
objects, mak-

Maupassant's

treatment

and

over

power

insanity and

to

and

of

doubt

master

between

it left its inevitable

so

weird

Such

story.

insane;

is unable

Mystery

passant's
Mau-

mechanically; Cocotte,

him

have

In

from

is terrified

may

English

and
Horla

Was

insane

he

make

both

in

affected

goes

that

madness

Maupassant
a

type

inanimate

one

but

of

this

even

relation

are

find the tragic explanation

and

river, drives
the

style, and

has

hands

brain,

of the

man

effect, illustrate

which

of La

analyses

insanity.

dog, following its

of

curdling story

to

where

his wUl,

where

Damned

of

story

Poe's

to

of

of

we

husband

akin

stories

return

where

do

of what

What

gruesome

qach

in

are

What

same

corruption

reason

beings, animals,

them

as

horror

triumphs

English

wife; Madness,

has

is the

madness,

slow

tottering

Mad,

as

hiunan

he

There

dreadful

various
own

of

of

of the

most

influenced

and

be!

Foot

Hand.

Maupassant's

as

Right

ghost.

of mental

his

the

of

Toe

implacable

same

Maupassant's

tales

Middle

6i

and
tales

the

De

motifs
have

Influences

Later

62

peculiar horror
undoubted

genius and

the

result

have

also

influenced

increasing

his

of

partly

his

of

because

by few, partly

possessed

madness.
Other

French

story in

writers

Theophile

EngHsh.

tales, such

inspired various

Jessie Adelaide
in

beauty
Conan

A.

form,

or

to

Mummy's

life after

of

where

the

This

motif

material

bodies

Amoureuse

has

Crawford's

recall that
and

year,

The

Poe's

the

latter

various

acoustics

the

Invisible

Eye,

Berenice

preceded

latter
a

though

the

latter

of Death,

crab, suggests
In

is

H.

on

account

G.

Wells's

Khaled.

The

"

With

Spider's Eye, by
Intent

to

Steal.

tales,

significant
story by

have

of

Algernon

of

of

gested
sug-

supernatural

hypnotism,
Blackwood's

more

The
has

gruesome.

loathsome,

P.
s

the Blood

Is the

an

story,
The

enchanted

story of the plant vampire.


For

obviously

Ear

spiritual sounds.

story

'

Lucretia

Morte

later

to

Owl's

records

psychically

an

La

work.

Poe's

The

dealing with

Oriental

the

it is

'

life.

menacing

appears

being

fearsome

Crawford,

Gautier's

known

stories.

both

parental claim

'

have

of

over

though

Something

of

power

The

as

to

Gautier's

story,

evident

Waters

fiction.

animated
re-

wake

would

to

prevalence

of

miraculous

Marion

awake

studio

title.

Mummy,

it.

F.

by

well

of

they

vampire

English

another,'

inspired

that

not

resemblance

as

science

of Erckmann-Chatrian

fiction

story

with

Word

suggestive

must

though
of that

horrible

used

the

exercised

Foot, by

masterpiece

preceded

English

recent

match,

so

old

illustrates

in

as

also

in the

is the

the

of years,
is

Mummy's

Poe's

living persons

theme

same

The

of the Mum-my

Romance

thousands

has

unquestionable

an

emphasizing

story

embalming

to

24Q,

Foot, though

fantastic

such

No.

bears

The

Gautier's

the

little

Doyle's Lot
mtimmy,

to

his

uncanny

undoubtedly

Gautier
as

which

Weston,

the

'

Life.

Hale.
The

Flowering of

the

Strange Orchid.

'^

Later

Likewise

Anatole

who

man

with

by

drolleries

Thomas

Bailey

the

France

of

has

once

the

be

such

or

mass,

of

act

an

the

or

written

years

juggler throws
and

worship

by

earlier

and

of whom

he

the

years

tells
' '

is

Lord

of the Penguins.
into
has

baboons

"

And
face

and

hid

themselves
not

The

'

In

'

Phre

Transferred

Antoine's

from

clothing
what

Date

Ghost
Palm.

woman.

hermit,

the
borne

down

little stories

of

startlingly original

by

Anatole

France.

The

of

gods change

lost, because
in

the

Dunsany's
to make

promise

Isle
guins
pen-

priest
story
them

devotion.

little shorter

discern

faun

one

where

"

dead

and

the

while

Yogis, who

arose

in

is

satire
will be

souls

for their

baboons

the

could

of

altar

like

reminiscent

France's

the

to

pray

the

heart

while

seems

Notre

the

much

the wonderful

by mistake,

them

in return

men

In
whose

men

baptized

the

Slept

spectral

sight of the

story

bit influenced

the

before

by

hermit

Dunsany,

seems

Gods

the

"the

suggestive of

respects,

When

His

that

us

Dunsany.

in most

the

and

ones,

Bailey Aldrich,

Thomas

meet

Juggler of

his balls

symbolic

the

may

loved

Celestine,the story of the faun

Amycus

Lord

The

is rewarded

where

celebrate

'

idylls of

love

their

as

plant miraculously springs from

by

for

with

miracles

Scholasticus,

Virgin,

sinned

son,
per-

Stockton.

R.

of Shadows,

clasped hands,

tender

where

Dame,

have

used

are

imagined

an

by Frank

Mass

reunited

church, with

as

delicately wrought

The

who

to

year

several
as

those

and

one
some-

is associated

such

in the story of

Son,

because

person,

supernaturalism,

Aldrich

supernatural,

ghosts

as

of

of the

narrative

existence

actual

imaginary

an

63

Putois, the

an

Mehitabel's

Anatole

in

as

the

Miss

have

him

of

spoke

France's

to

came

Influences

they
and

worshipping, smoother

in the
and
were

The

arms,

herded

and
with

went

away
And

men.

for their bodies

Spectral Mortgage.

were

about
and
men

bodies

of

their

though

men

the

worship

went

Van

of the

/ since

his

yet with

unearthly

an

the

realism, of

plays

we

of

solid

in the

even

visitants
which

breathe

earth,

they

appear

work

there

in the

that

ancient

is

action,

Greek

active

In

agent.

The

are

the

unearthly

same

certain

Tempest,

much

have

we

of enchantment,

use

happily.
realism. and
vehicle

in

influence

The

Blue

Bird.

in the

gian's
Bel-

forms
trans-

grip of fate,

Yet

pace.

in

is very

wrought

different

of

fairy magic

dream-drama'

that

use

is
of

the

the
close

dream

exquisite symbolism.

of
as

aspects of the weird

is apparent
the

The

mixture

fairy play

of Maeterlinck

shows

to

comes

and

of

with

out

and

supernormal,

many

the

supernaturalism,

there
the

is the

Joyzelle,which

Night's Dream

of

little

Interior

to Midsummer

type

Maeter-

least, for Fate

at

effects

But

English writers, particularly of


'

in

scenes

that

Intruder, and

the

same,

poetic symbolism,

for the

combined
The

the

In

while

There

beings,

manner.

the

feel the

drama.

Blind, The

the

similarity

Shakespeare's

supernaturalism

swift, silent

human

elements

the

tragedies, the inescapable calamity

with

the

feel

Shakespeare,

in

witches.

We

of

Maeterlinck's

In

normal,

unreality.

earth,

impression

no

do

at-

an

of

are

certainly, but

fluidic

essentially static

among

with

find

we

actuality,never

or

real, are

to

approaches

linfck's is

ghosts

are

plays

always

we

ghostly enough,

are

ghostly literature

known.

air of

as

of

presence

everything
as

the

acknowledges

he

settings

strangeness,

familiar, the

never

footing

The

supernaturalism.

mospheric

his

In

recognition.

linck's
Maeter-

before

whom

to

strongly affected

has

rise to

ill.

appeared

and

uncanny

and

beasts

fellow-Belgian, Charles

his

by

Flaireurs

whose

indebtedness,

his

Yogis, spiritsof

the

of

souls

still the

were

influenced

Lerberghe,
plays

souls

to

Maeterlinck,

'

Influences

Later

64

Celtic

in the

work

of

school.

W.

B.

Later

Yeats's

faity play,

pathetic

beauty,

countess

who

the

Land

Countess

from

of

traces

The

sells her

be freed

may

Influences

oj Hearts

soul

the

to

his power,

Maeterlinck's

reflects

Belgian's technique

individual

Riders

Crier

eerie

its

Maeterlinck

is at

Sharp, in

called

Vistas,

with

his

literary self,Fiona

of

does

as

in

his

power.

the

suggest

in

Synge

unseen

an

to

seems

by

real

once

Coleridge's

in

dialogue, and

repetition that

stories, show

Bottomley

tragedy

the

poetry

elusive, intangible ghostliness.

produced

monosyllabic

other

Gordon

observable

naivete

people

her

William

influence,

and

that

slightly,though

supernaturalism

Coleridge, with
of

his

Sea,

by Night, that

effect

the

to

Maeterlinck's
of

shows

of

in the volume

plays

Sharp's

power.

Hkewise

McLeod,
his

his brief

tragedy
his

as

methods.

and

own

devil

well

as

its

Desire, with

Cathleen, his

his sketches

the

65

child-like
a

work

simplicity

is
of

in

style,

unreasoning

monotonous,

and

The

unreal.

The

dramatist

has

brought

portents and
lurks

from

over

symbols

just outside.

evident, the

certain

and

symbolism
with
he

the

it in

frankly
of the
who

has

make

an

some

heroes

killed

'

In

that

so

The

In Brand.

the

the

His

one

scarcely knows
unearthly

riding to Valhalla,

voice

with

crying

Vikings of Helgeland.

to

the

king,

out

"He

'

just how

far

extend.

He

his

is the
"

In

God
The

he

vision

own

mother

that

tries to

apparition

the

like

in others

ghost

the

unreal

child's

The
with

of the

question, while

supernatural.

in

has

showing

like transftision

herself,leading them,

than

work

own

open

rather

supernatural

Hawthorne,

of the

an

unholy pact

supernatural

of

that

that

dynamic.

than

fiction.

our

cases

introduces

dead

rather

of

use

disaster

or

ghostliness is subtle,

acceptance

our

prefiguring death

mysticism,

natural,

means

leaves

with

suggestive

same

strongly influenced
and

kinship

poet the

static

drama

drama

our

for
The

Ibsen, also, has


both

the

of

and

the

Love!"^

Pretenders.

66

illustrate

Ibsen's

inexplicable

Peer

symbolism,

its

have

to

seems

such

ironic

had

Etc,

form

the

The

visible

crude

hypnotism,

or

of

phantasms

the

what

or

dead,

evasive, intangible haunting

the

in

dead
in

as

as

The

Lady

dramas
in

mysticism
spirits of Cain
life's

riddles, the

stories

of

and

in

stories

of

in

bringing

in

pathy,
tele-

The

effect

living by
work

the

on

merous
nu-

The

English.
sad

in person,

personality
The

and

Master

at

bolic
sym-

with

of

the

the

of

His

Christ,

Passing of

the

ignorance

souls, foreshadowed

the

the

powers

their

Christ

men's

over

than

Galilean, showing

and

Judas, with

vision

in the House,

Servant

had

of

rather

of the

strange

Sea, have

Emperor

and

power

and

the

from

psychic

the

Rosmersholm,

as

wiU, in

Builder, the

of

power

of ideas

you

idea

uncanny

force

thought, the haunting

unspoken

works,

Ibsen's

sin reflects

children.

Gynt's imaginary

Peer

other

on

personificationof temptation

the

where

'

committed

of

influence

suggestive

seriousness,

satiric

and

laughter

and

folk-lore

of

mixture

its

with

Gynt,

almost

curious,

The

methods.

earlier

Countess

as

in the

Influences

Later

ceasing
un-

plays
The

as

Third

Floor

Back.
Italian

Modern

the

uses

and

the

has

novels

malignant
the

in
'

By J.

In

The

H.

horror
a

in the

story,

Shorthouse.

Woman.

the
evil

undying

in

on

fiction

and

literature.

our

them,

in miraculous

as

madness

handling

ancient
in

action

curse

old

an

of the

of

In
The

has

Bacon,
Sinner

Unburied.

and

the

the

as

Morta,
such

causes

This

unearthly

Cittd,

tomb

play.

The

the

La

by Josephine Daskam
'

with

gruesome,

in

yet

visions,

associated

psychically

more

of

ghostly

its effect

D'Annunzio's

power

revolting

in

and

repulsive,

more

where

by Fogazzaro

essentially realistic in pattern,

are

metempsychosis

represented
the

had

supernatural

supernatural.
is

and

drama,

Fogazzaro's
he

introduces

D'Annunzio,

and
in

literature, as

The

terpart
coun-

where
Saint.

Later

packet of letters
and

their

by

who

woman

of

image

influence

occupies the

and

Rossetti's

the

lie buried

of evil magic

cause

death

that

the

incident, the

natural,
super-

by melting

which

every

the witch

on

exorcised

enemy's

an

hearth

of

uses

borders

that

in

soul

the

D'Annunzio

room.

using

poem

67

corrupt

madness

idea
to

wax

evil lovers

two

subtle

powerfully,

motive

an

from

Influences

suggests

unforgettable

Sister Helen.
Likewise
has

affected

the

language,

by

works,

has

been

introduced

primitive, still savage

shows

fact

that

the
known

to

in

type

Russian.
power

of

early part
interest

generation

the

in

frequent

more

body,
there

Like

is

and

lation
trans-

Russian
and

is

turalism

with

effective
The

the Russian

Sogno

absolute

realism

d'un

Russian
of the

of

that

from

the

d'Autunno.

The

In

best
of

uncanny,

of any

other

singular thing

Sogno

literature
d'un

Mattino

to

of stjpema-

revolting yet

Russian
'

works

fluence
in-

character, it is harsh,
One

realism.

Despite

higher classes, a

peculiar combination

of Jorio.

Tramonto

the

national

sentimental.

it is the

Daughter

In

naturally

superstitious, will

and

different

respects

about

for the

large element

Russians

supernatural.

is written

fiction.

brutal, violent, yet


noted

the

illiterate

national
us

like the

for

literature

some

country.

In

culty
diffi-

English people

to

race

special fondness

large peasant

have

extreme

read

of

this

English

its definite

in the

the

in

so

for

its influence.

having

In

the

extension

the

literature, and

German

literature

fiction

years.

translations

have

to

school

recent

thought

outsiders

began

supernatural
century

of

'

of

few

very

Romanticism

of German

study

the

field

new

Russian

ghostly in

of

EngUsh

be

the

of the

easily accessible, and, because

nineteenth

of

work

that

German

fiction
is

in the

only of late years

of

over

our

it is

people, since

As

force

literature

Russian

been

new

is

fully
dreadnever

di Primavera.

Influences

Later

68

which

the

makes

waited

that

long for fulfillment,

so

give verisimilitude

and

themselves

unearthly that follows.


who

stinted

had
back

come

the

from

The

tremendous

in the

life.

and

stories

of

Marion

F.

Turgeniev's
its influence

fiction,some

'

"set

that
and

known,
affected

element.
As

seems

such

his

the

of

his

as

Reginald
prose

use

In

in Phantoms.

of

the

the
that

of

father.

of

in

The
late

our

Another

suggested vampirism,

where

This

has

scarcely
to

seems

psychical vampirism
find

in

is

man

young

he

woman

We

umphant,
Tri-

of

account

an

had

through

Turgeniev.

torment.

Hodder.

in

much

have

The
of

symbolic, mystical supernattu-alism

dreams,

Knock!

dead

of

ments
ele-

Love

employed

considerably

has

dream

of

Song

imknown

to refiect

dies under

by

The

Dream,

used

spiritof

stories

allegory

the

uses

effectively is that

uses

impressive

an

unearthly

magic

psychical vampirism,

Turgeniev's
besides

of which

till he

Vampire,

"

visions

He
in

as

The

and

been

by

upon"

Bierce

of devils.

of the

fiction.

has

he

of

strain

Oriental

music,

element

motive

of

is

schemes

the

degree,

story

revelatory

dream

and

English

and

son's

effect

same

hfe, expressed by the

wisdom

marked

dreams

of

the Fool

of Ivan

pronounced

on

every-day-

the

Ambrose

and

Crawford.

folly and

to

power,

new

of the

something

and

property

against

Blackwood

Algernon

of his views

utterance

off

set

find

We

symbolic story

Tolstoi's

man's

supernatural gains

thrill when

of sordid

ness

his stolen

claim

to

clerk

Russian

poor

the

of

element

in

necessity all his life would

from

dead

painful

are

the

to

feel that

You

himself

redress.

demand
more

tails
de-

life,the descriptions of pinching poverty, of tragic

of

hopes

In

indubitable.

appear

Cloak, for instance, the fidelityto homely

The

Gogol's

impossible

ghostly horror,

with

its union

in

impressive than

more

visions, and

Knock

1 Knock
'

distinct

1 the
As

in Clara

Oriental

treatment
Militch.

of

Influences

Later

whose

spiritualism reminds

in its initial

skepticism

is to

working

extraordinarily through

is

powerful

more

could

be,

is felt in

tone

for

subject,

is

Turgeniev

less

the

stories

ghostly
The

English.
of

treatment

Russian

the

romanticism

mystical

brutally

it

inspiration for

in

Garland's

The

that

so

means,

been

and

supernaturalism

conventional

mere

Hamlin

instance.

natural

have

may

of

sense

the

spiritualisticnovels

certain
same

than

what

see

we

with

one

Browning's,"

hesitation, the final effect

later

of which

impress

of

somewhat

one

and

69

than

of

of

that

most

of his compeers.

Like
writers

to

use

effect

and

both.

of

writers.

It would

influence

in

or

fiction

such

has

motif
abnormal
The

Black

the

vision

black

be

horror,

Monk,

of

monk

a
a

The
of the

war,

to

envelop

the

thousand

'

In

Sleepyhead.

years

that

Laugh,

to-day,

an

mocking
ghostly

world

it is in the

But

of

analysis
of

sheet of flame.
'

of

story

by

on

of

replicaed mirage

as

of

insanity,''and

The

Ward

the

Its horrors
Queen of Spades.
6.

of

madness

individuals,

No.

work

anguish

get the ultimate

we

of nations

Sludge, the Medium.

of

old.

insanity
in

of

Tchekhoff's

supernatural being,

Red

of

story of insanity brought

weird

of

type

Examples

story

account

they

sant
Maupas-

passion for cards, whose

racking

Andreyev

madness.

of

this

stronger

what

persons.

diabolism,^

sardonic

of Leonidas

is the

fictionists

Pushkin's

in
and

persons,

Russian

the

present-day

wonders

normal

Alexander

are:

resulting from

madness

One

of the

cannot

which

say

tween
be-

heighten

to

certain

over

writers.

association

by Maupassant's,

of abnormal

treatment

Russian

influenced

been

difficult to

certain

surely they

for

be

Russian

the

obsesses

mania

the

as

influence

an

"the

extent

have

may

of madness,

have

to

appear

Poe, the

and

supernatural

the

They

studies

by Poe's

considerable

insanity

Hoffman

and

Maupassant

seems

go

be-

Influences

Later

70

English

which

supernatiiral

of

abnormality
F.

Marion

Crawford's

of

Arthur

Machen

The

for

thought,

yet,

different

has

find

and

harsher
to

years.

stories
other

interested

in

to

on

English

and

Russian

Hteratxire

our

American

just

though the

its terrors,
in

our

radically

effect of it

softened

somewhat

are

the

basis

foreign

case,

the

in

forming

type

pessimism,

transference

language.

Other
this

fields of

literature

need

From

the

by

of

be

tongues

ism

that

give

greater

ease

distant

lands

of

touch
we

Examples

Bottle

Imp,

and

are

should
of

of
find

are

now

than

the

fiction

Cook's
the

and

formerly
of

are

other

opportunity
have

been

write

tours!

of

supernattual-

^not

it in Beckford's

to

Stevenson's
-Marion

^but
New

once-

reflected

later
an

Vathek
"

The

study

monograph
Our

"

no

lands.

points of view.

Oriental,

others, F.

Books

of

Chinese, Japanese,

the

new

Hawkesworth,

within

us

knowledge

our

receiving stories
ideas,

to

cotmtries.

Portuguese,

literatures

tales of John

now.

of

travel, the

one

opened
of

European

new

and

Some

thing, since

we

us

literary influence

Gothic

the

Spanish,

other

strong

other

been

widening

ignorant

and

fiction.

the

freely translated

more

person

have

thought

generation

much

is of

peculiar relish

elements

our

the

realism

is imdoubted.

greatly

are

of

impersonality

stra'nge appeal, and

in the

and

horror,

infrequently the

is not

as

horror

of

readers
now

its

supernaturalism,

awesome

stories

with

its terrible sordid

gloom,

the

various

and

Russian

by

mentioned.

fiction

Russian

its racial

have
be

might

instances

Smile

Dead

The

the

by

preceded Andreyev

life

soldier

with

studies

Bierce's

Ambrose

though

method,

Russian

in

are

influenced

been

have

may

There

reading.

in

insanity associated

of

of stories

number

reels

brain

the

and

words

yond

in
on

work

our

the
has

entirely new
and

more

Arabian
Crawford's

the

pre-

noticeable

Nights,
Khaled

Later

and

Mr.

Meredith's

though

many

fiction

Blackwood's

Isaacs,

George

permits the

character

of

Kipling's

of

illustrates

named.

magic,

sorcery,

tales

in

Elementals,
of Shagpat,
The

and

of

Indian

Oriental

various

ments
ele-

fiction.

ordinary

fondness

our

of

Shaving

be

place

of

out

seem

popularity

The

might

use

71

stories

fantasy,

others

that

Influences

native

The

life and
of super-

for this aspect

naturalism.
from

Apart
a

certain

fiction

foreign infiuences
in the

change

tales

as

had

grown

personalities
While

the

Gothic

novel

Gothic

The

in

the

of

being considered
travel

could

with

the

aided

had

The
since

discussed
shows

yet

in the
of

mass

the

of

under

different

also

classical and

the
a

Gothic

complex,

was,

local

more

crude

was

ghost

mortals

while

ease

not

that

pared
com-

greatly touched

investigations

stuff which

period,

exhibits

times

psychical research,

Gothic

of

Life

as

were

known
un-

neither

hence

writing of ghostly fiction.

ghostly

many

more

folk-lore

societies

as

with

had

and

present

Scientific

fiction.

miles

nature,

communication,

Scientific investigation

snail-like.

moved

times.

in Gothic

manner.

in their

and

the

as

in

Radcliffe,

Mrs.

astounding

thousand

later

of

sive
elu-

supernatural

difference

ventions
con-

by precedent.

the

to

of travel

limitations

into

and

evasive

elementary

and

Walpole

of the

end

mark

those

ghostly

definitely known

an

more

of

forms, yet

hidebound

were

put

were

such

notice

we

entered

earlier

even

genre

sense

ghosts

days

because

is

no

the

superficial,than

more

it

of

fiction, it did

English

in

in

ghosts

as

decline

that

so

up

had

the

over

affect it

methods

and

elements

advance

an

that

materials
New

English.

in

Gothic

the

more

and

same

decided
forms.

has

which

motifs

will
in

be

development
modem

psychological than

English

classified and

succeeding

characteristics

The

in

appeared

of
over

chapters,

the

earlier,

primitive,

supematuralism
the

terroristic,

Influences

Later

72

because

perhaps

nowadays

thought-processes
ghosts,
be

to

as

the

writers

as

than

it is

though

is

thrill

and

lasting in its effects because

its art.

The

apparition

the

Gothic

earlier

times.

attempts

The

of

sense

fear

that

pallid specters
ineffectual

with

On

the

and

Gothicism,

the

elder

One

feature

to-day
The

from

early

that

hand,

strong

Elizabethan
the

thought have

that

been

stories

quick

are

while

of the

opened

up,

discovered
to

utilize.

aje

ghostly
unknown

forms,

ghosts would

not

shows

the

greater

its

at

in

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wonderful

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novels.

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magic,

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Comparative

activities

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73

in

of

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lowed
fol-

investigation

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stories

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Com-

fiction.

folk-lore,by the bringing together of

from

diverse

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sources,

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establishes

supematuralism

the
in

fact
some

Later

74

form.

Ethnic

superstitions

similaritybetween

the

widely separated
conscious

has

to

as

influence

scientists.

to

been

Influences

discredit

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fascinating wealth
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anthropology

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.

associations

studies

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bogles,

fairies,banshees,

wraiths, hobgoblins, witches, vampires,

ghouls, and

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Ireland,

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Synge, and

folk-tales

of

thrill of the
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to
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W.

leaders, have

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us

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Yeats,

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legends

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Lady Gregory

Ireland

Dunsany's

ancient

Irish

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in the

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for Poetry.

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Celtic

folk-tales

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gods, the

centaurs,

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Later

giants, and

divers

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has

Joel

us,

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lore

Chandler

Mexico

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is

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affect

note

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man

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mond,
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question

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Sir Oliver

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daughter

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Research

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Stead

T.

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Stead's

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public that

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conquerors

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aspects

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repeopling
The

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Kipling

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women,

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activities

have

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and

towns

Thomas

specters.

one

present

The

Harris

calls back

courtly

fiction

Indian

negro.

men

75

long-forgotten characters.

of the

southern

of old
and

the

other

Influences

are

not

done

Spiritualism have

literature.

The

physical, but

terrors

of

psychical,

the
and

Influences

Later

76

stories of the

the

allied

Spiritualism. Hamlin

to

WilHam

Howells,

Dean

others

Bennett, and

of

hypothesis
novelist
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manipulation

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would

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ego,

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up

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Blackwood,

novels

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Algernon

scarcely

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and

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Influences

Later

Dreams

constitute

plots in
certain
later

modem
in

fiction.

from

best

thrillers

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fear

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write.

the

relation
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dreams."

strikingly close.

asleep.
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soul has
unable
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dreams.

life.

definite

literature.

extent

all the

another

77

thrill

same

in

devil
hurls

Lewis's
takes
them

of

and

guilty
down,

Influences

Later

78
down.

The

frequently

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Freeman's

dreams

shadow

than

wall, rather

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Wilkins

Mary

back

accusing spirit comes

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the

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till his

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or

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kins

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79

than

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lines
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literature

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of

III

CHAPTER

GHOSTS

MODERN

THE

hundred

home

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in the

must

goes

toughness.

he

but

at

romance.

transients.

but

are

rolls of

mythology,

Gothic

or

really permanent

best,

teen
nine-

Lord

our

in classical

legend,

Methusaleh

Ghostly

as

magazines

unapologetically

as

styles in fiction

is the

natural
super-

parchment

the

appears

fiction

of

year

from

medieval

the

earth, for mortals,


athlete

He

hagiology,

He

of the
as

century

of

freshly-cut pages

date

manuscripts.

Christian

and

the

in

absolutely indestructible.

is

seventeen

in twentieth

wears

He

the

bearing

enduring figure

most

glides from

books

ancient

the

fiction.

He
and

is

ghost

or

drought,
for

seasons

spooks.
loves

It is

ghost,

ghosts vicariously, preferably in


than

be

one.

ghostly fiction of

between

the

is in the

matter

8l

of

length.

the

The

Ghosts

Modern

82

Gothic

novel

whose

perusal

succeeded

or

the

well

as

foiled

in

much

leisure

more

than

then

ghost story of to-day is told


most

what

was

when

he

for

than

the

rule

other

of

impression, the

unity

only continuity in reading


that

is

either

poignant

ghost

in diluted

one

The
into

in

distinct

several

there

psychic

the

There

The

to

form.

thrills than

fiction

fall

reference
the

are

of the

the

naturally

the

to

mistaken

there

mental

who

ghost is

interesting

others

of

the

reader.

cheat

the

are

ghosts

with

the

reality

apparitions,

of the

the

by

the

are

state

objective
witnesses,

rhentally prepared

not

the

early
for

romance
a

unearthly

of

most

this

to

used

there

class

using

Recent

to

quently
fre-

was

purpose,

contrivances

visitation.

Mrs.

subterfuge

definite

temperament
other

for

belong

writers

deception

histrionic

of

form,

apparitions

phosphorus, bones, and


impression

old

an

Gothic
In

deliberate

the

with

percipients, and

persons

mistaken

Radcliffe's

of

more

them.

see

and

shorter,

purely subjective specters, evoked


of the

state

appearing

elements.

compressed

more

English

classes

ghosts, independent
to

later

appearance.

are

it is

narration.

apparitions

of their

communicate

can

whether

the

the

which

narrative

other

than

in

possible

treatment

tabloid

The

it is less successful

case,

is needed

ghostly

with

mixed

or

ghostly

effect

of

impressiveness,

length

the

to

The

thrills

desirable

definiteness

the
him

of

surely there

gives.

in

supernatural

altogether
In

loses

long

too

the

more

for

type,

any

for

economy

proper

applies

to

the

before

anybody

than

concerning

dictum

which

story,

tale

his

gave

spooks

of

part

short-story form

in

the

for

necessary

There

Consequently

now.

better

knew

Poe

part.

the

on

ghost

the

designs.

haunting

his

affair in

four-decker

or

aged perceptibly before

mortals

as

three-

reader

was

obviously

was

often

was

the

make-up
to

create

fiction

Modern

is

find

which

for

yet,

where

whose

an

which

is

is

object

officials.

the

Watt,

onchancy,
His

sweetheart

sobs

ghost,"

pore

mortals
the

she

is

dead,

is"

Another

girl

^how

"

thinks

he

death, but
whose

is

to

as

family

'

"

just what

The

has

and

is

he

the

that

she

knows.

By

Eden

By

F.

H.

By

the

Waters

is
The

By Henry

'

As

that

she

man.

deceive

where

'

prairie,
that

is in

from

nambulistic
som-

train?

with

falls in love

luring

perfectly

problematic story that

on

announces

Call^

Night

him

proper
is less

leaves

one

in

modern

to

his

damsel

simple

wondering

is meant.

legion

are

Phillpotts.

living

and

water

"his

to

of Rock,

man

young

of the

wraith

whilst

love

the

wandered

graveyard!"

night

at

know

to

subjective ghosts

Dr.

alone

is

powerful

of

Point

at

girl

revenue

unwittingly

enters

he

the

denied

that

Ghost

who

story where

learns

these,

than

has

Ghost

courtin'

my

confession

she

The

in

stupor,

what

her

'

pseudo-spook

was

a'harntin'

apparitions

beautiftil

did

even

telegraph operator,

young

sees

the

fotmd

are

out

"I

ghosts

clever

evade

says:

business

avowal

an

of

Examples

Unquiet
to

tion
agita-

own

groom,
Spectre Bride-

His

"

"corp,

o'

The

cipient,
per-

Brimpson,

of

of the

burial

ghost.

onquiet

reg'lar line

my

fake

scheme

the

hoax

example

matrimony.
of

his

Miser

of

the

as

well-known

delightful story

in

Ghost

lover, and

obdurate

over

but

occurs

of

part

occasional

are

The

mistake

the

on

does

now

posed
deliberately im-

the

nothing

there

example.

is

cases

and

specter is rigged up

win

to

modern

Yet

Rarely

ghost-seer

nobody

responsible.

83

that.

misapprehension

or

for

even

the

for in most

accident

is

where

story

upon,

by

than

cleverly managed

more

one

Ghosts

"

By

Charles

Egbert

fiction.

Craddock.

Spearman.

Van

Blanche

of Paradise, by

F.

Marion

Crawford.

Dyke.
Williams

points

out

in her

discussion

of the short

story.

They

those

are

them.

evoked

that

so

is

The

love

with

or

of

fear

had

to

beholders

the

melancholy

thought

ghosts
the

had

he

effect must

be

to

"more

reader,

mental

the

beyond

Kipling's They
rather

wings

of

story of
to

loved.

a
a

see

As

is

than

whose

man

the

lose!"

before

him

ghost

his

of

are

rattle

the

subject

supernatural

temporary
It is like

it, but

analyze
for his

other

in the
else the

credulity.

could

see

glimpsing

own

of

gestion
sug-

crushing the

it represents

dead

child

the

enabled

little children, because

told

to

foreground."

put himself

must

least

at

of

and

work,

own

thrill is incommunicable

fact.

woman

the

as

writers

some

extraordinary ghost story

love

own

Banquo,

write,

to

obscure

of the

pale of
an

he

his heart.

on

concerning his

ghostly

spiritsof
blind

speare's
Shake-

what

specter

there

writer,

of bald

spirituallyprepared
or

the

butterfly to

the

and

gross

the

to

over

yet inescapably impressive.

of acceptance

lacking, for

those

as

night

at

given

for

the

in situations
the

well

as

attitude

effect is

him

the

of murder

James's words

interested

who

evil genius, Brutus!"

saw

admirable,

Henry

use

remorse

sleep.

embodied

subtly managed

or

subjective, "selective

"Thy

alone

weight

the

interpretation than

to

he

were

persons

and

asked

who

animistic

usually

troubled

to

came,

witches

it is

well

If done

The

alone

Brutus

and

coming

subjective ghost story is difficult

The

who,

else

the

in

return

in

love

to

large measure

answer

ambitions,

because

be

in

the

saw

secret

would

When

awful

Macbeth

and

or

were

apparitions."
was,

appearing

remorse

romance,

brooding

them

expect

Gothic

and

of

retribution,

cause

when

stories

or

dead

apparitions

The

subjective, born

usually
or

classical

grief

spirits of the

the

see

reproach.

in

beliefs, as

to

cipients
per-

beholding

those

by

morbid

of the

state

realities to

rendered

mind

mental

the

by
become

they

readily prepared

are

Ghosts

Modern

84

him, only those who

them,
them.

for

"you

Thomas

must

he
were

bear

Bailey

Al-

Ghosts

Modern

drich's

Miss
of the

account

born.

the

the

chanced

be

to

about
of

accept her

to

that

disloyalty
Her

her.

returning
tmderstood

grieving her

of

and

arrested

has

prepared

who

for

murders

back

who

by

the

fiction.

The

concerned,

appearing
but

wiU

mother
life mis-

Bierce

to

escape,

of

dead

ghosts

to

be

teUs

but

is

man.

ing
appear-

receptive
illustrate

to

serve

to
not

the

on

begin with,
only

to

those

sceptical of their

have

more

definite

By Olivia
They

That

Mourn.

of

such

are

that, while

the
to

others

prepared

to

corporeality

Dunbar.
'

An

see

Arrest.

well,
them
and

objective ghosts

impressive

more

as

manifestations
The

they
chiefly

persons

the

reality than

more
visibility,

plausibility,a
Howard

mentally

possibility.

subjective spirits. They


is

of

yet visible

are

thinking

not

even

There

those

part

in modern

numerous

very

objective spirits are

others

to

Hkewise

are

subjective

be

may

'

sense

type.

Objective ghosts

is

vision.

in

spirit of the

these

who
a

the

Ambrose

might be given

supernatural visions, but

to

has

mentally prepared

are

all

realizing the truth,

jailer

the

for

spiritof

now,

his

up

you

spiritreproaching

who

her.^

that

days

woman

her

daughter

port
rap-

en

feels such

the

us

already

past

the

"

sister's

shows

of instances

those

to

the

out

brought

number

Any

heart

prisoner

sees

neglected her, but

and

great

were

you

they swept

sister's husband

the

never

had

those

dead

comfort

to

of

Shell of Sense,

Tompkins

to

mood

The

conscience

Juliet Wilbur

is

forces

she

was

ence:
racking experi-

intensely that

so

that

are

had

lingering. And

In

unresistingly."

has

introspective

any

stiU

child

pathetic

Silence, the psychic doctor,

who

man

past

with

once

humorously

ghosts

John

deeply

reconstructed

As

shuddering

"Your

at

is

Blackwood's

subjective.
to

Son

subjective spiritof

Algernon

extent
says

Mehitahel's

85

about

as

purely

haunters.
the

later

Modern

86

apparitions that shows


of the

phantoms

cards, dance,

even

of

specters

his

of

could

out.

The

modern

but

abilities, which

advantage

the

over

gives

orders

only give

for

lost

ghost has

him

human

mere

helpless

gained additional

has

are

deceive

the

terrifying than

more

powers

that

they wotdd

that

that

carry

drink, play-

and

eat

anjrthing they wish,

do

materialization
are

mortal

mortal

that

diaphanous

the

over

early times

living to

the

Ghosts

duel, and

medium,

their advance

past.

lifelike in their

so

Ghosts

none

super-

unsportsmanlike

an

he

being

take

may

issue

with.

James's The

Henry

of

example
best

the

showing
adult

but

of the
and

of the

only by

children
well.

as

that
all

those

him

of

the

all.

at

is

hereafter

in

Emily

agonized ghost
the broken
person

is able
knew

dead, and

By Amelia

the

as

"

who

has

leaving his cigar-case behind

question
more

is

to

Edwards.

to

as

whether

ghosts

window,

her

that

thinking

Shadows
'

him,
smoke

gashing its wrist

is not

and

proof

Heights where

strikinglyobjectified,for
knew

not

on

By Mary

"

in

dent
ghastly inci-

The

one.

Wuthering
the

did

incontrovertible

than

ways

Bronte's
comes

reveals

rately
accu-

man

been

not

not

Four-fifteen

by

seen

so

she

The

In

evil

vmsuspecting
them

in life

is

of

seen

are

even

never

B.

they

by

instantly.

supernatural manifestation.
'

them

Quint

Peter

conspiracy

describe

to

being but

ghost

pane,

who

but

of the

only

not

The

raises the

in

She
who

he

of his presence,
which

they hound

the

philosophical,

type.

real that

so

Derringer's ghost

know

not

of the

of

one

human

diabolical

are

^recognize them

"

Express,'' John
does

their

is

more

psychology

fiction

remarkable

It

only of the

not

children

two

the

governess

of the

most

Jessel with

against the

at

child,

ghost, than

Miss

English, because

knowledge

more

is

objective ghost story.

stories in

ghostly

of the Screw

Turn

she

comes

thinking
the

the
on

to

of any

Wall,'' that

Wilkins

Freeman.

Modern

story of surpassing

method,

for not

mother

but

as

it

see

John

by

seen

the

living
The

apparition,

"

at

instances

might

Whether

be

their appearance

has

of definite

of vapory

sort

pale

as

in his

forpyned

misty

were

plunge
as
'

to

without
an

By J.

H.

the
of

midnight.

at

ous
vari-

by

seen

totally

are

similar

many

who

In

some

which

Gothic

Walpole
Yet

wraiths,

some

resistance.

the

animistic

the

to

the

shade

was

furnished
most

the

when

By Robert

W.

pallid

haunter

Gothic
sword

fragile and

were

eighteenth-century heroine

conception

usually
robust

which

They

the

part the

"nat

being

as

was
one

previous

to

one

specimen

"

shortly

instances

illustrates

through

are

expect

reference

which

for the

demeanor

body, intangible, impalpable,

describes
"

interest

of materialization,

that

was

objective,

or

considerable

closely

pretty

goost,

the

Shorthouse.

in

shade

of whom

those

themselves.

Chaucer

gigantic muscle.

is

'

ghost

guest

the

general

with

specter, though

die

And

and

dress,

yet easily recognized

day, and

to

substance

of the

left him

of his bed

elicited

projection

personality.

the

subjective

Their

spirit material,

of

by

see

some

mistaken,
always

sticks

ghost

to

is

as

transferred

exhibition.

concern

ghosts

modem

sisters

given.

bearing,

become

well

as

Messenger,

part of humanity.
their

idea

way

Strafford

surely the

foot

times,

such

ghosts be

matters

for

the

on

different

for

unprepared

to

the

Lord

having

expecting

not

was

of

vestibule
for

specter in The

persons

the

ordinary

wall, but

the

Stockton's

R.

perch itself

man

horrible

on

his dead

wronged

in the

spirit

burns

Frank

chambier

upper

has

not

on

in the

conscience

objective

an

lad

young

undefended.
is

shadow

Inglesant,^ the

whose

king

who

man

well.

as

In

the

87

suggestion, is objective in its

spiritreturning,

accusing

an

of

power

only

his

sees

Ghosts

it

came

Chambers.

of

ghosts
could

less
helpto

88

real

guilty

of

and

emergency,

the

the

and

that

present

horse

its rider

Dickens's

that

Rickshaw

Scrooge

the

coat-tail

The

Substitute, the

plunge

see

clear

his

back.

can

buttons

at

spirit is said

'

The

is

her

without

is of

such

vapory

him

through
In

to

count

recent

evade

to

ethereal

so

through

Marley

Mr.

stories

some

materialization.

similar

In

innocent.

Kipling's Phantom
and

resistance, and
substance

have

we

in

the

the

frightening

chiefly for

useful

were

consoling

spiritwoman

Ghosts

Modern

her

story.

friend

like

mist.
The

clad

Gothic
in

nothing

still
where

burst

ground

before

the

grinning

the

shrinking
into

over

The

the

Near

teeth

Like

the

it

by

earthly body

it

sobs, breathes,
unfolds

its

the

counterpart

of

him

with

he

I fell
of

on

my

the

my

eyes
knees

mother

Georgia Wood

had

of

lay

Pangborne.

the

spirit of

in

soldier's

and

of

and
the
"In

robe

Elliott

with

ether.

of black

O'Donnell

tent

a:t

night

ghastly fingers

appearing
mother,
in his

kissed

man
wo-

mantle.

worshiped

those

black

in

her

fell

skeleton

wrapped

long-dead

before
but

"a

there

wrappings,
his

and

magnetic

up,

and

blood, showering

of

that

cere-cloth

collapsed

fine thread

was

sits

moves,

and

staring ribs

as

counterpart."

mummy

the

body
a

Messenger,

bog.

remains

earth

tons
Skele-

thing shuddered

is described

ragged

it seemed

the

of black

the

of the

crumbling

story of

By

then

ooze

to

between

skeleton,

skull.

rotting robes

the

The

hideous

torrent

and

the

attached

of which

'

From

as

scowl.

in

as

shows

us.

forth
lurid

us,

out

spurted

black

and

among

from

grasses,

in

this

Zuleika

feet

bones

ghost of Zuleika''
robed

has

his

stripped-off mask

skeleton

the

on

but

perambtdate

the

The

ghost frequently walked

him

to

as

looking

at

boyhood.

"

what?

long-buried dead
Ahrinziman,

by Anita

Not
!

the
Sick

Silvani.

Modern
with

repulsion and
and

me

face

mouldering
But

the

on

fiction, the
Gothic

The

for

his

that

Crawford
rabid

with
The

off for

buried

that

skulls

the

where

of

describes

We

Ghost,

get
one

Glover's

one

every

poor
a

Ichabod

of the Anti-

Screaming

the

his

slept,

cut

well

the

husband,

inside.

The

him, and
who

Crawford

told
shows

and

tion.
emo-

the specter is

ceiling of the

its head

pommel

seen

room

concealed.

body

the

the

rattle, and

visitor

his

with

its

on

headless

lap,

man
horse-

of his saddle

that

of his wits.

out

headless

apparitions

in

Brissot's

Jacobin parodies (ridiculingRichard

of Hosier's
Skull.

on

Crane

of

the

will remember

carried

rabble

ballad

ghost

lead

haunt

Hotel

and

murdered

she

of motion

the

most

murdered

hill to follow

powers

Haunted

of the

of lead

as

floating near

was

his head

frightened

Elsewhere

'

Marion

husband

the
to

definite
in-

casually told story


the

"

lump
up

F.

while

ear
a

in to haunt

uncanny

head

course

with

sets

CoUins's

man

Thackeray^

rolls

has

her

hear

of the

thing

sections, which

man

back

whole

dreadful

in

single bone

skull, one

skull

would

skull

have

that

bodiless

The

in

as

than

require

haunting.

into

form

take

can

of

comes

"

in

not

in

woman's

then

In Wilkie

'

in later

often

as

it. It is

record.

rattle

deadly

he

come

lead

garden

suggestive story.

and

over

fleshless,

appear

heard

diabolical

people

fear

finallykills him,

do

suggestion from

bite him, the

teeth

as

the

does

powers
a

on

de ad

it in the

can

melted

by pouring

guest.

but

its

ghosts

revenge

head

us

face,

varied

more

ghost

story of

in accordance

the

the

skeletons

flightwith

to

ghost

has

are

purposes,

multiplies

with

bending

is not

modern

put the hardiest

there

corpse!

bones

apparitions

realize

of

and

was

whole, though

times.

skeleton

wife

89

times.

early

to

foul

of

up

eyes

my

of the

rattle

Ghostly

and

I looked

fear

into

peering

Ghosts

Ghost)

'In

Notch

on

the Axe.

Ghosts

Modern

90

Sudden

each

A
Each

head

in

(Himself

Stalked

The

Bulwer-Lytton's

In

hand

woman's

without

letters,then

Eyes

other

Legions
they

not

are

tread

on

' '

And

that

but

the

hollows

seen,

note

it up,

they dig

to

body, lacking

had

who

woman

killed

one

find

itself in

disfigurement

lived

section

of

There

soul, for the


in whole

this

the

or

of

body

seems
can

roots

snake

that

mortal

and
to

the

perform

by

In

the

on

in

deserted

that

mystification

the

case

whose

woman's
with

the
had

husband

beside

the

fiction

fests
frequently mani-

porch.

dismembered,

or

adding
no

their

to

porch

been

body
be

feet!

Vine

of

mutilated

has

form

her

Eyes!

Bierce's

refuge in

and

buried

Then

echo

in the

had

as

in part, unaided

In

violently.

there

form,

immortality

haunting.

the

move

"

in Ambrose

covering

ghost in modern

revenge

relentless

and

foot,

her secretly and

The

vine

strange

to

terrible

earth

take

men

in the

seen

ghost manifested

revenge

couple of

unaccountably

shakes

of the

horror.

hideous

Eye

of numberless

tramp

the

Strange Story

Those

Eyes!

individual

an

cient
an-

lofty giant.

some

supernatural phenomena

shows

and

of

legions!

peculiar form.
house

height

"Those

The

he

House

at

the

"seeming

nearer,

appear.

hdve

stories

and

clutch

vast

the Haunted

to

up

in his
as

comes

nearer

ground

while

floor.

and

rises

body

withdraws,

distance, moving
the

wine-stained

Haunters

supernatural manifestation

from

clasping.

the

across

gore)

with

deformed

terrific

his hand,

In

confounding,

fear

anguish gasping

trunk

heard;

were

ghosts appeared;

of

train

grim

with

guest

sounding

shrieks

yells and

Hideous

Then,

staircase

the

up

showing
to

seat

the
of

head

life apart from

itself

horror

in

of

the

ghostly mind

or

its function
the

each

or

the

of

haunting

heart, liljea
main

body.

Modern

Ghosts

91
^

And

this idea

determined

of

detached
for

agent

I haven't

heart, bleeding and


haimt

the

written

physician

dismembered

limb

of

such

if

each

back

tion.
fic-

to

to

will be

stories

await

outraged

seek

to

woman's

would

terrors

as

by itself

all

perhaps

what

came

horror

up

surgeon

or

acting

new

coming

but

think

form

instance

an

broken,

And

soon.

careless
or

found

deserting lover,

the

adds

revenge

yet

as

of

part

the
organ
on

vengeance

him!

Ghosts

of modern

reality than
stronger,

fiction

the

of

early

specters

vital; there

more

more

Ghosts

than

are

used

they

resemblance

in

homely

hair

He

hair,

in

shape,

queer

whiskers

somehow
move

darker
a

mouth

This

that

good

deal.

is wide,

seems

and

his

an

wraith-like, yet

very

ing
distress-

wrinkle, each

photographic

close-curling, and

red

as

his

hair.

particularly arched
His

hope.

governess's description

straight, good

as

are

prospects

over-with

freckle, each

of the

red,

with

same

of the Screw.

Turn

very

the

such

for

of

strong

handsome

more

basis

no

the

to

be

clearness

lifelikeness

the

red

face, long

the

to

carried

are

with

showing

has

gives

detail, each

Quint in The

of Peter

hoped

Fiction

to

Note

proof.

discouraging

have

of appearance

faithfulness
gray

is

that

death,

before

alive

more

before

as

now

of

in these

muscle

active,

more

is

personality

state.

Peculiarities

There

who

persons

future

the

of looks

immortality
of

be.

to

to

healthy,

more

are

strengthening

ghostly tissue, a stiffening of supernatural


days.

They

times.

be

to

seems

their

in

convincing

are

eyes

are

and

features
His
as

pale
little

eyebrows are
if they might

sharp, strange, awful.

His,

lips thin.

imspectral descriptiop,for
a

red-headed

unnaturallywould

be

red

ghost that
alarming.

She

hair is not

lifted
says

its

brows
eye-

of him:

"He

Each

"

in

disfigurement is retained,

Middle

in the

ghostly vine,

make

identification

The

spirits described
lips and
in De

to

him

meet

shameful

from

him.

with

half

cloaked

of

never

stuff

olden

must

be

phantoms

seems

comes

to the

turned

ghost

one

not

and

fewer

by

heavy

of

the

with

as

nite
defi-

as

regarding

more

difficult

than

of humanity,

ably
quite conceiv-

ghostly garments.
And

why

ready

to

well

were

giant

forbids

the

have

clothes

wore

them,

their

familiar

that

it

do

they

and

of every

tilt with

in

Armor

armor.

and

of

extended

is

incongruous

to

accouterments

weapons,
to

The

the

He

Gothic

remembers

one

so

were

knightly spook.

Walpole's novel.

carrying
been

spiritswere

rival ghost.

panoplied

armor

of less radical

masculine

seems

shields

accompaniments

to

of clothes

people

when
and

now

ever

It is

ghosts might

so

be

to

seem

of

times

the
law

us

spectral clothes

of

even

ghostly function, yet


necessary

There

ghost-clothes made?

are

part identified

material

that

interesting feature

an

immortality

tissue

out

stylesthan
in

Oliver's

its face

shows

living fashionables.

itself,but

wear

In

constituted

the

bodily

what

Sir

recognizes her,

figure has

Middleton

horror.

his way

he

to

red, voluptuous

on

that

life,so

in literature.

the

renew

Of

of

spirit of

mausoleum

concerning

understand
for

neglected

tales

have

the

hooded

and

apparel

conventions

garb

Stoker

foot

face.

supernaturalism

to

in

Jessie Adelaide

Ghostly

the

her

as

is

in

toe

lacking

Affair of Dishonor,

An

passes

duel, limps
the

though

he

the

present

and

cheeks,

Morgan's

as

in

Bram

by

missing

Nothing

forth.

so

absolute

pink

mother,

and

Right Foot,

the

of

Toe

the loss of the

as

skull, the

screaming

Crawford's

Bierce's

living,dangerous,

presence.

minor

tooth

this occasion,

absolutely, on

was

detestable

the

Ghosts

Modern

92

ticularly
par-

Nowadays

which

ghostdom

tion
restricas

well.

Modern

Specters

thus

are

scarcely expect
toting

placed

to see

beholder

the

be

noted

shroud,

while

season

men

that

witches

with

the

and

has

of

to

of

three

ghosts, one
and

in

the

is

so

scarcely

know

of

one

of

Matthew

Mr.

Morley's

him

to

see,

we

in

tights and
pig-tail,
They

we

the Stairs.

see

quickly

so

instances.

fiction evidence
shows

Gerould^

of

blue dress, one

warrior

wearing

(We

because

do

they

only
often

not

have

depicts

cloth,
loin-

see

the

shade

a
a

side-whiskers."
which

buttons
that

he

glint of

clad

man

those

'

addition

By

to

glanced through

prim waist-coat.
a

of

ghostly spectacles,a

wears
a

we

In

us

snake,
rattle-

suit, mid- Victorian, "with

boots, and
the

ghosts
compared

change

in later

scowl.

Arnold

observe

tone

their

Modern

stylesnow

Fullerton

Zulu

tweed

coat-tail

is the

of clothes

matter

Co-operative Ghosts'"

wraith

red.

is

wraiths

many

also, whereas

all in most

at

woman

this

why

Gray

choose

the

specters this

that

attired.

ghostly garments
of

ate,
appropri-

suitable, yet
the

and

is

so

of the

ghqst is hopelessly pass6 before he

ghosts, perhaps

modesty.)

On

since

nose-ring, and

In

the

Katherine

variety.

'

in

materialize

their

familiar

black

other

frequently

are

of

thus

One

reminiscent

Most

in

that

figures from

ball.

innocence,

tastes

went

earlier ones,

Examples

in the

and

are

disadvantage

time

nude

Uke

seems

gloom,

modern

decidedly

so

White

the

petrified at

phantoms

gray.

women

forbears

at

cow-boy-

in which

seem

look

now

is gray.

in

Styles

women

youth

color

and

ancient

would

one

Texas

garments

by shades, yet the fact remains

both

are

of

masquerade

connotes

dressed

are

affected

of

as

favored

really

at

is that

black

the

ghosts

in white.

or

well

as

in

last in life.

guests

or

in black

seen

the wraith

even

old-time

that

movies
to

disadvantage, for

appear

them

saw

so

point

at

93

pistol.

Specters usually
death

Ghosts

small
P.

boy's blue

Converse.

In

ling's
Kip-

blouse,

Modern

94

while

Kipling

another

around

in his comical

robbed

of

Other

Ghosts

youngster,

children

soldiers

in the

same

are

I do

not

mold
in

garments,
of graves.
save

Albigenses

The

the

and

The

gatherer.
of

Neither

Gothicism

he

by

him

alive ; she
hand

the

months

dead
in

ghost
Guest

the

'

Heritage

side

the

on

it drove

the

huddled

on

in

red

from

of

in her

bed

to

unbudging

stairs.

another

the

whole

costume

in

have

as

of
much

modern

ghost

ful
dread-

back

Think

his

and

the

and

of

wonder

No

wedding

night

of

ghost

hounds

betrayer of his

red

The

silently

spirit that

variety

Gray

Bacon's

instances

ghost in

oil-skins.

wet

turned.

revenge

us

one

stolidly and

spend

his murderer

ocean

and

We

relentless

in

brown
to

eight

; in The

Daskam
sits

right

shows

has

revenge

its back

husband

young

Crawford

and

her last

saw

long military cloak

Josephine

scribed
is de-

woman

coat

in

Wool-

in her

(A

velvet

wreak

with

Blackwood

wears

brown

' '

left.

and

to

in which

handkerchief

card-case!)

in

an

Kipling's story

dress

tiny

same

in

by

the

ocean

on

the

in
mad

in

wronged

back

the

vest,

daughter,
is

apparition

spook

being haunted

wraith

by the

driven

knee-breeches

of

child

any

The

is dressed

the

Hogg's

wraiths

military boots, while

eccentric

and

baby

card-case

ghost coming
The

I discover

returning Napoleon

and

of gray

on

the

with

purple

soilure

victims

the

same

any

gracefully
'dis-

on

pitiful spirits of baby

"wearing

as

recall

him.
'

the

has

carried

and

did

Englishman

woman

murdered

that

be

not

spectral blood-stains

save

struts

would

he

said to have

story

dirty clothes."
Gothic

which

first trousers

by the German

even

war-ghost/

shirt.

There

appropriateness

fiction

as

in

Broadway

melodrama.

point of difference

Another
and
'

In

'

By

those

Swept

and

Laurence

of the
Garnished.

Clarke.

between

past is in the

the

extension
'

Phantom

specters
of their
Rickshaw.

of today
ave-

Modern
of

nues

approach

varied

more

weU

and

sight
that

Gothic

well

as

seen

and

nowadays

more

they

haunt

and

hearing.

not

heard

The

that

and

worked

the

will.

if

might

haunt

brown

taste

might

Bon

Bon

in

and
of

mouths

the

who

to

instead

of being

merely riotous

appeal

discussed

so

form

be

not

of

supernatural

turn

on

the

stories

has

fact
Man

a.

an

something

as

is

the

that

shut

being

an

room

in

Ambrose

Bierce's

of
story of invisibility,

The
a

dark

that

some

medium

But

being,
that
La

terrible

Damned

something

G.

H.

unseen.

ghost; yet

straight ghost

few

him

In

horrible

is

nightmare

is terrific in its effect.

with

ment
ele-

fiction.

most

not

Horla

the

very

later

is

been

already

of the

eating, drinking, reading, sitting on


mad.

the

is not

and

new

and

yet definite

unseen

in his

that

livers

haunter

power

that

ghosts

here.

human

Maupassant's

invisible

knows

curdling

possess.

story of

is

gastronomic

sight has

manifestation

that

against

through

mentioned
in

spirits

devoured

were

general visibility,some

Invisible

story

victim

need

the

eats

livers?

the

to

invisibilityenters

Wells's
the

ghosts

of

spite of the
tales

of

express

ing
appetiz-

very

knows

itself

striving

of the

haunting dyspepsia

riotous

specter

has

less
doubt-

folk-tale

he

conceivable, too, that

cannibals;

The

what

imagine

sight

as

though

them

says

ill-tempered spook

an

It is

find

and

impression

writers
is

But

them

to

of

There

soon.

in Poe's

One

fiction

sense

that.

open

medium

ghosts and

eat

devil

result

as

out

wolves

of mortals.
could

taste

the

being. Ghosts

touch, the smell, as well

exploited by

it will be
Skibos

the

through

us

are

as

to

sixth

with

content

contact

classical

the

to

is

senses

general only

supernatural

were

of

points

been

yet

and

The

of course,

as,

of

in

the

to

earlier times.

realizes the presence

were

his

in

ghosts appealed

hearing,

95

Ghostly appeal

us.

than

now

the

as

to

Ghosts

The

determined

night after night,

his

chest, driving him

Thing
that

is

gruesome

is abroad

with

Ghosts

Modern

96

".w

unearthly

the

by
light from
the

and

who

Another

seen.

"^

violently attacks
abnormal

has

for

its

the

on

cast

have

to

men

and

is

it dies

tUl

visible.

mold
of

that

is

by
is

the

trail it leaves

never

of

As

seen.

that

anything

brave

invisibilityhave

that

of

One

tender

Strange Land,
his way

on

home

for him.
while

his

dead

at

home

he

he

little

the

make
of

and
hears

He

son

something,

some

with
but

impotently stretching
the
'

"

tell them

messenger
What

By

Was
Katherine

It?

will meet.
them

the

that

he

Fitz-

been

while

is preparing
hurt

joy

when

hear

him.

man

them

O'Brien.

; but

of

They
awed

his
his

enters

whispers

The
to

he

are

No

wreckage

with

is dead.
James

in In

thinks

influence,

arms

stories.

wreck

the

than

invisibility

under

or

is all.
his

in

has

poet's heart

that
out

he

But

see

strange

Mystery, by

Butler.

of

whimsically

swears

and

afraid

intense

his wife

under

mangled

interruption

cannot
aware

lies

home.

some

vaguely

dinner

body

little group

happy

birthday

that

yet it

not

ghost is told

the

know

it and

in other

suddenly

not

ing
mov-

of supemar

more

killed

does

seen

am

stories

man

to

He

spirit hurries
breath

of

it,"I

element

invisible

an

be

never

beneath

spirits is shown

present

The

breathing

it is audible

these

so

tales.

story of

of

plaster

absolutely

grass

chilling horror

ghostly

unmistakably

of

said

man

see!"

can

tural

most

is

behind, for though


a

in

may

along only by the bending of the

that

bed, showing its

is heard

Elemental

never

only by

tied

imprisoned
that

is

being

and

the

on

starvation, yet
Fire

horribly

and

figure

overpowered

taken,

Blackwood's

struggles with

studying it, but

struggles

mattress,
its

which

central

ured
meas-

the
shutSjjX)ff

finally kills

been

has

strength, that

imprint

loudly

till it

be

can

which

grasses,

it passes,

as

men,

man

movements

the

objects

with

the

mangles

of

bending

other

dogs

evil, whose

of

power

the
his
are

by it,
that

stands
till he

he

by,
hears

Modern

Ghosts

variable

are

The

appearance.

Gothic

other

times

specter,

real

at

Gothic
voice

in

such

strains.

surety

the

on

the

incongruous

king's English,

be

for

not

guilty of

the

This

in

look

volumes

explain the

may

classical

variation

and

in the

later

fluent.

All
for

ghost

invisible
The
as

this goes

he

does

ghosts
Gothic

it does

come

as

at

sing'in

case,^
"a

By Mary

duet
Wilkins

their

in A

her

Freeman.

of

Two

ghosts

hear

are

modern
The

do.

music

mysterious

visitation, but
to

be.

Melody,

'

heavenly
is

song

spirit

Voices.

similar

ghosts

to

it used

funeral, and
'

word.

well.

as

Far-away

woman's

by

of the

notion

Ghostly

death.

cases

terrifyingly

are

freedom

than

living alone

where
at

as

by

no

is

the

supernatural

common

issue

some

utter

of

many

fond

of

the

the

matter

non-speaking

voiceless

was

specters be
It would

There

takes

rule

but

the

the

he

times,

spinster sisters

another

'

are

is less

portent.. of

as

what

nique
tech-

on

to murder

in

phantoms

prove

ghostly

proper

dodged

drama.

romance

ghostly music

two

to

accompaniment

an

for

other

of

diSiculty in the

fiction,for

eloquently silent, while

lack

ghost

of threats

Elizabethan

in the

errors.

or

by
in

lay

dialectic

writers

reason

lifted

brief

to let their

The

bosom

overstrong

giving their ghosts brevity of speech,


letting them

speech

usually

the

illiterate

presents

perchance

so

was

to

as

hesitated

an

in his

guilty

for that

were

even

which

he

spoke

writers

have

may

The

fluently.

the

to

reason

authors

they

lest

realism,

he

tions
appari-

faked, frequently

as

as

part

sUent.

converse

ten'or

part of the

they

fluent

well

as

most

classical

impediment

an

well

as

the

sometimes

could

when

Gothic
and

of

he

Perhaps

diction.

seem

had

brought

Yet

utterance.

too

and

song

for

were

and

vocal

sometimes

sounds

to

respect

occasion, and

on

sometimes

ghost

while

talk

97
'

with

early ghosts

silent, yet could


were

Ghosts

In

where
music

heard

back

comes

Crawford's
'

Yet

Man

in
to

ghost ^
Overboard.

Modern

98
constantly
In

whistles

lover's

life

could

Crawford's

and

his way

followed
the

When

the

the

the

comes,

clamor
New

such

of

presence

His

Keeping

invisible

'

In

In A

John

silence.

suggestion.
outer

door,

knocking
who

two

key's
Mon-

from

at

hear
the

are

dead.

breathed,

utter

import than

been.
are

introduced

the
of

ancient
the

that

the
is

modem

is

heavy,

heard, and

of Fire, by Blackwood.

ghostly tales,

manifestation

spirit^ followed

enchanted

Promise

Thing

in

Inglesant.

Nemesis

in the

in its

dreadful

more

body

in The

at the

been

as

supernatural
of

back
has

of

terrible

power

for the

wish

magic

Empty

thud

after

as

come

peculiar hissing

crashing

is

chilling awe

presence

silence

has

the

last

sounds
as

and

is

the

the

loudly

more,

tread

screams

tensely than

knocks

strange

as

smothered

story of superlative

and

occur

heavy, rushing feet,

of

silence

more

thrill of

this

when

silence

the

shown

that

same

that

Then

sudden

gate in Macbeth,

sure

sounds

doll

of the

in Blackwood's

re-enacted, then

ghostly visitant

feel the

we

of

is nowhere
^

and

king,

of

might

one

firm, audible

stairs," after which

effect

Paw,

with

as

voice

feet

scuffling and

is

the

awful

story

mechanical

walks

with
of

murder

down

sounds

the

the

move

noise

ancient

The

appall

ghosts

by

thrown

her

save

peculiar example

children's

Strafford'

to

the

to

in

"

more!

tiny pattering

of its

Lord

House

giriwho

much,

so

Ghost, that

Doll's

fiction, not

click

sounds.

cause

honor

yet humorous,

the

on

I not

preternatural
nor

father's

thee, dear,

love

not

Loved

think,

young

sings sadly,
"T

In

her

betrayed

times

of the

wraith

the

during life.

of

fond

been

had

he

tune

Co-operativeGhosts

Cromwellian

Ghosts

flames.

by

the

In

Blackwood's

creaking
"

By W.

crackling

breathing

stertorous

the

of the

W.

of the
Jacobs.

of

bed

Modern

weighted

down

by

brings

in

of his

Wendigo

of

as

power."

Kipling

are

of "the

his

beyond,"

forth.

These

deeply

The

leave.

story,

the

and

stories,such

dying,

the

oft-mentioned

places, the
not

of

cry

only of the

whole, the
varied

sounds

in

individual

and

haunting

the

their

mocking
banshee
but

body

in modern

types,

than

was

and

sounds

to

he

clankings

are

Gothic

less wailful

their
that
the

soul,

little

which

the

is the

of the

as

supernatural

sion.
expresrecur

bed
in

in

of the

empty

presage

well.
stories

of
On
are

expressive of separate

more

with

the

laughter

which

in

automobile.

an

in

above

feet

the

made

sounds

hood,"
child-

Middleton's

of

articulate

horror, and

suggestion

of

some

they dread

specters

death-rap

in

through

that

ghostly

the

as

speaks

ghosts of Kttle

Richard

modern

more

He

lifelike

earth

few

groans

definite

are

various

more

the

imitations

the

earlier, but

the
There

death

in

introduces

lugubrious

mournful,

than

and

the

boy

child-

evasion,"

himself, invisibly, through

fiction

and

chains

the

ghost

heart-breaking

ghostly

romance

of

from

near

The

of

patter

steps, the rustling of the leaves

and

Later
of

little

manifests

prancing
runs,

homesick,

hover,

touching

giggles of

chuckles

coming

as

and

absorbed

the

essentiallychildlike

pathetic

that

ones

child

and

"joyous

of abominable

to tears.

squeaking

frock

and

children.

speaks

crying voice,

novel

near

of

Freeman

Blackwood

wild

ghostly

chuckle

of

Wilkins

windy,

introduces

"sudden,

rustle

of

sort

yet sometimes

light mischief,"

room

Mary

untamed,

of

utterly happy
"the

"a

and

stories

gay,

99

story, while

having

as

lonely

wraiths

are

in

something
in

so

body.

ghostly crying

sounds

the

the

Ghosts

an

the

intensified
case

with

power

the

of

earlier

forms.
The

ancient
'

The

sense
or

of smell
Gothic

was

not

noticeably exploited

ghost stories,though

Passing of'Edward.

certain

in the

folk-tales,

Hawaiian

as

devil

was

stories

of

the

supposed

to

be

Calderon's
that

while

moderns,

not

attention

but

subjective than

they
have
the

The

awful

an

dead

floating

head,

The

odor.

fumigating

or

of the

sea

lower

berth

There

are

to

the

awful

Wendigo.
El

By

the

one

certain

less

are

tionalized
conven-

cleverly

supernatural

ghost

emitting

foul

supernatural

of

out-door
In

Crawford.

the

with

away

full

odor

that

As

remove.

force

of

something

decaying

intolerable

'

"

smell.

that

with

"ghost

acrid, pungent
the

announces

of

out

in the

man

associated

queer,

Kipling's story*

of

comes

unearthly

called

odor

sea

amount

Thing

odors

when

an

it,the

the

which

no

"

lions, which

and

is

as

ghostly tales,as
of

there

strange, foul

are

mysteriously

man

and

stateroom

in recent

on

itself

Finally

appears

the

animals

thirteen

account,

to

tells of

its victim

carry

preternatural

ghost manifests

can

ceiling and

airing will

Magico Prodigioso.
F. Marion

they

disinfectants.

the

Berth'

definite

like the

smell

'

no

unforgettable strange odor,

an

the

iant,
var-

seem
so

number

room

any

room,

near

gets

supernatural

of

by

Upper

infests

that

of

In

for which

in the

is put

the

of

especially sympathetic

woman

more

more

not

These

Hotel," the

nostrils.

removed

be

cannot

when

effective.

manifestations
Haunted

stench

are

Odors
are

been

lasting quality too, for they linger

very

able
consider-

pit, are

sounds, and

or

But

matter.

fiction

distinctive.

unusually

are

the

through

the

in

novels, but

devil has

of later
of

fumes
and

sights

other

In

past.

odors

ally
usu-

notice

pay

The

odors.

was

we

the

of

ghostly fiction,hence

in

after

the

individual

more

scents

evil

the

than

objectionable

as

partial to brimstone,

so

he

Gothic

the

extent

supernatural

to

dry-cleaned,

the

for

odor,
scents,

of

some

about

be

to

seems

evoked

and

drama,'

bad

in

The

world, speak of it.

lower

sulphurous

by

accompanied

Ghosts

Modern

100

by
a

the

presence

Indians,
whose

man

By WiUde

Collins.

The

of the

Mark

Beast.

Modern

soul has
a

been

stolen

leper priest

and

by Indian
beast's

sickened

are

beasts, and

by

the

when

horrid

doggy

Sometimes

the

ghastly

it flowers

with

the

subtlest

most

O.

and

the

to

for

who

man

is

her, merely

as

through

it is

But

haunting

the

him

having

but

element

has

which

The

departed.

story of this type

girl reveals
the

over

flower

the

is

herself

big city

seemed

familiarities

as

relaxed

she

Of

in

castle

as

stand

ancestors'

hands.

of

taught
As
The

flattened

to

in Here

Furnished

did

Modern

restrain
and

and
he

other

are

their

the

hurl
not

curses.

incline

Room.

ghost

free

easy,

in

less

their

much

out

content

was

to

have

they

so

striking.
to

for

Fortunately

and

have

this

hapless youth

ghosts, however,

There, by Alice Brown.

spectral

crushing specter

instances

Gothic

impulses

in

too

the

the

earlier

spooks

mortals

shade

remembers

one

there

nerves,

of

This

unwelcome

on

presvime

is

loathsome,

their

fiction, but

later

become

that

distance

to

fashion

general thing

at

in

visitant

The

know

to

form

worst

is

stories.

recent

ready

so

the

course,

effectually,and

the

of horror.

dimax

reserved,

have

manners.

Otranto

in

more

those

and

age

that

supernatural

is the

you

not

followed

doubtless

But

be

to
were

of touch

is direful, smelling him

much

in

place better,

'

form

of

brings

woman

mignonette,

Seeing

touch

comes

ghosts

'

of

sense

comes.

terrible,hearing him

on

whiff

heavenly perfume

loved, dead

whiff

as

dead

desperately hunting
a

"such

loved.

most

of

the

visible

the

back

comes

causes

comes

presence

delicately haunting

where

Henry's,^

what

of wild

"

with

spiritin

^his companions
as

he

and

asks

spirit of

in masses,

lingers after

stench

of

curse

"

air and
air.

the

put in its place,

is removed

in the

the

through

intolerable

an

smeU

where

perfvime,'

loi

magic

soul

curse

himself, he snififs the

to

Ghosts

the
not
venture

our

laying
been
on

Ghosts

Modern

102

liberties

RadcliflEian

that

would

romance

have

proved
disap-

of.
The

Damned

stiff

struggle

in

describe.

which

the

O'Brien
that

power

shows

is tied

only

fightsviolently

upper

berth

in my

and
but

gripped

thing.

I fell the

itself upon
face
struck

violent

fell forward

The

but

never

Yet

ghost

goes

away.

the

touch

fiction

loving

of

touches

longing

Fred

is

to

the
as

C.

seemed
him

saw

It

dead

of the

arms
so

me,

to

being, and

throw

to

on

seemed

Psychical

chill

of

or

icy touch

his feet

his

that

he

me

then,

of the

is not

the

supernatural.

he, too,

than

the

incident

well,

burn

only

one
are

living.
in

In

mark

or

in
as

wards,
After-

spirit hand.

There

the

as

only

heat.

well, expressing yearning


with

not

Society

burning

leaves

touch

communicate

Smale.

and

I last

itself upon

hold.

frequently described,

of horror

beautiful

more

By

in the

the

cases

'

touch

supernatural

brings

'

the

horrible

corpselike

left my

me

set.

living,

men

overpowered

fell and

it

long dead

man

ten

its

and

across

of

and

words,

face.

in reports

of

being

be

his

on

and

lips

at

in the

Thing

it thrust

it wound

arms;

When

his

abnormal

slippery,oozy,

thing;

dead

sprang

blow

ghostly

fiction

in

and

the

might,

aloud

captain.

white

the

of

strength

living death,

thing

the

was

the

the

the

my

body

like the

had

all my

last I cried

the

at

And

to

strength.

was

with

neck,

my

As

it with

nearly broke

around
that

and

I wrestled

and

me

It

it moved,

yet

to free itself.

ghostly, horrible, beyond

grasp.

words

effort, and

tremendous

awesome

an

something

was

moved

had

after

in

terrible

of

being

dog

after

master

terrible

Idlls

being

disfigured beyond

is

man

which

It

slays the

later

fight, then

muscular

of

example

an

mysterious

for the

supernaturalism,
a

gives

Thing

tain
cer-

that

introduced
tender
love

and
and

What

They?

could
"I

felt

Modern
relaxed

my

hands

of

of my

palm

to close

And

in

taken

child.

The

d3dng day

my

only

moment

The

Ghost's

course

of

spirit to
but

the

as

The

is least

feels the

widow*
who

is dead

hand

has

and

from

The
the

power

'

A
la

Pair

his

and

new

disembodied

with

The

to

give

to

the

her

Eleanor
The
in

earlier forms,

for

the
of

after

her

having
that

knows

His

cliff where

ghost

he

know

may

lips.

message.

she

has
the

"spiritualkiss"
touch

showing

is

an

pressive
im-

marks

and

fiction

recent

not

hand

and

feels

hands,

on

the

some

that

so

feels.

asks

she

"

of the

edge

killed,

strength

of

access

an

psychological analysis.

and

of contrast

ghosts

of Hands,

when

funds

trust

that

sense

husband's

clasped by

hand

in Poe's

is in the

helpless creattires
'

her

the

point

ghosts

to-day.

of

over

imaginative

older

on

unmistakably

her

Ups of his beloved.

advance

Another

of

mysteriously disappeared

been

lover

motif
an

kisses

seeking

and

over

truth.

for

"

speaks of

reader

return

physically, and

feels her

gently leads

fallen

the

the

clasp of her

absconded

presumably
he

leads

easUy self-deceived, the

sign, the ghost

husband

rested

Collins

to

swear

follows:

as

describes

only psychically but

Another

stole and

Wilkie

Touch,

I will

says,

little hands

long ago."

very

"

widow

further

woman

center

expected

once

devised

soft

^not

"

that

sense

the

occurring in the obscurity of midnight


vision nor
seen
a
searching light of day; neither
as
voice
knowledge through
^revealingitself to mortal

earth

in the

heard

fingerswere
"

the

'

two

It

softlybetween

code

mute

this narrative

ground.

strange

the

^in mine!"

"

The

story,

which

story,

that

turned

103

little brushing kiss fell in the

fragment of

similar

and

gifton

as

"

"

hand

Ghosts

the

between

enjoyed by

greater freedom
of

in the

ancestors

our

main

and

by Quiller-Co'uch.

OutiLast Walk, by Hugh

Conway.

and

modem

the

were

Gothic

the
of

those

weak

specter

and
was

Modern

104

tyrannized

such

to

over

call his shade

his

latchkey and

asserted

local habitation

a-days
feminists
Gothic

and

sensitive

they have
Gothic

the

in later

nor

Neither
as

the

was

the

rule

hour
ton

Gerould

come

at

brings

in the

Ghosts

since

each

Wilkins
has

Ghost

but

the

specter

'

By

N.

the
M.

the

in

as

did

for their

occur

lessening of

town

Lloyd.

to

the

the

on

of the
the

of

Fuller-

ghosts

that

Wood

Georgia

seashore
that

dark,

arbitrary

Katherine

ghosts

hours

set

any

as

morning,

noon,
mid-after-

in

in

appear

dependent

not

are

Gothicism,

in

Since

but

modem

family vaults

light
day-

choose

may

household
as

and

story

Charles
located

in Harmony^

is set

complains

loudly

which

has

in
of

ments
arrange-

a
a

the

lost interest

there

such

Egbert
in

any

general thing, and

desert

to

ting
set-

upon

inconveniently located,

part of haunters

ghost

one

Last

of

like.

Freeman

The

mind

as

are

the

on

do

storms

tyranny

removed.

been

fiction

include

cemeteries

tendency
Mary

not

nor

air.

scenery

surroundings they
do

be,

so

lightning for

few

o'clock

one

various

open

in modern

of sullen

or

out

one

Kipling has

and

not

weather

of

interesting collection

an

o'clock

eleven

and

are

tempest

limited

The

Gothicism.

in

shows

Pangborne

certainly no

spiritsof to-day

apparitions,has

for

is

rule of twelve

autocratic

need

to

the

consequence.

the

are

the

comparatively

there

Yet

ghostly thrill in

do not

over

supernatural play

threats, and

fiction.

they used

as

be

to

up

Ghosts

Now-

"caused

have

would

influence

They

setting

have

may

stay there.

to

horror.

now

active

an

phantoms.

wild

with

swoon

acquired

has

He

are

privileges that

dared

hardly

to-day

obliged

women

barometer

materialization
their

spectral

to

such

of

independence.

isn't

he

have

the

to

his

but

wraiths

spook

he

that

extent

an

The

own.

the

even

Ghosts

is

quarters.
Craddock

graveyard,

and

burying-ground,
unsentimental
in

ghosts, and

Modern

leaves

in

disgust.
"

castles, those
and

modem

in the

Likewise

the

105

domination

of the

ghaist-alluringedifices," has

spooks

confined

not

are

They

past.

Ghosts

where

appear

to

Gothic

passed

localityas

one

any

in

they mil,

away

the

most

prosaic places, in cheap lodging-houses, in hall bedrooms,


in

bungalows,

ships, and
of

in

forth.

so

desert

of such

sand

Algernon

bears

Leigh

good

one,

be

as

they

as

The

houses

mere

calls his

own

the

structure

new

house

he

up,

lot, which

is

buUt

ordinary habits

of

section, trying
to

avail.

no

and

the

to

that

its

owner

at

the

merrily

Algernon

Blackwood

haunted

within

by

that
the

Then
is fond

evil

the

limits

As

in Ancient

and

time
Or

spot.

story

if

took

of

the

building had
the
the

ghost

curse,

of

Sorceries.

experience of

place

made

man

horrible

life-like,and

so

by
but

razed

undiscouraged
in

disgust.
localities

where

of situations

the

house

been

left

owner

vacant

section

it down

location

new

no

than

concerns

he

haunts

the

haunts

spirits,' where

the

long-dead, but
'

house

whole

ghosts of long-dead witches,

relates

Yet

localities

If the

and

whole
over,

on.

by

is inhabited

Worship

the

plowed

haunted

are

arrive

to

lessly
relent-

as

certain

his

same

One

When

site

bides

he

spooks.

persistently ghosted

tale

spirit."

reprehensible procedure

more

greater

modern

rooms

over

around

hangs

effect

did.

the

on

woods,

ghost story,

apartments.

or

ber
num-

possible, objects

as

certain

power

down,

is torn

goes

haunt

has

the

preternatural

specter

ghost

give

to

"a

that

One

places.

much

as

do

that

Gothic

ever

than

unite,

life, with

modern

rather

suggestion

should

ghosts

are

similar

set

in the

open,

described, and

events

Hunt's

in

are

in the

out

tramp

on

has

unspectral setting is

to the

out

steamers,

Blackwood

and

wastes,

realistic and

verisimilitude

of

staterooms

thrillingghost stories

in the

here

the

or

Secret

wanders

who

by

village

shipers,
devil-wor-

inhabiting

house

Modern

io6

that

has

been

usual, where
fiendish

the

curse

than
the

house

definite

much

would

be at

every

time

terrible

gained

drama

were

dead

in

than

could

hadn't

the

been

buried

The

moving.

outlook,

so

in later

low-minded

morbid,

the

unlucky

Their

wights

woe-begone

accompaniments
There
'

are

Psychic

some

Invasion.

no

Yet

evident

supernatural

forbears.

ancient

while

the

specters

so

not

they felt it their

the

woe

betokened

unhappy

anything

happier

spiritsin

recent

than

haunt.

to

but

is

ghosts

visages, their clanking chains, and


of

more

gloom

Gothic

business

ever
for-

keep

to

the

much

spirits
there

religion furnishes
manifestations

The

even

spectral police

were

of the

state

entrance

the

beings in

enviable.

means

find

even

The

ghosts

the

since

Hades,

was

couldn't

Christian

considerably lightened.
were

moderns,

by relentless

of

the

velopment
de-

superstition,, and

The

by

The

pallid, colorless

part

was

of

one

his

ancient

hope for then

forced

were

cheerful

most

early times

one

than

main,
of

to be evicted

individuality, more

more

in materialization.

as

mournful

but

the

for

more

who

the

houses

as

study.

survey

ghost has

modern

medievalism,

character

fascinating

histoncal

distinctiveness, in
of

if they had

spectral personality is
from

The

ghosts

is

But

of

down.

torn

was

element

formerly, ghosts

than

now

than

power

new

to

locality rather

fiction.

disadvantage

psychology
of

fiction.

permanent

building

modern

to

lingers on

adds

their

spot where

malignant

this

as

spirit of

the

on

haunts

more

ghost and

less

Ghostly

most

has

supernaturalism

so

facts

house

of

diabolism

spirit that

The

or

built

house

appears

living for

record

is the
a

but

of the

stood, whose

restricted

more

are

haunts

once

room

souls

the

Another'

living.

one

before

years

they entrap

sacrifice.

older

down

torn

frightful evil that


an

Ghosts

other

cheer.

fiction, but

Modern

such

not

large proportion

usually

basis

some

for

general melancholia
the

dead

has

never

wife

with

in

she

death, and

spectral
double

crime

Marley

grieves because

has

he

offered

life has

other

world

the

make

enough

to

like the

burning

bore
of

him

to

asked

surf

by

classical

The

and

waste

time

there

the

many

joyous souls

forget about

the

gay;

Rosamond,
By

M.

By

A.

In

Here

H.
T.

that

Quiller-Couch.
There.

is

and

conscience

is

of Eblis

Hall

is
of

too

with
CoUins's

unhappy

because

theme

frequent

ghosts

later

is

man

answers

but

romance,

rising

come

Wilkie

In

spirits. They

likely to

are

Yet

in

rare

something

are

positive,

more

are

later

philosophical

to

comes

are

their

off

shake

'

In

"

The

The

such

Closed

as

stories,that

gloom

tell her

to

and

paradise

instances,

in various

back

cause
be-

spirits,perhaps

seek

there

children

of childhood

Austin.

and

neglect, which

Each

you?"

simply happy

earth.

resilience

the

of

names.

recurrence

light-hearted spiritsof

with

he

grieving.

in useless

are

that
vision

horsemen,

individualistic,

more

Poor

ties
opportuni-

clear

gmlty

him.

part the

most

the

of the Reef,^ the troop

spirit that

merely unhappy

active,

the

their

Gothic

other
An-

has

and

spirit in the

danined
one

the

own

Roll-call

to

unburied,

the

more

Nor

is

there

stories

For

than

more

of his

is it with

has

sin that

lies

body

fiction.

with

see

each

answer

"How

talC

gruesome

his

that

In

to

name,

deadly

the

heart

others

in

or

soul.

the

see

serve

wretched.

one

any

to

soldiers,infantry, and

of the

out

to

she

life

she

her

on

is doomed

ghost of

in

because

suicide

evil results

in his breast.

drowned

'

and

neglected, being forced

the

in

murder

have

explanation.

an

is wretched

don't

is

because

either

seeking

there

The

is miserable

husband,

back

woman"

of

for it.

grounds

no

her

And

past.

joylessness; they

Readjustment^

comes

107

in the

as

their

understood

that

Ghosts

and

friend
Cabinet.

Queen of Hearts.

are

how

Modern

io8

the

happy
and

life is, the

other

and

ghosts
terrible

than

the

their

purposes.

be

have

that

Every
to

up

'

from

good, judging
fiction.

evil

Has

and

It

of

actions

do

stories

of

evil of
The

Modem
old.

They

haunt

not

are

to

body, and
to

damn

in

drive

the

their

instance, who
in his turn

evil.

dies

as

loathsome

well

the

soul

as

ness

of evil is shown

as

stories,as
"You
In

Blackwood's

bodies.

are

They

now

That

the

Ufe

of the

Mourn.

touch

of their

bodied
em-

by legions.
than

soul

the

they

wicked
well

as

and

certain
'

The

seek

in many
says

violent
and

worker
co-

for

become

souls

and

kill

to

The'

Haunters

their

to

other

psychic doctor

liim,

vampire,

attack, has
on

as

ing
insanity, seek-

eternity

victim.

Lytton's'
with

have

good.

The

pf the

to prey

any

the

by

power

the

Devil-worshipers

the

We

everlasting, making

result

in

to

embodied

soiritual

victim

body

good

of

import, for

through

vampire

the

body?

the

living

soul.

to

The

where
in

the

to

victim, but

awful

their

harm

victim

for

the

much

through

deathless.

complex
in

modern

will, so

gratefuldead

body, but

dreadful

in

haunted

of

that

ghosts

of the

by

more

work

him

merely

not

few

awful

the

The

to

seems

perish with

are

the

more

merely

spiritswill
the

past, but

specters have

on

persons

ghosts outnumber

revenge

it lives

abode

evil deeds

places and

the

of

out

seems

over

employed

fiction.
the

carrying
Evil

strength

to

seem

maleficent

immortality

good deeds

from

but

extent,

of terror.

that

linger round

not

noticeable
many

more

power

so

of

evil

supematuralism

of

proportion

much

so

appear

in

power

centuries, while

would

powerful

more

aspect

the

permanence

more

vivid

most

spiritsof

The

higher pitch

the

are

force, being far

and

ones,

strangely greater

years

fiction.

cumulative

earlier

keyed

more

actively vicious

are

in later

numerous

have

'

mother,

peaceftillycontent

others.

The

to

Ghosts

the

deathlessof Blackwood's
to

man,

emotions,
the Haunted.

Modern

passions,

purposes,

produced

in

that
Few

horror

forget
stories
its

of the

impulses
out

to

has

James

Peter

agents

on

with

reek

ghosts

at

he

wishes

now

as

conceived.
who

Ambrose

know

faces

its

that

in

His

vicious

he

reaches

grave

them

drive

to

Sir

to

of unmitigated
he

matter

predatory
to

some

story
stories

can
are

They

they

are

the

not

villainy

the
"

creature.
a

are

to

goblins,elves,

was

express

one

has

that

ghost, but

of the

he

says,

duty of causing the air

the

story is

well

of this

tion
descrip-

women

Jessel, who,

recognize

know

itsetE to

the

this

when

characters

Miss

specialized,as

How

from

of

of two

his

What

general

hot

of

sense

of the

breath

particularpsychical

capable of everything,

Bierce's

examples

"I

evoked

not

usually confines

those

said

two

us

dire

essence

in this

do

brutality, but
be

says,

in the

spiritualinfamy,
Pit

and

The

to

Smile, with

from

Quint

He
we

of his

distinct

as

betrayed."

had

for

evil.

all,as

does

ever

delineation

by

the

saw

drawn

is laid the

motive

it

after

sin.

whom

imps, demons.
of the

one

prowling, blighting presences."

"hovering,

are

long

is in each

children, seeking

own

ordinary

pollutes the lips of the living

and

death

in the

the

mind

the

McDonald

unconscious

awful, though

above

marks

Dead

he

after
his

evil in

evil personality

if indeed

won

that

women

last

were

curdling intensity,

There

that

chiefly

smiled, he

curse

Henry

horror

"Nurse

dead

two

far

forget them,

smile

dead.

Ockram

hell,

that

Crawford

linger in

evil,as in The

hideous

of the

them

set

to

power

of

tales have

of evil power.

sense

immortality

house,

Marion

F.

They

individual

an

Hugh

that

in vain

their

fellows,

and

His

fiction.

tried

this

powerfxil and

some

equaled

ghost story.

has

in

109

here."
have

supernatural
one

past by

lived

racking

still active

the

writers

modern

Ghosts

the

succeeded

that

worst

in

his

can

effort,

testify.
in many

psychic horror.

instances
The

Death

able
remark-

of Hal-

Modern

no

pin Frazer
Frazer
and

has

is assaulted

choked

of the
mother's
upon

the

him.

This
the

are

the

mind

the

among

wonders

what

evolves

like

situations.

only

not

writer

abnormal.

of such
There

the

on

Another

American.

There

ghost

the
that

funny

the

that

is mirthful

the

of
'

In

mocking

Peele's Old

themes,

stories

gests,
sug-

who

said

that

be

must

of

modern

"his

Yankee

soul

is

laugh

with

Tales.

ment,
develop-

recent

is

for

'

characteristically

not

the

now

with

us

instead

heard

in

busied

have

horrisonous

the
It

sense

and

irreverence

or

we

one

till later.

spook

have

bethan
Eliza-

mirth, but

come

evoke

in

instance, and

connote

coarseness

and

laughter
Wives

to

writers

not

is

later

the

essentiallylaughable,

not

without

and

Jack,

did
to

are

spook

He

burlesque ghosts

seem

Numerous

with

now

of

would

comic

achievement.

Specters

few

Ghost

Ghosts

them

One

person

writer

supposed,

specter

for the

of humor.

be

were

really humorous
remained

plots

such

distinctivelyin

ghost.

might

drama,

make

found

humorous
as

be

stories

mentally, surely

one

might

in

side."

temperament

and

colored

it

mother

morbid

every

horrific

than

more

evil

Macaulay

as

but

and

extreme

is

Hell

is the

fiction

true,

poet

an

literature.

our

slightlyunbalanced

ghostly fiction of whom


open

his

conceives

If it be
every

is

appreciates poetry
every

of mind

dead

him

Bierce's

and

in

of

dead

O'Donnell.

dreadful

most

His

situation

loved

bludgeons

abnormality

such
that

of

body

body

caressed

have

the

to

Tale, bj;-Elliot

Mummy's
upon

is similar

that

dead

the

hate, is thrust

diabolical

hands

night

at

him.

idohzed

has

with

loved

him, "and

spirit occupying

beat

who

mother

own

wood

spiritinhabiting

face, transfixed

strangle
The

evil spirit in

an

death, the

to

man's

by

dreadfulness.

unbearable

of almost

touch

Ghosts

is

their

to
an

pens

ghostly laughter
as

of at

in
us,

other

and

lonely places

types.
instead

we

have

Modern
' '

humorous

hoax

created

that

Richard

their

to

and

the

companions,

and

in

the

middle

and

rum

in

Over

and
.

Olive
cordial
a

ship

was

They

field have

do

they

of

delicious

In

The

had

and

in his hands.
when

they

of

of

Sociable

been
ball

and

to

grow

too

Into

this
itself

captain

riotous
and

his

all,with

time,

comfortably

through

the

night

one

windows
and

then

fiddling

her

on

ttimips

the

windy

with

ablaze

were

the

in landlord's

summer

lights
decks.

landlord's

on

of

New

underneath

and

and

R.

Stockton

of

living

showing

swear

has
as

man,

"

Trinity.

Old

weaknesses,
simper

by

social leader

York

supematuralism,

spook

Ghost.

is invited

who

reporter

play poker, dance,

Prank

drolleries
the

the

some

singing

gormandize,

do.

and

stay of

passed

since

has

learn

They

The

night, anchoring

one

the

on

out.

her

foibles

Ghost, where
'

sits

as

rum.

who

"

human

to

held

tells'

gossip and

used

that

man

After

that

say

tasted

spook

in life.

rise from

village specters

village,ghosts

that

spectral banquet

that

sails

very

moonlight

on

of the

noise

Harper

satirizes

head

villagerslook

portholes

there

men

jokes.

the

Her

the

the

turnip patch,

ading
seren-

some

boys

tombstones

being

heads, sailingvery

was

field.

the

the

our

stars,

of

his

storm

the

shows

girlsand

spooks overhead

ghost ship

demoralizes

and

Ship

play with

favorite

the

several

horseman

general good-fellowship prevails.

the

setting

The

his severed

rebuke

cottagers

headless

Hollow

Ghost

their

over

children

with

wellcurbing

the

as

evokes

Specter Bridegroom,

ghosts.

their

Irving

Sleepy

in his

flirt

graves

noisy,

The

humorous

nights,

in

Middleton

informal

such

excitement
in

iii

Washington

ghosts,

phantom

' '

heart-easing mirth.

Ghosts

and

as

The

to

She

ghosts

they did

kill time

written

as

several

Transferred
the

irascible

Modern

112

uncle

of the

who

lacks

charming

the

to

the

occasion

youth

her

to

the

and

of

that

when

the

mine!"

' '

who
cries

The

Matthews

naturalism.

Rival

into

being brought

and

to

the

one

though

there

between

one

Kendrick

found

pf

living and

one

devotes

must

groom,

them.

cases

Styx, where

together
showing

and

would
The

engage

shades
in

haunt

suppose

ghost is
without

Spectral Mortgage.

of the

and

of

house

harassed

the

This

ghosts,

is the

two

record

marriage

and

some

John

the

to

only

specters,

of

doings

house-boat

departed

great gather

discussions, and

various

frequent

more

giving

the

last

volumes

festivities

types of water-ghosts

humorous

The

the

his sudden

by

at

resent

spectral personage.

several

"I

ancestral

who

and

between
on

were

super-

of

account

wedding

didn't,

of humorous

squabbling

between

various

are

Bangs

the

'

continual

and

"

sayings of spooks, describing parties in

and
on

ingenious

wedding

I have

instance

the

by

stories

ghost

instead

you

comic.

companionship
one

has

sigh, whispers,

bridegroom,

young

The

in

is

later

he

ghost

Heaven

to

being the

enforced

heir.

brings about

several

title,since

invention

to

wish

he
a

that

die

to

to this is also

has

to

expected

melting

Ghosts

spooks belonging

else's

somebody
"I

out,

On

him

to

girl,

proposal

thinks

make,

to

ing
wait-

the

the

hear

announce

was

sequel

Brander

elevation

be

Madeline,

And

yours

am

to

may

man

lover

whereat

to

trying

was

comes

and

of the

waiting

young

you

are

departs in high dudgeon.

specter

got his transfer

"What

the

on

The

way.

you?"

to

say

undoubtedly

embarrassed

speaking

to

ever-

in

breaks

and

by her,

desperation,

nothing

been

has

in

and

ble
porch railing,invisi-

the

disconcerting

most

I have

for?
who

in

last cries out

at

man

inaudible

girl as

conversation

his feet from

suitor

young

audacious

The

propose.

ghost swings

present

terrifies the

MadeUne,

to

courage

Ghosts

lands

of

person

thought

to the

spooks.

than

one

subject,

Modern

for many

Ghosts

writers

have

sharpened

be

from

the

113

their

wits

the

on

comic

haunt.
As
has

may

made

seen

perceptible

apparition

is much

The

up-to-date spook who

mind
than

and

early type,

is much

the

knows

better

illiterate

the

of

The

the

ern
mod-

to talk

inflict

things

over

of the

psychal
He

past.

than

variety.

more

labyrinths

to

ghost

personality

much

adapted

specter

in

chance

the

psychology.

shows

has

and

James,

mentioned,

complex

more

crude

William

in

progress

the

with

examples

man
hu-

terrors

evolve

can

mental
can

tortures
a

downcast

of

to-day

amuse

Stories
Gothic

the

in

There

are,

them,

but

that
This

he

rules
of its

little in

what

to

him.

The

use

in modern

the

too, is dying

occasion
Gothic
for

for

parents,

of his

like

is

body

an

here

incentive
may

be

on

because

valuables,

were

is

since

it
few

that
hence

blithely
longer

no

motive
wont

but

to

that,
The

haunting.
now

put

persons

there

its location
to

the

instances

also

treasure,
to

occasion

It is

or

were

of

dead.

romance.

vanishing

ghosts

concerning
back

of the

of the

one

safety deposits,

mystery
came

Gothic

hiding-place
as

abode

cremation

to

classical

ing
burial, since lack-

fiction, perhaps

Gothic

the

in

spooks

in

keep

to

impelled

the

fiction,for it is

out

treasure

also

becomes

prosaic explanation
their

that

request

Queen oj Hearts

show

between

common

old, if he wishes

into

enter

recent

part.

most
to

return

to

is reconciled

ghost

indifferent

not

appearance.

spirit is less limited, for he has

was

frequently

but

modern

for

could

in

the

over

spectral

motives

he

or

ever,

advance

for

loss of the

earth

the

appears

shown

certain

than

gambols.

decided

principal impulse

walk

to

his

of motives

without

The

varied

by

present-day

new

old.

shades

show

matter

the

and

mortal

it is true,

gained the
the

subtle

more

reveal

is

after

scant

death.

parentage,

frequently mislaid

in

Ghosts

Modern

114

terror

This

romance.

is not

statistics

usually keep

such

instances

do

sometimes

occur.

Ghosts

in

the

romance

observed

the

on

extent

same

requests

take

her

the

Dickens

the

which

several

of

in

who

drag his body


the

and

in

him

the

the

last

the

ghost of

death.

She

is the

author

he

not

her

sees

tell

us.

story is the instantaneous


herself

woman

dress,
'

In

one

The

in the
Substitute.

and

her

One

in

'In

curious
on

sort
A

body,

Idlls

Zulu, the

afterwards,
a

blue

dress,

him

to

what

incident
the
one

in

Island.

his
it

in the

stairs
a

of spectral

Haunted

tiny,
des-

own

hounds

ghostly double,
This

his

fate, too, but

appearance

fatal blue.

the

saw

time

who

own

and

man

afterwards

woman

and

incident

the

ghost of

some

young

marries

presently
does

that

the

him

death,

man's

beholds

man

one

The

spirits of futurity are

spectral snake

destroys

whom

woman

each

into

enters

white

a
' '

it

though

Dickens's

the

scalp

Warning

expedition,

almost

in

crying out,

own.

my

seeing the

that

savage

and

was

hunting

last

used

danger,

fiction

is related

Indians

two
at

influence

to

futurity
as

is

happen.

Specters

presages

story

the Stairs, where

one

"

apparition

the

away,

of

warnings,

"

face

in On

seen

element

Blackwood's
saw

sometimes

in later

lacking

ghostly
the

to make

living against impending

curious

where

Algernon

man

the

to

death, which

murder.

for

man

is rather

these

Man

friend

often

ghost returning

one

trying

The

occurs.

Signal

us

to forewarn

impulse

still

of

is

it does

the

to

affection,

her

back

of their

manner

though

now,

shows

that

jury

to appear

as

case

ties of

asks

spiritscame

the

concerning

often

And

Gothic

not

psychologically

are

who

mother-spirit'

children.

revelations
not

the

by

is still

tendency

simple

to

yet

requests,

spooks, though

interesting, as they usually relate


illustrated

make

to

came

The

formerly.

as

duly recorded,

matters

of later

part

vital

since

now,

petition for burial, which

the

from

apart

terror

important

so

of the
white

warning,
"

Modern

this wireless
hint

of

of the

service

Society

White

also the
The

He

classical

and
A

Beddoes'

active

an

wife, but

the

the

body

so

that

her

beside

the

the

grave,

the

awful

and

impelling

motive
He

appearance.

to,

visible

only

haunted.

different
own

hounds

by

leaving

persons

of

living to

and

and
and

his victim

taken
a

from

for

cotmtry

his

idle

as

body

to

he
on

man
so

the

his

to

stories

above

shape

of fear

objectified as
beside

the

figure that

to
one

strolls

seen

by

interested

only in

relentless

that

country,
on

his

bered
dismem-

as

Detective,

The

sits

and

horror

others

ghost

revenge

force of terror

imprint of

in

streets

so

him,

ghost is both

in the

body

in

even

confront

to

forms,

invisibility,in
in

murderer

rest

no

frozen

various

moned
sum-

secretly buried

revenge

^illustrated

"

guilty,or

pursuits, is

the

in

the

manifestation

apparently casual,

docks

sheer

touch

horrific

real

his

is

He

spiritof his dead

have

The

and

grave

play.

the

may

in

the

having been

phantom.

body

the

The
the

about

him

to

absolutely

seem

his

in

"

from

ample
ex-

ghost of the

the

accusing spiritrises

appears

parts of the
referred

where

call up

to

in

as

principally

are

mistake,

murderer

adds

in the drama.

as

extraordinary

of the

hideous

subjective

objective

portent,

type is in Robert

of the

end

of his victim

of his wife's

instead

death

motif.

figure in Elizabethan

the

magician

such

on

fiction

embodied

of the

instances, and

as

Jest-Book, that

through

ghost story

novel.

example

to

and

news

records

such

appears

large in

back

character

asked

having

The

plots hinging

supernaturalism,
comes

life

to

the

Shakespeare's ghosts

Death's

man

of

in another

terrible

of dramatic

is

of

important

drama,

murdered

hundreds

ghost looms

class.

LoveU

past.

of Avenel

most

link

of the

"Bahr-geist"

the

was

of bad

to

serves

in fiction

Lady

revenge

of that

show

is made

use

Scott's

those

115

conveyance

threatening danger,

Psychical

as

for the

present with

much

Ghosts

at

last

his bed

mattress

at

he

killing
night,

beside

the

Ghosts

Modern

ii6

dead

man

whose

come

back

in

of his

physical embodiment
cold

by

sometimes

and

which
the

through

officer

sailor back

in wet

the

two

the

other

of the

bodies

win

to

wash

story is

turn

of the

revenge

ghost

in modem

of her

than

drama

one

and

remains

the

dead

corpse,

rattle

in forms

varied

more

The

revenge.

in

suggestion

conventionalized

type

dreadful

of the

of the

has

When

dreadful

horrid

subtle

more

who

wife's skull in another

screw

fiction is

the

at

drowned

loved.

newly

ing
strik-

strikes

brother

both

; while

in the

ghostly psychology,

twin

is

one

of lead

times

at

nowhere

sends

girlthey

in oil skins

accusing lump

manifestation,

the

for

roll-call,just

from

slay his

visible

killed

the

Crawford

'

ashore

skeleton

heart.

oil-skins to

him

impersonated

the

spirits

many

sometimes

to

bullet

mysterious

us

soldier

"Here!"

answers,

moment

shows

betrayal

the

avenge

has

He

horror.

revenge,

where

as

unseen,

officer

an

awful

and

to

Bierce

Ambrose

daughter.

animated

mad

rigid with

is

face

most

of
and

of the
forms

of fear.
In

general, the

of power

in

used

well

as

earlier

the

employing

psychology

far

as

ghosts

stories show

modem

greater
limited

were

moved

are

motivationThe

He

needlessly

upon

If he

wrong

done

others

alone.

He

is actuated
'

In

His

Two

They

their

knew
him

The

much
that

his, he

or

modern

in many

cases

Military Executions.

impulses, and

their

Not

far wider

impulses

of

mixed

deserved

with

him
so

he

himself

punishment

haunt

is not

whom

force

connection

ghost

and

about

no

to

range

the

analyze.

to

tried

with

so

reserve

had

that

someone

The

conscience

some

too

those

have

had

motivation.

simple.

difficult to

cases

had

of

complex

more

ghost had

haunted.

past.

by

in many

Gothic

in

earlier forms

that

range

comparatively

was

apparitions of to-day.
motives,

motives

greater intensity

and

his

for
let

considerate.

by sheer evil that

wreaks

it-

Modern

self upon

and
been

within
that

Dark

of

the hosts

in such

who

has

forcing

power

in

With

as

another,' showing

human

in

beings

where

the

and

witchcraft

of

bands

Machen

this

out

holds

side

outlawed

force

any

hostile

The
that

stories

prevent
the

second

interloper

extreme

of the

of

case

whose

man

an

overdose

to

to

prevent

their

loved

an

either

drives

till finallythe
'

The

Empty

after

jealousy
wife

own

call of

accord

from

Here

the

wife

life

the

exceeding

the

man

his

the

ghost
'

to

spare

Secret Worship.

instance

give him

Bennett's
has

who

courtship

most

is frantic

who

suitor

every

abandon

to

in Arnold

spiritof

haunts

and

way

^isfound

"

the

But

ceremony.

to

for

life wretched

make

of the

beyond.

interfering

physician conspired

out

marriage

into

dead

even

"

late, showing

of

over

to

or

the

and

singer begs

House.

the

marriage,

to

the

answer

of their

the

There

society.

common

carried

find

we

opera-singer
him

of stories

number

mischief.

put him

Ghost.

novel. The

where.
elseford,
Craw-

Marion

F.

on

that

act

or

are

even

way,

still another^

or

prey

bravos

man,

emotions

various

In

written

jealous ghost is somewhat


human

same

ghostly psychology, showing

of

of malicious

impulse

an

hypnotic

with

viciously against

Stoker,

have

and

to

spirit of

village in thrall, and

the

and

bring

may

in the

building,

spirits that

spectral bandits

lives

exerted

power

Bierce, Bram

Arthur

bringing

their

certain

Ambrose

are

take

to

horror

the

back

comes

those

is illustrated

This

Steal, where

to

to

believe

us

part

our
us.

upon

himself

have

unspeakable

on

Intent

hanged
others

of

have

itself to

would

weakness

of damnation

stories

man

reservoirs

are

moment

any

down

us

lives

mortality
im-

dangerous

are

manifests

Blackwood

terrible

whose

results

hate

Algernon

all around

gives

those

to

the

discarnate

reach.

that

or

of power

access

117

Death

range.

particularly evil, and

society.

in

anyone

Ghosts

of
or

the

madly

hers

and

kills

him,

man

she

Modern

ii8

loves, which
of
The

by

he

to

humor,

"

than

the

Gray

Ghost

who

and

lovers

haunt

convenience

which

"

inconvenience
Andrew

has

for

pokes

fun

at

perhaps
death

the

cockcrow

enough.

to

and

intense.

cumulative

one

nothing

that

it, so

in his

If

subtracts

adds

the

There

The

of

marriage

of

spook in

is

no

child

and

from

human

there

appearing

and

garments
"

he

Cain

not

find favor

the

shape

The

dead

his

to

asks

in the

the

are

these

but

are

rather

poignant

more

retained

are

with

immortality

of Cain,

Cain

"The

and

the

his

saw

of

mournful

tom
phan-

little son,

Enos.

in

riian

' '

spirit, But

unclean

didst

thy God?-"

is God

of the

In

The

Long

thou

to which

living only.

God!"
'

ridge
Cole-

one

tations.
voice, full of lamen-

sweet

unhappy
Lord

than

revenant

sight of the Lord

another

Psychic Invasion.

winter

ghostly fiction,

terrible

father, "I

uttered

answers,

have

is

but

"

emotion

passions

impressive

to

and

on

terms,

revenge.

more

says

Hamlet,

learnedly

technical

glow-worm

judge from

darker

power,

of Abel

in

may

gives in his Wanderings

In

marriage

a
a

name,

immortal

talkative

spectral impulses

hate, of jealousy and

'

""j the

for the

Shakespeare

little

orphan

an

; the

be

to

materialization, speaking

own

night, and

The

the

frorn

made

out

husband

her

child

has

turned

authors

are

Lang's In Castle Perilous, that discourses

its

on

who

tragedies.

story by that

her

of

spiritual

to other

instances

the

as

sense

greater

no

against his will

woman

be

Comer's

take

to

adopt it, much

that

writer's

Other

A. P

stranger

fiction,such

attentions

her

story !

in Cornelia

impels

asylum

the

illustrated

be

writing vile,debased

to

transferred

in

one

him

is reminiscent

This

may

away

could

there

set

she has

Perhaps

lais.

drive

to

which

and

brutality,

France's

ghosts in modern

comes

than

"

departs.

for appearance

few

who

woman'

de

motives

varying

reference

and

sadly does,

of Marie

one

Ghosts

Chamber.

Modern
"

Cain
the

over

the

after

ran

sands, and

steps of Cain
the

not

One

of

the

during

the

idea

ghosts
for

the

and

that

the

strange

doubles

with

evoke

the

in modem

of advance

double,

resemblance

the

to

in

two

stories

play, where
'

of

is

Wilson

are

alike.
their

that

he

has

duplicate

and

El

slain

cries

Embozado.

explicab
in-

forms

All these

suggestiveness,
one

of the

tinct
dis-

types.

personality,
seen,

It has

by

folk-tales.

with
been

out,

his

better

self, his

"Henceforward

thou

twists

suggested

origin in

of

being

one

different

himself.

tragic story

of

that

Calderon's

Poe's

William

pursued by

man

to

realize

conscience.

His

double, till in desperation he kills him, only

his

sonalities
per-

those

and

of German

germinal

is haunted

man

tense

dual

forms,

have
a

of separate

one,

earlier

Doppelganger

idea, yet much

these

'

the

examples

appearing

psychology

frequent figure in English fiction, bears

to

Numerous

and

constitute

the

over

is

living persons,

complex

in

know

not

It remained
in

memories.

stories, and

uncanny

marks
The

analysis,

elusive

at

Shakespeare's

ghosts of the

into

literature,nor

expertness

personality

ghosts of subliminal
in

detached

safely dead.
his

the

mortal,

I do

Likewise

supernaturally merged

appear

be

death.

classical

in

persons

of dual

cases

at

of

of the
to

late

the

reminiscent

body,

of

personality

double

romance.

writer
to

turbed
dis-

comparative

personality

curiously

permanently

spirits of

modem

of

intricate

dual

to

ghost is

of

psychiatry

the

of

are

in Gothic

all

are

behind

like Abel

was

interesting phases

life and

used

that

mists

"

study

instances

any

shape fled shrieking

like white

rose

projection of his actual

vapory

119

the

feet of him

respect

belief

and

sands

the

stories

supernatural

of

but

With

animistic

the

most

is

specters.

shape

sands.

the

ghost-lore

will

the

Ghosts

art

also

dead,

world,

the

dead

to

didst

exist and

is thine

the

shows

leads
the

to

further

by suggesting

the

weak
than

to

leads

him, Markheim

the

forth

walking
nature,

own

could

writer
than

dissection

in

with

hope

to

been

has

Jekyll and

instance

best-known

this

Dr.

Stevenson's

angel.

physical
separate
express

The

soul.

make

scenes

this

Kipling has given


his

by
His

through
he

found

walked

his

lonely

himself
out

hastily.

in all respects
of

is

man

more

to

given by

double

idea

dramatic

course,

evil
its

The

detail at the

one's
No

own.

powerfully

table.

ingly
seem-

of the

of

The

body

table.
unforget-

man

the

Passage.

as

he

vision
no

haunted

in to

came

of this

of

him

it cast

own

the

form

the End

he

horror

of his

in

tenseness

in story

that

suicide, after which


the

is, of

allegory, this biological

in ^^

the

Except

real."

himself, this

the

this

"When
at

nobler

personality,

the
of

strikingstory

house.

seated

the

of dual

figure slipped silently before

own

to be

Hyde

visitor

tempter,

thrill of suspense,

body,

phantom

own

Mr.

forrfi of

sermon
a

him

lessly
hope-

evil that

the

demonic

be,

it rather

nameless

existence

the

of

will

life is

from

is

sort

in this chemical

done

of the

of this

inexplicable mystery,
closing

back

stranger

The

way

act

his

the

transfigured face shows

tUl at last the

surrender

to

shuddering

suggested, thinking

the

realizing that

Step by step

further.

sin

truth.

of each

involved, decides

and

of self-

him, by showing

to

consequence

despair Markheim,

till in

soul's

offering him

crime

man's

labyrinth

the

by

murderer

relentlesslywhat

him

of

stranger

of

the

through

knowledge

the

tests

of the

person

embodiment

an

him

thyself!"

murdered

hast

thou

me

image, which

this thine

in the

conscience,

examination

escape,

thou

In

hope!

to

by

see

utterly

Markheim

self that

stranger

death,

how

incarnate

nobler

and

Heaven

to

in my

own,

Stevenson's

is

Ghosts

Modern

120

shadow

went

dirmer
and

rose

it

was

haunting specter
and

soul, drives

peculiar twist

of horror

close, of the discovery by his

Modern

of the

comrade,
dead

retina

death.

and

In

the

living

devil, who

person

evil

imptilses that
Kendrick

John
face

with

the

the

to

fullest

and

musician

his

Titbottom,''

he

looks

The

face

shown

are

in her

his

itself

bears

revelation

on

no

mark

at

the

his

end.

face

the

Edith

story of
who

was

horror

places at

once,

in Heaven.

'

Lovers

'

In

The

""

In

George

In

her

Man

'

from
William

Duchess

at

In

the Gods.

Curtis's

Prayer.

also

her

Prue

Hum

and

I.

various

Thurlow's

nature

the

living

the

tragic

represents

showing

statue

by

they

Picture

real

its

on

stricken

own

is

psychological study
seen

phetic
Pro-

between

until

age,

of

the

before

man's

or

the

Wilde's

Wharton'

woman's

spiritualdouble,

in two

of

from

griefs and

relation

Sleep of Auber

White

really is,

to

likeness, while

shame

or

changing

The

countenance.

study

Mr.

pictured futurity.

of this

spectacles
he

face

pictured

painted

of sin

hall.

woman's

of

meeting

as

to

capacity

magic

portrait is in Oscar

supernatural dualism, the


marble

of my

is akin

experience,

strange

face

horror-stricken

in her

the

recognized,

opera

his

where

instance

himself

sees

flees

actual

Grey, that

expressing

an

of

mirror,

Hawthorne,

being and

Dorian

in

to

face

came

the

relates

power

and

impressive

most

human

of

of

of age
revealed

are

bit

symbolic representation

Pictures
marks

in

God,

to

This

sight.

the

through

say,^ "I

double

cleverly masks.

every

Blackwood'

man's

ghost of

self in which

extent,

ghostly

reflecting his image


as

other

his

self incarnate.

ghostly

countenance

his hero

after

chair, visible

the

on

the

on

dead

reveals

double's

showing

that

evil life," and

an

his

has

Bangs

the

evil

own

of Night

living

myself, with

developed
for

is his

opposite and

hours

camera
'

Triumph

the

imprinted

allegory,

standing behind

man

the

by

Hawthorne's

Wharton's

121

photograph

own

reproduced

JuHan

spiritmeets
Edith

man's

Ghosts

curious

of

persons

Christinas

man

who

Story.

Modern

122

knew

him

in each

miles

away

from

bed,

sleep that

"

Distinct

from

bodies, the

subtle

H.

G.

knows

Story of the Late

Wells's

narrative

of

of

transfer

mysterious

drink, by which

of

man's

young

The

Terror

of two

of

personality
old

an

into
The

curse.

by

one

the

his older
idiot

who

of

sheer

back

comes

interloper in

her

Other

Besant;

Henry
by

stories
The

Man

James;

Katharine

Howe's

of

living woman

double

personality

Pullerton

Twain;

Georg Brandes,
this

Achim

the
von

Brentano
'

Elizabeth

In

Queen

Paul's

writings
Amim's

Second

it

of

des

Century

Die

the

Wife.'

Walter

Jolly Corner, by
On

the Stairs,

E. T. A. Hoffmann;

Carnival

Reduplication

of

Crime

in

Con-

Bailey Aldrich;
and

Literature, points

fiction.

in Die

Romanticists,

in Die

the

Wetmore.

Beiden-Waldemar,

comically

of her

become

Stockton;

Teufels, by

the

possess

Gate, by

The

vital

woman

force

Ivory

R.

ling
drivel-

of

and

Fenn;

He

Mehreren

is to be found
Elixire
in

in

des

the

finds

Chamisso's

lence
prevaits first

in almost

Teufels.

Kleist's

WehmiUler.

Psychology,"

out

"It

says:

Leibgeber Schapp'e,and
all

given

neurotic

of Sheba, by Thomas

Bisland

German

M.

Recent

article,"Romantic

in

dies

son

absence

The

are

father's

vitality,his

immortal

Prank

The

tales, reaching its climax

treats

The

in his

motif

expression in Jean
of Hoffmann's

The

of Nineteenth

Currents
of

up

Hawthorne;

Masquerade, by

in Main

Elixire

dead

actually

by George

Gerould;

Doppelgdnger, by

in

Shadow,

Transferred Ghost, by

The

the

the

the
in

supermortally

obsess

to

through

is

describes

grave

possession
inhabit

his

utter

home,

with

necticutt,by Mark
The

the

Blackwood

loses

and

of

result

to

of

power

deprived

Vorse'^

from

jealousy, making
'

inertia

Heaton

Mary

power.

the

brother, while

peculiar

supernatural merging

son

younger

effective.

takes

youth

mind, his personality, all of which


to

the

Algernon

describes

It forms

is

as

man

the

dotard.

of the Twins

natures

insane

the

Elvesham

Mr.

alities
person-

fiction.

tmcannily

is

body, leaving

shell

worn-out

separate

ghostly

and

psychologic study

in two

personality

of two

in recent

appears

one

his

'

one

merging

many

lying asleep in

was

of

expression

train wreck

waking.

no

supernatural

into

he

where

room

the

in

being killed

case,

his

Ghosts

all

It crops

Amphitryton,

in

Erscheinung.

Modern

reincamation

this

motif, with

himself
the

the

to

of

of

study

the

The
that

Return
back

comes

his friend
artist

himself

of the

friend

Feeling this

has

dead

and
In

being.
Granville

the

same

heart

understanding

the

reveal

and

himself
The

and

the

and

beauty

his

artist

alistic
materi-

through
friend

of

part

little

dead

indifferent.

of

his

of

the

who

man

her

existence

is

own

soul

lonely

piece of symbolism,

being

to

wonderful

to which

become

continues

and

sonality
per-

mother

would.

that

wonderful
into

similar

compact-ghost,

sudden

the

the

sweep

manner

Barker's

Fifth, enters

on

spirit has

his

terrible

wood's
spirit. Black-

blinded

knows

man

one

he

been

through

exterior

an

to

world

rapturous

living

that

of the

heretofore

sudden

soul, the

his

promised
through

beauty

of

yield

not

is

dead

and

of death

hour

ago

of
the

example

an

the

long

manifests

realization

is

at

he

as

where
flesh

literally one

are

Morella

merging

living body,

doth

expressed in

Poe's

supernatural

into
child

horror.

ghastly

horror

ghostly

utterly save

"

will

of

"man

death

naturally

story

climax

that

feeble

own

This

is the

unto

nor

123

wife.

its thesis

of his

crescendo

dead

angels

weakness

her

the

Ligeia which

Poe's

suggests
of

of

Ghosts

Souls

has
as

in

the

part

of him.
An
has
It

its

explanation

memories,

moments,
times

records

dead,

their

from

are

us

bliss

past

projections

of

thoughts
into

submerged.

of the

upon

dead

are

the

living, or

from

mortals

actions

of the

their

supreme

the

living

at

the

poignant

personality they

ghosts

prophetic

ancestral

slight spiritual

Some

the

which

memories.
of

which

in whose

These

different

and
of

incarnations

curiously duplicated.
the

reservoirs

are

vital

bring down

may

of subliminal

basis

striking hours,
and

suffering and
are

of the

psychical

stumble

accident

the

on

all around

that

seems

long

type of ghost story is that

essentiallymodem

of

dead

doubles

selves
that

specters of

are

the

future, and

by

obsessed

Parsons, tells of

by

subliminal

feels that

he is his

yet he lacks

the

possessed.

At

frontiersman

no

of

actual.

Arthur

the

sees

Johnson'

and

hears

who

is the

his

double

of

killed

her. lover.

His

leave

bloodstains

as

round

his

wife's

into

which

he

find

his hand

upper

room

he

picks

by

if

Old

her

to die and

have

has

up

alive

lover's

hands

chained

by

before
the

Ancient
In

Mr.

living in

by her

Eberdeen's

waist

her

the

that

so

her

The

the

depicts

the

up

he

cut

skeleton

ancient

in the
cannot

that

of

been
off her

is found

wall.

ghosts

into

waist, and

facts

had

some

goes

her
that

by

and

house, had
he

girl

haunted

she

shut

gray

little

She

same

after

face.

inside

is

to

of the

floor

light the

to

husband

Sorceries
House.

has

Philip'shands

Investigations bring

awakes

shows

around

man

chiffon

gray

concerned.

is fastened

fingers

bloodstained

says

"

having

the

the

She

she

been

off

cut

long-dead ancestress,

"

Clothes

wife

after

man
on

of

scrap

cruel

some

and

He

unconsciousness

modern

memories.

anything

that

cries out

her.

fit of

who

man

his

the

more

form.

and

at
a

the

up

subliminal

around

convulsions

walled

After

experiences in which

of those

save

snatch

accuse

is wounded

they

seem

of

betrothed,

strangely wounded,

obsessed

wall

hand

is

unghostly

vivid

wUdly

own"

falls is over,

Blackwood's

she

his

the

himself

an

case

in

memory

throat.

chiffon!

terrible

the

presents

old

haimting

supernatural

double

own

manifests

he

subliminal

the

pioneer
him

give

fight,rather

makes

old

affairs, the

to

which

this

ghosts of ancestral

sees

forward

existence,

the

military

border

which

one

his

after

scene

prairie,during

setting yet

in

needed,

The

more.

Texas

is

that

manhood,

visibly

comes

that

courage

grandfather, living another

crisis

is

ghost of his grandfather.

self,the

pluck, the

who

officer

army

young

Borderland,

The

clearly distinguished.

are

Francis

He

Ghosts

Modern

124

wood's
Blackburied

Modern

life,of

whole

village enchanted

again the

over

the

witchcraft

psychic doctor,

casually into
Vesin
intense
in

he

that

they

and

past.

other

basis

claims

to be

where

English

figures of Marie
the

daylight

given,

but

these

the

among

and

the

the

conclusion

that
most

study
the

of

ancient
is like

forms.

Ghosts, whether

had

illustrate

the

felt it

so

might

be

the

type.

and

idea

thought

sort

are

is modern

compared

as

times.

in

In

the

some

unlike

some

regarded
to

modern

most

of moderns.

closelyrelated

ers
writ-

saw

power

ghost stories leads

and

of

past,

into
and

The

of later

book

The

instances

haunting

is the

ghost

specter

are

curious

to

no

on

Versailles,

court.

she

Other

sufficient

of earlier

present

subjective,

her

because

ago.

venture,
Ad-

An

daughters

they stumbled

eyes

complexity

simplicity

comparative

the

present

ghosts of the

effective narratives.

most

illustrates

with

and

have

the

The

queen's memories

their

vividly long

and

that

unhappy

and

stories

illusion

at

and

this

In

the

this.

as

the

selves
them-

explained

happening

For

die.

between

teachers

women,

keenly
Such

of

scene

exhaust

to

to

be

of the

ago.

render

to

theory

account

are

again

never

can

Antoinette

before

relived

past

slow

so

sense

magic:

centuries

confused

such

explanation

of the

pocket

are

drops

arising out
over

part

women,

in broad

saw

who

psychical experience,

some

truthful

lived

living

John Silence,

into the

enough

was

Oxford

than

two

offer
of

man

As

ago.

Englishman

said in

and

past

of forces

that

complete

little

two

clergymen,
the

be

the

is drawn

played

story of unusual

by

the

life and

forces

up

not

the

so

That

often

long

vortex

past

may

were

perfect,
the

of

set

they

of

into the

had

actions

strong

tells

125

by

of the

village and

activities

which

case

the

swept

was

Ghosts

as

to

one

the

of ancients

respects
the

conjective

the

previous
or

purely

percipients'thoughts.

Modern

126

Primitive
and

times

the

has
weird

produced

about
'Tis

story.

in

development

intellectual

in

that

ourselves

ghosts

the

of

complexity

and

heightening

supernaturalism

primitive

advance

gradual

brought

Ghosts

thus

are

and

so!
The
than

his

ghost

is

knows

where

The

as

be

of

spook

forbears.
so

he's

at,

and

life

only

Stephen

French
zeal

bled

to

and

been

buried

what

dead

thousand

of any

the

idea

creature,

ancient

their

with

show
are

of

as

are

or

But

primitive

hate.

They

out.
a

woman

for

surety is there

lines

more

Gothic

specter

of the

who

felt

other,
are

he

so

two

for the

just

haunting
of

power

ghost

knew

Gothic

and

only

the

He

that

they

can

adaptability, though
of

the

Gothic

elemental

spooks haunted

was

did

is desired

The

somebody
and

went

one-

not

was

haunt

"

interest

was

spooks.

versatile,

more

of

call to

of

He

later

highly developed specialistsas well.


the

if

ice-pack

an

what

some

kind

any

admirable

an

simple.
and

to

Alps

there

Was

single-track brain.

purpose

hand

in

The

ghosts.

specters of to-day

The

who

woman

glacier spat her


ghosts?

to-day have

of

simple-souled being
some

been

by

tinent
imper-

crossing the

was

really dead?

has

back

ghost ?

ghost-of -all-work

for

of

body

of those

thereabouts

apparitions

than

the

with

to

his

Yonder,

from
scientist

case

thought

brought

man

Hannibal

status

she

or

years

standing
The

after

hardly

comfort

to

Woman

to

wasn't

person

drowned

glacier till the

the

was

ghost if the
isn't

in

he

is

man

out

where

while

latter-day

that

comes

The

in

Whitman,

death

where

the

brings life back

had

Now,

and

presently;

the

instance, the ghost in such

ghost

have

to

instances

Brown,

his

organization

nervous

circumstances

for

as

higher

many

by

Tryst, by Alice

sweetheart,

In

distracted

drowned

to

to-day is of

it.

turn

and
there

psychology
specter

was

passions of love

the villain

or

villainess

Modern
foil them

to

their

in

misdeeds,

past

ghosts

and

these.

Hke

They

what

do.

mortals

motions

and

psychology

them.

with

They

They

needs

ardent

tempered

love,

conceivable

The

spirit who

wants

to

help humanity,

hands

back

returns

be

tend

to

fiction

wash

to

of the

for many

up

the

Though

the

form, the
lease
and

the
that

terror

human

tales.
mind.

the

undiminished
has
mines

been

and
new

of horror

will

of

the

hard

type.

shifted

of

specter
sends

its

as

malice,

of

its center

of

the

increase.

say,

yet

On

the

we

new

English

tive
representatime

some

past,

one

to

over

say

may

will

story

untouched

on

lost his power

never

within

in that

the

of the
at

Gothic

are

between

pen

to

interest

since

story

most

in

concepts

instances

ghost

perhaps

to

has

even

from

the

yet remain
be

all

sort

that

recently taken

ghost has

of

force.

their

turn

influx of stories

future, it would
exhaustion

has

Judging

popularity

of

philanthropic

new

new

modern

almost

side

The

motivations

compound

short

ghost story,
each

on

the

novel
are

American

writers
write

Honors

George

socialist

the

of

is

of the

more

handy

read

to

as

ghost of awful

basis

to

supernatural

of life.
the

The

narrative

novel

many

much

as

the

among

years,

ghostly

gravity from
times, and

are

the

on

of

do

dishes, the little shepherd lad that

sheep,

only

human

friendly visitor

supernatural.

explained

evil stored

the

the

the

the

scale

world, the

convert

magazine,

and

Billy Sunday

to

the

as

hate, gratitude, and

wants

reads

modern

friendship, curiosity,

revenge,

impulses.

the

to

activity

subtle

by

ghost who

that

of

whole

one

actuated

are

heroine

or

But

van

the

and

mischief, vindictiveness,
other

the

run

hero

for

sit-by-the-firejobs

such

in

punish them

or

interpret their hauntings

to

jealousy,

chaperon

emotions

Meredith.

designs
the

keep

to

127

over

satisfied

not

are

wicked

hovered

or

advise, comfort,

Ghosts

continue

Certainly

there

What

later

times.

for

writers

of the

fear

for the

do

not

contrary,

ghosts

in

fiction

becoming

are

Malthusian
too

fond

for

"the

for

the

of

slow
an

give

the

function

to

mortal

but

him.

We

love

ghost.

We

towards

specters is much

that

Ellis

Ghosts, who

Parker

sees

like that

world, an' all de ha'nt

in de

in

Our

titude
at-

little black

of the

of "all

to

substitutes.

in him.

believe

terrifyingarray

love

willingly give

not

tells about

Butler

content

we

spectral

we'll

the

out

are

plane, but

one

plane through

the

up

on

we

are

them,

surrender

to

ourselves,

For

We

them.

finger tracing

frozen

joy.

another

on

by phantoms

if the

wonders

one

affect

in time

not

of

awesome

present

may

boy

touch

that

numerous

being fooled

adventure
We

so

theory will

spine" is

up

Ghosts

Modern

128

Dey

Ain't

No

sperits in de

de

world, an' all de hobgoblins

in de

world, an' all spictersin de world, an' all de ghostes

in de

world,"

out

come

to

bring

fearsome

to

message

frightened pickaninny.

place

he

like

wet

hand

An'

lay

he

like

ob

de

ain'

that

de

hand

feel

ha'nt

head

ob

cool

ob

ob

li'lblack

what

he

an'

Mose,
an'

day,

turn'

Bloody

name

li'l black
de

Mose

he

he

white.
he

Bones
hand

feel

say

ghosts!"

no

ob

one

ob

on

terrified

alone

de head

on

in de

head

side

so

an'

Mose,

de

hairs

whut

de

on

head

ob

li'l black

white.

de

on

li'l black

he

SkuU-an'-Bones,

heejus sperit whut

"Dey

say

big
de

anudder

yunner

ob

old

name

ghosts!"

on

ain'

An'

head

he

monstrous

turn'

And

de

toad-stool

An'

hand

on

de hairs

hand

"Dey

Mose

ghostes, whut

ain'no

one

An'

de

an'

rag,

"Dey

the

ob

king

De

no

ob

li'l black

he

Mose,

lizard, an' he say

Pa'm

Moldy

name

an'

he

hand

place

he

feel like

de

ghosts!"

through
youngster

night

and

the

assembly.

is loath
demurs

to

go

to the

Small
up

to

demand.

wonder

the

that

loft to bed

Ghosts

Modern

So
ob

he

when
li'l

he
"I

black

mouf

he

he

rub

skeered

wid

erlong

you

Whut

skeered

you

ghosts?"

no

Mose

an'

ain'

"Git

say,
ain'

day

An'

up

she

ma

129

ob

he
de

an'

Scrooge
an'

eyes

he

he

prisintly

whut

ghosts

twist

an'

he

say

right

ca'se

am,

dey

pucker
low

ain'

ghosts."
"

Den

whut

"Nuffin,"
"but

Jes'

jes'
lack

am

say
feel
white

you
de
kinder
folks.

skeered
li'l

black

oneasy

Jes'

ob?"

boy
'bout
lack

ask
whut
de
white

he

ma.

he

ghosts
folks.

name

am

whut

Mose,
ain't!"

no

IV

CHAPTER

The

GHOSTS

but

Mather,

his

fair

the

form

soon

be

He

that

been

for

sporadic

is almost

cling with
cold

shoulder

believe
"

reversion

and

to

The

demon

literature, from
nimble

the

titanic

topheles, passing
in

short

later fiction.

in
as

We

Dante,
human

as

of

has

seen

superman,

him
as

as

forms

an

to

to

and

loathly,

intellectual

ton's
Mil-

Mephis-

impressive

our

in

legend, the

mocking

not.

are

novel, in poetry,

being appealing
130

an

the

supernatural

of folk-lore

been

to

ists
modern-

devils

allegoric, symbolic,
has

demon

turned

many

monkish

save

seems

various

Goethe's

and

epic, the

have

in

nature-devil

He

the

drama,

story.

demon
and

the

into

fiend

that,

mind

and

himself

scarlet

epic, majestic Satan,


figuresin

human

are

mind.

familiar

but

in

daemonic

his

less in the

and

disported

and

imp

ghost

of

added

old

least

probably

state

modern

the

human

all, ghosts
has

the

The
to

will

devil, perhaps because

the

in the

more

after

form.

fondness

as

have

fact, they
at

late, with

type,

to

we

In

htunanities

and

Now

Satan

merely
of

inverted

romances,

our

Cotton

said

to be

scarce.

are

in

Burbanked

removed

new

need

easily recognizable.

vanished

would

devils

extinct

so

characteristics

'

plenty,'

English fiction.

solution, identified

in

has

is

Allies

are

saying

but

become

to

His

devils

present-day

ghosts in abundance
bid

but

few

are

to fit

and

Devil

satiric
ter
charac-

and

the

brutish

satirist,

sympathy.

He

The

has

Devil

gradually lost

He

is not

he

in the

heretofore, and
is

so

In this

with
he

set

forth

the

chapter

his

undoubtedly

Ahriman

of

the

other

of

Zoroastrian

invokes

him

Thou!

Atild

has

The

in

to,

answers

to

Persia

in

the

the

classical

Darkness,

to

is

aliases,as

Pluto

Address

say

and

about

various

of

he

originated, yet

title suit

and

De'il

by

Burns

Satan,

himself

Nick

"

Cloutie!"

or

in fiction

thee,

diverse

under

Black, and
he

is

so

forth, but whatever

known

in

astonishing adaptability made

Lucio,

the

land

every

names,

Prince

Lucifer, Satan, Mephistopheles,

Man

hard

first families

our

Prince

whatever

Hornie,

manifested

Demon,

as

be

devil

system,

his

reference

thus:

"Oh,

He

In

with

later division

under

appeared

titles.

in

the

one

mythology, Satan, Beelzebub,


many

as

close

requires

discussed

theologically in

has

He

b.c.

900

year

born

to

it

It would

where

belongs

been

will be

and

figure

presence.

home.

own

which

to

his personality

appear

that

earth, while

when

certainty
have

devil

on

in

his

prove

does

human.

extent

impressive

so

ambiguously

seen

said to

not

he

his appearances

will be

past, is

131

become

the

to

now

when

to

Allies

epic qualities and

times

at

literary analysis
to

His

present in literature

known

was

his

and

and

has

at

home

in

and

his

himself

he

name

with
every

literature.
devil

The

in

appearance
him

his

as

has

later

ancient

by supernatural
by

so

costume,

cloven

hoofs

whom

anyone

of
in

was

could

it is hard

early stories

he

lightning

and

and

He

red, sometimes
He

form

that

sulphur.

diaboUc.
and

In

thunder

sometimes

indubitably

literature
self.

strong smell

his

changed

dressed

horns,

wore

identify

to

heralded

was

accompanied
in

character

black, but

in
a

forked

for

devil.

Now

always

tail, and

generally unprepossessing

know

of

manner

creature

his

r61e is

The

132

not

typical and

so

evening

aii

tell the

been

devil

from

mind

of

interesting

been

engrafted

very

slowly and

soul

for

Many
The

the

by degrees.

be,

diabolic

element

an

for

me

bucolic

The

in

devil
of

enemy

brings instant
Yet

the

dullness, less clever

the

closely related

to

nature.

surplus

or

his

wrath

of his

stories

anything

plain that

and

springs

he

sometimes

of

the

one

of

nature

Hornie.

the

might

be

to

clinch

him

the

wont

devil

have

hoof

by

Bit

Mountain

In

general,
to

the

of

biting
in
any

off his

down
hard

so

would

drinking

with

very

come

cloven

annoyance

landscape,

of his

cursed

of

as

work

to

pique

fond

is

English folk-lore,

stamp

them

attributed

devil

might

was

mention

"The

he

He

Devil's

instances.

him

print

leaving

as

lies

He

phase of literature,

shows

prankish

rich

legendry

folk-lore

on.

was

him.

least

by disturbing the

vexed

showed

mountain.

in any

He

imprinted permanently.
pure

than

rustic

branches,

Celtic

energy

of

easily imposed

gullible,more

upon

the

from

response

devil

shows

tempter.

thoughtless expletive, such

"

If

and

utterance,

likely

monkish

tireless

devil

us.

folk-lore

in the

out

nabbing

to

any
"

many

down

unwary

iE

especially

of

chance

as

souls,

round

hang

English
here

have

the

legends

any

bargain.

us.

would

of

sort

devil-myths

In monkish

who

person

as

Pit.

Christianity, to fade

come

of his name,

to

of

legends have

wait

and

ideas

of the

religious dragon.

and

pagan

monkish

as

more

the

has

He

story.

devil

of the

difficult

warningly

reeks

satyr

how

note

upon

modern

the

appears

the

of

on

study.

take

hero

wears

parson's robe,

it is sometimes

conceived

if need

years,

field for

in

to

energetic

an

and

He

declarative.

so

gown,

mythologic

It is

was

not

longer

no

Allies

His

ease,

the

and

combination

garb

equal

medigeval

and

scholar's

with

deodorized

The

his

suit,

hunting coat,
to

Devil

be

out

of

sulphur,

and

section

out

Ireland

being

peculiarity of

activities

of

Auld

The

devil

The

word

of mouth

must

worm

always

was

not

his way

that

one

Luther

querie, the
in

display
in

hurled

the

monkish

racial

tradition

folk-lore

of

is in the

and

poems

and

naturalism,
and

more,

literature

the

Satanic

modern
has

Dante

doubtless

The
had

and

honest

sympathies,

our

writer,
"

say

showing

weakened
to

he

him

of

may

so

reflecting the
certain

intellectual

kinship
power.

super-

reflected

it

Milton,
shadows

interest

in

here.

shows

his

own

devil to repent

Browning,

Mrs.
,

in Lucifer

pitying
to

heart

makes

in

appeal

some

Milton's
She

kindly
impulses

misdirected

yet.

shows

have

Gothic

epic

of

it is

that

long

revival

ofttimes

do

and

Dante,

cast

it

find

we

the

has

is still hope for the

of Exile, likewise

her Drama

with

that

time

have

to the De'il

by suggesting that there

trusting

that

its effect

though

devil

the

by

recent

comic
But

that

While

touched

Goethe

in his Address

Burns
heart

fiction.

stories

characters

and

Marlowe,

Calderon,

and

his maker.

of the

in

pranks,

devil-production,

since

In

souls, in rustic

seriousness

fiction.

lightly

merely

creator.

waggish

and

concepts

the

is to

Man

is not

for

mirrors

of

modern

but

was

romance

who

in wait

dramas

dramatic

greatly influenced

grotes-

In his appearance

one

with

the
devil

he

humor

well, reflecting his

personal aspects

epic

these

to

image,

adversary

an

The

largely anthropomorphic.

popular beliefs,he

great

more

and

later.

plays reflectingthe mingled

elements

over

works

then

besides

plays, showing
sardonic

own

as

Since

him

upon

by

folk-lore, but

general.

that

rollicking buffoon

miracle

is

in his

in

miracle

of

devil

devil

but

personal

the

rustic

or

of

sort

round

his cloister wall.

against

in

133

handed

being

emptied

important

more

the

creates

with

legend

been

Allies

pushing, forward

literature

beginnings

literature

the

into

frequently

seen

been

content

have

His

and

in monkish

ink-pots

many

is

has

he

so

person,

Devil

of

Satan

the

yet

Gabriel

The

134

Devil

Allies

His

and

Such
Which

standest,

rounds

Thou
A

thou

as

shalt

the
be

down

And

ideas

of

in

shows

He

is the

devil

Fisherman

he

soul to the
in

young

pale, but

his

and

weary

the

unthoughtedly
the

of

utters

time, the demon


rides

and
with

the

devil.

He

has

his

figure,and

the

bored

afternoon
devils

Grey

in another
is

Scott
'

tea.

Wilde

The

patience

shows

us
'

manner

fisherman

the
the

fiend

the

usual

of

droop

to

lone

little

some

The

face,

alertness

Damozel
of

for

ness
silver har-

proud, disdainful

Blessed

of his stories, and

at

man

mocking

Picture

an

red

of Dorian

of diabolism.

concept
in

of

sort

the

jennet with
the

seemed

He

listless

baffles

velvet

strangely

flower.
a

who
sell his

to

was

When

unlike

weariness

blasS

sad

his

wishes

in

The

darkness

face

red

that

Wilde

suit of black

toying

still with

away,

in

proud

prayer

mounts

of

that

saddle."

Oscar

kings

symbolic story.

his

proud

"I've

like

prince

His

his

figure, whose

says,

how

in

us

leaning back

pommel

he

And

dressed

like

Byron

as

face."

when

The

man

lips were

terrible

fisherman

one"

an

thoughts engraved

to

fashion.

was

is

sarcasm

"

devil is

Spanish

such

He

Soul.

the

is, like Caliban's

of Judgment

his immortal

picfUres
his

good."

from

knows!"

and
to

appears

with

diabolical

below, God

enough

distances

on

"

despair

mark

unfathomable

wrath

wrath

Maker's

gloom,
to

be.

to

light

drear

all souls,

to

"altogether

and

Eternal

with

Vision

himself

"Fierce

work

whence
the

out

Setebos,

conceived

cut

Idea

all ages

devil

in the

melancholy

measure

Byron's

pale

rebel's

an

monumental,

Seen

"

sin,

of the

"Angel

Talisman

Legend of Sharp.

puts

story of descent

from

the

The

Evil

One

in the

spiritsof
by

he

hideous

gained

whose

are

disdained

even

to

clod

heard

have
false.

We

those

at the

earth

of

us

trust

and

the

sage

Origin

of

Good,

to

us

one

will carry

The
the

you

many

who

are

the

on

of

fair tresses

your
miles

to

It is

to those

the

of

Source

of

safety

the

only

not

but

thy

of

Evil.

let each

give

fealty, and

we

where

you

may

his ministers.

and

the

accept

mayest

invocations

death;

of

homage

do

true

are

in token

place

fire,

vengeful only

We

the

my

persecuting.

is called
eve

sister

Thou

man.

wisely worships

which

seven

I and

to

generous,

heard

and

offer

and

become

the

brides

of

spirits of evil.
devil

speaks

in

good

in

meets

the

obvious

though

I have

you

only hand

for

and

says

farther,
In

Red

to

word

for
the

wiU

been

helping
that

get the

Gauntlet.

he

Willie's

Wandering
himself.

unknown

teU

me

sair

miscaa'd

my

When

stranger who

distress, the

"If

woes

Scott's

woods

saying,

'

that

and

midst

elementary

Omnipotence,

affronted.

have

Zohauk

to

maidens

The

his

but

from

defiance

bid

when

Mithrasp,

hair

of

out

the

eldest

world.

it is called

kind

we

sisters

your

of

nature

that
father

subterranean
created

In

the

to

cruel, unrelenting, and

by

us;

the

brought,

is rent

earth

two

himself.

are

immortals.

says

feed

of

beauty

of the

Zohauk,

to

part

the

command

insulted, cruel only

and

cruel

the

who,

when

You

the

leader

because

as

are

of

king

of

of

league with
become

to

The

appear.

brethren

legend

manifestations

Cothreb,

am

the

had

appeals

of supernatural

135

Saracen,

sisters of wonderful

seven

men

Allies

daily sacrifice of blood

that

loveliness

young

His

of the

formed

serpents

day

and

mouth

evil who

which

One

Devil

receipt

due

go

to

in

the

The
to

him,

the
upon

am

also

gudesire

sympathizes

grief, I

freends."

would

the

offers

your

Tale,^

with

help him,
that,

one

world,,

gudesire

am

the

tells his

gates of heU, and


which

the

hos-

The

136

pitable stranger
Scot

canny
wins

gloze

to

shown

his

sins

marked

novel, The
anxious

sympathy

agitated

mind

his

as

charming
and

seems

the

fools rush

Her

"able

to

do

so

notch

rather
made

The

How

by Marie

Corelli

and

the

devil

has

as

appears

"gigantic

human

Satan

he

or

as

to

the

from
turn

passes

lips."

of evil

and

from

all

in

spiritto

again

But
her

to

tion
salva-

own

is

He

man.

that

resists

is backward

fallen !

seem

be

To

to

Mephisto

of

the
of

reading

as

in

daemonic

fiend

Milton,

lures

the

him.

and

eyes,

virtue, yet
the

In

away
to

see

he

bears

comes

his
at

the

presence,

souls

from

good, spuming

with

human

his

him

he

some,
hand-

normal

evil in men's

rabbi

where

hunchback,

setting, though
with

spirit in

Darkness,

seems

by, all the latent


He

away

him.

progress

must

well

He

about

surface.

God,

his

red-haired

being in this realistic Ghetto


sense

soul

brow, cold, keen, steely

clean-shaven

nameless

for every

Walk

Maketrig,

marble

of

hasty

as

that

They

weakness

is Lucifer

what

Cain.

Byronic

ZangwiU's

Israel

of

is not

his

out

characterization

reminiscence

some

Goethe,

forward.

he

some,
lone-

very

According

circles

Her

pictures him

avoid

to

work

to

heaven

indignity!

life's final
shows

of

well

damned.

London

they yield

rhetoric

that

who

martyr

when

grieved

much

Corelli's

wealthy, yet

for the

save

in

than

hero

maligned

do

be

to

nearer

wiles, though

his

Miss

perfervid

would

in crowds

could

get

To

is

theory, the devil is attempting


and

fiend.

much

is

sentimental

expends

in advance

they

This

him.

she

and

persons

that

tendency

where

prince, handsome,

warns

is the

Corelli's

in Marie

mortals

beguilements.
who

he

is

devil, and

humanize

to

the

over

regretfullytempts
to

and

of Satan,

Satan

the

outwits

unscathed.

degree

Sorrows

The

place mentioned.

to the

document,

earth

to

Allies

His

aspect of ;-ecent devil-fiction

over

to

him

the

back

marked

and

conducts

obtains

his way

One

Devil

the

wife,
end

tempter

The

whom

he

be

recognizes
in the

anguish

that

his

Here
with

remind
well

of

us

death,

heart

vassal, the

old

War

Elsa

Parker

but

presumably

from

The

Letters

with

said

be

to

Worship,

up

where

the

them

soul.

the

skin

as

his

over

the

minister.

by

written

Man,

correspondent

His

us

human

souls

they seek

and

body

lost

it,

Stevenson's

Satanic

dignity, yet
Blackwood's

Algernon

in

gigantism

to

date.

to

mournful,

with

him

power

by

in

torture

to

in

hell, shows

in

devil-worship, into which


damn

dictated

Man

Cunning,

to

even

Dead

Living

black
weird

and

causes

how

terrifies

somewhere

superhuman

Secret

and

from

appears

in

man

exercises

grim realism

devil

with

the

servant,

And

Majesty

in

The

extends

shade

to

is in contrast

nature

and

heart

him

mournful

seems

His

human

shows

lightly, his diabolic

so

dark

he

Janet, for

that

jesting that

human
The

lago.

the

to

as

Thrawn

to

he

cold, sardonic

of the

knowledge

is

Stanley J. Weyman's

in

life and

137

There

Maketrig,

loneliness.

fiend

Allies

His

daemonic.

as

of Satan

eyes

of the

Black.

his

at last

in his wild

appealing

play

and

altogether diabolic, and

not

to

Devil

draw

to

One

into

enter

riot

of

living victims,

victim

the

sees

devil

thus:

At

the

end

disappeared
view,

far
A

man.

against
kind

Here,

could

like

some

in

as

statue,
The

and

dark

many

MUtonic

the
the
and

windows

him

beat

mournful,
with

star

the

instances
is

down

its

seems

it

evident

sembled
re-

mightily
soul,
evil.

of

sadness

definite

horrific

spiritual

elsewhere, the
a

of

his

upon

of

powers

emphasized,

influence

that

so

from

into

up

outline

imposing,

radiance

have

to

rose

terrible, the

immense,

gray

seemed

stars, there

glory enveloped

gray

character

The

see

sky, grand

splendor.

diabolic

element.
cases.

the

visage, august

pulsing

the

he

steel-cased

its distant

broken

of

where

room

that

so

in

of the

human
in

such

The

138
has

Kipling
story of

controlled

Devil

by

Subalterns

by

malicious

the

among

inverted

ideas

of the

devil

in

variance

its

the

crude

mountain

the

manifested
these
modem
as

J. H.

soul

mind

that

strange

formula

ancient

unburied

by

corpse

the

man,

the

into
and

pursue
'

In

The

Monk

and

action

dead

the

The

torment
or

he
sea,

the

Zofloya.

has
to

the
turn

air.
power

them

fl3mig soul

apart

the

is

be

to

to

as

from

the

thought
Fiona

introduces

that

person

sins

from

away

if the

an

from

sin-eater

fling the

into

of

shape

Devil.

swept

But

lar
particu-

evil

as

the

in turn

pure

the

Sin-Eater

remove

let them

where

powerful

so

The

sin-eater

can

of the

is

appears

tale, The

Gaelic

such

as

that

bears

drama.

time,

soul, embodying

of its own,

Molnar's

symbolically.

demons

evil

of the

Eve,

sin that
He

birth, as the devil

in Fernac

McLeod's

hates

it

gave

materialized

him

that

existence

independent

an

an

commit.

to

the

violence

advance,

tempted

of the

than

woman

crude

fiction

Countess

form

the

effective

and

man

The
the

and

physical strength

distinct

sin, suggesting

have

with

Shorthouse's

liable

is most

committed

by

show

wisdom

hideous

the

invisible

differently to each

appears

with

keeping

stories

instances
devil

is in

novels

the

or

appearance

fiction, as

Gothic

the Wanderer.

Melmoth,

in

in

and

symbolism

secret

athletically hurls
top,

The

terrible

its

of diabolism

that

and

type

responsible

of money,

tyranny

more

are

fiction,as in

are

of service.
is

diabolism

of

demons

the

value

stories

enginery

from

yet

of the

of

fiend

officers

army

in later

creations

armies, the

in later

muscular

of

of

marshaling

for the
the

impressive

more

studies

symbolic

Ivan, the Fool, where

Tolstoi's

in

mischief.

allegorical and

The

ghosts

priest, while

native

imps terrorize young

the

and

devils

filled with

ground

evil-minded

an

Haunted
their

of

patch

Well Road,

in Bubble

study

dasmonic

curious

Allies

His

and

gressions
trans-

demons

till Judgment

Day.

that

The

One

of

aspect

subtleness

Devil

the

and

knows

miasmatic

for

presence,

certain

on

in

as

alone

night

night, after
she

on,

she

feels

madly

round

She

seen

is

of

and

the

moral

devil

the

is
a

Clownish

prepared

imps
them

devUs
the

way

Elizabethan
were
as

to

that
than

or

the

"

that

drama

not,

but

stories

one

being
of
is

devil,

embodies

the

are

The

ghost,

rather
in

the

and

their
devils

in

tales

of

comic
authors

as

they treated
wonders

why.

miracle

plays

satiric treatment

late fiction.

whether
the

the

that

long before

humorous
and

removes

and

child

comic

appeared

for the

the

character

frequently.

demons

usually funny
such

find

disrespect,

the

opens

world.

dreadful
we

Arthur

in

daemonic

the

hideousness

aspects of Pan

evil in the

older

with

the

the

revolting

leaves

still is the

Worse

alone!

only

brain

the

on

her

soul, since

soul, and

the

away

levity toward

specter

human

operation

contrast

much

the

enter

whirls

most

science

supernatural

keep

find

found

are

paternity is bom

devils

amusing

of the

diabolism

one

to

dancing

The

them.

Pan, where

unspeakable

showed
the

beside

But

sand, with

slippers in the

loathsome

horrible

pleasant

devil

searchers

takes

of the

which

In

and

dance

labyrinth

someone

of men,

diabolized.

composite

hers;

the

to

impelled

she is not

to

God

but

that

cunning

the Great

all the

exhausted

dancing

lure

secret

knows

hoof

sense,

absolutely

from

more

where

makes.

moon

grasp

suggestive

biologist by

white

stories, where

for

Seeing

she

little

of

Machen's

the

hand

cloven

the

dizzy and

hot

no

instances

way

is

prints of her
mark

that

of the

be

can

of dagmonic

that

irresistible

strange

soul,

the

action

Madness,

Moon

reader

on

the

than

is the

The

smear

in

night in the heart

music

mystic

to

after

evil, a

basis

Pain's

by

139

diabolism

of

incidents

Barry

princess is moved

of

other

no

Allies

is suggested.

evil

atmosphere

that

accounted

the

His

stories

recent

by which

feels

and

The

authors
fiction

liturgical
intended
are

quite

conscious
about

of

it.

could

Nothing
he

perfectly

be

His

hands

two

eyes

clerical

Gynt, who

head

and

similar

Devil

woodsman

an

in

and

Tom

his

had

she

had

the

been

devil, yet in this


of it.

Tom

noticed

they

the
had

many

Tom
his

died

prints

of

plucked

been

knew

shoulders

the

his wife's
as

he

the

sincerity.

the

to

the

black

her

hair

at

search

for

as

man

but

match

have

that

for

had

the

for it is said

deeply

shock

prowess

by

husband;

to

feet

coarse

he

as

him

black

however,

of

looked

with

considered

cloven

of

her.

with

game,

in

Washington

goes

appears

handsful
from

in

with

she

have

found

Tom

generally

instance

must

tree, and

woodsman.

shrugged

She

is

devil

version

in

made

deal

his

and

terrifying aspect,

deal

to

girl's.

the better's

shows

fails to find

accustomed
scold

him

Walker

When

Tale, where

mystery

to

over

of the

modern

contracts

he

woods,

female

worst

about

the

probably attempted

the

though

of

like

claims

offered

though

neatly

was

top of his head.

us

is

shirt

stomach,

Friar's

and

miserly wife.

in the

This

Tom

amusing

keeping

his spouse

She

and

the

parson,

was

huriior

of

Chaucer's

whatever

Irving's The

the

as

his

front

reminds

it off.

to

combination

claims

who

but

his

aspect.

appearance;

very
in

over

into

up

also appears

down

parted

was

personage

claimed

The

hair

his

neatly carries

incident

devil

turned

carefully rolled

Peer

an

collar

whole

of black,

clasped pensively

were
were

This

the

while

cravat,

full suit

beholds

of venerable

his

old

When

he

assertion,

than

the

Head.

your

gentleman

reverend
on

and

clean

old

more

had

only

not

white

little lame

rash

his

who

demons

instance,

for

"

Devil

the

Bet

makes

of

figure

humor,

satiric

conceited

rather

are

amusing

several

us

Never

Dammit

Toby

for

shows

in

Allies

His

wit, in fact,

own

curious

gentleman

the

their

Poe

his

display

and

Devil

The

140

stamped

looked
of

the

black

by experience.
the

fierce

if

as

signs

He
of

The

Devil

and

clapper-clawing. "Egad!"
have

must

The

had

devil

tough

antics

the

Belfry,

of the

his

costume,

upset

visitant
He
a

in Bon

but

queue

also
is

such

given

hint

though

not

has

The

for

satiric

fiction.

is to

loses

not

already

get the

certain

soul.

his

He

If the
victim

clutches.

trying things of him, but

work
him

to

complaint,

close

the

that, he releases
away
I

twitching
Daniel

the

and

saloons
the

two

but
on

He

tough.

in modern

seen

who
at

seems

hearing

for which

the

souls

of two

thousand

shrewdly

demands

is game,

he

contract,

building and

the

Rather
one

the

everything

in return

on

forfeits

and
'

eats

contract

do

to

Sunday.

his tail in wrath.

the Devil.

too

demon

balking when

thousand

he

not

are

philanthropic

on

eyes,

they

man

demon

no

that

tears

the

The

has

freshness.

of years,

but

churches, carrying

without

he

conventional

devil

cleverly

to insure

gummy

term

with

remarkable

declares

agrees

expression

most

story of

large,

paper.
a

signing the

only that

endowing

He

alive

has

Field

and

woes,

in

them

weeping

wishes, for

he

flesh.

tion,
sugges-

tail is

devil, like the satiric ghost, is

piece of asbestos
man

of

forked

is that

philosophers, when

Eugene

sympathetic,
mortal's

level

however,

habits.

dumb

Heap

The

The

before, having

facial

His

and

ecclesiastic

an

Uriah

and

curious

place.

to dress

in

Dutch

and

the

century

book.

struck

prefers to buy

taste

with

Devil

old

face

by

seen

The

the

of
as

obtruded.

simply
and

style of

of hoofs

of his appearance,

souls

into

sinister

queer

black

feature

Scratch

is

as

ways,

time

cravat

have

the

dead

and

in the

would

"Old

stranger in Poe's

is likewise

stylus and

as

in various

sacred

shirt, a

no

and

envy,

the

garments

wears

himself,

141

of it !"

audacious

Bon

to

curvetting

comes

village with

Allies

said

mysterious

who

to

time

himself

amuses

the

he

His

and

reform

man

than

souls and

asks
do
flies

The

142

The

most

of the

The

recent,

satiric

devil

Mysterious

and

handsome

to

that
that

he

but

is

his

of

thoughts

his

gifted being. This


old

years

that

Marget

but

he

has

that

Satan

he

says
"

"Oh,

The

his

uncle

and

hoped

Does

and

hell.

sense," which

right
He

to

makes

only

to

later

and

choose

destroy
send

fiaith in God,
her

he

figures
them

them
when

mistress, since

to

she
"not

out

with
hell.
says
a

no

clay and

casual
In

answer

that
sparrow

He

where."
every-

comments

Satan

will

an

between

good

choice, that
the

care

falleth to

old

the

wrong.

gives them

the

tended
in-

"mongrel

ruthlessness
to

on

is

man's

inevitably choose
of

says

satirizingearth,

the distinction
have

day, and

business

his

at

sneers

should

him

makes

little

He

this

"

religion,and

tells him

evil,insisting that

by

"

the

they will,"

be

^he has

stranger

God.

it is from

some

oblique humor,

The

no

tropics, who

expresses

much?

"

has

earthly value,

meet

travel

to

says

and

and

"May

about,

satirizes

of

parody

and

all

goes

theological creeds
moral

uncle

thousand

He

Marget

would

mere

generally

is

in the

down

too.

is full of this

book

of any

support.
his

things by

health

monopoly,

so,

your

he

yes,

heaven,

has

drew

her

Marget.

in business

off, and
he

that

hope

uncle

an

well

is very
uncle

"

the

pipe by breathing

companion.

^infact, none

speak of,

only

reads

only sixteen

"

shattered

is in

papa

is the

wills it so, and

he

charming

his

to

property

when

insists

He

Satan

desirable

perennial boy

^makes

"

sinned.

other

original of

uncle

fire in his

mortals, kindles
and

his

since

has

that

family

the

not

namesake.

and

angel,

suggestion, is invisible
a

youth, charming, courtly,


medieval
village, confessing

nephew

it, supplies money

on

novel,

posthumous

Satan, though

is

unfallen

an

of

member

he

striking, instance

most

Twain's

Stranger.

that

name,

the

is in Mark

in

Allies

His

perhaps

as

appears

boys

two

and

Devil

life,
little

servant's

for her
the

and

ground

The

without
the

His

What's

diabolic

old, the

of

the

wisdom

draw

to

One

of the

diabolic

in

or

It is

than

the

stories.

that

Mephistopheles
Hawthorne's
devil

Hardy's
the

to

The

B. Yeats's

the

peasants

souls

the

to

for

he

where

been

devil

to

situation

is the

This

only

recent

he

was

and

once

Countess

of

Cathleen.

the

has

he

and
of

less

it is in

their

food, but

their

that
a

treated

they

devil

from
The

more

may

poignancy

new

it with

miracle

show's

in various

barter

to

adds

of the

the

sold himself

of Ireland, where

demon

prominent.

with

legend in

use

children

appearance

ghost,

Goethe's

power

famine

sacrifice

later

bargain

occurs

drama

the

well

magician.

is

recent

greater

literature

that

man

or

senses.

in

or

waning

by

to

Yeats

so

life

themselves

Faustus

incident

their

leading figure on

stage, but, like


'

vicarious
and

is

soul

own

human

and

"

recent

life,there

with

driven

buy

in

practically disappeared

has

familiar

of

the

This

'

have

This

theirs.
the

to

drama.

soul?

makes

significant

most

sells her

Countess
save

evil, and

be

wonder-working

elixir

witchcraft, yet

of

frequence.
W.

of

minister

could

little apparent

Dr.

of the D' Urbervilles

Tess

stories

the

secure

of the

of the

engage

character

Felton

Septimius
to

^what

is but

Calderon's

or

barter

world

Marlowe's

with

compare

qualities

frequent motifs

immortal

the

such

no

human

charm.

"

own

of

theme

have

We

can

the

one's

minds

great
Yet

power,

superhuman

gratification of the

or

is

of the

earthly boon, long

some

of unusual

He

traits

the

the

of the

wisdom,

falls,just

it fall?"

sarcasm,

boyish

gift of

.struggle over

it.

that

and

it

composite

him, and

to

is that

or

power,

the

with

devil's

theme

might

the

143

"But

seeing

of

significantand

most

Allies

sneers,

and

men

literature

for the

wealth

he

good

geniality,sympathy,

soul

His

figure,yet showing

daemonic

magnetism

and

Knowledge,"

same!

new

Devil

on

power.

the

stage

English drama,
demon
and

was

EUzabethan

vitality now

The

144

in

fiction.

drama

Devil

The

than

devil

is the

Allies

and

His

an

older

is

ghost, but

he

English

in

figure

played

have

seems

to

of the

devil

great

range,

out.

analysis and

The

in

representation

literature

bestiality of Dante's

from

the

the

to

death, he

Faust's

outcry

"She

says,

"Why
eternal

weakness,

soul

human

each

man

we

sees

devil, or is his

own

his

own

man's

image,

fiend, while

in
and

echoing
tion,
ques-

of

uses

again.

evil

in

yet

pitiful

The

great

their

tual
intellec-

The

the

This
Lovers

devil
double.

of the

great

characteristics, the

are

deeply

can

understand,

we

has

one

is illustrated
in

in the

that

in ourselves.

each

so

symbolic.

comprehend"

can

beginnings

Hamlet,

devil.

the

he

concepts

or

devils

racial

terrible

fall, are

himself,

man

says,

not

his daemonic

others

hears

humanity,

that

Amiel

different

spiritmeets

when

downfall

choice

predestined

devil

have

own

studies

unanswerable

free

creators,

figure in Julian Hawthorne's


dead

One

and

evil in

their

represents him, for, as


nothing of which

climax

The

soul's

time, the

the

creates

man

As

first!

"

Friday's

its

of the

of

natures

satiric

the

Mark

introspection, their pitilesstesting

to

writers, reflectingthe

personal

in

of

the

fluence
especial in-

an

Margaret's

sins, as in Ivan, the Fool.

of social

satire

note

diabolic

again

sad

allegoricalimages

Each

the

the

sounded

dignity, their
the

We

figures, in their essential

diabolic

of

Satan,

kill debbil?"

scheme,

are

sorrowful

his

Man

God

not

Corelli's

over

is not

all literature

through

to

blasphemous

of

between,

Mephisto

Marie

echo

Milton's

to

of variations

Mephistopheles

an

the

Goethe's

stranger.

Goethe's

demon,

answer

of

acter
char-

from

Inferno

the

all sorts

and

mysterious
of

God's

of

humor

merry

Twain's

of

ruins, with

diabolism

pinchbeck

in

Demon

sneering cynicism

the

and

in

angel

mighty

covered

have

as

Heaven,

by

where
"

have

one

the
the

after life, who

Some

his

is

great

keep packs of little,snarling imps

of

The

darkness.
and

might

The

Devil

study

be

useful

Wizard

and

in evil

partners

given

mantle

falls

ancient

are

to

the

Witch.
of the
that

them.

firm

have

kingdom,

belief
the

summoning
real
in

in

The

witches,

described
whom

did

as

the
and

name

the

power

the

him

witch

others

Witch

confront

the

of

their

of

Greeks

Meroe,

In

turn

might

or

warlock,

very

believed

from

Wives'

Tale

witches

times
into

men

is

witch,

Old

beasts,

still believe

persons

and

Appuleius,

classical

to

Endor,

Saul, is

in Peele's

some

"

like

of Lucius

power

with

pact

and

The

Meroe

asses

or

that

have

to

character.
have

to

tigers,monkeys,
women

And

Romans.

witch

pany.
Com-

devil, they have

Testament.
the

and

Devil
a

earthly-

writings of the Chaldeans

Metamorphoses

perhaps

thought

were

Old

his

portion of his dark

the

notably

spirit of Samuel

in the

gets her

of

sorcerer

witchcraft.

figure in the

has

made

and

origin in the East, the cuneiform

showing

demon

figures in literature, and

supernatural

145

diabolics is illtiminating

The

in his power,

upon

Allies

all.

us

persons

share

His

comparative

members

Certain
are

of

and

that

give authenticated

instances.
The
is

variously

literature
other
The

in

his

manly

power,

in those

and

In

warlocks

early

was

Gothic

recent

in

days,
a

through

biologist of

general,

may

primitive times

changing

medieval

or

literature

mean

and

the

figure in early

because,

as

has
the

into
he

works

wizards, while

in modern

many

invasion.
is

witchcraft
famous
be

culine,
maswas

medieval

noted.

The

reduced

in

alchemist

of

gradually
the

so

"witch,"

astrologer and

romance

and

most

in

feminine

that

been

fiction,where

and

it should

man,

he

as

common

more

not

magician,

or

wicca, meaning

word

Merlin,

of

sorcerer

later, perhaps

may

art

enchanter,

was

profession has suffered

Anglo-Saxon
which

called,

than

cases,

wizard,

or

sorcerer,

bacteriologist and
other

wonders.

frequent enough

folk-tales,have

become

The

146
less

of

later

fiction.

with

supernatural

amulet, which, put

an

him

dead, revives
if

and

in

numerous

magician

Devil

given in exchange

Indian
the

elbdr

of life.
the

into
Sax

with

sachem

his various
dead

G.

H.

stories

in fiction

the

most

We

the

the

redskin
from

sorcerers

unites

where

penalty

for

the
the

the

of

paw

Adelaide
stories

dead

Weston,

In

hands
The

by

"

really

He
hair

from
must

"

the

the

power

know,
and

by

mat

has

sorcerers,
'

In

his

in

one

in

bolic
dia-

doubt

his

place;

by
that

Magic,

by

all her
of

hair

mat

the

have

Jessie

supernatural

an

old

Indian

and

is shot

the

over

house

uninitiated

great
as

which

wishes

narrative

obtained

his

sorcerer,

that

graph
tele-

curdling story of

three

into

the

terrible

where

chief

Black

claims

In

and

leaves

his

grants

are

wonder-worker

and

Oriental

an

Oriental

exacts

Jacobs,

himself

has

of witches

Talisman.

W.

with

Debts, by Lumley

Red

victim

sent

persuasion,

telephone

the

power;

who

the

him,

his

monkey

changes

Hair, you

'

in

form, for

Examples

magician

W.

strictlytrue

pains.

being given

of

not

by

given

that

for his

claim

boomerang

are

sorcerer

in the

is not

colored

where

done

has

Paw,

curse

dreadful

as

Chinese

another

together

tinholy art;

wrong

he

Monkey's

of

others.

Indian

to

whether

magic

depict

into

man

by Kipling,
his

appearance

The

fiction

such

magician

over

hoodoo

knowledge

canny

Deakin,

to

passed

Kipling and

along with

as

The

medicine-man,

of Suddoo,

House

cerer
sor-

part.

still have

and

of science.

has

ancient

supernatural investigators

Wells's

but

that

old

an

concocted

has

in

stories

efficacy

has

of the

passing

wonder-worker

Fu-Manchu

in

or

the

see

scientific

Rohmer's

terror,

We

cally
practi-

its

loses

who

power,

means

person

Hawthorne

money.

wizard

of

which

but

at once,

medical'

healing by

of

nostrils

the

has

Scott'

power

to

for

Allies

His

in the

SepHmius

tress.
mis-

of

power
case

Felton.

by
evil

of the

The

evil

ones

the

maidens

in

The

wishes
the

be

right

Hence

full-grown
the

by

do

to

and

steed.
his

if he

he

is bom

to

be

and

After

soul

Khaled

of

is
who

is

He

given

certain

and

twigs into

locust

soul,

into

garments
Arabian

an

he

first

at

equipped,

adventures,

The

angel.

Marion

world, like Adam,

and
a

over

Koran,

love

clothed

supernatural

an

the

the

of

changing

many

from

into

of leaves

the

the

soul.

win

can

F.

art.

reading

with

thrall

head.

magic

magically

transformation

armor,

by

man

so

man,

of

147

their

each

story

mortal

received

from

genii converted

to

woman.

is

Allies

His

who

hair

one

Khaled

the

of

and

Talisman,

by

Crawford's
one

Devil

receives
crescent

flame,
took

immediately
Khaled
few
he

And

himself.

minutes
was

it had

aware

life with

is

entered

shows

magician

times.

Not

like

in

appeared
and

have
the

article.

had

it

at

fixedly
and

disappeared
and

body

own

of

brighter image

looked

of

cases

the

disposition

short

witches

for

before

taken

up

its

cussed
dis-

ghostly doubles

young

witch

have

We

largely

She

is

The

result

adapt himself

to

in modern

We

stories

poetry
of

poetic type

the

have

alive
the

and

witch

imputed

poetry,

much

is very

old.

temporary
con-

the
She

bethan
of literature, in Eliza-

romance,

and

figure.

permanent

fake
the

with

influence

the

to-day.
witch,

genuine
of

the

adaptations

modern

is full

of

Celtic

influence

of witchcraft

the

romantic,

melodramatic,

satiric, showing

English
the

forms

of past literature

additions.

to

change his personality with

story, and

ghost; the

hoax

to

various

in Gothic

great creations

literature.

the

and

the

tragic-,comic, and

and

had

his

the witch.

so

drama,

We

the

previous chapter.

conditions

novel

he

of himself

parallel to

in the

has

became

him.

This

The

when

^the vision

"

and

shape

witchery,
is

on

brought

haps
perour

out

The

148
in such
and

poems

Devil

veil

suggestiveness

symbol

hideous

aspects

enchantress

Belle

Dame

Christina

Rossetti's

of

as

On

Rosary.

also

Goblin

Market

Hag,

the

uglier aspects

and

is

falsely accused

either

is

of her

traffic in

Host

persecuted,

and

the

own.

Brown

Herrick's

Comus, Robert

of Fife

illustrate

of witches

types

in

seen

English

fiction,the first being merely the reputed witch, the


who

La

of enchantment.
definite

two

of the

Lay

Witch

drama

peculiar aspect

The

The

Hogg's

water

all her

charm

the

Keats's

while

shows

Browning's

James

The

unfinished

an

magical

contrary, Milton's

the

are

has

Mrs.

The

There

of

of

none

women.

example

another

as

Merci

sans

magic,

possessing

Shelley's fragment

in

as

appears

woman

weird

other

in

seen

mentioned

be

might

the

loveliness

in

unearthly evil; or

of

sense

of Atlas, where

alluring

of

the

beauty

the

Coleridge's Christabel, where

as

Shelley's Witch
a

Allies

His

and

suspected of black

or

else

or

gains what

evil, like the

Witch, by

Granny

Old

James

she

arts, and

who

wishes

by

Young

in Mine

who

Blythe,

woman

hints

chants

as

charm-rune,

"

A
For

so

that

as

the

witchcraft
or

in
young

are

the

witch's

pity

age

pulchritude

and

lovely.

Item

is

is

also, she

ning
figure winor

infirmities.

always

plications
com-

character

youth,

ever

the

in modern

the

and

and

age

of

principal

same,

beauty

She

type

The

she

whatever

appealing

an

of her

English fiction.

her

numbers

in great

usually the

or

hand,"

conventionalized

of her

because

land

refuse

to

being either

because

of average

person

poor

to

highly

plot

witch

sympathy
touching

and

particularly important.

not

of the

known

water

it is found

and, though

fiction,is

on

is afraid

is

This

lay

thing denied

the

everybody

demands.
motif

shall

curse

accused
very

old

else
No
of
and

invariably has

The

lovers, in the latter

two

which

on

and
is

hang

to

not

real

of

witchcraft
the
while

in

and

distressed

innocence,

in late

Mary
and

her

in

toward

to

heaven

in

one

the

propriety,

her
heart

her

by

rescue

than

more

any

occasional

are

real

of the

instances

handicap

despite her

Desireuse, in Maurice
Gai

le

Prosper
young

woman

might

be

in
called

itself.
witch

of

powers

find

We
who

is

D'Annunzio's

girlis

beset

by

F.

to

breathe

the

Marion

magic,

rather

an
woman

The
cruel

excellent
of

real

witch

grace

scaffold

chapters

there

who

seems

Iseult

as

whom

Lovers,

The

hangman.
Witch

of Prague
she

while

for

does

part attributed

most

than

the

Yet

youth,

the

of
and

art

reputed

individuality,

where

of her

black

the

to

example

because

the

intellect.

Daughter of Jorio,
dangers

equal

really touch

the

charm

enemies

not

Crawford's

hypnotism

prayers

their

Forest

it is for the

lamblike

several

and

from

save

beauties

for

imputed

not

novel

late

her

who

problematic witch,

work

undoubtedly
her

weds

times

does

past

from

Hewlett's

selves
themEven

show

do

"

the

villain,the

who-

away

beauty

of

the

with

lover

at

Colonial

rescued

interest

they

of

delaying

faithful

of

romances.

to

carried

of

some

lover

forgiveness
are

pirate, thus

the

In

pink-and-white

tempters,

or

her

disporting

to

sentences,

the

accuses

of life to

These

is

charmed

pursuing

many

breath

die

used

noble

knowledge

dark

only magic

peg

actually executed,

lover

over

her

one

"

by Kidd,

the

protection and

for

breath, who

and

in

chivalric

speak in Euphuistic

defiance

to

the

Witch.

being

love.

her

by

have

the

human

her,

is

give atmosphere

witchcraft. The

who

victim

We

imparting

as

the

failing to win

fashion

to

romantic

unintentionally

the

with

power

succeed
of

Gothic

Johnston

stories

is rescued

second.

fifty-ninth

real

149

merely

frighten her into

to

she

is

Allies

always

not

having

stories

others

She

In these

witch.

in order

novels

His

case.

villain,who,

and

story,

fair maid

love, the

heart

le

Devil

the

charm

young

and

her

The

150

Devil

lonely condition,
to

her

save

and

and

who

fice
tragic heights of sacri-

rises to

death, choosing

from

lover

death

of

murder.

She

actually convinces

others, that

she

has

that

she

has

himself

witch

it to

white

with

save

one

him

save

her

save

fervor

and

him

to

she

well

powers,

of

that

her

to

goes

the

as

believe

no-word

he

death

complaint,

he should

that

penalty

unholy

him

honor, and
with

the

as

by

made

of courage,

gentle rebuke

him,

him

bewitched

his father

slain

did

to

burned

be

to

paying

from

to

as

Allies

His

revile

not

her.

aged pseudo-witch

The

the

than

instance

modern

no
crone

in

being

The

and

who

her

making,

Merrilies'

Meg

is

sibylline figure,
than

more

Scott

power.
was

limned

poem

concerning

Under

the Greenwood

pricking

experiments

with

the

of

the

to

the

neck

Old

might be
'

her.

of

the
a

man

Of

Scott's

Guy

that

butter

devil.

yet

with

wisdom

and

and

that

Keats

he

witch

wrote

and

of the Native.
in

touching
had

by

majestic,

human,

reputed

been
that

Hardy's
her

won't

witchVarious

work,

withered

hanged,

in Hawthorne's

problematic witch,

Mannering.

the

the

Enderfield, in Hardy's

used

are

woman's

Keziah

Aunt

called

Elizabeth

magic

with

personality

Tree, is

conjurer concerning

forth.

her

in

harried

loving hand,

have

is

superhuman

with

outcry,

witch

witch,

and

tried in his Return

is also

instance

of

her
with

impressed

so

individual

suggestion

compact

for
with

accusation

who

problematic

very

persecuted

is
old

poor

famous

here

woman

the

there

tormentors

Shylock's

makes
a

is

her

see

Yet

as

who

upon

We

old

beings till she

human

realistic.

suspicion and

is.

appealing

more

touching

so

of

their

innocent

an

is

us

she

what

main

more

turns

reminds

that

the

of Edmonton,

clearly how

showing
made

that

Witch

witch

speech

because

one,

young

is in

come,

as
arm

consulting
and

so

Septimius Felton
as

the

woman

in The

The
Witch

by

Eden

cats, and

injures

of

she

The
of

or

thrill.
than

Her

under

view,

have

The

warning

old

called, around
a

by

midst

of her

hand,

and

of

according

the

shown,
from

the

the

Robin

as

the

cattle

merely

remain

not
not

gives

deasil,"

mythology,

murder

other

directions

the

your

on

before

knot

his
panion.
com-

craft
witch-

of

the evil

away

Mungo's

in

In

English

evidences

is

one

sun.

his

for keeping

St.

some

^which

"

enough,

True

is

it

as

the

of the

course

does

by tying

gotten.
for-

soon

Drovers

round

possesses

hag exclaims, "Blood

story

same

genuine

propitiation which

English blood!"

young

In

to

powers

are

she

Two

times

three

incantation

joturney'send

her.

who

figure
the

Druidical

walking

it is

with

may

The

Oig, "walking

him, tracing the

danger, moving

influence

in Scott's

crone

but

fide witch,

art, and
she

cat.

conventionalized

less

impressive

an

reminiscence

performed

are

is

Robin

to

of

conveys

companions

black

her
snake

mummy

and

been

youthful

she

toads

over

associated

individuality. Though

in

think

those

who

anyone

black

bona

frequently

imputation of

the

diabolic

her

the

of

number

witch, possessing indubitable

occurs

of

to

three

be

151

great

incantations

not
to

attributes

those

the

toad, and

may

unquestioned

has

happens

calls

trouble

enchantment,

long

of

may

much

causes

she

carcass

Tab

She

through

goes

skeleton, the

'

Allies

His

dreadful

them;

and

servants

and

Phillpotts.

something

one

Mother

Devil

on

their

tails.

The
for

subject of witchcraft

he

Goodman
between

introduces

it in
shows

Brown
the

devil and

congregations
and

in the

the
his

riding

working

their

on

spells. The

others, and

high

in

young

union

diabolic

earthly companions,

of evil in

Young

instances.

aspects of the

broomsticks

magic

of

number

Hawthorne,

their

forest, reports their sardonic

suggestions

witches

greatly interested

the

unholy
sations
conver-

pictures the
heavens

husband

and
sees

in

The

152

that

convocation

revered

^his

"

the

wife,

Letter, Main
in other

Mother

Shadd

instead

officers'

officer,and

that

in

daughter
does

not

and

wed

gives her

to

incident

where

of

Gordon
women

the

Parcae

where

leave

his

girl seeks

but

that

burning

the

Rossetti's

the

comes

magician,

on

death

who
of the

spell. That
d'un

Sogno
seeks

slay

to

unforgettable
Sister

of

who

betrothed

old

her

her

regain his

to

D'Annunzio's

in

witch

inspires
loves

an

bitter

old

she

Dogaressa

for

of

every

The

from

the

causes

wife

"

an

to

washing

understanding

But

in

slave

die,

Eye

to

reduced

her

Helen,

betrayer

image.
who

enter,
as

the

man

man

theme

girl

being

being based

Bottomley's
well

as

seem

of

play. Riding
partake

to

Shakespeare's

fingers,the hound
show

they

they chant

disappear.

the

that

to

in

years.

of

burnt.

looses

the

bat-webbed

approach,
and

be

to

be

take

When

counsel

probably

the young

old

have

the

and

the

the

loathing, the

d'Autunno

by melting
In

it

is similar

employment

will

Evil

The

daughter.

image

rival, both

after

Mulvany

will be

he

will

her, causing him

of

following

Tramonto

in

spell over

with

an

child

only

Pyle's

cast

think

herself

true

Howard

image kills her

her

their

the witch

by

of

comes

him, and

love

that

will

wife

young

instead

of which

mother

to

his

wives

Courting of Dinah

The

being promoted,

of

that

so

word

Scarlet

mentioned

against Private

malediction

girlhe loves, prophesying

rank

drink

Kipling's

in

Sheehy

pronounces

the

in

is

Feathertop, and

Street, and

The

into

enters

stories.

Old

and

after-life is saddened

all his

Witchcraft

of it.

thought

most

teacher, and

Sabbath-school

that

so

has

he

whom

persons

his

minister,

Allies

His

and

all the

his young

even

by

Devil

Fate

wild

marches

of

Lithend, three

of

the

Weird

nature

Sisters.

bays uncannily

supernatural

prophecy

to

knowledge

doom,

swiftly on

as

then

of

of

They
at their

events,

mysteriously

they foretell.

The

the

The

Devil

and

beautiful

young

ancient

that
who

its victim

the

sent

is

curse

of the Cashmere
in

woman

drowns

forgetful of

the
a

other

and

love

of the

of

mermaid.

of the
makes

nature

strong

appeal
of

man's

suggestive

soul.

into

the
'

In

They

They

is

in

pelled,
com-

how

he

The

tion
illustra-

an

spite of the

the

blood, his

their

time

symbolic figures

appear

as

and
him

full

of

appear

heart

Fisherman

and

his

persons
Soul.

to

both

seem

whispers

by

of

their

him

to

Algernon

effect

his hands
with

hurry

promise
at

unlawful
and

cause

is tainted

who

mysterious

his

put

of the

ment
embodi-

visible

the

the

Shakespeare's

of

terrible

Sorceries, by

Ancient

into

largely

enters

they first

village is
The

is

affection.

instances

the

for love

him

sympathy

our

tempt

when

of

and

In

deed.

his soul

other's

as

shows

longing for

show

to

witch, who,' like the devil,

thoughts,

action.

innocent

ambition,

are

utterances

here, for though


are

Wilde'

Oscar

tragic satire, she

of the

from

who

Macbeth's

of

dreams

herself

drowns

away

symbolism

even

Macbeth,

in
in

wife, impelled by

throws

the

this

iniquity.

witch-creations,

evil

After

in other

to

wife's

place.

entreaties,

and

husband,

her

human

win

the

his

life's

and

here

element

Three

her

of

human

undoubted
The

who

man

deserted

around

before.
with

Curse

shawl

understand,

witch

one

rival, then

her

to

the

and

when

takes

Through

shown

jealousy

the

lays

months

himself

damn

may

after,

cannot

lovely

spite

shawl

rare

curse

in The

as

as

are

when

betrayed

of personality, the

young

in

tomb,

woman

done

has

young

dead

she

urge

the

emotions

project

can

rotting in
where

evil

much

her

ocean,

source,

transfer

terrible

She

Months

the

shoulders, the
gruesome

since

more,

153

as

the

sends

herself.

work

across

Shawl,

India

Allies

can

unrestrained.

more

reaches

His

witch

perhaps

crone,

and

wilder

and

selfish
on

the

Blackwood,

night

by

the

of

power

become

human,

that

Sabbath.
rests

The

cannot

Fires

see

from

the

arid

she

as

words

She

into

of

her

into

endless

toads

night

the

songs

sleep.

of the

water

Her

beauty

is

W.
the
a

the

devil

in

B.

Yeats
of the
tall

woman

of the

the

and

demons,

of

the

some

than

and

with

the

to

grows

dreams
of

in

gray

over

her

washing, washing

the

heart.

of

thing

When
not

are

with

dead

to

of his

he

realizes

for

him, he

the

In

immortal

The

of

that
Curse

another

standing

body

the

ing
march-

pictures
is

with

goddesses

forest.
Yeats

King,

stoops

like the

are

who

the

solitude

as

us,

hair, who

shadowy

gown,

her,

height,

in

in

Moor,

for

strange

his home

Shadows,

of

Wisdom

love

at

powerless

form

armies.

the

is

summons

up

and

flame

witches

men

evil,though

and

that

pools in the

the

and

make

with

midnight

Fires

and

say

her

join in the

to do

in her

whispers
he

and

mortal

growing

of which

say

witch, tall and


river

more

simple joys of life and

disappears, some
haunt

in

counter-marching

the

that

The

hawk,

hawk

mystic thoughts

own

several

gray

gray

Zqfloya,

pictured

with

result

spell

supernatural

the

clasped

royal cradle

child, as

is under

body

crucifix

has

comes

from

suggestion
dies, with

Quiller-Couch,

cresseted

Finally

crone

over

like

goes

the

she

feathers

and

devil, whUe

has

sinner

of drowned

of wish

the

possibly
when

body

bodies

follow

to

tion
ac-

generations.

soul

surface

song.

her

and

vipers, defilingthe sanctuary,

and

accursed, yet her soul is innocent


it leaves

that

curse

the

A. T.

whose

Devil's

thought
of

body

un-

gives rich gifts to the church, but

the

to

of

the

woman

sings her wild

floating

come

out

young

eternal

the

ProfitableGhosts by

and

devil.

offeringsturn

when

of the

dance

quality

undying

reaches

witfch, a

cat-creatures,

blasphemous

cease

dust, but

In Old

horrible

subliminal

of

heritage

symbolizes

story

evil, the

that
become

the

Allies

His

curse,

witches,

dance

upon

and

ancestral

an

memory,

we

Devil

The

154

in
a

the

man.

The

As

the

who

troopers

down

the

church

dead

face

his

all

plunge

There

life.

The

as

of sorcerers,
the

show
their

with
darker

powers

relate

curious

animal

world

with

the

or

her

of

of

daemonic

and

Arnold

uses,^

The

on

the

that

other

hand,

supematuralism
'

In his Forsaken

so

suited
Merman

and

to
The

less
Namethat
in the

the

theme

different

Christian

Hans

sen's
Ander-

cailleachuisge,

The

the

witchery.

souls.

The

while

ha\ang

about

their
Neckan.

to

cursed

are

no

much

the

froths, and

with

them

seriously,inclining more

so

think

They

nun

to

follow

quite

not

of the

awe

Dark

is akin

in their

do

since

foam

sea-beast,

witches,

witch,

between

and

have

The

maighdeanmhara,

live forever
earth

tribal

the

ideas.

of

white

as

in those

live forever

though

kelpie, the

the

beings
the

and

of

as

in

The

to

Mermaid.

forces

forth.

story

This

similarity to
lAttle

the

forsake
are

the

is lost.

the

them

in

as

of

of witches,

in

relations

the

soul

spells and

mortals

call

is forced

and

water-witch,

mermaid,

Stories

for

and

elements

essential

the

spells where

showing

tale

the

they stand

McLeod,
seal

natures,

folk-tales,as well

witchcraft,

her

that

treatment,

enemies.

that

those

Fiona

Matthew

that

of

similar

instances

tales,
folk-

the

over

wrath

natures,

of

and

weaving

knowing

stern

and

One, by

sea,

power

special predilection

tense,

falls in love

has
the

showing

English

nature

Indian, differing in details

yet

they

elemental

more

twilight of

in Indian

occur

of

the

against her

American

Scotch

for

before

moment

burned

recognizes in the

collections

most

evoke

powers

collections

in

and

death.

to

woman

can

unholy

of

abyss

155

friars

man

just

"

weird

of

each

past,

feeling

Allies

the

simpler people, the

and

nature

His

murdered

face,

the

strong

ride

witches

are

and

have

own

over

for the
have

Devil

them
the

poetic

with
When

their

dren
chiltales,
folk-

Irish

their
or

of

quota
take

them

faery forms
natures.

of
The

The

156

beauty

of

sense

poetry

so

magic,

and

than

of

We

enchanted

have

needs

introduces
husband

witch

has

been
She

representations

fly out

with

makes

when

"a

bone

constructs

from

man

hypocrisies of life.Mother

to

up

life and

human

The

man.

his

emptiness,
being

we

meet

Barry

Pain

readily into

witch

has

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one

materials
shams

sardonic

the

one

witch

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of

humor,

the

poor

and

mirror

painted

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as

yearnings

and

falsity and

own

than

man,

many

in life.

or

several

account

of

the

his

very

satiric

masquerading

realizes
more

category,

any

upon

creates, with

in literature

is the
or

she

human,

more

dream-supernaturalism,
Exchange

humanity,

when

horror

is

other

her

an

Feathertop,who

and

than

more

of

figure that

pride, his

sermon

Rigby, with

shows

simulacrum

scarecrow,

in

the

parodies society, holds

cynical comments,

her

with

by

of

example

to

leopard

clothes, causing

Rigby,

In this satiric

scarecrow.

witch

this

on

child

trouble-maker

broomstick

familiar

hands

as

cry

When

her

Mother

whose

choking

best

Wallace,

her

dread

woman

laying

was

as

"eradicates"
The

the

reputed

hear, such

to

is arrested

is Hawthorne's

witch

that

Tarn

ludicrous

escape

the

and

by ghosts."

complications.

the

qualities,a

people by

terrible

humor

officer,she

comic

comic

cures

to

to

the

Burns's

in

Another, by Edgar

magician,

cry

night

at

race

witch,

ghost and

of the

recalled, with

be

with

pursued

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army

of

rather

beauty

satiric

instance

The

to

wild

causing

once

and

humorous

only

of the

devil.

sense

of

are

innate

loveliness

the

gHmpse

Bones, Sanders, and

powers.

them,

their

and

vivid

so

beings

fiction.

modern

description

for

is

they

the

similar

to

O'Shanter

Irish

their

Allies

His

horror.

in

the
that

correspond

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devil

Devil

stories

curious
the

stories

realm

supernatural

Fates,

one

that

does

do
of

of
woman,
not

the

not

fall

scientific
unreal.
whether

know,

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permits

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pay

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surrenders

her

brother

baby

manhood.

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child, who

takes

into

to

bird

lamb

that

be

after

gray-robed

words

the

are

there."

the

thrill of

his

Death

lives

are

here

and

and

that

he

"I

out,
return

will
to

die

find
is

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evil she

her

curses

where

the

of

exile

the

evokes

will

has

asks

will

to

die

come

the
his

see

And

fallen dead

that

her
from
will

seems

her, but

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home,

witch, by making

as
a

of

creature

good,

the

cake

cries

he

his

the

mates

back
case

of hair

that

to

all

her, that

of Witch
to

acter
char-

conscious

knowing

come

in the

is

name

ness,
tragic loneli-

yet

powers,
and

tells

his table.

across

dark

own

she

her

presently

all

"

instants

when

infinitely appealing about


She

spoken

measures

climactic

kisses

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future

that

own,

says

there.
the

the

She

and

tells him

if he

him

which

scene,,

meter

seen

She

now.

body

witch.

her

he

kissing you!"

his

conscious
of

he

something

of the

also

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joy.

lovely

shows

lies

the

sees

shown.

present

phetic
pro-

supernatural

in

life,the

emotion

an

of

story

She

are

free.

set

which

world

and

Past

shows

She

the

man's

of each

of his friends'
him

of

life

the

white

soul

in

the

that

so

in

turned

into

moments,

man's

all lie there.

"

him.

supreme

ecstasy

moments

supreme

of

loves

being

down

saving

that

college study

stairway
to

of each

instants

it, "All

his

of

turned

seen

life and

suicide

of

be

willing

of

is another

in

of

death,

be

to

fate

comes

glass

man

fate

hour, then

silver

woman

the

her

Moments

old

an

future,

man

into

to

fate

tinies.
des-

enough.

purpose

destined

revealed

young

the

after human

an

of

terrible

case

for

himself

his

is

one

pictured future

his

tortured

157

souls their

of fate, if

each

appears

have

fireplace turn

of

mind

of Supreme

dreams.

highest

her
from

witchery,

mirror,

her

upon

dies

Glass

up

crone

girl may

young

is in

Allies

human

exchange

an

girl gives

love, and

His

show

to

price, which

young

The

and

clad in scarlet rags,

comes,

to

Devil

overcome

Hazel,
her

158

The

rival in love,

brings

drives

her

mad.

to

create

humanity

with

seems

in The

curse

the

on

good,

he

mother

Her

demoniac

such

creatures

and

earth

This

of the

case

some

vampire

upon

nor

the

impress

is

upon

out

an

vampire
Asiatic

English

at

to

the
to

nor

devours

drains

the

note,

human"

the

literature, while

the

and

there

by
is

that
for

has

and

Poe, "neither

quote

and

as

sympathy.
yet

blood

the

them

our

midnight

been

devil, a certain

same,

He

creature

fiction,we
the

from

and

closely related

being,

brute

graveyards.

in

ghoul

ghoul is

stealing

corpses,

appeal

considered

force.

studying

humanize

are

that

between

mind

and

to

ghoul

neither

woman,

dead, while

the

are

The

banquets

The

and

authorities

distinction.
man

tendency

other

beings

In

English

that

and

literature

human

ghost,the witch,

characteristics

give them

in

suzerainty.

alliance

literature.

beings

leveling infi'uence,a

The

in

natural
super-

possibilities,they

other

the

the

to

in his dark

unholy

an

fascinated

of these

his

human

dramatic
and

nor

given

are

share

fiend

of

astonishingly

appearance

the

fiction

to

idea

hell, has

reflected

in the

the

Sunken

always impressive.

werewolves,

as

possess

given interest

early times.

is

acknowledge

well

as

with

compact

Hauptmann's

spirits that

and

mysterious

Closely related

ghotds, vampires,

animals,

through
have

him

by

include

Since

diabolic

certain

of

altogether human

^Vampires.

"

power

in

strange symbolism

Spirits

the

typifying

evil, neither

nor

minister

himself, achieving the good

old Wittikin

the

as

good

Daemonic
are

of

says

Maule's

spiritualshadow

is sometimes

witch

evil ; sometimes

meant

supernatural.

These

the

Yet

casts

harry

to

Matthew

as

Gables

of Seven

House

Bell, neither

force,

loose

him

turn

imagining

dark

each

and

lover

kills her

that

act,

and

unceasing

nature,

devil

evil

demon

Allies

His

tempest

on

Mephistopheles

as

and

Each
a

home.

where

Devil

feeds

loathsome
flesh

of

the

left but

of

the

living.
slight

vampire

has

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been

back

to

definite

in

vampire

in

still shown

vampire

is

sacrifices, of

cannibalism

is

as

of

living in

the

is necessary

vampires

in

life had

of various
dead
The
extended
The

Greeks

The
but
that
and

belief

it did

in

in

the various

popular
devil, and

and

as

The

the

Vampire,

The

Vampire,

and

Vampire Bride,
The

vampire,

Vampire,

Le
or

has

has

story,

as

on

the

in

the

well

as

as

show
the

on

ghost, the

the

Dorset

the

been,

hold

English stage.
in

two

acts.

(1821),

Vampire, by Alexander
the Bride

here

stories

The

well

John

England

figured

melodrama
St.

Europe,

in

its ancient

as

death.

it is evident

short

appeared

anonymous

play,

central

vampire

and

and

young

their

to

legends.

tragedy by

wolves,
were-

Greece.

of

foothold

same

The

novel

witch, has
an

casts
out-

East

beautiful

in

strong

operas,

medieval

mind.

to become

way

men

young

aspects of the belief and

The

phre, and

vampire

literature.

poetry, in the

folk-tales

tain
Cer-

animals,

by

thought,

gain the

several

for

to

which

blood

general in the

continent, though

influenced

inspiration
drama,

the

on

night

by vampires,

certain

as

was

lured

to

vampire

at

the

attacked

particularly

was

seemed

never

has

it is

lamia, who

woman,

The

others.

of the

thought

human

of

suicides, witches, wizards,

well

superstition

Europe,

to

of

savagery

liable
especially

be

as

as

drain

in

Perhaps

revolting existence.

to

lizards, and

vampire

like.

one

tourists

survival

the

own

been

kinds,

and

the

to

sleep and

such

death,

at

who

persons

their

twelfth

of them;

spirit issuing forth

thought

were

persons

and

prolong its

to

back

goes

and

the

vampire.

animistic

evil

an

stories

of

grave

an

of

Abbey,

goes

Chaldean

on

Newbury,

Melrose

159

superstition
to

several

the

and

times,

attack

of

superstition

thought

Allies

vampire

relates

burned

are

remote

The

William

England,

was

Ireland

His

times, being referred

tablets.

century

and

motif.

ancient

Assyrian

the

Devil

The

Dumas

of the Isles, by J.

R.

The

i6o

Planche,

The

1819,

Vampyre,
the

"

where
write

written

story, like

Polidori's

principal character
of

Earl
there
that

his

be

body

fall upon

can

In

silence

made

of the

earl, who,

society
the

as

by

be

hurried

the

is

the

It

destroyer.
had

they
admits

is

Byron

for

theme,

to

seems

used

in

the

has

he

brings in the
from

who

God

punishment

of the

in

various

life

were

stories.

been

have

addition

he

from

other,
of

French

of the

productions

the

author

novelette

victim

these

of

ceremony

in the
the

the

if

or

drama

play,

but

get his?

Polidori

did

material

the

play

the

The

he

victim, hence

imitated

which

whom

to

new

which

of

turn

requires for his

girl becomes

the

nature

peculiar

father, but

source.

his

getting

where

bride's

common

In

planned.

of

pledge

dead, is ravaging

women,
a

moon

vanishes.

diabolical

the
the

young

asks

man

rash

case

of the

rays

vampire

question

dying

of

case

demands

first, and

written

was

of

and

plot is finished

each

each

mysteriously

from

masculine

the

last

discovers

In

He

wedding

the

risen

In

its
the

Ruthven,

the

complication

blood

married.

Lord

where

for

to, has

vampire.

then

that

man

the

interrupted by

is

is

having

is that

subsistence

the

corpse

vampire.

story

must

The

story there

each

is

placed where

it.

referred

play

death,

supposed

to

Shelley writing Frankenstein.

the

who

each

agreed

Polidori

in

session

ghost

famous

Englishman,

an

Marsden,

is

the

after

ghostly story, Mary

similar

remarkably

is

by Polidori, published

Shelleys, and

the

The

theater.

London

1820

novelette

story

Byron,

in

published

was

Allies

His

the

in

presented

were

latter which
to

and

Devil

in

idea

that

for

his

to

theme

fascinated

his

sin, and

is the
dearest

unsuccessful

vampire

that

the

being forced
to

him,

the

is

Here
a

terrible

most

which

story,

Giaour.
curse

to

vampire

short

The

poem,

the

with

prey
idea

upon
occurs

ment
judgpart
those
in

The

"But

Devil

first

Thy
Then

earth

on

shall

corse

ghastly

And

suck

There
At

the

from

loathe

Must

its tomb

blood

of all

know

the

youngest,

that

That

word

shall

Yet

must

Her

cheek's

with

in life,a

Thy

gnashing

Then
Go

"

Till these
From

Southey

on

this case,

their

him,

in

to

specter

his

who

wedding
seek

to

tear

shorn
worn,

"

thee

and

haggard

sullen

Afrits

and

shows

The

torn
curse

his

shall

drip

lip;

grave
rave,

away

accursed

has been

drain

shall

blood

shrink

Thalaba

day.

blue;

best

ghouls

more

view

spark,

agony!

teeth

in horror

must

was

by

away

own

with

last

when

pledge

stalking to thy
and

eye's

hand

lock

fondest

thine

mark

yellow hair.

of thine

with

"

in flame!

and

its lifeless

of her

Memorial
Yet

her

tinge,

is borne

now

heart

task

unhallowed

which,

of all.

thy

the

o'er

fall,

must

glassy glance

freezes

tresses

But

end

stem.

father's name

wrap

last

last

the

on

crime

thy

with

thou

sire;

cursing them,

best-beloved

thee

Affection's

girlin

for

bless

Of

life;

perforce

for their

withered

Shall

The

of

which

demon

are

The

Then

race;

they yet expire

the

one,

Which

place

stream

banquet

ere

But

the

thy

rent

thy livid, living corse.

flowers

And

be

thy native

As, cursing thee, thou

Thy

i6i

sent

haunt

drain

victims,

Shall

Allies

Vampyre

as

from

the

feed

Thy

His

thy daughter, sister,wife.

midnight

Yet

and

than

us

away

they!"

vampire,
from

impels
lifeblood.

her
her
He

young

husband
to

attack

becomes

The

i62

aware

of the

tomb,

to

truth

await

the

striking

"in

her

let her

of

soul

her

at

"Then

father

heart

fiendish

with

the

with

Greek

young

woman

the

same

theme

employed

von

Corinth.

luring

Lamia,

In

she

by

when

gives
business

is

they leave

suddenly

when

Marion

given

us

who

terrible

is present

element
has

to

vainly

been

of

Turgeniev's Clara

an

inkling of the

him

her

on

loved

Is

Militch, and

rescue

line of blood

red

Life, has

the

dream

yotmg

man,

girl,is after
after

the

his

"

them.

the

The

when

to

go

This

vampires

which

young

her, something

thin

with

degree.
by

form

old philosopher,

crowd

story, in

Braut

vanishes.

and

the Blood

For

Die

his

or

death,"

by the

trick

lamia

spirit in the

circumstances

truth, and

grave,

in

scream

marked

by

Goethe

favorite

in

men

evil

as

to

young

the

vampire

vampirized

death

Crawford,

and

sight

vampire

is accused

terrible

vanishing
F.

demon

in their

of the

lovely, alluring woman,

glory

idea

beautiful

of

to

courage

spiritstood."

the

uses

the

fled.

tenant

garmented

Oneiza's

Keats

all

wound
.

And

the

dispel the

to

appears,

than

has

is

peace.

howling

The

terrible

more

her

death,"

she

When

the

to

which

midnight,

at

vampires.

through

be

forth

him

with

father

her

brightness

lance

for

Allies

His

takes

coming

hour

loathsomeness
strike

and

her

eyes

and

Devil

her

fashion

friends

get

him, they find

trickling from

his throat.

And

the

face

that

eyes

that

life

itself

drop.

flickeringlight of
looked

saw

"

in

^upon

up

from

spite

the

of death

gleaming

the

lantern

feast,

"

"

teeth

upon
on

played
upon

two

upon

another

deep,

parted lips redder


which

glistened

dead
than

rosy

The
The
the

hawthome

vampire

between

expires

initiated would
was

where
clue

the

It is also

subtle

question

the

at

of the

story, less pronounced


The

of

idea

also

employed
Here

Vampire.
leader

by

of

talisman.

Her

who

band,

ravages

vampires

theory,

who

one

has

he

that
for

is

the

death

physical

his

probably
lifetime
to

long

been

those

only

with

of

dreadful
to

seems

omit

horror
effect.

yet the

his

by

vampires,

"

physical.
believe
their

to

motives

and

off

by

black

to

acts

delay

spiritual
of

means

blood

believes

Review

with

acquainted

than

ward

can

Occult

of

means

it, yet seeks

alive

keep

woman

in life is in death

evil

knows

The

work,

magic

thought

that

in their

comforting

us.

Stoker's

Dracula

modern

story

It is in Bram
most

his

is

Turgeniev

According

He

The

become

acter
char-

Magazine,

wicked

very

can

corpse.

can

some

he

as

asks

Gautier's

possessed by

Occult

his final damnation.

so

in

present.

hopelessly lost and

time

The
in

by

vampirizes

the

to

inextricably entangled

so

reader

really

as

psychic rather

are

in

even

is

power

Theosophists, according
in

used

Hodder

Reginald

occult

an

vampire?

vampirism

peculiar

toms,
Phan-

in Crawford's.

than

occult

problematic here,

is

woman

author

she

woman

gives the

the

the

only the

Turgeniev's
last

dia-

where

story and

like

though

and

similarity

Amoreuse,

at the

close. Was

heart

the reincarnated

bit

suggestion

vampirism,

to

Morte

that

her

certain

last of the

know

163

struggle, uttering

is

La

the

perhaps

terrific

Allies

through

There

tiU

vampire.

after

Gautier's

is concealed

His

is driven

shrieks.

this and

truth

and

stake

human

boHc,

the

Devil

detail

no

is

touched

The

combination

and

other

book

loses

in

of

finds the

one

vampirism.

of terror, for every


upon

of

awful

that

with

brutal

tensest,

This

novel

aspect of
and

pire
vam-

ghastly

wolves,
ghouls, vampires, ghosts,were-

elements
effect

is almost

toward

the

unendurable,
last, for

the

mind

cannot

endure

and

respond

outrage
initial

England
becomes

turn

science

blood

for

and

of

the

Each

science

wild

complications
advised

not

dramatically

are

suitable

as

for

scourge,
with

of

resources

infection

thrilling.

reading

the

the

in

modem

together

rose

pitted against the

are

victim
of

fight

to

transfusion, is interesting. All

modern

after

who,

combination

The

The

transports himself

there.

superstition

sprigs

of horror.

count,

years,

ravages

vampire.

medieval

using garlic

Hungarian

his

start
a

with

is

vampiric

of

pages

impressions

fresh

to

Allies

His

hundred

country

own

to

and

four

here

vampire

terrorizing his
to

Devil

The

64

and

the

book

The

is

sitting alone

one

at

night.
There

other

are

conventional

theme

gives his

Wells

of

types
and

the

introduction

by

in

Flowering of

The

his

collector
Andaman

bulb

botanist

last

there

the

tentacles

dripping

snatched

save

his

watched

violently

and
to

from

the

who

has

orchid

under

him,

carefully

flower.

great tentacles

have

Blackwood,

aspect

of

When
reach

at

out

strangling him.

be

torn

to

The

and

away

plant just

in his story. The

vampire,

stealing the

sponge,

absorbing

others.

The
bleak

touched

supernaturalism,

vampires

hard,

and

his blood

G.

jungle in the

England

to

H.

super-

An

lying

open,

blood

in

the

in

the

time

to

life.

Algernon
terrible

dead

to

vampire

Orchid.

Strange

comes

to

botanical

bulb

till it

sucking

man,

man

to

burst

its blossoms

grasp

of

novelty

strange

brought

is

the

addition

vampirism.
of

unaccountably

Islands, with

which

by

the

is found

occult
twist

customary

naturalism

in

vampirism

the

governess

gives

Transfer.

vital

power

strength, the
describes

face; I noticed

how

us

The

from

him:

thin

upon

one

two

is

ideas, the

he

curious, oily brightness of his steady eyes.

of

types

others,

"I

every

psychic
human

soul, of

watched
was,

And

his

and

the

every-

The

thing he
the

said

Forbidden

know

"

of

growth,

The

says

child

would

comes

the

near

audible

out

forward

the

faded

written

The.

vitality, without

It's

The

of the

lives

real life.
for

and

And

the

so

folk-tales

Indian

Jigar-Khor,

the

for

vampire,

he

in this way,
several

stories

of

loathsome
stories

but

the

of the

as

lore than

incidents

noted
the
haunt

been

even

expression of

an

the

full

of

strong,

English
is

hearts
a

that
the

to

be

can

living.

the
of

Many

the

vampire

the

there
are

explains the
stories

these

corpses,

countries

English

There

with

where

at

filched

one.)

new

connection

countries

which

show

cousin

incorruptible
the

in treatment.

by just looking

is
in

and

Continental

in many

with

very

though

England,

he

as

countenance

common,

most

well.

that

wrinkle

setting in the

English settings
vampire

your

Un-dead,

superstition has

in

be

spirits that
have

in

liver

to

falls

man

eyes,

in theme

vary

steal

liver

man

life."

of India

the

points

with

known

"His

creepers,

appearing

been

the

otherwise

Liver-eater

can

(It has long

you.

are

or

the

lay untouched,

and

stories

vampire

stretches

spot gives

the

was

"it

bursting thick

what

physically, yet without


it

soon

dying

I know

as

across

on

But

It's

yawning

only call

can

implication.

strength when

and

of

midst

vampire

patch.

child

little

the

But

empty,

the

garden,

rose

hungry.

earth

great, luscious, driving weeds


full-fed

and

laughs hideously

man

Corner,

its look

comes

vampire,

in

it wants.

shockingly,

destruction."

soil

call

to

vampire

barren

bad.

plainly what

Forbidden

in

spot; the

middle

dare

and

its secret

cries, then

into

dropped,
was

evil

165

place in the

so

right."

from

human

spot

get the food

silent feelers

out

I may

woman

it, "It's

it feel

make

what

sort,

sore

sinister

so

of

it can't

this

Allies

The

bog.

truth

His

This

another

bald,

luxurious

because

of

Comer,

the

announced

one

dangerous

and

presence."

with

contact

like

did

or

of his

suction

in

Devil

and

are

richer

location
poems,

The

i66

Another
in

point

the

be

to

essential

variants, of
of

case

Devil

there

course,

for

him

by

especially those

dear

The

of

personality
stories

being

death, in the
with

the

The

is

been

Others.

is the

Another

werewolf.

mentioned

of

legend

In

common.

by various

The

current.

become

might
be

tendency,
be

is to

thrope,

victim,

or

between

made
the

"

as

latter

peculiar twist

of

accordingly.

There

of Malfi,
another

in
of

comer

The

the

will eat

thirst

the

gnawing
bestial
of
but

at

skull

growls.

meat

Distinction
the

in

The

mad

where

some

acts

Duchess

wolf, and

crouches

Algernon

and

lycan-

and

snatched

lycanthropy,
raw

atavistic

an

wolf

he

might

of

that

creature

he

account
a

the

animal

an

and

himself

are

with

or

from

werewolf

is

vampire,

God,

himself

Ovid.

wolf

cursed

Like

character

old

very

writers, it

into

on

figure

loup-garou

being

being who,

thinks

who

nothing

of the

suffer

real

human

curdling story

to

practically all

craving for blood.

Albigenses,

its lair,

men

and

where

from

might

is such

graveyard, uttering
has

in

devour.

insanity, fancies

maniac

line

types,

classical

transformed

curse

cannibaHstic

be

to

is

Herodotus,

human

slay and

to

such

innocent

an

stories

is

obligation

forth

goes

one

usual

idea

is found

many

werewolf

the

or

who

Mela,

werewolf

France

same.

daemonic

The

countries, especially those

European

power

the

the

the

his

quench

are

of

variants.

said, including Pomponius

The

man

These

in

lures

must

the

living,

the

vary,

who

who

other
and

may

in

person,

the

life,is much

woman

man

dead

attack

to

in

brides.

are

in fiction

having

one,

of

Werewolf

popular

of

body

vampire

young

other

there

though

the

blood

him

to

than

description

The

urge

stories

numerous

are

divergence

instance.

dreadftil

there

is less

the

of the

agreement

While

spirit tenanting

driving

of

is the

features.

ghosts,

daemonic

noted

Allies

His

and

in

from

the

Blackwood
the

devours

insane
every-

The

Devil

thing living that


that

visitor

he

it up,

gave

also

is

goes

on

he

and

mad,
a

the

of

in

but

with

has

see

soul

that

ends

In
his

the

at

his

young

when

his

in

like

by

to

the

an

insanity

the

the

about

moral

decay
of

of

love
the

that

brute
and

the

"lycanthropy-mathethe

beast

and

least

of

Dissipation brings

wretch

that

thinks

his soul

bolizes,
sym-

four-footed,

naked,

room,

animal

straint.
re-

and

ease

line

The

insanity

his

Tito

artistic

in

gains the mastery

the

This

sensitive, delicate,

outcast.

doctors

into

Frank

is in

character

creature.

of

jungle

master

the Brute.

and

always

man

bestial

runs

he

illustrate

between

first

at

moral

leash

in

Kipling's The

Mark

and

lycanthrope

the

of

uttering harsh,

bestial

for

drives

the

the

raucous

the

brutish

soul

soul

not

change

his

of the
enters

"

while

spirit, and

result, including

does

man

between

midway

his

out

characteristics

odor,

is

story, for while

passes

and

man

the Beast

werewolf

whatever

or

many

servant

to

Wolf -wolf!

cries of

into

in

taking

is turned

body

growling

"

The

akin

man,

paroxysms

and

beast

bitter.

utterly lacking

and

called

madness,

sis."

that

high ideals, gradually through

strains

on

but

lycanthropy

shown

grosser

resistance, becoming

artist

servant,

association

the

self-indulgence,through

ever

confesses

vacuum"

degeneration,

Eliot

We
and

He

novel, Vandover

soul

George

Melema,

old

167

in fiction.

posthumous

a'study

that

of.

tasted

Jew
in

Allies

revolting story of lycanthropy

most

Norris's

his

Stories 'of

rampage.

supernatural

The

is

old

"hides

interesting aspect
and

bite

to

the

His

get hold

can

used

since

and

the

volting
re-

human

form.

While

lycanthropy

fiction, the

werewolf

various

forms

legends

to

of

modem

has
is

never
a

been

common

literature, from
short

stories.

frequent

theme

figure, appearing
ballads

medieval
Marie

de

France,

in
in
and
the

The

i68

Anglo-Norman
gallant

'

and

hiding

he

lover

his

mannered
when
the

of Marie's

Like

the

impels
by

to

personality
with

ravening
with

up

those

spirit,the
is

the

instincts.

This

introduces

in the
around
he

whom

has

tell of

There

are

introducing

his

to

be

By

lay

Arthur

well-

appear,

removed.
of

as

interesting

as
no

curse,

of

and

H.

slay

the

be

point of
his

dear

plot, here

the

being

only

most

The

as

animal

common

Albigenses

werewolf,

slays

his

more.

of

the

werewolf

supematuralism.

have
similar

the
to

of Bisclaverat.

Applier

to

type.

variants

elements

moral

the

jungle beast

it would

to

is not
but

that

in his normal

two

wolf

seen

of the

her

and

Controlled

and

impulse

who,

infection
In

that

obviously tangled

into

to

name

of the Jungle,''we

'

wolf

curse

the

out

plots center,

vanishes

is

element
The

husband

other

motif

trace

Vendetta

"

day

this,

him.

to

superstition here,

stories.

young

bride, then

of

being, that

irresistible

such

given

curse

is under

dearest

The

dramatic

vampire

the

gentle, becomes

interesting, if possible,to

ones

her

One

his wife

version

human

kindly and

vampire

combination.

were

Investigation reveals

werewolf

the

upon

prey

daemonic

an

lais, is charming.

vampire,

him

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knight

for

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shows

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lover.

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throats.

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to

on

werewolf,

She

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modern

O'Shaughnessy's

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fetched, and

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is

wolf.

marries

false

their

truth, the clothes

others

remain

strangely.

till the

he

goes

him

presses

that

by day

wife

his

tree, and

to

acts

tries to tear

Arthur

her

king's attention

and

beast

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have

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him

to

up

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clothes, then

long afterward
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in

would

steal

and

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yet

When

absences

reluctantly tells

his clothes

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that

gentleman,

expeditions.

curiosity concerning
he

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kindly

marauding

explanation,

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writer, tells of

knight

nocturnal

and

Devil

Sidney Warvsrick.

idea
the

of

story,
In

successive

continuation

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The

vampirism.

has

her

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Crump-Tiger,
eating

who

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animal

reaches

the
and

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wolf-man
wicked

avail, and
The

in

his

beloved

But

when

magic

the

she

if he

heart

remain

that

does

the

men

flee but

come

the

one,

and

spear,

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her.
the

to

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will

go,

strike
True

grove

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to

Harold

man

to

appears

there

day

the

to

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that

guilty
is to be

and

begs
come.

he

gives her

wolf

through

the

to the

is

the

girl. All

heart.

dying,

his

destiny
the

"

in

him

werewolf

at

till

stopped

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who

can

ravages.

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striking the beast

young

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lunges

his weapons

spear

sacrifice

certain

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wolf

he

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when

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know

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his soul.

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legend

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his

heir

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starts

by

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the

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grandfather, yet
from

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curse

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from

could

gives

Field

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jungle

that

he

so

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successor

aware

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score.

levels

him

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is

has

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her

second,

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at

werewolf

the

of

out

eyes.

Eugene

His

the

look

his

beast

about

not

it is

now

goes

by

eaten

assimilates

that

man

off the

the

jungle

he

devours

The

eaten

clear

to

when

beloved's

she

time

has

So

169

India, is

for

that

say,

affection.

his first wife

meal

soul.

her

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persons.

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lady

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digestion

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husband's

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body

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tiger, who
only

Devil

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fied
terriBut
has

The

170

given

himself

In

The

have

Camp

for

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him.

his

takes

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to

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of

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form

of

goes

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Bierce, in

girl who,

young

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his

part

that

she

cannot

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thinks
eyes

follow

the

glaring into

till

of

an

that

to

animal
human

that

girl promises

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she

is

teUs

to

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she

man

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settler

and

fires.

the

girl dying.

the

of

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curse

night

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sees

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werewolf

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were-menagerie.

tells the

find

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wholly human.

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the

and

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of

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ance
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utterly

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recovers

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hilltop, uttering

hours

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plays

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somnambulistic

waking

case

her.

in his tent, his soul

to

in

go

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him, and

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in

man

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an

Each

strange

Ambrose

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and

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wolf

girlwho

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gentle, modest,

goes

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hilltop.

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sleep he

lies shrunken

young

that

his

Blackwood,

with

in love

madly

In

howls.

the

werewolf,

body

unearthly

The

fellow

The

others.

save

Dog, by Algernon

unconscious

young

care

sacrifice to

is dead.

the

of

another

manly

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Allies

His

and

voluntary

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curse

to

Devil

they
This

story,

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just

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blood-trail
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as

beast

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Elliott
in
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O'Donnell,

in

London

1912,

of

werewolves

in the

present.

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life.
that

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in

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himself

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credence

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number

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India

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beast

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primitive

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the

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England

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famous

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Vishnu

O'Donnell

that

171

enchantment.

sacred

children

saw

of

complete.

three

Allies

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passes

to climb

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with

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acteristics
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is
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untamed

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desire."

control

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As

the

of the

wUl

The

172

in

sleep, so

mind

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the

dead

slay,

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In

about

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agent

vent

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to

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kinship

we

reflect

treat

him

ourselves

poetry
as

the

or

hero

that

he

Eugene

may

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day?

in the

drama

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for
The
as

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man

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romantic
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the

in the

Whether

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menagerie
doubtless

observed

is shocked

who

human,

the

whole

society.

suffered

in

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has

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latent

intervals, which

changes

than

and

involuntary

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tion
projec-

According

where

fiction

recent

have

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of

way.

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psychical creature,

more

this

of

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cruelty

Maupassant

fiction

have

we

be

may

that

never

devil, the witch, and

the

as

for

The

wolf

werewolf

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risky
this

as

of the

in

blood.

for

certain

of the

satisfy

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phantasms

they

might
at

in his story

instincts

that

loose

be
or

peace,

nature,

chap

form

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may

expression

turn

to

exciting but
a

at

phase of man's

one

mankind

be

also thinks

He

wUd

its

werewolves

cannot

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slake

to

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fetters

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itself from

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forth

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in

beings,

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"

one

Devil

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wonders

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might

well

Perhaps

the

had
in

the
of

part

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they

whom
dramatists

to

shadow

we

close

spirits,

from

minds

our

the
of

of
evils

their

tell

mortals
of

essential

the

truth

the

truths.

definite

as

they
guise

the

tales

of

of

wholly

represent,
fiction.

poets

images
shudder

powers,

good

intangible

us

with

As

the

as

show

neither

diabolic
that

moral

Thus

As

are

the

delegates

are

horrifying

us

in

well

form,

must

with
soul

as

concrete

that

beings

accursed

human,
the

that

of

spirit

things.

the

impressive

apprehend.

can

spiritual

books

the

story-makers

and
forth

of

he

symbols
evil

and

wizards,

and

as

the

in

represented

devil

whom

to

life,

life,

supernatural

The

witches

things

the

stage

literature
of

use

appear

of
of

since

be

must

beings

nor

But

in.

enters

Elizabethan

animals,

reflection

character-

though

poetry

the

the

stories

his

and

times.

power,

mystical

literature

in

with

controls,

infernal

173

difficulties.

recent

enchanted

his

allegories,^

and

he

spirits

vampires,

do

of

for

interest

to

literature

daemonic

its

of

deal

good

beings

revival

figure

themes

have

Allies

His

dramatic

furnish

would

presentation

has

is

and

we

Satanic
animal
shrink
and

cognize
re-

Supernatural
fiction

THE

than

dealing
other

any

deep hunger
stories
as

of

in the

Jew;

of

or

in

the
"

brink

near

them

find

than

to

these

we

Or, looking

give

in

conquerors
"Oh

world

which

we

clutch
174

us

thee!"

thee!

what
would

we

But

since

we

seek

leisured

youth

feel ourselves

touch

spare

with

hours'

beyond.
we

the

would

immortal

can

from

persons

few

above

leagued

youth.

the

Conscious

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own

for

we

unknowable,

Inapprehensible,

this after

overtaking

with

death,
life

of life

or

affrighted

our

as

ence
transfer-

feel ourselves

eternal

us

gifts in

past

than

that

is

age

endowed

are

of the

Sadly knowing

vicariously in fiction, and

forgetfulness
joy.

old

youth

body;

and

to

for

yearn

pace

have

long

we

victory.

something

cannot

here

shrinking

we

sting and

worlds

death

craving for something

know

we

another

into

it be

Wandering

preserved

or

elixir of life ; or

our

powers;

swift, relentless

we

all show

like the

persons

spirit in other

immortal

death's

fain

without

death

helplessness

own

grave's

earthly existence

renewed

more

subject, humanity's
Whether

of the

after

what

beyond

us

tales

soul

body's death,

with

of

the

of

shows,

supernatural.

the

supematurally

in the

continued

our

for

life

immortal

legends of the undying

of the

of

with

aspect

continuance

described

and

I^ife

and
more

Life

Supernatural
We
stories

of

life

of

those

who

beyond

our

of the

future

heaven

and

hell.

We
take

can

it into
The

Faust

into

that

There

Jew.

of the
has

deathless

as

as

lands, though

so

the

of

it

person

Jew, and

not!"

me

for

Samiri

one

"Thoushalt

idea

attain

not

are

similar

occurs

in

thought
condemned

to

while

and

Indian

souls

the

of those

fly forever

wandered
with

an

Arabian

crying, "Touch
a

cursed

man

Buddha

said,

religion lasts."

my

versions
the

that

the

over

story-

trace

is

whom

to

the

The

to

of

account

Nirvana

Chinese

mute
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save

has

There

wanders,

show,

we

sive
impres-

none

and

English folk-tales, where

be

to

for

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more

impossible

forever

Buddhist

miracles

working

There

is

there

as

who

else's

and

literature.

portrays

it is

of

dream

fiction

legend

no

certainty its origin or first migrations.


legend of

man's

of.

influenced

that

many

is

Wandering

theme

ignorance

optimists

is made

hope

loathsome

sceptical of anybody

material

raw

sttiff that

Wandering
than

as

of

sort

for

dogs the steps

own

any

indestructible

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that

Our

of

these

comforted

Swift's

Jew.

time

same

from

are

tragedy

credulous

us

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are

the

Wandering

makes
at

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own.

die, whether

not

the

or

comfort

strange

see

we

may

Struldbrugs

is

when

mortality

our

snatch

somehow

175

and

plovers

crucified

world,

the
are

Christ,

uttering

their

plaintive cry.
The

first appearance

literature

is in the

reports

the

Albans

by

already

familiar

of the

Pilate's
led

forth

wander

Chronicles
as

Armenian

an

with

wanderer

palace, who
to

come!"

Roger

There

in
a

at

are

Jew

of

the

certain

to

The

whom

1228, but

to

distinct

two

other

brutal
He

English
who
of

monastery

Cartapholus,

Jesus

in

Wendover,

English literature.

struck

death, and

till I

of

bishop, in
it.

is

Wandering

being told

story appearing
the

that

legend

of the

blow

relates
in

servant
as

said, "Thou

is of

hearers
versions

One
a

St.

German

He

was

shalt

origin

176
giving

the

personality

Jerusalem, who
Bowed

for

under

said

look

of

literature

deep

of

and

The

has

and

from

fact

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is The

as

concerning

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supernatural

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his

later

he

his

"Yet
latter
'

The

he

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Wandering

Jew,

bore

bore

or

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as

used

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on

it the

Gothic

in

being

hoax.

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Wander-

legend,

times.

of

One

written

teen,
eigh-

at

the

showing

poem

as

reveal, yet

Wandering

Jew

both

Queen

and

summoned

both

In

as

The

in

appears

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Mob
to

latter
he

poems

testify
give

to

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mark

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of

being "so

Love's

the

romances

power.

minent.
pro-

by Andrew

only

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English

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Song of the

fevered

in

1797,

attempt,

of events.

old, for in the first it is said


port and

has

made

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it three

character

while

vision

Edgar

play

forms

in

The

used

first Ahasuerus

Hellas, in the

of

Andersen

it has

is here

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definite

various

fascinated

that

his

Schlegel,

Dutch

in the

engaged

that

Roumania,

where

was

that

of

in

entitled

Wandering

hint

of

long dramatic

weaknesses

France

written

wanderer

Shelley

used

Kingemann,

published

was

poem

his first poems,

"His

but

poem.

in fiction

the

has

Jew,

appears

With
go,

it has

Christian

Hans

appeared

comedy^

Wordsworth

shop, but

"I

answered,

in

Chamisso,
Sue.

has

Franklin, though

with

leaned

faster, Jew!"

Auerbach,

dramatic

long

same

little

Germany

Sylva, late Queen

theme

see

In

Heijermans

literature,besides

we

tha.
Golgo-

to

Christ

cross,

of the

door

Christ

lands.

Eugene

Carmen
for

passed

story is cosmopolitan,

Jew

and

it while

basis

the

reproach,

of Berthold

Julius Mosen,

and

He

as

of

shoemaker

of the

weight

against

many

attention

used

Savior

scornfully, "Go

Wandering

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Supernatural

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178
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Supernatural

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Supernatural
wanderer

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British

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the

over

179

Till I Come.

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Life

Supernatural

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American

Kipling;
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Supernatural
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story; David

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The

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Supernatural

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Supernatural
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Supernatural

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Supernatural
make

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old

happy

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mantle

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philosophy

such

Elsewhere
theme.

of life

brew

produce

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in

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been

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at

concerning

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man.

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drug

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octogenarian

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the

years

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shows

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and

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life elixir if he

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alone

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life,the draught
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story of

but

life-givingpotion

tragic miscalculation,

of the

situation

has

Pain

Bany

ghastly climax.

Elixir, the

Wrong
On

Life

Supernatural

86

he

Does

been

calculations

wrong?
An

example

fiction

of

is

when

but

him

science
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he

wiU

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flask

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drink

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is not

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make

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his decision

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black

is not

elixir of

the

of Youth,

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answers

magician,

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immortal

drug will enable

he

The

life decides

mind

is not

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year

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Ibbetson

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old

Elixir

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man

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compounded

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magic

the

been

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times, is

in modern

Albert

alone

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supematuralism

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of

Hfe.
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frequent

deathless

youth
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with

loved

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use

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illustrates

pathos and

singer

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shrinks

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from

Ireland, whom

of the

elixir of

clutches

humanity
Red

age.

W.

B.

life,of
at

Ranrahan,

Yeats

creates

Life

Supernatural
for
old

when

age

in

definite

he

feels it

creeping

stories

of

other

Various
appear

use

life elixir.

French

Whitman,

of

body

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had

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application
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criminal
kiU
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than

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man

peculiar effect.

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is

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re-

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queries, "If

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gained

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of

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to

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efforts

amateur

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Alps,

Doyle's
of

citizens

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of

Conan

A.

the

writer

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interfering scientist.

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miraculously

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years

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from

us

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crossed

based

Woman

shows

of

length

those

The

woman

glacier since Hannibal

is

supernatural

of the

against

curse

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on

fiction, besides

English

by Stephen

and

makes

unforgettable words,

with

us

187

ancient

vitality from

through

sachem

so

thing,
every-

Hawthorne's

in

novel.
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Flying

folklore, of
shore

only

round

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the

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The

wandering,

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In

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Myths

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seven

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accursed

Skinner,

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of

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man,
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Land.

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Dutchman

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is

stories in

condemned

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John

parody

Ship

seas

heaven

for

theme

the

because

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Dead

and

the

years,

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furnished

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in

Horn

preserved

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Dutchman

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his

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legend
murder

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Walpole
have

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stories

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much

in

in

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German-Jewish

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why,

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series of lives

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stories

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out

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passes

life and

while

description by

hvunorous

woman

the Haunted

knows

man

strangely,

suppose.

and

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power

of mystery.

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tower,

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vampire

round

halter

die.

to

motives.

his

always

wear

furnishes

uncanny

has

to

unable

was

Bram

In

Life

Supernatural

letters

his

may

life.

and

life and

cent.
ac-

have
Horace

he
career

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talked-of
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Edwin

Lester

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Arnold^

setting

Strange

tells

and

story of continued

mystery.

Edward

the Deathless.
Adventures

of Phra

the Phoenician.

life with

Bellamy's

Life

Supernatural
Looking Backward,
makes
to

into

see

Twain's
a

live far

man

the

introduction

the

by

future, while

Connecticut

Yankee

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of

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furiously

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The

symbolism

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than

satire

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fiction.
to

in

elements

essential

aspects

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old

motifs

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ventional
con-

thrill

magic

potion

earthly

mortality
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its treatment

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one

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thought

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seeing his home.


pursued

and

Myths

home

laboratory, yet

shall

of another

in

see

flies forever

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theme

fiction,for though

Alfred

by. the

imparted
man

by

in modem

investigator in the chemical


is

utilized

elixir of life is

alchemist

of interest

told

soul

retained

supematuralism

is

never

haunted

of the

story

He

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moments.

is that

will

story

live fast and

man

saying, "I

it!"

see

hero
time

in another

does

Missing Man,

and

storm,

never

never

The

Land,

into

out

or

Our

uses

his

makes

crucial

at

whose

wanderer,

Legends of
goes

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WeUs'

G.

he

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powers

Rugg,

he

as

that

tenfold

story of Peter
immortal

as

accelerator

with

H.

hours, compressing

few

has

Court

existence, in Arthurian

dual

idea, in that

same

long time

very

into minute

the

able

Mark

in

youth

the

be

and

span

America.

present-day

magic sleep

King Arthur's

at

magic length of life,living a

England

of

the natural

beyond

distant

189

in

elements
of

modern

remain

the

same.

Metempsychosis.
thought
into

pass

that

at

The
death

another

animal

in

English fiction.
'

In

his Time

or

even

Machine.

the

mortal

an

idea

of

soul

body

or

plant, has
This

Oriental

of

the

metempsychosis,
a

into
been

human
lower

used

belief

has

being

may

stage, into

considerably
its basis

in

antiquity,in
the

earliest

that

animistic

'

seemly,

so

being

descends
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to

was

city.

He

himself
He

is

counterpart

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arrow.

exact

dreamed

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mistake

leech, and
similar

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in

passage

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wouldn't

in

saying
is used

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her

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that
the

into

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likeness

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hesitates

to

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the

father

causes

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give
altar
him

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to

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put

name.

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for the

on

Morella

the

wife,

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he

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at

fight,

horror,

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theme

greatly

once

but

cannot

of

brink

the

husband

daughter

mother,

reason

cept
con-

babe

of

tells her

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of her

temple,

the

central

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her.

christened,

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deathbed

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much

up

man

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after

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Poe's

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arrow.

of

discoveries.

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tropi-

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power,

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into

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named

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connection

child

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telling

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with

in

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makes

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soul

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stories

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dies

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stories.

elderly

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Oldeb

poisonous

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Mr.

mountains

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on

by

recognized

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and

by

in

in

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cold

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of

in

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man

young

by

extraordinary vividness,

battle, of confusion, ending

manner

'

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of

dreams

the

extent

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employs

life of

sees

till it ends

used

certain

itself

behaved

not

Hoffmann

Mountains,

experiences, in

poisoned

up

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Ragged

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spiritual scale

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of

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in

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One

culture.

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theme

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the

of

account

an

flea.

his

the

in

of the

appearances

repeatedly, and

by

ideas

middle-eighteenth-century story

worth's,

Life

Supernatural

90

grows

remains

analyze,

last, as she stands


force

outside

the

Life

Supernatural
What

than

more

and

overspread

that

scarcely

earth

ancestral

our

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with

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An

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chamel

novel. The

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us

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weakness

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in

the

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husband

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presently dies,

tomb.

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the

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a

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by

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body

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girl is found

dead,

princess

has

her

her

her.

husband,

bed

to

the

only through

the

himself

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as

midnight,

he

sickens
at

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Ligeia

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soon

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as

yield

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madness

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studies

will."

bride

offering

princess,

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alone

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the

morbid

drops of ruby liquid fall from


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tomb.

reanimated

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baby

own.

feeble

own

of

itself upon

revenge

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soul

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clearly announced,

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dies, and

Lady

that

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unto

nor

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of Poe's

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and

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the

body

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disturbed

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rifle her

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to

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the

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of

to

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second

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; and

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father

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mysteriously disappears,
leading

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archaeologists who

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of Seven

princess

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"With

them

heaven,

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fiend

191

the
alone

source,

Lady
with

the
sees

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corpse

reanimated,
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climax

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fiction.
as

physical being

the

story

for

the

poison

as

influence, in

The

Second

Here

again the

but

in this instance

dead

the first wife.


felt

the

by

the

the

noticed

by the

human

will, indestructible

mortal

flesh

where

did

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and

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transfer

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are

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strength

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dower

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power

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the

mother's
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the

itself

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'

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born

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is

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father, who

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it

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evident

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mother-in-law.

by

wife's

second

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her

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to

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and

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as

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husband

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herself

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change

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are

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dying merely

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again by exerting

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that

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transformation.

awful

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body

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parallel in

Life

Supernatural

192

The

younger

with
this
evil

slay

double

idea

to

spirit take

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son,

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Life

Supernatural
his

recognizes
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eyes

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medicine,

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fiend-like

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corpse.

theme

various

mother's

193

by
witch

country

hauntings
the

same

character

by psycho-analysis.

Life

Supernatural

194

The

young

which

curse,

influences

is removed

subconscious

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investigations concerning

and

pre-natal

of

study

after

only

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heiress

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personalities of

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culminates

Mystery

Couch,

of

reincarnations

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195

details

of

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tion,
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combines

Du

Maurier

his

novels, for it is in

the

two

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"

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Martian

him

inspiring

us

Life

Supernatural

196

of
in

that
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world,
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visions

is another
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Life

Supernatural
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little details you

of love

tortures

existence

of the

remember

you

197

of

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His

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in

metempsychosis,

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Life

Supernatural

198

king.

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Life

Supernatural
Spiritualism and
of

modem

of

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late

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interest
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Research.

Psychical

Spiritualism and

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he

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Life

Supernatural

200

the
in her
be

girl is

girl
more

last seance,

carried

phantly
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district attorney,

Life

Supernatural
she

dramatically

getter, she

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Life

Supernatural

202

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Supernatural
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Life

Supernatural

204

the

minister

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Life

Supernatural
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Supernatural

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Supernatural
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must

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207

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child

psychic

fauns, clouds

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twists

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and

hamadryads,

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by.

volume

new

lures

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manifestation

pass

beings and

has

of

in

peculiar, the

human

that

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dogs

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specifications.

track,

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spirits,a wraith,

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gate

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poor

personce, typifying

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the

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murder

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kills

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eyes,

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to

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the

old

human,

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is found

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Interesting psychical material


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Life

Supernatural

Isis
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human

spirits

English
of the
of

2840
that

beings

Supernatural
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have

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and

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the

late

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German

August
English
Life

and

these

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thought
to

classical
life.

in

shows

he

knows

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famous

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heaven

his

ideas

of mercy

and

hell

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Hades,

English

fiction

of

and

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lays

person

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instance,

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thinking each

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ing
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sufferers

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to

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plays
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interest

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influence.

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earth, and

the

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immensely

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to

of

some

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traveler

early English stage

Sisyphus, and

as

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to

stage,

lately.

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not.

or

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is

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purely

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countries, whether

addition

Senecan
to

is

mythology

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hell

Mankind

distant

to

there

go

Death.

man

such

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course

likeness

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has

hell, though

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show

material

psychic

209

presentation

show

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drama

heaven

of

supernaturalism,

toward

after

dramas

character

Stramm.

tendency

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de

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shubbil,

yearth wid
iconoclastic

treated

in

his

new

every

big-toe nail!"

thought.
conceivable

Heaven
way

in

Life

Supernatural

210

English fiction
and

conventionally, symbolically, humorously,

"

satirically,so that

There

Among

the

hell

Mrs.

Her

works

had

Elizabeth

when

death

of the

pictures of heaven

to

the

and

the

to

bread

earthly

his

small

her

butter.

and

eternity and
him.

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there

are

and

she

such
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read

leaves

are

which

must

all sorts
She

occupied
lack

earth,"

brook

and

in

by

earth
and

low

Bodies

projections;

and

that

she

hears

bird
is

each

are

the

lived

sing

may

and

duet, and

compared

and

spiritual.

spirits
who

ways,

away."

"They
in

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with

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holds

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for

Language
heaven

selfish

get

things
sing

earth-bound

themselves
be

remembers

Universal

many

to

for

iences.
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birds

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she

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pleasure in simple

learned

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earth,

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Gates

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describes

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living

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physician, suddenly killed, finds


immortality.

the

ginger-snaps

In

Civil

the

of this.

than

are

books,

child

that

more

dearest

own

said to have

are

many

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his

youth

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world

Gates

in

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piano,

other

prominent.

period following

claimed

each. person

to

assures

immortality
in the

had

is

Ward

Phelps

and

heaven

traditional

the

Stuart

vogue

thinking

were

of

contemporary

on

around.

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portrayers

tremendous

War,

to

type he prefers.

the

choose

may

kinds

enough

are

one

the

but

thing,
no-

the
state

Life

Supernatural
of

the

souls

Fifth

on

211

described

Avenue,

Granville

by

Barker.
Mrs.
and

Ward's

conventional

to

must

be

considered

her

time.

She
the

theology,
her

She

did

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have

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New

remark

pastor, that

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as

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trated
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recently delivered
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over

generation than

day,

sermon

rigid

against the

heaven
her

of

religious thought

older

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make
in

from

great influence

of

influence

appreciated they

reaction

to

be

to

the

to

concepts

wished

an

York

exerted

in relation

sentimental

seem

may

to-day, yet

us

stern

and

own,

of heaven

pictures

had

books

her

made

they

by

heaven

for him.

over

Mrs.
Cook's

tours

started

by

Ward.

in

worlds
of

soul

comforted

is the

account

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that

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gives the
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her

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asks

matters.

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town

inhabitants

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of

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open

the
Door.

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their

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earth

to
a

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hosts

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Portrait.

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of

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eternity withdraw.
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the

out

cathedral
on

has

less,
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left

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citizens

from

Still

drive

who

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invading

heaven

and

peculiar

place, the

the

happy;

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to

who

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penance

story'

from

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dead,

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away

woman

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future

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heaven,

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because

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doors, till after


and

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her

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of

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comes

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Mrs.

by

describing

to

fictive
fashion

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to

of

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and

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conductors

and

Milton,

devotes

their

another^

and

Dante

the

of

heaven

through

She

tells

is another

Oliphant

Mary.

to

Life

Supernatural

212

In

story,

one

Mrs.

'

of heaven,

ideas

her

Oliphant gives

the

place of light,of rest, of joy, of service, where

Pain

angel

picture,
where

she

shows

that

tears

regulated,

of the

world

earth.

various

punishments,
from

platform

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dead,

world

filled

hell

the

nicipality,
mu-

terrible

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"

great

unhappy

it is

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lecture

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wisdom.

to

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drip from

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souls

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are

with

the

helps

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eternal

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leave

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much

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them

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in

else's concept
Other

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from

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who
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roses

open

motives.

since

the

human

man

go

about

'

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Little

In

No

the

has

cannot

one

somebody

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sees

form

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doesn't

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Pilgrim

in

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as

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Land

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is

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after

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friend

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Butler

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like

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point of view

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go

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process

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Katherine

painless

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Shell

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pit of blackness

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woman

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Brown

of

are

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Dunbar's

to

from

Alice

another

even

Dante

sufficiently to

of life after

than

showing

be

hell

and

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imagination

stories

naturalism.

to

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reader

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stories

of Darkness.

Supernatural
The

symbolic

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Oliphant's.
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blasts

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her

angel whispers
in

Paradise.

in search

her

the

on

reach

her

"the

Satan

had

heaven

of

far

beloved

slope of

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devil

love

lost

engineer

is

him

in

in

struggles

to

is

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before

sees

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can

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own

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me

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modern

God
of

concept

him, and

save

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Heaven

man

his

part of

maturity

long before.

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and

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self, the

own

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describe

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Field'

life,where

appears

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after

The

to

asks

dead

is the

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of the

share."

no

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Eugene

than

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Julian Hawthprne's

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of smoke.

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road

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may

Ward's

Mrs.

pictures the

on

life

literary art

more

symbolic morality

characters.

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she

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hell, drawing

landscape

shows

213

theme

despair, hence

or

us

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vocabulary

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suggest

Railroad,
and

human

of

Hawthorne

and

pictures

No

immortality

of

treatment

Life

he

resists

his evil self.

by Anita

Ahrinziman,
the

world

soul

to

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sees

passion

birds

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his
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later

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Worlds
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soul is

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for

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come.

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hover

to

progress

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mortal

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astral

peculiar substance,

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each

Star.

of

astral

to

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unknown

overhead

spiritsare

Star

horrible

are

combinations

supposed

in Paradise.

of the

There

nature.

slay

queer

Inferno

pictures of

genii of his life,each

The

Golden

lurid

Silvani, shows

being
toward

Corelli's

torn

the
Romance

production, preaching the

to

Silver

of

doctrine

Life

Supernatural

214

of

is to

which
psychical electricity,

magician, and

be

and

next.

Vision

man's

his

of Judgment,

sins, and

side, stark
God's

of all

hyprocrisy of

beautiful, with
bodies

all

forth

the

God's

and
the

about

him.

shallowness

This

The

House
in

speaks

And

God,

will

send

the

soul

closing the book


thee

into

robe

of

austere

and

in

clean

against

set

as

is like Oscar
of

piece

soul

before

by

has

who

God

to

bolism
symbeen

judged.

be

ness,
vileness, his cruelty, his selfish-

of his

all of which

to

last

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terrible

ceited
con-

and

men

of wisdom

words.

at

comes

him

to

charity

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of

judgment

of Judgment,

expressed
altogether evil

souls

after

God

of

land

symbolic

of human

the

picture

behold

enlightened

sat

of

on

proud of

saint,

two

shadow

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they

clarity of vision and

Wilde's

God

last the

illusions,in the

vanish

throne

destiny

so-called

"At

charity, like brothers."

satire

folly of Ahab,

pettiness and

the

of

and

character

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over

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by H.

of sin and

judgment

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for

radio-activity,a theosophical cure-all


the

gives theories of

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novels

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working
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Hell.

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guilt.

Life, said, "Surely

man's

of the

of

confession

makes

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unto

will

send

send

thee

thee."
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the

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cried

man

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the

to

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for what

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in Hell

to

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after

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unto

always lived," answered

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house

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reason?

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man.

judgment.
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to

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I will

the

send

man,

send

"Seeing
thee

into

thee."

not!"
can

I not

send

thee

Life

Supernatural
"Because,

imagine it !
And

answered

there

The

fact

hell

is

and

never,
"

the

that

in

out

Smith, by Elizabeth

day.

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the

know

that

you

book,

The

Case

died

there

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lie

examples

of

realities.

the

heaven

phrases

symbolic

by

Granville

represented

Avenue,

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in

some

cruelty.

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huriiorous

rise above
drift

instance

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with

There

are

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level

of

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down

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with

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few

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hell
on

of

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other

phases

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in

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is

Milton.

back, make

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spirits of

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remarkable

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distinctly modern.

are

devil

into

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form

of

words,

inevitable

penetrate

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life,of the

after-life is in Souls

purely humorous
pictures

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of sin.

shapes

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to

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to

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plague spots

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to

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have

seem

us.

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held

and

that

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they had

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for

hell

of

white

of

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the

and

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character

typewriter

Peevish

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his

at

his

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central

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you

Heaven

this
In

recent

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to

judgment.

heaven

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of

his

message

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house

make

while

know

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thoughts

revelation

The

been

man.

man's

have

place,

no

silence in the

was

brought

receives

in

215

fun

one-time

of
of

cry

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of the

in

way

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writers

archangels

sacred

with

piece

the

supernaturalism,

flippant
far

death, the

and

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heaven

slap the

appeal

situations, with

freedom

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would

have

instance, St. Peter


that

he

is

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in

his

who

says

that

can

have

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its

he

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the Styx,

on

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their

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But

they

fair.

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as

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shows

us

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fiction, and

Hades

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being

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Crawford

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hide
us

Kidd

after

in his

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and

limbo

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in

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devil
from

persons

Master.
has

home

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many

himself

us

of the Stories

Rabelais, the

face

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recap-

own

him

process.

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visit

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in

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ofE

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men

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The

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to

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Pursuit

literaryendeavor,

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and

The

him

Kipling recognizes

sees

to

Kipling's

many

death

stories

see
we

and

recently given

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heath,

earth.

tongue.

obeisance

In

Walter

it

to

has

previous chapters

characters, presided
of fluent

Wells

Carolyn

shades

life after

and

Styx

put

Bangs,

toward
in

that

has

the

Kidd,

Captain

the

his native

on

Pluto

Kendrick

Captain

new

says

Elizabeth,

buccaneer

from

Anthology.

devil

He

that

Styx.

of his

proud

Queen

situation

bold

the

across

ladies, leaving all the

the

reaching

River

town,

ferry

of

speaks

now,

John

redoubtable
the

follow

the

comic

with

attitudes

the

the

ship and

adventures

Styx

characteristic

as

he

get pictures of the

we

continues

He

only person

brings together

persons;

them

Matthews
and

storage battery."

Raleigh, Socrates, Xantippe,

with

jokes

many

Geography,

is the

very

improvements.

illustrious

other.

the

keeps
and

with

modern

many

of

so

of Imaginary

"who

his House-boat

and

For

gasp.

Brander

lighted by electricity and

now

others.

of

butt

whom

Wandering

last month

in all the

of

the

satisfactory chats

launch

is

Puritans

the

been

Primer

Charon,

electric
hell

has

Dutchman,

Flying

knowing

made

really hackneyed.

introduces

in

Life

Supernatural

2i6

All

do

Kipling

brought into

from

them.

F.

glimpse

of

literary

Marion
eter-

Life

Supernatural
where

nity,"
discuss

life.

recent

in Hades
It is

and

his

guests, and

he

they like,
"

tiresome.

He

Extract

from

hearty

old

finds

are

likes, yet

tires

he

off for greater

wings

meeting

of

of

the

Jersey City. He

be

to

it's

send

the

Again

folks
of

Something
William

In Among

word

on

an

the

in his
A

heavenly

do

what

takes

pleasures

with

his

and

the
the

from

points, saying
be

to

in his

says,

own

ain't

that

something

friend,

miserable

his

in

bartender

got

he

paradise

prophet,

or

bluff,

The

and

many

contrast

,"I wish

Spiritualism

so

we

it."

combination

in Nicholas
Enters

from

again, "Happiness

about

same

Booth

the Immortals.

that

of

with

thought
his

man's

Sandy,

in

the

is found

earnestness

'

only

something

could

see

and

pleasant."
was

to

couple

different

to

converted

it

very

crown,

finds

his views

happy,"
"

there

of

changes

thing in itself,

General

them.

patriarch,

entry

find

to Heaven.

he

things

He

ease.

instance, "I begin

ain't

the

their

of heaven

for him

wishful

occasional

an

excitement

heaven

views

of, lays aside his harp and

consisted

for

of

to

fiction.

descriptions of

polite set,

they wiU

celestial regions

the

an

to heaven

go

different

Captain Stormfield'sVisit
salt

as

on

iconoclasms

is very

He

and

Jiian and

given humorous

has

traditional

the

Don

Man

attractive

constraint

that

of conventional

Twain

citizens

with

liable

most

represented

him

them

warns

boredom.

personage

Mark

from

only

be

hell

least

free to leave

are

is

make

to

the

not

converses

air of courteous
sinister

Pit

mortals, uttering Shavian

blas6

other

tries

exercises

would

l^se-ma]est6, for in

of the

Host
who

They

movements.

if

Mine

gentleman

for

logue
dia-

Cressida.

who

devil

the

by

Superman,

affable

Shaw

meeting and

and

and

meet

personages

describes

Chaucer

Bernard

possibly

learned

poem

between

prosecution

to

spiritsof

the

217

Vachell

into Heaven,

of

humor

Lindsay's

and
poem.

2i8

Life

Supernatural
"Booth

led

Are

you

The

saints

Are

boldly with

washed

big bass drum,

in the blood

smiled

washed

you

his

gravely

the Lamb?

of

in the blood

come.'

they said, 'He's

as

the Lamb

of

(Bass drums)
Walking
Lurching

bravos

Drabs

from

Minds

still

Unwashed

He

He

you

with

Madison

heaven,

his

us

rusty

the
shoes

dreams

where

schoolmaster

the
and

H.

G.

the

of

Wells, in A

side of the

picture, for

first of

Rose
in

tramp

pigeons

and

has

The

gardens, where

among

the

stands

home,

still

battered

and
in

room

Wonderful
draws

at

fact

with

reminds

are

the

The
of

us

Hannele,

angels,

somehow

Visit shows
an

next

hat.

derby

Hauptmann's

is confused

he

another

devotion.

fancy

little

in

seen

the

in

tramp

of heaven,

sordid

?"

is also

loves

and

"

Pigeons, by William

him

old

down.

idealism, of homely

with

the

celestial

the

Hannele's

the Lamb

of

who

face

to

pictures,the

two

knelt

holy place.

symbolism,

Garden,

with

face

in that

with

crown

crowd

the

realism

Man

for prayer

and

robe

^they were

"

of

conamingling

heaven

flag-filledair.

in the blood

goldhaired angels
quaint

the

clustering around

ever

wearing

through

a-weeping

Square

instruments)
curb

knelt

shows

the

Jesus

The

poem,

"

by

King

celestial

death,

of the Lanib

soldier, while

washed

Benet, who

is of

the

of

ways

^no

"

with

gently

combination

recent

them

Master

came

Are

frail !

breath,

mouldy

in the blood

Booth

his

he

dank,

drug-fiends pale

and

the

halted

And

details

with

while

saw

This

saints

sung

Booth

ditches

alley-ways

(Reverently

Christ

rank,

on

passion-ridden, soul-power

washed

saw

For

the

legions with

you

And

from

the

Vermin-eaten

Are

rank

lepers followed,

angel down

and

united.
us

another
and

lets

Life

Supernatural
him

tell the citizens of the earth

I make
the
of

attempt

no

the

just

never

they

that

the

on

angel

thrusts

formal

him

the

vicar

believe

not

vicar

of

basis

guest.

The

all true

in

popular misconceptions
is

surprised

since

he

lovable
fold

he

says

has

character.

his

hippogrif

"

conformity

boots

as

he

sadly, symbolizing

the

angel

live

among

The

is sent
the

James

France's,

away

painful

the

world's

from

the

of

and

Revolt

humor

The

human

naive

make

"

ments
com-

at
to

"

till he

looks

"has

hoofs

vicar, and
The

process.

to

satire

him

to

like

like

he finds

novel
for
to

broken.
be

may

and

go,

him

unworthy

is almost

the

which

stupid harshness,

Demi-Gods,

0} the

dows
glass win-

thought

village as

his heart

Stephens's
The

he

to the

people, and

type

same

that

plaintivelysays

convention

to

so

on

This

ioners
parish-

compels

custom

incongruous

his

there

coat

of the

are

is

life difficult

his heaven

any

village
under

The

smiling wonder

to

of

time, and

some

and

mortals
seen

But

put

that

never

shining wings

hunch-back,

ends

learn

to

regard

instead,

angel shows

his

the

wing.

they make

humor,

earthly conventions,

on

earth
in

but

"

in stained

quaint philosophy

of

sky,
broken

save

and

and

supposes

village life.

angels

Wells's

of

satire, and

he

guest for

Sunday,

his

that

humor,

in the

the

present

manifestations

at what

the

book

social

with

as

in

in

on

and

is the

which

the

upon

in church

or

down

that

importance

insincere

flash

complications

do

sense

rainbow

spirits

creatures

This

pot shot

the

are

of heaven

is

and

tumbling

comes

introduces

in

It

concerning

For

of

from.

comes

decide

man.

satiric treatment

takes

bird, seeing

rare

he

be

special point

religion. A vicar

for

could

simply angels.

are

he

pre-Adamite

or

supematuralism.

burlesque

an

they

never

constitutes

modem

angels, whether

of the

example

an

to

perfect

and

were

purpose,

is

made

land

of the

in this discussion

of

personality

219

in

found
Anatole

Angels. Stephens's novel

contains

insert

an

of

published,
in

hand

heaven

and

several

life

considered

angelic.

fighting celestials,gives
cherub.

There

necessity

The

of the

fallen

for

wings,

and

complication

and

revolters

while
his

the

who

by
They

and

in

engage

inimitable.
back

At

the

good-bye,
farewell
his

tears

electing
sake

with

cherub

to

stay

It is

religion, these

not

become

back

and

The

for
tears

one

them

with

the

tinker's

corrupt than

is

novels
with

are
a

and

of

going, he
him,

from

do.

to

on

on

with

whimsicality
Wells's

the

satire

amusing,

angels remain
men,

say

cart, for

blasting

go

word

demi-god-like thing

which

are

to

and

his

over

casts

France's

decided

more

and

life

tramp

crowns

shreds

satire, yet

antagonize.
more

turns

English

two

of

measure

wings

book,

Irish

three, having

really quite

France's

ass.

an

pipes, eating cold

and

their

earth

on

panied
accom-

stealing the potatoes.

the

to

and

conventionally

not

corn-cob

life,

tinker

philosopher,

joys

Seeing her

shining wings

Unlike

does

don

Mary.

of love.

certain

last when

the

by

Parisian

up

itinerant

an

ideas

heavenly

heaven,

to

and

necessary,

between

contrasts

join

smoking

as

potatoes, and, when

feminine

marred

take

sad-eyed

activities

archangelic, such

life furnish

added

is not

novel

trio

removal

journejdng aimlessly about,

are

cart

the

nudity.

France.

French

in the

of

state

the

novel

of Anatole

Stephens's angelic

daughter

with

interest,

embarrassment

human

to

two

seraph, and

earthly garments,

adaptation

the

to

certain

arriving in

ones

donning

imaginings

The

stories

take

affairs not

in

addition

archangel,

an

Stephens's

element, though
unclean

us

is in both

clothes, the

over

in

Stephens,

his

novel

and

heaven

it, engaging

find

they

as

In each

him.
from

down

tumbling

come

mish
skir-

left in

had

has

eternity with

to

viously
pre-

preliminary

corpse

heaven

of

story

depicts

coin

taken

angels

short

which

over

has

earthly

up

and

Life

Supernatural

220

that
earth

wonderful

Life

Supernatural
visitor

is

alien.

Stephens's archangel

after

their

of

charming
whose

absurdity

taken

can

France

prove

appeared

and

it would

Wells

and

clear

alibi

number

of

Earth

recent

down

suggests

to

New

crept

On

into

even

Brooke

there

Certain

ridicules

another.
better

illustrates

life

several

are

that

trivial

after

in

his novel

others.

is

The
Heaven

Byron's

satiric

Psychical

vitriolic

death, sneering

at

entitled

Research

return

thrust

it

Society,

to

the
with

earth

to

and

them,

to
at

has

by Rupert
One,

attributed

messages

angelic

immortality

studies.

spirits would

angel

peculiar

of

volume

recent

more

an

has

type

satirize

the

he

or

Wells

event

the

new

to

for in

poetry,

Heaven,

Stephens,

in any

where

tendency

idea

the

these

apartment,

Proceedings of

the

deliver

York

The

psychology.

of

discover

to

Ticket-of-Leave Angel, brings

and

experiences

and

of

case

interesting investigation. A

an

The

story.

all

instances.

gratifying

before

years

humor,
reveal

imitation, since

to

as

of

interesting

an

but

"

with

human,

in many

by Wells

France,

possible inspiration for


and

ideas

be

influenced

was

earthly

we

devils,

conventions

together constitute

literaryparallelism
Stephens by

of

and

sense

mortal

In

that

angels

are

piquant

on

leveling

same

ghosts

angels

understand

to

of

back

his

heart.

the

case

heaven

to

woman's

of the

The

and

personality

three

whether

in the

back

turns

notice

we

undesirable

an

go

cherub

break

books

as

seraph

the

witches.

attempts

The

and

than

heretofore
and

essential

village

in characterization

observed

werewolves,

the

these

shown

tendency

the

vacation, while

three

have

from

glory rather

mmortal
all

banished

221

of

hope

unpleasant

imagery.
One

of

hereafter
act

drama,

the

recent

is Lord
where

gate of heaven

to

instances

Dunsany's
Bill

and

get in.

of
The

Jim,
Sardonic

satiric

pictures of

GlitteringGate,
two

burglars,
laughter

crack

sounds

the
one-

the
while

Life

Supernatural

222

they

are

engaged

in

what

heaven

wondering
mother

will be

"I

don't

would

sing,
they

if

to the

and

soothe

won't

have

effort
will be

they

want

angels

and

if

them

brought

me

would

When

the

glitteringgate

nothing

be

empty

in their

Bill

like

Very

nothing

the

cries out,

It is

them."

the

and

absolutely

"

sardonic

"

they

"

they?

swings open

find

and

space,

ears.

will

to.

of heaven

when

(Suddenly) Jim,

cross.

them

who

there

at them

against her,

like

just

smile

were

eagerly, they

enter

but

sounds

his

that

in

mother

good

sit and

up

"It

toughs

and

entrance,

an

Bill thinks

like.

they

Jim:

two

effect

to

there.

know

be kind

the

laughter

just like them!

like them"!

Very
Was

suggested

this

not

Brooke's

Rupert

by

poem.

Failure?
In

the

future
life

life

illustration

by

order

that

and

find the

we

we

devils

either
illustrated

as

The

life

humorously,

simple,

of

heaven

or

considering

these

is described

in

of

other

hell

satirized

as

rather

past.
to

than

flat after

seems

are

supernatural

treat

subjects is liable

treatment,

tialities
poten-

mankind

follies

the

Angels

mortal

symbolically,

methods

serious

this

of

is to

now

satirically or

of great

any

show

the

eyes,

image

to

little better.

absurdities

tendency

treatment

to

men,

The

conventional

and

Eternity
time

by angel

seen

devils.

the

like

way.

by
with

understand
made

are

other.

of the

may

reality to be

in

purpose

of the

hiunorously

treating satirically or

stories

than

place
Commonbe

factory,
unsatis-

symbolically
Dante

and

Milton.
In
with

supernatural

various

types

life, whether

of

stories

continued

dealing

beyond

the

mortal
up

in

fa,cts

span

on

another
seem

to

earth, renewed
world

appear

after

with

by reincarnation,
death,

reference

we

to

find

that

or

taken
several

the type chosen

for

Supernatural

by

treatment

So

versa.

far

instance

do

not

found

not

know

of

who

of

being

heaven

hell

or

by

round
Yet

where

world,

it

by

that

deeply
thought
are

be

heaven,

or

Can

this

life

the

merely

citizens
existence

doubtful

on

than
of
of

pictured

to

it
life

earth

and

women,

other

any

but

reaching

satiric
there?

this

as

an

theme

thought-life
the

men

of

are

cling

to

their

it

women

Are

or

clusions
con-

more

that

world?
a

in

the

sure

and

directly.

or

our

that

curve

here

used

were

be

ously,
humor-

part

preferences,

the

of

ideas

method,

one

of
write

seem

have

it

woman

women

most

other

if

I have

have

reflect

drawn,

of

Elixir
but

approach

racial

used

conventional

the

men

no

characterization

continuing

as

the

only

They

or

found

exist,
the

vice

has

men

for

does

tenaciously

of

skeptical

or

of

to

Jew,

well

be

in

truly

more

the

interesting.

interested

more

it

elixir

fiction

might

would

basis,

done

an

as

Jew

Where

of

individual

our

woman

hand,

stories

question

Since

frequently.

the

than

like

being

other

rather

of

means

ever-living

and

the

symbolically.

or

is

up

the

have

subject

the

is

women.

they

satirically

Sylva
taken

of

most

have

instances

such

On

Jew.

heaven,

heaven

has

gone,

Wandering
no

and

women,

where

Carmen

Wandering

often

the
that

say

all

at

has

hterature

them.

of

the

of

motif

the

Life.

search

my

English

in

either

as

223

from

distinct

as

men

Life

men

symbolic

in

CHAPTER

The

Supernatural

folk-tale

THE

is

of

element

Yet

story.

sake, but

own

with

is

folk-lore
in

has

fiction

and
and

of

various

is found
The
The

learned

societies

to

be

of any

childhood

delight in,
magic

and

It revels

forms

race

tales

of

wonder.
in the

demi-gods,

of

the

are

literary form

large element

the

Many

the

fictions

folk-lore

like

the

the

224

of

the

recks

of

to

stories

mystic.

demons,

of folk-literature.

down

come

Folk-literature

and

to

pletely,
com-

care

comparative

marvelous,

romantic,

giants

vanish

they

are

science.

stories that

and

traditions

in

is evident

folk-lore

recording with

are

tribes, and

engrossing

supernatural

of

says,

day

our

superstitions of peasants.

and

and

an

forms

before

appeared giving

races

of

up

scarcely

fact

defensive, which

various

literature

its

for

Kittredge

Scholars

the

been

not

is

presence

Professor

elsewhere.

legends

It has

consideration

its

as

the

on

novel, and

apologized for, covered

that

so

in

have

volumes

important

the

drama,

merit

to

rather

down

them

fiction.

in

an

in solution.

however,

as

eagerly hunting
preserve

been

been

longer

no

long constituted

enough

Now,

recognized.

myths

it has

materials,

other

fashions

new

ballad, in the

important

thought

the

literature,constantly recurring in poetry,

the

in

particularly

FolK-Tales

in

of

one

True, folk-lore has

short

VI

us

from

that

the

children

impossible,

of

little of realism.

Tales

of gods

fairy-folk,of

and

animals

The

endowed

with

human

supernatural
saints, and

English

only

in

earth

is

lands

have

written

nations.

This

primarily

folk-tales

deals

from

down

the

they

taken

are

"WTierever

in

traditions

fiction

fact

the

Scott's

and

Avenel,

and

work, relating
in

superstitions

Withered

Arm
to

attempt

of

corpse

'

In

The

Talisman.

In

The

Two

In

The

Monastery.

IS

spoken

appearance

who

Drovers.

peasant

class

present

Walter
the

on

racial
to

Scott, and

in

supernatural

in

have

we

is

good deal of

is

example,

For

Oriental

supernatural vision,^ superhuman

and

her

man

of

folk-lore, that

be found

This

volume

"stirs,"''the

already

gives

cure

their
as

the

stories of Sir

it does

as

the

superstitions, taboos,

unearthly

forth

so

languages, but

English, though,

value

likelyto

bahrgeist, ' besides

the

and

consideration

into

it is for

supernatural.

wonder,'

foreknowledge,

the

tribes

many

transcripts from

life of

of

alone.

work

magic

is

write

might

one

of

comers

other
in

their

the

form

the

degree in the

marked

from

gone

here.

up

of

take

not

But

for

definitelytreated, there
folk-lore

legends of

are

people.

in

distant

appearing

English fiction, not

as

colonizers, have

the

does

they

collections,

these

in

supernatural- folk-tales,
of

translated

cases,

of other

for

race

and

those

in many

dialects

fiction.

of such

English-speaking countries

of

fields

discussion

only with

course,

sections

of

cunning,

and

frame-work

especially rich

English, being

many

speech

225

fauna, of ghosts, devils, of

as

the

are

fortunate

the

far

well

as

the

are

of

powers

miracles,

themselves
but

flora

literature

for not

in Folk-Tales

Supernatural

his

almost

of

affliction

craft,
diabolism, witch-

Hardy's
life,is rich

to rustic

the

of

by touching

hanged,
Aunt

'

In

My

"

In

Woodstock.

"

In The

The

peasants.

account

been

of

Lady

Thomas

wholly

gruesome

has

of

discussed.

traditions
a

use

White

her

the

a
arm

to

the

complicating

Margaret's

Betrothed.

woman's

Mirror.

The

226

horror

being furnished

husband's

secret

coach

for

butter

come

forth.

Similar

and

Lorna

and

writers

of

the

American

fiction

of

the

Thomas

of

sense

Cable's

novels

in those

of

of

and

their

in
of

legendry

of

In

has

fiction

which

is inherent

so

are

heed
'

In

us

but

used
to
Tess.

them

and

mountain

others.
in

to

has

found

the

Irving, who

in

in Helen

Dutch

also

Mexico

super-

gives

certain

his ideas

of

'

Children

in

us

life of
of

amount

simple

superstition

soul.

in life that
a

brief

of the Mist,

we

glance
The

his

miracles.

There

fate, of luck, of taboo.

elements

fiction, yet

and

the

us

Thomas
for

truly the

practically every

these
in

Alice

Freeman,

traditions

Cooper,

represents

W.

George

Egbert Craddock,

Indian

antique

The

superstitions

Wilkins

saints, of devils

that

will be

there

of

and

stories, the

recreated

work

in the

Harris, Ruth

appears

Washington

the

with

as

Chandler

Mary

material.

such

contact

supernatural

J. Fenimore

people

one

in

degree,

followers, the

ghosts

most

on.

Dromgoole,

in

of

work

the

Jacobs' stories,

so

Charles

and

sections.

Spain in his tales of the Alhambra.

Janvier

stories

Allen

Dartmoor

Heights

in

life in

Joel

mixture
large ad-

other

W.

rich

marked

England

Jackson,

naturalism

equally

Fox, Jr., and

John

W.

so

novels

his

the

of

life,and

Page,

and

New

Brown,

A.

to

the

in

showing

Stuart, Will

Creole

Hunt

it

Nelson

McEnery

those

is

South,

reveal

negroes,
of

stories

as

sea,

instance, tales of mining

Stories

of

guild superstitions reflected

are

and

Wuthering

Doom,

novels

of

shows

folk-supernaturalism

other

various
for

Phillpotts'fiction^

do

as

refractory

making

others

in

occur

family

bewitched,

is

natural
super-

the

in

events

for

as

churn

elements

the

numberless
There

the

Eden

of

certain

securing love

when

stories.

peasants,

heralds

of

story

is her

youth

the

that

fact

gives

He

son.

that

life, charms

by the

Folk-Tales

in

Supernatural

is

no

We

scarcely pay
at

Witch,

books
and

will

others.

The
recall their
marked

frequent

degree.
the

poetry

Now

for

So

Absolute
folk-

linking

no

it to

of

the

fiction

and

so

poetry,

has

past,

compare
trasting
con-

purpose

my

of

fiction

the

folk-

particularly.
comparative

originalexamples

many

we

to

and

But

presence

As

we

feel

the

English.

the

as

its

bogles, giants,

variants

prose

language affords

no

taken

phenomena

fascinating than

more

an

tion
multiplica-

possible

it

the

literature,in

in

merely

heroes, of supernormal

make

show

it

symbolic

stories, the

is to

literature
on

and

what-not

science

no

folk-lore and
oral

of

stories

were

ethnology

And

present.

our

apology

no

heritage of the

folk-supematuralism.

of

supematuralism

of

oral

would

desire.

truth, has
of

velous,
mar-

loss in

we

of

plants, of fairies,banshees,

discussion

is

thing

science

in the

disseminated

widely

There

The

gods, demi-gods,

and

this

moral

recording

types
in

teaching

for

saints,miracles, and
the

the

supernatural

make

to

life of the

of volumes

animals

of

keen

to

poetry

such, with

as

attempt

interest

our

feel

last

tale,told frankly

wider

of nature,

227

color
sense

of the

is the

literature.

our

brought

should

we

realism

unreality,
in

the

elements

vague

allegory or vehicle
place

fact, without

us?

to

the

its

They

appearance.

In

if all the

effaced.

Folk-Tales

unreal, the wonderful, the magical, what

mean

fiction

in

Supernatural

its

study

fluence
in-

of what

truth

Tylor says':

Little

by little,in

more

comprehensive
begins

romance

inherited
has

land

The

'

In

materials
been

more

and

Primitive

built

each
over

each

anything

Culture, vol. i.,page

273.

of

and

of

and

story of

the

poet's

peopled.

of wonder
else

poetry

fancy,

province

renascence

fiction,

spontaneous

sources

for

cause

which

from

than

most

the

of

study

disclose

shaped

the

seems

Celtic Re\'ival, the

done

has

to

what

to

awaken

in

Ireland,
modern

The

228

love

of

for

antiquity, to bring
and

gods

Of

and

the
the

"a

to

the

drama

to

romances

its

of

which

powers

is in

enriched

has

will

literature

of

bush

every

perhaps
most

supematuralism

is

primitive mind

needs

for

rest
nature

itself.
as

or

belief

the

in every

hill-top,in

yellow primrose,
hawthorn

the
of

likeness

to

but

is the

fair woman,
the

in

Celts

gods,

and

barking
so

Icelandic

on,

to

style the
passion

and

the

valley.

effect

on

form

for

bird

ever

of

hounds,

which

court

feeling of
every

temperament.
every

blossom

dear

the

aspect,

primrose is vastly
"the

of

manage

spirit,in
or

The

theories

can

life and
a

folk-loristic

nature.

Every

with

of

one

ordinary

of

of

it

is

there

every

divinity of being.
a

and

proof

personality.

saw

as

lake

with

scientific

These

tears.

ancient, divine

of

every

concerned

no

past

lost.

is endowed

power

pantheism

cloud

or

With

mighty

phase of her
Celtic

that

ancient

"streams

interesting aspects

since, given

causation,

the

and

figure is expressed

fancy

be

never

glooms

sense

bog,

universal

the

One

and

felt its

immortals

and

some

has

calls

forms."

concrete

of

yet fiction

pedestrian prose
beauty that gives

Yeats

likened

voices

the

laughter, its

fact

poetry

been

has

vision, and

Each

verse.

poetic symbols,
about

in

bardic

"

of the

its

not

with

more

Ireland

"

of late

magic,

with

liftingwings

Ireland

prose,

land

written,

are

poured

itself

in storied

us

us

folk-tales,but

in

with

The

for

again
up

years."

singing birds," though

well.

as

space

thousand

sadly silenced

influence

yields

misty

concerns

than

of

been

gleams

twice

movement

nest

have

legends

the

literature

into

over

men

"Beyond

While

Folk-Tales

in

Supernatural

some

earthly
un-

than

more

golden
leek

spring

folk";

is the

tear

poetic speech bears

poetry.

This

figurative

The

suggests "an

sense

lingering yet
never

the Celtic

the

Lady

stories

Wilde,

legendry,

we

opened

God

by

receive

earth,

playful

find

explanations

swallow

classic

hurled

of

as

who

man

into

of

the
of

irate

legends of diabolized

nature,

his

the

phemer
blas-

the

up

yawned

to

tributed
at-

are

; as

of

be

of

the

work

frolicsome
is

and
of

large body

changing
of

to

breast-works

were

sulphurizing

the

demons,

said

There

as

destroying

nature

massive

titans

off.

of

later of demons

giants,and

show

to

of

which
anger

that

aspects

The

giants.

in feats

for

chasm

of rocks

masses

(Speranza)

the

caught

cyclopean walls,

gigantic

phenomena,

incurred

the

Celtic

great chasm

whirlwind

him

of

Wilde

combat

to

Synge, Yeats,

many

Lady

Him

activities

by

the

folk-literature

John

of

such

to the

delighted

to

their .passionate

chroniclers

occurrences.

Many

or

It lends

to

other

no

other

him.

or

in

various

appearances,

piling up

the

find

we

supernatural

and

akin

symbolism

and

to

Druidism

unearthly beauty,

Gregory,

challenging

crops.

glens where

Lady

tells of natural
was

as

of

of diverse

accounts

nature-worship

time.

present

In

old

229

by Christianity."

mystic

such

the

and

fjords

overcome

and

and

mythology
of the

the

folk-tales their wild,

poetry

Folk-Tales

after-thoughtof

about

quite

was

in

Supernatural

of the

scape
land-

springs, and

the

cursing of localities.

folk-tales

supernatural

enchanted

of the

forms,

and

Celtic

The

successive
been
as
'

the

stories

many

aspects of

other

Many

told

an

oral

In

Ancient

nature

too

droll-tellers
the

weird

invasions

and

the

heritage
Legends

of

and

the

tales

basis

mention.

many

have

Stories

country

with

for

in various

appear

have

They

else in almost

the

Cornish

through

peat fire.
or

water

associated

superstitions and

beside

to

numerous

bird, music, and

of

made

are

tell

out-of-doors.

lived

on

through

centuries
been

have

preserved

illegiblemanuscripts

Superstitionsof Ireland.

The

230

in

antique libraries,from

into literature
of terror
as

by the

and

Celtic

mind.

these

pantheistic,

It

Catholicism.

In

ism

we

in

English

Hawaiian,

do

can

drama

the
than

more

forces

of nature

Blackwood's

story. The

goblin

in

spirits,or the

form

them

of

he

life, and

loristic aspects
the

His
for

he

trees

more

contends

that

that

the
true

one

He
them

are

foe.

the

man

His

going is symbolic.

'

In

The

with

Man

the

Whomthe

Viking

Trees

soul

Loved,

The

and

folk-

trees, the
the

call
comes

takes

sea

definite
of
In

dead, but

sea

Sphynx

the

stream,

their

earth, especiallythe sea-gods. The

the

can

Sand

majestic

takes

did

woods

worshiper

In

live,personifying

the

not

them,

stressed this

bring

emotion, and

upon

gods

that

power

meet

embody

wind, the

than

move

to

degree.

that

the

or

signify diabolic

has

mythology

the

Algernon

Ernie,

bodily

out

makes

in

power

in

of Lord

powers.

as

awesome

they actually do

that

strange, compelling

deities

personality,with

are

flame

marked

and

life

snow,

the

Blackwood
to

of nature

forces of out-door

alive,with

going

sinister

sand, the fire,the


all

have

of ancient

other

voluminous

tales, that

incantations

forces, evocations
to

that

desert

stories,

awful, brooding Fate,

an

and

of his

supernaturalism

shows

in the

as

Mexican

so

Regeneration

destruction.

to

is

wind

drawing them,

men,

luring

that

sea

another

trees'

Irish

folk-supematural-

given supernatural

are

the

or

is

of

suggest the field.

fiction,as the

trees

material

of the

of

face

legends of nature,

similar

have

well

as

obstinacy

the

of

put

sense

heritage

the

in

bodies

The

powers,
a

note

to

stories

other

But

no

and

interesting

many

is

beauty

be

to

letters.

darker

in the
of

druidic

Synge's drama,

over

belief

taken

are

Indian, African, Canadian,

the

Certain

in

is

elsewhere.

one

they

patriots of

all-enveloping feeling

an

and

which

Celtic

of awe,

Folk-Tales

in

Supernatural

are

being.

Dunsinane,
The

Sea

merely
them

him

drawn,
with-

back

in power
to

Fit

to

for

itself.

The

the

Uttering

turned.
he

wave

gone.

into

the

The
the

in

singing sound

fallingwaters,

The

In

fluid

the

burns

in the

artist

trying

flame

breaks

out

heart

of the

earth

paint

to

is constmied
he

embodied
his

to

as

death, with

but

combination
of

turned

of the

bodily

out

become

of

out

lips

The

and

stories,and

of

than

more

well

as

dramatist, has
of his
the

and

ancient

given

The

supernatural

form,

^sop's
the

Reynard
fond

how

with

an

the

fables, the

humanity

human

powers.

by

Fire.

Heath

In

The

Temptation of the Clay.

estate,

own

he

Nature

of

has
is

here

has

Poe

to

warning.
Pain's

Barry

Stramm,
the

sinister,

the

German

moor

in

character

as

embodiment

terrible

one

well

as

of nature's

powers

back

goes

to

revivifying influence.
has

always

been

beloved

-beast-cycles of medievalism,
Reineche

story

Naturally

The

his

spirit

the

and

one

principal

is of the

In

curious

with

force

German

"

man

the

menace

in

This

draw

child, expressing through

power

beast-tale

Fox, the

of

action.

with

appears

lovely woman,

locale.

uncanny

as

shiper
Fire-wor-

snow

woman

August

it the

phenomena

mythology

as

The

fever, and

shows

described

power.

plays, making

phases

seen

where

psychically, because

as

message

maelstrom

setting for the

tries to

ejected by

with

harmony

human,

She

dead

is

man

given diabolic

the

away

fire that

the

of

The

Blackwood

soul

hands

is

moon

and

hearts.

flame.

charm,

sentient, emotional, possessing


her

sands

revealed'

are

picture

woman.

dsemonic

place, 3 where

ward,
for-

falling

being slipped

in men's

and

white

demon.

snow

of the

intense, rapturous

an

is like

luring

like

itself,the inner

of

great

by

dies his face

bent

Sea.

potentialities of fire

uncanny

internal

as

his

wave-like,

231

he

over

glistening surface

form,

of the

Being

of

Folk-Tales

instant, curving

next

along

swept

was

Supernatural

'

In

one

The

Fuchs,

that

endows

thinks
Glamor

of

of

all show
animals

Kipling's

the Snow.

The

232

Jungle

Tales

stories
well

Of

the

as

known

cycles

found

are

by

the

form
his

in

handed

and

in which

Harris

boyhood.

They

than

he

could

form

in which

Amazonian

they

Bleek.

believe

learned

from

basis

no

for

Pamela

Hindu

like

He

either

shape

primitive

there

is the

and

the

animal

is often

being,

as

candid,

in

crude

are

nearer

human

are

given

the

gulf that

sonian
Smiththat

led

originally

were

there

thought

tales of the

being,

was

Mary
African
old

supernatural

English lubber-fiend, who


fox

and

as

well

like
as

the

jackal
and

man

and

in

element

of

that
and

races

the

childhood

close

finds

one

dearer

to

is

man

the

human

in

child

in

can

than

attributes

civilization

has

in

folk-lore

tended

between

is

the

sensations

man's

to

peoples

child-life.

like

more

in

of

association

simple, hunger, love, hate, fear.


lifted

I.

will.

at

animals
nearer

spider

F.

H.

Stories, by

careless, unreflecting. His

are

turn,

is

Charles

animal

or

the

tales

by Theal,

Indians

stories

Anansi

troll
of

the

Harris

mysterious

races

same

but

includes

those

stories.

assume

In

various

are

Africa, by W.

among

theory.

Scandinavian

tricks

plays

is

dialectic

investigations for the

Remus

men,

such

Anansi
like

man

red

Milne-Horne,

type.
man

the

South

legends
Uncle

the

There

tales, collected

in

in his

found

given in the

in

more

any

brought together by

the Fox

Powell

Institute
to

myths

Reynard,

J. W.

him.

in the

firesides

edited

or

but

Kaflfir

series, as

"

"cooked

to

cabin

the

by

tells us,

came

Africa

through generations

them

not

are

tortoise

Hart, and

him

heard

stories

from

brought

were

down

help, he

this

to

but

Remus

Uncle

the

that

beast-

countries.

other

of

folk-fiction

America,

to

slaves

similar

the

so

are

Similar

mention.

but

it is understood

native

not

need

to

Remus

these

and

examples,

modern

Uncle

Harris'

Chandler

Joel

best

as

course,

are

and

Folk-Tales

in

Supernatural

An

human

animals,
and

tions
emo-

Animals,

thinking,

in
and

which

bridges

fix between

man

The
and

animals, and

union

that

whatever

Bums

and

with

the

The

of

one

the

world,

folk-fiction

of

forms,

reptiles and

who

We

also

in

colder

the

their

bear, and

large element

magic

climes

of the

Hawaiian
born

beings

life,and

Field's

of

stories

supematuralism,
Gaelic

seals

stories

wed

without

to lose their

Seal-Wife, by

and
to

This

Eugene

Nameless
was

weave

cursed
fatal

One,
with

be

may

fox, the

adventures
who

enchantments.

the

the

are

animal.

or

of

sea-beasts, forever
The

with

Forsaken

the

Pagan

Andersen's

tells the

The

seals.

creatures

Christian

of

natural
super-

children

mortal

by

of

folk-

and

their

compared

penalty

human

Lady.

Moon
show

either

became

are

Several

mortals

McLeod

fishes

Hawaiian

The

The

find

with

women.

into

wolf,

we

women,

McLeod

and

who

nun

the

certain

countries

from

women

Fiona
a

become

as

recount

and

Field, Hans

Arnold.

well

associated

exercised

and

turns

diabolic

as

or

the

and

be

may

in

by

say?

as

beings and

story of the little mermaid,


Matthew

island

between

human

men

souls.

In

drawn

Fiona

souls, who

turn

may

have

men

of enchantment

power

we

Eel-king, and

of

the

appear

beings living a normal

existing

may

forth,

sharks

are

The

as

relation

Dark

of

tropic countries

we

stories

sharks, devouring

Eugene

by

stories

women,

supernatural

themselves, by turns, human

sad

dealing

tropics elephants, lions,

so

confreres.

sea-animals.

sea

shall

in the

see

insects, while

the

In

mortal

marry

gorillas,and

The

of

of the

in

snakes, who

were-snakes,

tigers, baboons,

beings

childhood

gives

section.

supernatural

as

men,

evil powers.

The

social

stories

that, like the devil,lose their divinity and

creatures

The

is in these

country

that

to

stories

various

of

of the

sense

primitive simplicity

each

of

common

have

and

There

233

supernatural.

animals

reflectingthe

naivete

of

more

longed for.

country

race

we

gives

Folk-Tales

in

Supernatural

Merman,
story of the

prey

living under
mermaids,

of

the
the

seal
sea

kel-

The

234

the

pies,
and

sea-beasts

have

with

The

turning him

black

that

seal

Murdoch.

for social
Great

The
The

hers.

Smith, is
The

In
the
the

Old

flit in

of the

Sidhe,

These

their

of the

but

sent

to

because

brought

some

The

Mermaid.

soul

the

by

the

body

into

must

follow

like

those

J.

hell
it had

pity

it

was

who

the

allowed

water

have

tells

'

bird

In

that

she

so

must

into

birds,
with

two

land
a

far

away

touching story

that

the

on

and

cursed

was

in

in its bill to

Sea

go

golden chains.

sufferer

The

of the
that

by

two

fly up

to

in

dweUing-place

Christ

mortal

into

majrfly

them

enchanted

of the

cooling drops of

from,

turns

it mocked
on

Lugh

fiftymaidens

Pearce

of Paradise,
because

of

together

H.

learning,

meditation

which

to

Her

live in the

ones.

Crow

him

lead

of

men

drinks

spell that

that

describes

world, like passing

magic

Dechtire

birds

parching tongue,
"

tells of

creatures.

Yeats

useless

Benjamin

by being turned

in

stand

B.

as

life with

unearthly

old

cursed

were

flocks, linked

save

loved

Little

the

on

it

'

ashore

mortal

of

of

play

comes

Seraph, by William

fairy people.
a

beautiful

from

and

or

nine

silver chains,

mermaid

contrasts

that

and

under

fly in

that

his

cup

his soul

employs

solitary flight cross

the

drinks

G.
a

laughter

the

Wells

as

forever,

written

Twilight, W.

the

must

puts

drops into

her

the

water

recently

combination

Gregory

Hand

with

and

that

sighs. Lady
Long

Beyond

inflicted

herons
or

where

Druids, who

ancient

pools

satire^

of

enchantment

gray

H.

maid,
sea-

her

live with

to

and

stories

of the

hideously with

motif, and

Men

The

out

up

beast,

has

unusual

immortality.

maighdeanhmara,

coming

and

them

McLeod's

Fiona

the

souls, drawing

their

Sheldon

Merman
an

of

laughs

using the mermaid

from

up

into

Edward

vehicle

give

Murdoch,

bewitches

to

of God

Judgment

seal and

human

several

in

appears

over

power

lure

strange

kelpie
in

fatal

sea-beast,

half

half-human,

all

are

Folk-Tales

in

Supernatural

cross,

hell
cool

light on

Lady.

and
his

the

The

walls

of Paradise
The

story

careless
wear

life-blood

red

and

the

So

we

shield

possessing
each

on

often

no

of

of
rare

other

as

yet feel
these

animal
of

see

of human

sense

of life

pervading

them

Lord

Dunsany

in

animals
of

to

to

young,

find

remembers

in

which

with

his bride.

having

his

modern
from

the
and

man

find

we

animals

stories

be

would

stupid,

in the

and

stories

their

to

are

Rabbit,

Bre'er

nation,
damIn

remorse.

significant qualities

tragedy,

mysticism,

underlying

philosophy

of

mythology,

aspects
classic

in its
not

are

material, brings together


He

accustomed.
two

creature

Algernon
been

though

mythology

Blackwood
centaur

experiences

has

hundred

caracoling off the end

goes

his

deep

We

relishinga joke

mortals

of the

as

man,

from

curse

Remus

sorrow

most

frolicsome

who

metempsychosis

to

all.

part

we

and

romance,

altogether Celtic

centaur,

years

find

we

symbolic poetry,

perhaps

and

lure

must

sent,

undoing.

tragic symbolism

who

stories

drawn

as

thought decide,

literature, humor,

perhaps

has

keener-witted

extreme,

the

supernatural

aid

an

Uncle

must

casts

beast-tales

of

The

the

We

she

rose-tree.

for his

beasts

bird

lover

the

as

comical

man.

first

at

beasts

unhappy

and

on

wit.

mean

of the

in

might

we

the

or

the

tragic

because

that

richer

acts

cycles

humor,

sense

laughable

who,
is

different

element

of

last she

folk-fiction

into

Wilde's

expressing the kinship between

as

the

her

the

at

protection for him,

or

red

rose

under

animals, which

to

In

large

in

beings turned

gods for sin


nature.

But

Oscar

symbolic

loves

jewels that

the

everywhere

and

human

see

poet who

235

tender-hearted

white

ball.

is

the

nightingale lies dead

given

power

the

wears

see

forever.

the Rose

stain

the

to

rose

aside

while

and

to

told

Folk-Tales

it remains

sacrifice, where

girl has

rose

vain

his

gives

where

Nightingale

of

genius,

in

Supernatural

and

of the

tells of
and

of

lives
that

in

man

story

fifty
world
who

memory-

far-off

time.

The

236

introduces

Dunsany
the

as

us,

beside

bride

her

beauty,

whose

mother

There

is the

bird
is

the

that

the

bige from
of

dwells

dragon

with

the

up

London

must

forget

not

that

eats

Old

Man

Who

Looks

for

joy.

His

of

malignity

dawn,

earth

rider

past the

"like

sky

the
that

mortals

is

away

of his

fancy

the

to

and

romance,

we

The

the

find

World,

The

of

the

Well

in

who

world,
of the

synonym

Gladsome

Beast

There

the

are

far

the

City

halter,

sunlight,

the

is

is "a

doom,"

trunks

of

Dunsany

its

carry

are

unearthly

look

in

that

watch

trees

and

looses

far, ancient

pure

There

silence

which

over

to

of Never.

the

lands,

to

the
the
bear

reins
show

were.

it

of

manifesting
Morris,

Wondrous
the

prose

as

End,

supernatural

well

and

Isles, The

World's

the

itself in many

recurring again
at

the

is the

the

magic

alluring element

enchantment

Water

whirling

into

of William

romances

eternal

cabbages

the

bowl.

Lord

never

find

we

in

him

an

Cub-

till Ackronnion

agate

spoken

fate.

that

forms

Magic

to

holes

carry

wonders

the

of

edge

cease

never

Miss

Beast, he

destroys the

ghoul,"

their

to

the

at

scales

ancient, soundless

Gladsome

the

high house, whose

than

worse

the

by

with

Pits

of

through

them

In

Under

touch

There

whirring flight,bathing in the

caught

gnoles in their

the

us

with

be

to

one

off to

an

and

hippogriffs, dancing
to

her

time, when

into

tears

great

coming

carries

joyous chuckles

sings of the
weeps

seizes

Fairyland, but

after

neither

both.

like

and

and

men

sphinx.

is

streets

fairyland,

god,

glittering golden

far away

lying

underneath

beast

and

balcony

the

who

beast

temple

half

and

lion

to

immortal

and

Maharrion,

gray

her

of

centaur

desert

weird

romance

the

of

high-priest of

her

We

sea.

half

was

child

loathsome

rattles

lands

father

cat, but

nor

in

seeks

man-horse

the

lake-sepulchre, Sombelene,

sad

whose

beasts

curious, unfamiliar

other

whom

Folk-Tales

in

Supernatural

poetry,

again,

Wood

and

as

ways.

as

in

beyond the

others.

Yeats

The

said

that

Morris's

style in

prose

he

his

work

greatly.

the

Witch-wife,

such

as

and

People,
the

prison

the

power,

the

it

White

and

of

antique
of the

the

the

the

Stony
boat,

bars

which

with
the

to

mighty

Valley

ing
drink-

one

the

power,

changing
the

of

Grey-

swoon-dream

witches'

Morris's

in

is due

prose

the

howls.

wordless

the

to

rune-like

words, the

forgotten

the

golden

Birdalone's

of

characters,

enchanted

gives

Black

as

it influenced

runes

magic

most

quality

rhythm.

Yeats

tells of

immortal

youth
of the

prince
so

Tower,

weirdness

tone,

the

which
and

that

the

us

magic

vision

the

was

Wood-wife,

with

Might

237

unearthly

shows

unearthly,

is

the

the

cage

forth.

so

Palace

Part

of

Water

Wailing

weathers,

has

maidens,

three

supernatural

skin, the

He

He

the

Boat,

read, and

ever

forth.

so

Sending

had

Folk-Tales

old stories

these

beautiful
own

in

Supernatural

that

he

knees

beauty,

and

fairies ; of the

loses
the

by

whereby

magic

his wits
fire to

hares, of fire-tongued hounds


the

across

of

she

that

"with
his

that

of

powers,

the

gifted

on

death";

of

the

sink

little gray

the

mortal

his head

follow

with

wed

may

falls

world, of whistling seals that


darker

of bat-like

that

so

remains

day

is

woman

glamour

and

the

his

on

shadow
lost

soul

great ships,
doves

of the

good.
Dr.
of

in his Paudeen

Hyde,

of

sun-myth,

haunted

naturally beautiful,
robber, "Why

did

five hundred

of the

of

forest, of

the

witch

bring

you

away

princess super-

who

complains
gold that

my

gathering through

years

the Weasel, speaks

the

hills and

the

to

for

was

hollows

world?"

Lady
Youth

0' Kelly and

tells

Gregory
touched

him

could

look

upon

Miach

who

put

inconvenient

the

on

him
the

of

Diarmuid's

forehead,

without
eye

results, for

of

love-spot,

so

giving
cat

in

that

him

man's

no

her

where

woman

love; of

head,

with

The

238
when

he

would

start

the

or

an

sound

Druid

the

Druid

us

mists

of

healing
tells

it

wanting

was

in

be

to

stire

was

to
a

of

makes

the

Happy

square,

has

of the

pick

out

of the

the

on

dark

from

go!
of

sight;

of

desperate from

and

can

barter

it

the

they

forth

lead

and

the

because

he

them

who

buried

to

lost his

in

flowers

his

which

by

fisherman
are

as

take

wonder

strange

appears

The

Crier
in

lure

can

in the

uncon-

that

poetry

this

are

That

if he

Then

I will follow

tangle

worn

Crier

him
and

to

of hidden

in his

follow

its

often

out

of

steal

to

The

woman,

aid, says:

soul

things

chill hair
and

follow

and

as

present.

story

its waters.

invokes

body

the

by Night is

as

the

to

pool, coming

into

jealousy, who

with

the

altar.

lurks

use

of

on

swallow

Coleridge's Christabel

that

of those

of

speaks

send

Bottomley's

evil presence

of

eyes

jeweled

her, when

from

heart

his

mermaid

sacred

Prince, high

sends

enchantment

prose,

To

"I

others

one

people, and

He

ones.

love

"For

birds,

wound.

whereby

the

to

Gordon

into

turn

allegories,

ground,

the

for years;

and

shield

ancient