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Origins of the Cold War Unit: Instructional Plan Day 1

Background Information
Date: 2/2/2015
Grade: 11th
Unit: The Origins of the Cold War
Instructional Plan Title: Introduction and American-Soviet Disagreements over Postwar Europe
a. Instructional Plan Purpose: This is the first lesson in a unit on the origins of the Cold War. The units central
focus is organized around the question: Who is responsible for starting the Cold War, the United States or the
Soviet Union? The unit is also focused on developing the language function of defending arguments about the
causes of historical events using evidence from primary source texts. This lesson introduces students to the central
question of the unit and begins investigating the question by having student analyze the growth of disagreements
between the United States and the Soviet Union over political issues in postwar Europe. The lesson will also
begin developing students ability to defend arguments using evidence from primary sources by asking students to
identify evidence in two primary source texts to defend arguments answering the question: Who was responsible
for the growth of disagreements between the United States and the Soviet Union over postwar Europe?
b. Alignment to State Learning Standards:
Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with
textual evidence. (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.3)
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary sources. (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.1112.1)
c. Leaning Targets:
SWBAT defend an argument about the causes of American-Soviet disagreements over postwar Europe.
Language Targets:
SWBAT defend arguments using evidence from primary source texts.
d. Previous Learning Experiences: Prior to the unit, students completed a month-long unit on the Second World
War. The unit was focused on developing students ability to identify evidence in primary source texts relevant to
historical arguments. In the week directly preceding this unit, students began focusing on not only identifying but
applying evidence from primary source texts to defend arguments, specifically arguments about the justness of
dropping the atomic bombs. In the lesson directly preceding this one, students examined the aftermath of the war,
including a brief look at postwar Europe. From this previous unit, students have gained significant background
knowledge about American involvement in the Second World War and some background knowledge on the
postwar world that will be drawn upon in this unit. From this previous unit, students also developed their ability to
use evidence from primary source texts to defend arguments to some extent.
f. Assessment Strategies
Content/Language Objectives
SWBAT defend an argument about the causes
of American-Soviet disagreements over
postwar Europe using evidence from primary
sources.

Assessment Strategies
Informal: At the end of the lecture, students will be asked to
rate their progress towards this learning objective and the
instructor will make note of students responses. The
instructor will also make notes on student progress towards
this objective based on students contributions during the
primary source discussions.
Formal: Student progress towards this objective will be
formally assessed using the guiding questions worksheet.
Student responses on the worksheet will be evaluated based on
quality, quantity and persuasiveness of the evidence cited in
the worksheet. The instructor will pay particular attention to
1

SWBAT defend arguments, verbally and in


writing, using evidence from primary source
texts.

the Final Position on the worksheet, in which students will


make an argument about the causes of American-Soviet
disagreements and cite evidence to defend their argument.
Informal: The instructor will also make notes on student
progress towards this objective based on students
contributions during the primary source discussions.
Formal: Student progress towards this objective will be
formally assessed using the guiding questions worksheet.
Student responses on the worksheet will be evaluated based on
quality, quantity and persuasiveness of the evidence cited in
the worksheet. The instructor will pay particular attention to
the Final Position on the worksheet, in which students will
make an argument and cite evidence to defend their argument.

g. Student Voice:
K-12 students will be able to:

Student-based evidence to
be collected:

1. Explain student learning targets


and what is required to meet
them (including why they are
important to learn).

Opener-Closure Sheets,
Verbal

2. Monitor their own learning


progress toward the learning
targets using the tools provided
(checklists, rubrics, etc.).

Opener-Closure Sheets,
Verbal

3. Explain how to access resources


and additional support when
needed (and how/why those
resources will help them).

Exit Slips

Description of how students will reflect on


their learning.

On their Opener-Closure sheets, students


will write the learning targets at the
beginning of the lesson. The class will also
have a brief verbal discussion of the
learning targets, what they mean, their
importance and what is necessary to meet
them. The instructor will take notes on
student responses during this discussion.
On their Opener-Closure sheets, students
will rate their progress towards the learning
targets from 1 to 4 at the end of the lesson.
Students will also explain their rating. The
class will also have a discussion on student
progress towards the learning targets
between the lecture and primary source
activity and at the end of the lesson. The
instructor will take notes on student
responses during these discussions.
On their Exit Slips, students will be asked
to identify additional resources they can
draw upon to help them with the learning
target and to extend their learning outside of
the classroom.

h. Grouping of Students for Instruction: Students will conduct a think-pair-share on the opening question in which
they first write an answer to the question individually, then share their answer with a partner and finally discuss the
question as a whole-class. Students will also conduct Ten-Second Shares throughout the lecture, in which they
briefly answer a question with a partner before sharing their responses in a brief whole-class discussion. During the
primary source activity, students will form their positions individually, read the documents and answer the guiding
questions in small groups, and share their positions and responses to the guiding questions in whole-class
discussions. During the closure activity, students will answer the closure question individually and share their
responses in a whole-class discussion.
Instruction and Engaging Students in Learning
2

a. Introduction: Students will begin the lesson by completing the opener portion of their Opener-Closure sheets,
discussing the learning targets and performing a think-pair-share brainstorm of everything they know about the
Cold War to activate their prior knowledge.
b. Learning Activities:
After discussing the learning targets as a whole-class, the lesson will begin with students conducting a
think-pair-share on the opening task. The opener will ask students to brainstorm everything they know
about the Cold War. After brainstorming individually, students will share their brainstorm with their
partner before participating in a whole-class discussion. (5 minutes)
The instructor will then give a ten-minute lecture introducing the Cold War, posing the central question
for the unit and explaining the growth of American-Soviet disagreements over postwar Europe to build
the necessary background knowledge. The lecture will include Ten-Second Shares to help students stay
engaged and collaboratively construct meaning. (10 minutes)
At the end of the lecture, the class will have a brief discussion on students progress towards the learning
targets. (2 minutes)
The class will then discuss some possibly challenging vocabulary that students will encounter in the
primary sources. The instructor will go through each word individually, discussing and clarifying the
meaning of each with the class to prepare them to read the documents. (5 minutes)
The instructor will then pass out the documents and the guiding questions worksheet. The instructor will
also split students into groups of four or five. Before, reading the sources, students will be asked to take a
position based on information in the lecture on the question Who was responsible for the growth of
disagreements between the United States and the Soviet Union over postwar Europe? (3 minutes)
Students will then be asked to read the first document and answer the guiding questions with their small
group. The class will then have a whole-class discussion on the questions. Finally, students will be asked
again to take a position on the same question mentioned above. The class will then briefly discuss
students positions. (10 minutes)
Students will then be asked to read the second document and answer the guiding questions with their
small group. The class will then have a whole-class discussion on the questions. Finally, students will be
asked to take a final position on the previously mentioned question and cite evidence from the documents
to defend it. The class will then have a discussion in which students will be asked to verbally defend their
positions with evidence from the texts. (15 minutes)
At the end of the class period, students will fill out the closure portion of their Opener-Closure sheets,
including rating their progress towards the learning targets and answering a closure question asking
students to reflect on whether their position changed over the course of the lesson. The class will also
briefly discuss the learning targets and, if time permits, the closure question. (5 minutes)
c. Closure: As mentioned above, the class period will end with students filling out their Opener-Closure sheets,
including rating their progress towards the learning targets, answering a closure question and discussing their
learning targets and closure responses as a whole-class.
d. Instructional Considerations:
Multiple means of access: Material will be presented verbally, in text and visually during the opening
activity, the closing activity and the lecture. Material will be presented in text and verbally during the
primary source activity.
Multiple means of engagement: Students will participate in the opening activity by brainstorming
individually, sharing their brainstorm with their partner and sharing in the whole-class discussions on the
learning targets and the opening brainstorm. Students will participate in the lecture by answering
questions posed by the instructor, sharing with their partner and the class during Ten-Second Shares, and
sharing with the class during the vocabulary discussion. Students will participate in the primary source
activity by individually writing down their positions, working with their small group to answer the
guiding questions and sharing in the whole-class discussions. Students will participate in the closing
activity by answering the closure question individually and sharing in the whole-class discussion on the
closure question and the learning targets.
Multiple means of expression: Students can express their learning in writing on the Opener-Closure
sheets and the guiding questions worksheet. Students can express their learning verbally with their partner
3

during the opening brainstorm and the ten-second shares, with their small group during the primary
source activity, and with the whole class during the opening discussion, the lecture, the primary source
discussion and the closing discussion.
Methods of differentiation: A modified version of the primary source documents with a glossary and
some simplified sentence structure will be provided for the ELD students. Small groups will also be
constructed to mix students who are close to mastery of the learning objectives with students who are
developing towards the learning objectives. This will allow students who are developing towards the
objectives to benefit from the help from the students who have nearly mastered the objectives.
Language learning objectives: During the primary source activity students will be developing towards the
language objective. Students must identify evidence in the sources to support their answers to the guiding
questions. Students must then use this evidence to defend an argument about the causes of an historical
event to fill out the Final Position part of the guiding question worksheet and in the whole-class
discussion on students final positions.

e. Instructional Materials, Resources, and Technology:


Primary source Document A excerpted from: Byrnes, J. (1945). Interim meeting of foreign ministers of
the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The Avalon Project
Online. Retrieved from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/decade19.asp
Primary source Document B excerpted from: Wallace, H. (1946). Achieving and atmosphere of mutual
trust and confidence. In Papers of Harry S. Truman, Harry S. Truman Library. Retrieved from
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6906/
f.

Acknowledgements: Lesson plan and all materials created by teaching candidate unless otherwise cited.

Instructional Plan Day 2


Background Information
Date: 2/3/2015
Grade: 11th
Unit: The Origins of the Cold War
Instructional Plan Title: The Truman Doctrine and Containment
a. Instructional Plan Purpose: This is the second lesson in a unit on the origins of the Cold War. The units central
focus is organized around the question: Who is responsible for starting the Cold War, the United States or the
Soviet Union? The unit is also focused on developing the language function of defending arguments about the
causes of historical events using evidence from primary source texts. This lesson introduces students to the
formation of U.S. strategy as the Cold War developed. The lesson focuses on the reasons cited by the United
States for the formation of the Truman Doctrine and the containment strategy. The lesson further develops
students ability to defend an argument about the units central question by asking students to find evidence to
support American arguments that containment was necessary to protect the United States.
e. Alignment to State Learning Standards:
Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with
textual evidence. (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.3)
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary sources. (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.1112.1)
f.

Leaning Targets:
SWBAT defend an argument about the causes of United States containment strategy.
Language Targets:
SWBAT defend arguments using evidence from primary source texts.

g. Previous Learning Experiences: Prior to the unit, students completed a month-long unit on the Second World
War. The unit was focused on developing students ability to identify evidence in primary source texts relevant to
historical arguments. In the week directly preceding this unit, students began focusing on not only identifying but
applying evidence from primary source texts to defend arguments, specifically arguments about the justness of
dropping the atomic bombs. In the lesson directly preceding this unit, students examined the aftermath of the war,
including a brief look at postwar Europe. From this previous unit, students have gained significant background
knowledge about American involvement in the Second World War and some background knowledge on the
postwar world that will be drawn upon in this unit. From this previous unit, students also developed their ability to
use evidence from primary source texts to defend arguments to some extent. In the lesson directly preceding this
one, students were introduced to the central question for the unit and began answering the question by making an
argument about the causes of the American-Soviet disagreements over postwar Europe.
f. Assessment Strategies
Content/Language Objectives
SWBAT defend an argument about the causes
of United States containment strategy using
evidence from primary sources.

Assessment Strategies
Informal: At the end of the lecture, students will be asked to
rate their progress towards this learning objective and the
instructor will make note of students responses. The
instructor will also make notes on student progress towards
this objective based on students contributions during the
primary source discussions.
Formal: Student progress towards this objective will be
formally assessed using the guiding questions worksheet.
Student responses on the worksheet will be evaluated based on
quality, quantity and persuasiveness of the evidence cited in
5

SWBAT defend arguments, verbally and in


writing, using evidence from primary source
texts.

the worksheet. Student progress towards this objective will


also be assessed based on the writing activity. Students
writing will be evaluated on the accuracy and persuasiveness
of the evidence cited.
Informal: The instructor will also make notes on student
progress towards this objective based on students
contributions during the primary source discussions.
Formal: Student progress towards this objective will be
formally assessed using the guiding questions worksheet.
Student responses on the worksheet will be evaluated based on
quality, quantity and persuasiveness of the evidence cited in
the worksheet. Student progress towards this objective will
also be assessed based on the writing activity. Students
writing will be evaluated on the accuracy and persuasiveness
of the evidence cited.

g. Student Voice:
K-12 students will be able to:

Student-based evidence to
be collected:

4. Explain student learning targets


and what is required to meet
them (including why they are
important to learn).

Opener-Closure Sheets,
Verbal

5. Monitor their own learning


progress toward the learning
targets using the tools provided
(checklists, rubrics, etc.).

Opener-Closure Sheets,
Verbal

6. Explain how to access resources


and additional support when
needed (and how/why those
resources will help them).

Exit Slips

i.

Description of how students will reflect on


their learning.

On their Opener-Closure sheets, students


will write the learning targets at the
beginning of the lesson. The class will also
have a brief verbal discussion of the
learning targets, what they mean, their
importance and what is necessary to meet
them. The instructor will take notes on
student responses during this discussion.
On their Opener-Closure sheets, students
will rate their progress towards the learning
targets from 1 to 4 at the end of the lesson.
Students will also explain their rating. The
class will also have a discussion on student
progress towards the learning targets
between the lecture and primary source
activity and at the end of the lesson. The
instructor will take notes on student
responses during these discussions.
On their Exit Slips, students will be asked
to identify additional resources they can
draw upon to help them with the learning
target and to extend their learning outside of
the classroom.

Grouping of Students for Instruction: Students will conduct a think-pair-share on the opening question in which
they first write an answer to the question individually, then share their answer with a partner and finally discuss the
question as a whole-class. Students will also conduct Ten-Second Shares throughout the lecture, in which they
briefly answer a question with a partner before sharing their responses in a brief whole-class discussion. During the
primary source activity, students will read the documents and answer the guiding questions in small groups and
share their responses to the guiding questions in whole-class discussions. During the writing activity, students will
write their evidence and commentary individually. During the closure activity, students will answer the closure
question individually and share their responses in a whole-class discussion.
6

Instruction and Engaging Students in Learning


b. Introduction: Students will begin the lesson by completing the opener portion of their Opener-Closure sheets. This
includes writing down the learning targets and discussing them as a whole-class. This also includes conducting a
think-pair-share on the opening question which asks students to predict the United States response to growing
disagreements with the Soviet Union based on any prior knowledge.
g. Learning Activities:
After discussing the learning targets as a whole-class, the lesson will begin with students conducting a
think-pair-share on the opening task. The opener will ask students to predict the United States response to
growing disagreements with the Soviet Union based on any prior knowledge. After writing down their
prediction individually, students will share their prediction with their partner before participating in a
whole-class discussion. (5 minutes)
The instructor will then give a ten-minute lecture building background knowledge necessary to complete
the primary source and writing activities. The lecture will cover the formation of the Truman Doctrine
and the American strategy of containment, an example of containment in action (the Marshall Plan), the
early results of the strategy, and opposing American and Soviet views of the strategy. The lecture will
include Ten-Second Shares to help students stay engaged and collaboratively construct meaning. (10
minutes)
i. The lecture will also include a kinesthetic demonstration of containment. After explaining the
containment strategy the instructor will have students demonstrate how the strategy works,
especially how the concept of counter-force works. Students will be split into two groups, with
one group in a mass in the middle of the room and the other group lined up along the outside of
the room surrounding the first group. The first group will try to expand by occasionally trying to
leave its area in the center of the group. Whenever this happens, the group on the outside will
send members to the area of possible expansion to create a barrier. This will represent the United
States policy of containing the Soviet Union and communism by applying counter-force
anywhere the Soviets or communism appear to be expanding. (5 minutes)
At the end of the lecture, the class will have a brief discussion on students progress towards the learning
targets. (2 minutes)
The class will then discuss some possibly challenging vocabulary that students will encounter in the
primary sources. The instructor will go through each word individually, discussing and clarifying the
meaning of each with the class to prepare them to read the documents. (5 minutes)
The instructor will then pass out the documents and the guiding questions worksheet. The instructor will
also split students into the same groups of four or five as in the previous lesson.
Students will then be asked to read the documents and answer the guiding questions with their small
group. The class will then have a whole-class discussion on the questions. (18 minutes)
After the discussion, students will be given five minutes for a short writing activity. Students will be
asked to individually identify and explain at least two pieces of evidence to support the argument:
Containment of the Soviet Union was necessary for the protection of the United States. (5 minutes)
At the end of the class period, students will fill out the closure portion of their Opener-Closure sheets,
including rating their progress towards the learning targets and answering a closure question asking
students to predict the Soviet response to containment. The class will also briefly discuss the learning
targets and, if time permits, the closure question. (5 minutes)
h. Closure: As mentioned above, the class period will end with students filling out their Opener-Closure sheets,
including rating their progress towards the learning targets, answering a closure question and discussing their
learning targets and closure responses as a whole-class.
i.

Instructional Considerations:
Multiple means of access: Material will be presented verbally, in text and visually during the opening
activity, the closing activity and the lecture. Material will be presented in text and verbally during the
primary source activity. Material will be presented kinesthetically during the containment demonstration.
Multiple means of engagement: Students will participate in the opening activity by answering the
question individually, sharing their answer with their partner and sharing in the whole-class discussions
7

j.

on the learning targets and the opening activity. Students will participate in the lecture by answering
questions posed by the instructor, sharing with their partner and the class during Ten-Second Shares,
participating in the demonstration, and sharing with the class during the vocabulary discussion. Students
will participate in the primary source activity by working with their small group to answer the guiding
questions and sharing in the whole-class discussions. Students will participate in the writing activity by
identifying and explaining two pieces of evidence in writing. Students will participate in the closing
activity by answering the closure question individually and sharing in the whole-class discussion on the
closure question and the learning targets.
Multiple means of expression: Students can express their learning in writing on the Opener-Closure
sheets, the guiding questions worksheet and the writing activity. Students can express their learning
verbally with their partner during the opening activity and the ten-second shares, with their small group
during the primary source activity, and with the whole class during the opening discussion, the lecture,
the primary source discussion and the closing discussion.
Methods of differentiation: A modified version of the primary source documents with a glossary and
some simplified sentence structure will be provided for the ELD students. Small groups will also be
constructed to mix students who are close to mastery of the learning objectives with students who are
developing towards the learning objectives. This will allow students who are developing towards the
objectives to benefit from the help from the students who have nearly mastered the objectives. An outline
will also be provided to the ELD students to help them structure their paragraphs for the writing activity.
Language learning objectives: During the primary source activity students will be developing towards the
language objective. Students must identify evidence in the sources to support their answers to the guiding
questions. Students must then use this evidence to defend an argument about the causes of an historical
event in the writing activity.

Instructional Materials, Resources, and Technology:


Primary source Document A excerpted from: Clifford, C. (1945). American relations with the Soviet
Union. Truman Library Online. Retrieved from https://www.trumanlibrary.org/4-1.pdf
Primary source Document B excerpted from: Kennan, G. (1946). Telegram to Secretary of State George
Marshall. Truman Library Online. Retrieved from
https://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/coldwar/documents/pdf/6-6.pdf

k. Acknowledgements: Lesson plan and all materials created by teaching candidate unless otherwise cited.

Instructional Plan Day 3


Background Information
Date: 2/4/2015
Grade: 11th
Unit: The Origins of the Cold War
Instructional Plan Title: The Berlin Blockade and the Formation of NATO
a. Instructional Plan Purpose: This is the third lesson in a unit on the origins of the Cold War. The units central
focus is organized around the question: Who is responsible for starting the Cold War, the United States or the
Soviet Union? The unit is also focused on developing the language function of defending arguments about the
causes of historical events using evidence from primary source texts. In this lesson, students examine the Berlin
Blockade and the formation of NATO. The lesson focuses on reasons cited by the Soviet Union for undertaking
the blockade and reasons that the formation of NATO contributed to starting the Cold War. The lesson further
develops students ability to defend an argument about the units central question by asking students to find
evidence to support Soviet arguments that the Berlin Blockade was justified and the NATO alliance was a major
threat to the Soviet Union.
h. Alignment to State Learning Standards:
Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with
textual evidence. (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.3)
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary sources. (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.1112.1)
i.

Content Objectives:
SWBAT defend an argument about the causes of Berlin Blockade and the formation of the NATO alliance.
Language Objectives:
SWBAT defend arguments using evidence from primary source texts.

j.

Previous Learning Experiences: Prior to the unit, students completed a month-long unit on the Second World
War. The unit was focused on developing students ability to identify evidence in primary source texts relevant to
historical arguments. In the week directly preceding this unit, students began focusing on not only identifying but
applying evidence from primary source texts to defend arguments, specifically arguments about the justness of
dropping the atomic bombs. In the lesson directly preceding this unit, students examined the aftermath of the war,
including a brief look at postwar Europe. From this previous unit, students have gained significant background
knowledge about American involvement in the Second World War and some background knowledge on the
postwar world that will be drawn upon in this unit. From this previous unit, students also developed their ability to
use evidence from primary source texts to defend arguments to some extent. In the first lesson in this unit,
students were introduced to the central question for the unit and began answering the question by making an
argument about the causes of the American-Soviet disagreements over postwar Europe. In the second lesson in
this unit, students found evidence to support American arguments that the containment strategy was necessary.

f. Assessment Strategies
Content/Language Objectives
SWBAT defend an argument about the causes
of Berlin Blockade and the formation of the
NATO alliance using evidence from primary
sources.

Assessment Strategies
Informal: At the end of the lecture, students will be asked to
rate their progress towards this learning objective and the
instructor will make note of students responses. The
instructor will also make notes on student progress towards
this objective based on students contributions during the
primary source discussions.
Formal: Student progress towards this objective will be
formally assessed using the guiding questions worksheet.
9

SWBAT defend arguments, verbally and in


writing, using evidence from primary source
texts.

Student responses on the worksheet will be evaluated based on


quality, quantity and persuasiveness of the evidence cited in
the worksheet. Student progress towards this objective will
also be assessed based on the writing activity. Students
writing will be evaluated on the accuracy and persuasiveness
of the evidence cited.
Informal: The instructor will also make notes on student
progress towards this objective based on students
contributions during the primary source discussions.
Formal: Student progress towards this objective will be
formally assessed using the guiding questions worksheet.
Student responses on the worksheet will be evaluated based on
quality, quantity and persuasiveness of the evidence cited in
the worksheet. Student progress towards this objective will
also be assessed based on the writing activity. Students
writing will be evaluated on the accuracy and persuasiveness
of the evidence cited.

g. Student Voice:
K-12 students will be able to:

Student-based evidence to
be collected:

7. Explain student learning targets


and what is required to meet
them (including why they are
important to learn).

Opener-Closure Sheets,
Verbal

8. Monitor their own learning


progress toward the learning
targets using the tools provided
(checklists, rubrics, etc.).

Opener-Closure Sheets,
Verbal

9. Explain how to access resources


and additional support when
needed (and how/why those
resources will help them).

Exit Slips

j.

Description of how students will reflect on


their learning.

On their Opener-Closure sheets, students


will write the learning targets at the
beginning of the lesson. The class will also
have a brief verbal discussion of the
learning targets, what they mean, their
importance and what is necessary to meet
them. The instructor will take notes on
student responses during this discussion.
On their Opener-Closure sheets, students
will rate their progress towards the learning
targets from 1 to 4 at the end of the lesson.
Students will also explain their rating. The
class will also have a discussion on student
progress towards the learning targets
between the lecture and primary source
activity and at the end of the lesson. The
instructor will take notes on student
responses during these discussions.
On their Exit Slips, students will be asked
to identify additional resources they can
draw upon to help them with the learning
target and to extend their learning outside of
the classroom.

Grouping of Students for Instruction: Students will conduct a think-pair-share on the opening question in which
they first write an answer to the question individually, then share their answer with a partner and finally discuss the
question as a whole-class. Students will also conduct Ten-Second Shares throughout the lecture, in which they
briefly answer a question with a partner before sharing their responses in a brief whole-class discussion. During the
primary source activity, students will read the documents and answer the guiding questions in small groups and
share their responses to the guiding questions in whole-class discussions. During the writing activity, students will
10

write their evidence and commentary individually. During the closure activity, students will answer the closure
question individually and share their responses in a whole-class discussion.
Instruction and Engaging Students in Learning
c. Introduction: Students will begin the lesson by completing the opener portion of their Opener-Closure sheets. This
includes writing down the learning targets and discussing them as a whole-class. This also includes conducting a
think-pair-share on the opening question which asks students to define the term blockade if they are already familiar
with it or to predict the meaning of the term if they are not.
l.

Learning Activities:
After discussing the learning targets as a whole-class, the lesson will begin with students conducting a
think-pair-share on the opening task. The opener will ask students to define the term blockade if they
are already familiar with it or to predict the meaning of the term if they are not. After answering the
question individually, students will share their answer with their partner before participating in a wholeclass discussion. The instructor will use the whole-class discussion to clarify students knowledge of the
term. (5 minutes)
The instructor will then give a ten-minute lecture building background knowledge necessary to complete
the primary source and writing activities. The lecture will cover the Berlin Blockade, the formation of
NATO and Soviet fears over security due to American actions. The lecture will include Ten-Second
Shares to help students stay engaged and collaboratively construct meaning. (10 minutes)
At the end of the lecture, the class will have a brief discussion on students progress towards the learning
targets. (2 minutes)
The class will then discuss some possibly challenging vocabulary that students will encounter in the
primary sources. The instructor will go through each word individually, discussing and clarifying the
meaning of each with the class to prepare them to read the documents. (5 minutes)
The instructor will then pass out the documents and the guiding questions worksheet. The instructor will
also split students into the same groups of four or five as in the previous lesson.
Students will then be asked to read the documents and answer the guiding questions with their small
group. The class will then have a whole-class discussion on the questions. (23 minutes)
After the discussion, students will be given five minutes for a short writing activity. Students will be
asked to individually identify and explain at least two pieces of evidence to support the argument:
American actions during 1948 and 1949, including the creation of a new currency in West Germany and
the formation of NATO, were threatening to the Soviet Union.. (5 minutes)
At the end of the class period, students will fill out the closure portion of their Opener-Closure sheets,
including rating their progress towards the learning targets and answering a closure question asking
students to rate themselves on their ability to write five-paragraph history essays. The class will also
briefly discuss the learning targets and, if time permits, the closure question. (5 minutes)

m. Closure: As mentioned above, the class period will end with students filling out their Opener-Closure sheets,
including rating their progress towards the learning targets, answering a closure question and discussing their
learning targets and closure responses as a whole-class. The closure question, which asks students to rate their
ability to write five-paragraph history essays, will help the instructor assess how much scaffolding and modelling
is necessary for the final two lessons in the unit.
n. Instructional Considerations:
Multiple means of access: Material will be presented verbally, in text and visually during the opening
activity, the closing activity and the lecture. Material will be presented in text and verbally during the
primary source activity.
Multiple means of engagement: Students will participate in the opening activity by answering the
question individually, sharing their answer with their partner and sharing in the whole-class discussions
on the learning targets and the opening activity. Students will participate in the lecture by answering
questions posed by the instructor, sharing with their partner and the class during Ten-Second Shares, and
sharing with the class during the vocabulary discussion. Students will participate in the primary source
activity by working with their small group to answer the guiding questions and sharing in the whole-class
11

discussions. Students will participate in the writing activity by identifying and explaining two pieces of
evidence in writing. Students will participate in the closing activity by answering the closure question
individually and sharing in the whole-class discussion on the closure question and the learning targets.
Multiple means of expression: Students can express their learning in writing on the Opener-Closure
sheets, the guiding questions worksheet and the writing activity. Students can express their learning
verbally with their partner during the opening activity and the ten-second shares, with their small group
during the primary source activity, and with the whole class during the opening discussion, the lecture,
the primary source discussion and the closing discussion.
Methods of differentiation: A modified version of the primary source documents with a glossary and
some simplified sentence structure will be provided for the ELD students. Small groups will also be
constructed to mix students who are close to mastery of the learning objectives with students who are
developing towards the learning objectives. This will allow students who are developing towards the
objectives to benefit from the help from the students who have nearly mastered the objectives. An outline
will also be provided to the ELD students to help them structure their paragraphs for the writing activity.
Language learning objectives: During the primary source activity students will be developing towards the
language objective. Students must identify evidence in the sources to support their answers to the guiding
questions. Students must then use this evidence to defend an argument about the causes of an historical
event in the writing activity.

o. Instructional Materials, Resources, and Technology:


Primary source Document A excerpted from: Payushkin, A. (1948). Letter to the United States Secretary
of State. In Documents Related to the Cold War Online, Mt. Holyoke College. Retrieved from
https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/coldwar.htm
Primary source Document B excerpted from: Taft, R. (1949). Speech on the north Atlantic treaty: July 26,
1949. Teaching American History Online. Retrieved from
http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/speech-on-the-north-atlantic-treaty/
p. Acknowledgements: Lesson plan and all materials created by teaching candidate unless otherwise cited.

12

Instructional Plan Day 4


Background Information
Date: 2/5/2015
Grade: 11th
Unit: The Origins of the Cold War
Instructional Plan Title: Overview and Essay Preparation
a. Instructional Plan Purpose: This is the fourth lesson in a unit on the origins of the Cold War. The units central
focus is organized around the question: Who is responsible for starting the Cold War, the United States or the
Soviet Union? The unit is also focused on developing the language function of defending arguments about the
causes of historical events using evidence from primary source texts. In this lesson, students will review the
previous three lessons, find more evidence related to the central question, and begin formulating their answer to
the central question in preparation for writing an essay in the next and final lesson in the unit. Students will focus
on choosing an argument answering the central question and then finding and organizing evidence to defend their
argument.
k. Alignment to State Learning Standards:
Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with
textual evidence. (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.3)
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary sources. (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.1112.1)
l.

Content Objectives:
SWBAT defend an argument about the causes of the Cold War.
Language Objectives:
SWBAT defend arguments using evidence from primary source texts.

m. Previous Learning Experiences: In the previous semester, students learned about the age of American
imperialism, and their knowledge of the term imperialist will be drawn on in this lesson. Prior to the unit, students
completed a month-long unit on the Second World War. The unit was focused on developing students ability to
identify evidence in primary source texts relevant to historical arguments. In the week directly preceding this unit,
students began focusing on not only identifying but applying evidence from primary source texts to defend
arguments, specifically arguments about the justness of dropping the atomic bombs. In the lesson directly
preceding this unit, students examined the aftermath of the war, including a brief look at postwar Europe. From
this previous unit, students have gained significant background knowledge about American involvement in the
Second World War and some background knowledge on the postwar world that will be drawn upon in this unit.
From this previous unit, students also developed their ability to use evidence from primary source texts to defend
arguments to some extent. In the first lesson in this unit, students were introduced to the central question for the
unit and began answering the question by making an argument about the causes of the American-Soviet
disagreements over postwar Europe. In the second lesson in this unit, students found evidence to support
American arguments that the containment strategy was necessary. In the third lesson in the unit, students found
evidence to support Soviet arguments that American actions were threatening to the security of the Soviet Union.
f. Assessment Strategies
Content/Language Objectives
SWBAT defend an argument about the causes
of the beginning of the Cold War using
evidence from primary sources.

Assessment Strategies
Informal: At the end of the lecture, students will be asked to
rate their progress towards this learning objective and the
instructor will make note of students responses. The
instructor will also make notes on student progress towards
this objective based on students contributions during the
primary source discussions and Take a Stand activity. The
13

evidence chart will also serve as an informal assessment of


students ability to identify evidence to defend arguments.

SWBAT defend arguments, verbally and in


writing, using evidence from primary source
texts.

Formal: Student progress towards this objective will be


formally assessed using the guiding questions worksheet.
Student responses on the worksheet will be evaluated based on
quality, quantity and persuasiveness of the evidence cited in
the worksheet.
Informal: The instructor will also make notes on student
progress towards this objective based on students
contributions during the primary source discussions and Take
a Stand activity. The instructor will walk around the room
making notes on student work during the evidence chart
activity.
Formal: Student progress towards this objective will be
formally assessed using the guiding questions worksheet.
Student responses on the worksheet will be evaluated based on
quality, quantity and persuasiveness of the evidence cited in
the worksheet.

g. Student Voice:
K-12 students will be able to:

Student-based evidence to
be collected:

10. Explain student learning targets


and what is required to meet
them (including why they are
important to learn).

Opener-Closure Sheets,
Verbal

11. Monitor their own learning


progress toward the learning
targets using the tools provided
(checklists, rubrics, etc.).

Opener-Closure Sheets,
Verbal

12. Explain how to access resources


and additional support when
needed (and how/why those
resources will help them).

Exit Slips

Description of how students will reflect on


their learning.

On their Opener-Closure sheets, students


will write the learning targets at the
beginning of the lesson. The class will also
have a brief verbal discussion of the
learning targets, what they mean, their
importance and what is necessary to meet
them. The instructor will take notes on
student responses during this discussion.
On their Opener-Closure sheets, students
will rate their progress towards the learning
targets from 1 to 4 at the end of the lesson.
Students will also explain their rating. The
class will also have a discussion on student
progress towards the learning targets
between the lecture and primary source
activity and at the end of the lesson. The
instructor will take notes on student
responses during these discussions.
On their Exit Slips, students will be asked
to identify additional resources they can
draw upon to help them with the learning
target and to extend their learning outside of
the classroom.

k. Grouping of Students for Instruction: Students will conduct a think-pair-share on the opening question in which
they first write an answer to the question individually, then share their answer with a partner and finally discuss the
question as a whole-class. Students will also conduct Ten-Second Shares throughout the lecture, in which they
briefly answer a question with a partner before sharing their responses in a brief whole-class discussion. During the
primary source activity, students will read the documents and answer the guiding questions in small groups and
14

share their responses to the guiding questions in whole-class discussions. During the evidence chart activity,
students will work with their small groups. During the Take A Stand activity, students will participate in wholeclass discussions. During the closure activity, students will answer the closure question individually and share their
responses in a whole-class discussion.
Instruction and Engaging Students in Learning
d. Introduction: Students will begin the lesson by completing the opener portion of their Opener-Closure sheets. This
includes writing down the learning targets and discussing them as a whole-class. This also includes conducting a
think-pair-share on the opening question which asks students to brainstorm everything they remember about the term
imperialist.
q. Learning Activities:
After discussing the learning targets as a whole-class, the lesson will begin with students conducting a
think-pair-share on the opening task. The opener will ask students to brainstorm everything they
remember about the term imperialist. After answering the question individually, students will share
their answer with their partner before participating in a whole-class discussion. The instructor will use the
whole-class discussion to clarify students knowledge of the term. (5 minutes)
The instructor will then lead a five-minute review of the material from the previous three lessons. The
review will consist of the instructor asking students questions about the big ideas from the previous
lessons and reviewing them as a class. (5 minutes)
At the end of the lecture, the class will have a brief discussion on students progress towards the learning
targets. (2 minutes)
The class will then discuss some possibly challenging vocabulary that students will encounter in the
primary sources. The instructor will go through each word individually, discussing and clarifying the
meaning of each with the class to prepare them to read the documents. (5 minutes)
The instructor will then pass out the documents and the guiding questions worksheet. The instructor will
also split students into the same groups of four or five as in the previous lesson.
Students will then be asked to read the documents and answer the guiding questions with their small
group. The class will then have a whole-class discussion on the questions. (13 minutes)
After the discussion, the instructor will pass out the evidence chart. Students will be given five minutes to
work with their small group to find as much evidence as possible for both sides of the chart using the
notes and documents from the entire unit. (5 minutes)
After filling out chart, students will participate in a Take A Stand activity. The instructor will display and
read the statement The Soviet Union is completely responsible for starting the Cold War. The instructor
will ask all students who agree with the statement to move to the west side of the room and all students
who disagree to move to the east side. Students will then participate in a whole-class discussion in which
students from both sides defend their position with evidence. The activity will then be repeated with the
statements The United States is completely responsible for starting the Cold War and The Soviet
Union is more responsible than the United States for starting the Cold War. (15 minutes)
At the end of the class period, students will fill out the closure portion of their Opener-Closure sheets,
including rating their progress towards the learning targets and answering a closure question asking
students to reflect on whether their position on the central question changed since the beginning of the
unit. The class will also briefly discuss the learning targets and, if time permits, the closure question. (5
minutes)
r.

Closure: As mentioned above, the class period will end with students filling out their Opener-Closure sheets,
including rating their progress towards the learning targets, answering a closure question and discussing their
learning targets and closure responses as a whole-class.

s. Instructional Considerations:
Multiple means of access: Material will be presented verbally, in text and visually during the opening
activity, the closing activity and the lecture. Material will be presented in text and verbally during the
primary source activity and the Take A Stand activity.
15

t.

Multiple means of engagement: Students will participate in the opening activity by brainstorming
individually, sharing their brainstorm with their partner and sharing in the whole-class discussions on the
learning targets and the opening brainstorm. Students will participate in the lecture by answering
questions posed by the instructor, sharing with their partner and the class during Ten-Second Shares, and
sharing with the class during the vocabulary discussion. Students will participate in the primary source
activity by working with their small group to answer the guiding questions and sharing in the whole-class
discussions. Students will participate in the evidence chart activity by discussing the evidence with their
group and filling out the chart. Students will participate in the Take A Stand activity by taking a position
and defending it during the whole-class discussions.
Multiple means of expression: Students can express their learning in writing on the Opener-Closure
sheets, the guiding questions worksheet and the evidence chart. Students can express their learning
verbally with their partner during the opening activity and the ten-second shares, with their small group
during the primary source activity and evidence chart activity, and with the whole class during the
opening discussion, the lecture, the primary source discussion, the Take A Stand activity and the closing
discussion.
Methods of differentiation: A modified version of the primary source documents with a glossary and
some simplified sentence structure will be provided for the ELD students. Small groups will also be
constructed to mix students who are close to mastery of the learning objectives with students who are
developing towards the learning objectives. This will allow students who are developing towards the
objectives to benefit from the help from the students who have nearly mastered the objectives.
Language learning objectives: During the primary source activity students will be developing towards the
language objective. Students must identify evidence in the sources to support their answers to the guiding
questions. Students must also identify evidence to defend arguments during the evidence chart activity.
Students must then use this evidence to defend an argument about the causes of an historical event in the
Take A Stand activity.

Instructional Materials, Resources, and Technology:


Primary source Document A excerpted from: Churchill, W. (1946). Iron curtain speech. In Internet
Modern History Sourcebook, Fordham University. Retrieved from
http://legacy.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/churchill-iron.asp
Primary source Document B excerpted from: Novikov, N. (1946). Telegram to Soviet leadership. In
Digital Archive, Woodrow Wilson Center. Retrieved from
http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/110808

u. Acknowledgements: Lesson plan and all materials created by teaching candidate unless otherwise cited.

16

Instructional Plan Day 5


Background Information
Date: 2/6/2015
Grade: 11th
Unit: The Origins of the Cold War
Instructional Plan Title: Essay Writing
a. Instructional Plan Purpose: This is the fifth and final lesson in a unit on the origins of the Cold War. The units
central focus is organized around the question: Who is responsible for starting the Cold War, the United States or
the Soviet Union? The unit is also focused on developing the language function of defending arguments about
the causes of historical events using evidence from primary source texts. In this lesson, students will write an
essay defending an argument that answers the units central question using evidence from the primary source texts
we analyzed in the previous four lessons.
n. Alignment to State Learning Standards:
Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with
textual evidence. (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.3)
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary sources. (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.1112.1)
o. Content Objectives:
SWBAT defend an argument about the causes of the Cold War.
Language Objectives:
SWBAT defend arguments using evidence from primary source texts.

p. Previous Learning Experiences: In the previous semester, students learned about the age of American
imperialism, and their knowledge of the term imperialist will be drawn on in this lesson. Prior to the unit, students
completed a month-long unit on the Second World War. The unit was focused on developing students ability to
identify evidence in primary source texts relevant to historical arguments. In the week directly preceding this unit,
students began focusing on not only identifying but applying evidence from primary source texts to defend
arguments, specifically arguments about the justness of dropping the atomic bombs. In the lesson directly
preceding this unit, students examined the aftermath of the war, including a brief look at postwar Europe. From
this previous unit, students have gained significant background knowledge about American involvement in the
Second World War and some background knowledge on the postwar world that will be drawn upon in this unit.
From this previous unit, students also developed their ability to use evidence from primary source texts to defend
arguments to some extent. In the first lesson in this unit, students were introduced to the central question for the
unit and began answering the question by making an argument about the causes of the American-Soviet
disagreements over postwar Europe. In the second lesson in this unit, students found evidence to support
American arguments that the containment strategy was necessary. In the third lesson in the unit, students found
evidence to support Soviet arguments that American actions were threatening to the security of the Soviet Union.
In the fourth lesson in the unit, students reviewed the previous lessons and began preparing for the essay by
organizing evidence and choosing a position on the central question. Students have also written approximately a
dozen essays in this class before and have had direct instruction on essay writing, including writing theses,
sourcing evidence, commenting on evidence and structuring body paragraphs.
f. Assessment Strategies
Content/Language Objectives
SWBAT defend an argument about the causes
of the beginning of the Cold War using
evidence from primary sources.

Assessment Strategies
Formal: Student progress towards this objective will be
formally assessed using the essay. Student essays will be
evaluated on the thesis, body paragraph structure, use of
evidence, conclusion, and content and conventions. (See essay
17

SWBAT defend arguments, verbally and in


writing, using evidence from primary source
texts.

assignment and rubric)


Formal: Student progress towards this objective will be
formally assessed using the essay. Student essays will be
evaluated on the thesis, body paragraph structure, use of
evidence, conclusion, and content and conventions. (See essay
assignment and rubric)

g. Student Voice:
K-12 students will be able to:

Student-based evidence to
be collected:

13. Explain student learning targets


and what is required to meet
them (including why they are
important to learn).

Opener-Closure Sheets,
Verbal

14. Monitor their own learning


progress toward the learning
targets using the tools provided
(checklists, rubrics, etc.).

Opener-Closure Sheets,
Verbal

15. Explain how to access resources


and additional support when
needed (and how/why those
resources will help them).

Opener-Closure Sheets,
Verbal, Exit Slips

l.

Description of how students will reflect on


their learning.

On their Opener-Closure sheets, students


will write the learning targets at the
beginning of the lesson. The class will also
have a brief verbal discussion of the
learning targets, what they mean, their
importance and what is necessary to meet
them. The instructor will take notes on
student responses during this discussion.
On their Opener-Closure sheets, students
will rate their progress towards the learning
targets from 1 to 4 at the end of the lesson.
Students will also explain their rating.
On their Opener-Closure sheets, to answer
the closure question, students will identify
additional resources for extending their
learning about the Cold War. On their Exit
Slips, students will be asked to identify
additional resources they can draw upon to
help them with the learning target and to
extend their learning outside of the
classroom.

Grouping of Students for Instruction: Students will conduct a think-pair-share on the opening question in which
they first write an answer to the question individually, then share their answer with a partner and finally discuss the
question as a whole-class. Students will then write their essays individually.

Instruction and Engaging Students in Learning


e. Introduction: Students will begin the lesson by completing the opener portion of their Opener-Closure sheets.
This includes writing down the learning targets and discussing them as a whole-class. This also includes
conducting a think-pair-share on the opening question which asks students to write a thesis answering the prompt:
Who was more responsible for starting the Cold War, the United States or the Soviet Union?
v. Learning Activities:
After discussing the learning targets as a whole-class, the lesson will begin with students conducting a
think-pair-share on the opening task. The opener will ask students to write a thesis answering the prompt:
Who was more responsible for starting the Cold War, the United States or the Soviet Union? After
writing a thesis individually, students will share their thesis with their partner before participating in a
whole-class discussion. The instructor will use the whole-class discussion to clarify the prompt, clarify
any confusion over thesis writing and help students sharpen their theses. (5 minutes)

18

The instructor will then pass out the essay assignment (including the rubric). The instructor will go over
the prompt with the class. The ELD students will also receive an outline to help them structure their
essays and instructions on how to use the outline from the instructor. (5 minutes)
Students will then write their essays. (40 minutes)
At the end of the class period, students will fill out the closure portion of their Opener-Closure sheets,
including rating their progress towards the learning targets and answering a closure question asking
students where they could learn more about the origins of the Cold War. The class will also briefly
discuss the learning targets and, if time permits, the closure question. (5 minutes)

w. Closure: As mentioned above, the class period will end with students filling out their Opener-Closure sheets,
including rating their progress towards the learning targets, answering a closure question and discussing their
learning targets and closure responses as a whole-class. The closure question will give students a chance to
identify resources for extending their learning and allow the instructor to help expand students knowledge of
additional resources.
x. Instructional Considerations:
Multiple means of access: Material will be presented verbally, in text and visually during the opening
activity and the closing activity. Material will be presented in text during the essay writing activity.
Multiple means of engagement: Students will participate in the opening activity by writing individually,
sharing their thesis with their partner and sharing in the whole-class discussions on the learning targets
and the opening brainstorm. Students will participate in the essay activity by writing their essay.
Multiple means of expression: Students can express their learning in writing on the Opener-Closure
sheets, the outline and the essay. Students can express their learning verbally with their partner during the
opening activity and with the whole class during the opening discussion and the closing discussion.
Methods of differentiation: A modified version of the outlining graphic organizer with additional support
will be given to the ELD student.
Language learning objectives: Students will demonstrate their progress towards the language objective
through their essay writing. Their essays will demonstrate their ability to defend an argument about the
causes of an historical event using evidence from primary sources.
y. Acknowledgements: Lesson plan and all materials created by teaching candidate.

19