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Origins of the Cold War Unit: Instructional Materials

Lesson 1 Lecture:

Lesson 1 Documents:
Document A: Report from the Council of Foreign Ministers
Secretary of State James Byrnes
James Byrnes was in charge of the U.S. talks with the Soviet Union after WW2. He wrote this
official report in December of 1945 to explain the disagreements that had come up between the
two countries.
It is important to understand where our opinions and the Soviets opinions differ.
The Soviets are disappointed with the failure of the United States to recognize the new
communist governments in Eastern Europe.
They believe that we object to these governments because they are friendly to the Soviet Union.
They also believe that our unwillingness to recognize these governments is an example of our
hostility to the Soviet Union.
The American Government shares the desire of the Soviet Union to have governments friendly
to the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe. The prevention of another war depends on the
friendliness of the Soviet Union and its European neighbors.
However, the Yalta declaration clearly pledged that governments in these countries should be
established through free elections and this has not yet been done. As soon as we are satisfied
that this has been done we will recognize the new governments.
Document B: Achieving an Atmosphere of Mutual Trust and Confidence
U.S. Secretary of Commerce Henry Wallace

Henry A. Wallace was the U.S. Secretary of Commerce after WW2. In July 1946 he sent this
letter to President Truman, expressing his concern about the growing tensions between the
United States and the Soviet Union.
To the Russians all of the defense and security measures of the U.S. seem to have a hostile
intent. Our actions to expand our military security system and build more atomic bombs appear
to the Soviets as going far beyond the requirements of defense and instead are intended for
eventual attack.
From the Russian point of view, we have resisted Soviet attempts to create her own security
system in the form of friendly, communist neighboring states. Our interest in establishing
democracy in Eastern Europe seems to be an attempt to encircle the Soviet Union with
unfriendly neighbors which might serve as a springboard for an effort to destroy them.
How do American actions since the end of World War II appear to the Soviets?
I mean things like $13 billion for the War and Navy Departments, the continued production of
the atomic bomb, and the effort to secure air bases from which half of the globe can be bombed.
These facts make it appear either (1) that we are preparing ourselves to win the war which we
regard as inevitable or (2) that we are trying to build up a large enough force to intimidate the
rest of mankind.
How would it look to us if Russia had the atomic bomb and we did not, if Russia had 10,000mile bombers and air bases within a thousand miles of our coastlines, and we did not?
Lesson 1 Modified Documents:
Document A: Report from the Council of Foreign Ministers
Secretary of State James Byrnes
James Byrnes was in charge of the U.S. talks with the Soviet Union after WW2. He wrote this
official report in December of 1945 to explain the disagreements that had come up between the
two countries.
It is important to understand where our opinions and the Soviets opinions differ.
The Soviets are disappointed with the failure of the United States to recognize the new
communist governments in Eastern Europe.
They believe that we object to these governments because they are friendly to the Soviet Union.
They also believe that our unwillingness to recognize these governments is an example of our
hostility to the Soviet Union.
The American Government shares the desire of the Soviet Union to have governments friendly
to the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe. The prevention of another war depends on the
friendliness of the Soviet Union and its European neighbors.
However, the Yalta declaration clearly pledged that governments in these countries should be
set up through free elections and this has not yet been done. As soon as we are satisfied that
this has been done we will recognize the new governments.

Vocab:
Recognize = acknowledge as a true government
Object = are opposed to
Hostility = hatred, dislike
Pledged = promised
Document B: Achieving an Atmosphere of Mutual Trust and Confidence
U.S. Secretary of Commerce Henry Wallace
Henry A. Wallace was the U.S. Secretary of Commerce after WW2. In July 1946 he sent this
letter to President Truman, expressing his concern about the growing tensions between the
United States and the Soviet Union.
To the Russians all of the defense and security measures of the U.S. seem to have a hostile
intent. Our actions to expand our military security system and build more atomic bombs appear
to the Soviets as going far beyond the requirements of defense and instead are meant for
eventual attack.
From the Russian point of view, we have resisted Soviet attempts to create her own security
system in the form of friendly, communist neighboring states. Our interest in establishing
democracy in Eastern Europe seems to be an attempt to encircle the Soviet Union with
unfriendly neighbors which might serve as a starting point for an effort to destroy them.
How do American actions since the end of World War II appear to the Soviets?
I mean things like $13 billion for the War and Navy Departments, the continued production of
the atomic bomb, and the effort to set up air bases from which half of the globe can be bombed.
These facts make it appear either (1) that we are preparing ourselves to win the war which we
regard as inevitable or (2) that we are trying to build up a large enough force to intimidate the
rest of mankind.

Vocab:
Encircle = surround
Inevitable = going to happen no matter what
Intimidate = scare into doing what you want

Lesson 1 Opener-Closure Sheet (same for all lessons, so only shown here):

Name: _________________________________
Learning Targets:

Opener:

Closure:

Self-Evaluation (rate your achievement of each learning target from 1-4 and explain):

Lesson 1 Exit Slip (same for all lessons, so only shown here):
Name: ______________________
Exit Slip:
What resources could you use to help you with todays learning target or to extend your learning
outside of the classroom?
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
What did you do well in todays lesson?
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
What could you have done better?
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

Lesson 2 Lecture:

Lesson 2 Documents:
Document A: American Relations with the Soviet Union
Clark Clifford
Clark Clifford was an advisor to President Truman during the last days of World War 2. In
September 1945, he wrote this report purposing a policy of containment towards the Soviet
Union.
The Soviet Union appears to believe that a war with the United States and the other leading
capitalistic nations is inevitable. They are increasing their military power and influence in
preparation for the inevitable conflict.
Therefore, the United States must assume that the U.S.S.R. might fight at any time to expand
the territory under communist control and weaken its capitalist opponents. The Soviet Union
was able to take over in Eastern Europe and Korea because no other nation was willing and
able to prevent it. Soviet leaders were encouraged by these easy successes and they are now
preparing to take over new areas in the same way.
This government must seek to prevent additional Soviet aggression. The greater the area
controlled by the Soviet Union, the greater the danger to the United States will be.
The main deterrent to Soviet attack on areas of the world which are vital to our security will be
the military power of the U.S.
In addition, the United States should support and assist all democratic countries which are in
any way menaced by the U.S.S.R. or communism. Providing military support in case of attack is
a last resort; a more effective barrier to communism is strong economic support.

Document B: Telegram to Secretary of State George Marshall


George Kennan
George F. Kennan worked for the U.S. State Department as deputy chief of the embassy in
Moscow. In February 1946, he sent this telegram to the Secretary of State arguing for a new
strategy to deal with the Soviet Union: containment.
The Soviet Union will try to expand the boundaries of communism and Soviet control. For the
moment, these efforts are restricted to certain neighboring countries in Eastern Europe.
However, the Soviets may soon attempt expand in new areas.
All Soviet efforts internationally will be destructive, designed to tear down any sources of power
beyond the reach of Soviet control, ending only when Communist power is dominant.
This is not a pleasant picture. The problem of how to cope with this force is undoubtedly the
greatest task we have ever faced. But I believe that the problem is within our power to solve
without resorting to military conflict.
The main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of a longterm, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansion.
We must counter Soviet pressure and attempts to expand its influence at all geographical and
political points Soviet policy may attempt to target.
Doing so will eventually lead to either the break-up or the gradual mellowing of Soviet power.

Lesson 2 Modified Documents:


Document A: American Relations with the Soviet Union
Clark Clifford
Clark Clifford was an advisor to President Truman during the last days of World War 2. In
September 1945, he wrote this report purposing a policy of containment towards the Soviet
Union.
The Soviet Union appears to believe that a war with the United States and the other leading
capitalistic nations is inevitable. They are increasing their military power and influence in
preparation for the inevitable conflict.
Therefore, the United States must assume that the U.S.S.R. might fight at any time to expand
the territory under communist control and weaken its capitalist opponents. The Soviet Union
was able to take over in Eastern Europe and Korea because no other nation was willing and
able to prevent it. Soviet leaders were encouraged by these easy successes and they are now
preparing to take over new areas in the same way.
This government must seek to prevent additional Soviet aggression. The greater the area
controlled by the Soviet Union, the greater the danger to the United States will be.
The main deterrent to Soviet attack on areas of the world which are vital to our security will be
the military power of the U.S.

In addition, the United States should support all democratic countries which are in any way
menaced by the U.S.S.R. or communism. Providing military support in case of attack is a last
resort; a more effective barrier to communism is strong economic support.
Vocab:
Inevitable = going to happen no matter what
Deterrent = something that discourages someone from doing something
Menaced = threatened
Document B: Telegram to Secretary of State George Marshall
George Kennan
George F. Kennan worked for the U.S. State Department as deputy chief of the embassy in
Moscow. In February 1946, he sent this telegram to the Secretary of State arguing for a new
strategy to deal with the Soviet Union: containment.
The Soviet Union will try to expand the boundaries of communism and Soviet control. For the
moment, these efforts are restricted to certain neighboring countries in Eastern Europe.
However, the Soviets may soon attempt expand in new areas.
All Soviet efforts internationally will be destructive, designed to tear down any sources of power
beyond the reach of Soviet control, ending only when Communist power is dominant.
This is not a pleasant picture. The problem of how to cope with this force is undoubtedly the
greatest task we have ever faced. But I believe that the problem is within our power to solve
without resorting to military conflict.
The main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of a longterm, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansion.
We must counter Soviet pressure and attempts to expand its influence at all geographical and
political points Soviet policy may attempt to target.
Doing so will eventually lead to either the break-up or the gradual mellowing of Soviet power.
Vocab:
Dominant = in complete control
Cope = deal
Resorting = turning to
Vigilant = steady, never weakening
Containment = stopping, restricting to a certain area
Mellowing = softening, weakening

Lesson 3 Lecture:

Lesson 3 Documents:
Document A: Letter to U.S. Secretary of State
Alexander S. Payushkin
Alexander Payushkin was the Soviet Ambassador to the United States. He sent this letter to the
U.S. Secretary of State in July 1948 to explain the reasons for the Berlin Blockade.
The Soviet Government considers that the situation in Berlin is a result of violation by the
Governments of the United States of America, Great Britain, and France of agreements made
with the Soviet Union in regard to Germany and Berlin.
During the war, the four powers made agreements that have as their aim the demilitarization of
Germany, and the prevention of the revival of Germany as an aggressive power.
These most important agreements have been violated by the United States, Great Britain, and
France. Measures were undertaken by the U.S.A., Great Britain, and France towards the
division of Germany into separate Western and Eastern zones, by creating a separate currency
for the Western zones.
It appears as though this intended division of Germany is meant to ensure the dominance of the
U.S., Great Britain and France over Germany and all the nations of Europe.
The interests of the Berlin and German populations do not permit this situation to continue.
Therefore, due to the violations of previous agreements by the U.S., Great Britain and France,
the Soviet Command has been forced to adopt certain urgent measures for the protection of the
interests of the German population.

Document B: Speech on the North Atlantic Treaty


Senator Robert A. Taft
Robert Taft was a republican senator from Ohio who voted against the NATO Treaty. He gave
this speech shortly after the treaty was ratified, explaining why he voted against the treaty.
Why did I vote against the Atlantic [NATO] Pact?
The treaty is a part of a program in which we arm all these nations against Russia. I believe our
foreign policy should be aimed primarily at security and peace, and I believe such an alliance is
more likely to produce war than peace.
The treaty is meant to be defensive. But if we try to arm all the nations around Russia and
Russia sees itself ringed about gradually by so-called defensive arms, it may form a different
opinion. It may decide that the arming of Western Europe looks to be in preparation for an
attack upon Russia.
From the Russian standpoint, this view would not be unreasonable. After all, how would we feel
if Russia undertook to arm a country on our border; Mexico, for instance?
They may decide that if the West is preparing for war, that war might better occur now rather
than after the arming of Europe is completed. Therefore, they might launch a pre-emptive attack
against us, leading to a third world war.
A third world war would be the greatest tragedy the world has ever suffered. It might easily
destroy civilization on this earth.
Lesson 3 Modified Documents:
Document A: Letter to U.S. Secretary of State
Alexander S. Payushkin
Alexander Payushkin was the Soviet Ambassador to the United States. He sent this letter to the
U.S. Secretary of State in July 1948 to explain the reasons for the Berlin Blockade.
The Soviet Government considers that the situation in Berlin is a result of violation by the
Governments of the United States of America, Great Britain, and France of agreements made
with the Soviet Union in regard to Germany and Berlin.
During the war, the four powers made agreements that have as their aim the demilitarization of
Germany, and the prevention of the return of Germany as an aggressive power.
These most important agreements have been violated by the United States, Great Britain, and
France. Measures were undertaken by the U.S.A., Great Britain, and France towards the
division of Germany into separate Western and Eastern zones, by creating a separate currency
for the Western zones.
It appears as though this intended division of Germany is meant to guarantee the dominance of
the U.S., Great Britain and France over Germany and all the nations of Europe.
The interests of the Berlin and German populations do not permit this situation to continue.

Therefore, due to the violations of previous agreements by the U.S., Great Britain and France,
the Soviet Command has been forced to adopt certain urgent measures for the protection of the
interests of the German population.
Vocab:
Violation = breaking
Demilitarization = getting rid of military power
Currency = type of money
Permit = allow
Urgent = important and immediate
Document B: Speech on the North Atlantic Treaty
Senator Robert A. Taft
Robert Taft was a republican senator from Ohio who voted against the NATO Treaty. He gave
this speech shortly after the treaty was ratified, explaining why he voted against the treaty.
Why did I vote against the Atlantic [NATO] Pact?
The treaty is a part of a program in which we arm all these nations against Russia. I believe our
foreign policy should be aimed primarily at security and peace, and I believe such an alliance is
more likely to produce war than peace.
The treaty is meant to be defensive. But if we try to arm all the nations around Russia and
Russia sees itself ringed about gradually by so-called defensive arms, it may form a different
opinion. It may decide that the arming of Western Europe looks to be in preparation for an
attack upon Russia.
From the Russian standpoint, this view would not be unreasonable. After all, how would we feel
if Russia undertook to arm a country on our border; Mexico, for instance?
They may decide that if the West is preparing for war, that war might better occur now rather
than after the arming of Europe is completed. Therefore, they might launch a pre-emptive attack
against us, leading to a third world war.
A third world war would be the greatest tragedy the world has ever suffered. It might easily
destroy civilization on this earth.
Vocab:
Arm = give weapons to
Arms = weapons
Undertook = tried
Pre-emptive attack = attacking before the enemy can attack you first

Lesson 4 Review PowerPoint:

Lesson 4 Documents:
Document A: The Iron Curtain Speech
Winston Churchill
In March 1946, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill gave this speech at a college in
Missouri. In the speech, Churchill argued that the Soviet Union was at fault for starting the Cold
War.
It is my duty, however, to place before you certain facts about the present position in Europe.
An iron curtain has descended across the European Continent. Behind that line lie all the
capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. All these famous cities lie in what I
must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject to a very high measure of control from Moscow.
In a great number of countries, far from the Russian frontiers and throughout the world,
Communists are established and work in absolute obedience to the directions they receive from
the Communist center in Moscow.
Soviet Russia desires the indefinite expansion of their power and of communist doctrines.
So what we have to consider while time remains, is how to establish conditions of freedom and
democracy as rapidly as possible in all countries.
Document B: Soviet Ambassador Telegram
Nikolai Novikov
Nikolai Novikov was the Soviet ambassador to the United States. He sent this telegram to
Soviet Leadership in September 1946. In the telegram, Novikov argues that the U.S. is at fault
for starting the Cold War.
The foreign policy of the United States, which reflects the imperialist tendencies of America, is
characterized by a striving for world supremacy.
This is the real meaning of the many statements by President Truman: the United States has
the right to lead the world. All the forces of American diplomacy and military power are enlisted
in the service of this foreign policy.
During the Second World War, American leaders calculated that the United States of America
would enter the war only at the last minute. They thought that this would ensure that the main
competitors of the United States would be crushed or greatly weakened in the war. Then, the
United States would assume the role of the most powerful nation in the postwar world.
For this purpose, the U.S has developed broad plans for expansion which are being
implemented through the establishment of a naval and air bases stretching far beyond the
boundaries of the United States, through the establishment of alliances to encircle the Soviet
Union and through the production of atomic weapons.

Lesson 4 Modified Documents:


Document A: The Iron Curtain Speech
Winston Churchill
In March 1946, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill gave this speech at a college in
Missouri. In the speech, Churchill argued that the Soviet Union was at fault for starting the Cold
War.
It is my duty, however, to place before you certain facts about the present position in Europe.
An iron curtain has descended across the European Continent. Behind that line lie all the
capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. All these famous cities lie in what I
must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject to a very high measure of control from Moscow.
In a great number of countries, far from the Russian frontiers and throughout the world,
Communists are established and work in absolute obedience to the directions they receive from
the Communist center in Moscow.
Soviet Russia desires the indefinite expansion of their power and of communist doctrines.
So what we have to consider while time remains, is how to establish conditions of freedom and
democracy as rapidly as possible in all countries.
Vocab:
Descended = fallen
Sphere = area of control or dominance
Moscow = the capital of the Soviet Union
Obedience = following orders without question
Indefinite = never ending
Doctrines = beliefs
Rapidly = quickly

Soviet Ambassador Telegram


Nikolai Novikov
Nikolai Novikov was the Soviet ambassador to the United States. He sent this telegram to
Soviet Leadership in September 1946. In the telegram, Novikov argues that the U.S. is at fault
for starting the Cold War.
The foreign policy of the United States, which reflects the imperialist tendencies of America, is
characterized by a striving for world supremacy.
This is the real meaning of the many statements by President Truman: the United States has
the right to lead the world. All the forces of American diplomacy and military power are trying to
accomplish this goal.
During the Second World War, American leaders calculated that the United States of America
would enter the war only at the last minute. They thought that this would guarantee that the
main competitors of the United States would be crushed or greatly weakened in the war. Then,
the United States would assume the role of the most powerful nation in the postwar world.

For this purpose, the U.S has developed broad plans for expansion which are being
implemented through the establishment of a naval and air bases stretching far beyond the
boundaries of the United States, through the establishment of alliances to encircle the Soviet
Union and through the production of atomic weapons.
Vocab:
Imperialist = taking over and controlling other countries
Striving = trying
Supremacy = dominance
Diplomacy = relationships with other countries
Implemented = carried out
Encircle = surround

Lesson 5 Guiding Outline for ELD Students:


Introduction Paragraph (Give historical background about the topic- What? When? Where?):
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Thesis Statement (Answer prompt and state main reasons):_____________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Body Paragraphs:

Topic Sentence 1:

Topic Sentence 2:

Topic Sentence 3:

Evidence:

Evidence:

Evidence:

Commentary:

Commentary:

Commentary:

Evidence:

Evidence:

Evidence:

Commentary:

Commentary:

Commentary:

Concluding Sentence:

Concluding Sentence:

Concluding Sentence:

Conclusion Paragraph (Restate thesis and explain why your argument is important):
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________