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PIPE HYDRAULICS AND SIZING
DRASMOHARIR
DRPPARANIAPE
WHY PIPE SIZING IS IMPORTANT
ron-ptimsl Also, what is optimal today
According, to 1979 American may not be optimam over along period (due
survey, as much a8 309% ofthe total cost 10 fouling, change in relative cos, change
cof a Nypical chemical paces plant goes operating schedule which affects the
for piping. piping clements and valves. A tlizaton time of the pipeline, ete)
significant “amount of operating cost
(cnerey is also used up in forcing flow Pipe sizing is thus alot of experience,
through piping including its components. engineering foresight and judgment than just
Asighfcan amount ofthe mainenance theory. This paper attempts to review the
Gost also fr the ping and associated pipe sizing procedures, the pressure drop
‘ings. ‘aleulation procedures Which are integral
Proper sing, optimal in some pipe sizing procedurc, the pitfalls in these
sense, i therefore very necesser. calculations, the confidence limits in
calculated values and the factors of safety
WHY IS IT DIFFICULT AND which must be incorporated in view of
ATTIMES MEANINGLESS ‘known limitations of correlations, Different
Piping must be sued before the N6eDAS are then cemented through
plant i laid. ott. Layout, must be TeteSentative examples during the lecture in
the cetiene "Couse én Pi
compete (ee. eqipment must be ining
Toc pipe racks esis, layout of Etgieting conducted by ping Cll at
agit in rss else, gout ofr inte of ecg, Mane
celcling realise presure Gop aed
doing pipe sizing foreach pipe segment. PIPE SIZING PROCEDURES
‘This “chicken and egg’ scenario means Pipe sizing is generally done using
that decisions vegadg pipe ing none ofthe following ete
plant layout must be ime in most
Se Tht ermal tt pre 2 Yelsiy onsertons
xcept in few very Inge engineering lable presi drop consdersins
fmanizatns which ean affrd ie 3) Economie considerations
(Faving 10 cay oUt ppe sizing at 0
‘premature stage invariably means that ‘The degre offical increases s one
the recommended pipe size may not £85 ffom (1) © G). While pressure drop
treet process requirement or may notbe cael ian integral pat of 2) and (3),
the mest economic, et) it would need to be calculated in ease (I)
‘Normally a layout ie assumed als0 to quantly enenty requirement, sizing
drawing on past pracicesand experience PRESSUE providing equipmeat sich as
and pipes are sized. No iecond iteration Pumps! compressors, ele. It is, therefore,
is carried. out. Actual layout which, YY. important to be conversant with
femerges later mayb: significantly’ PreSSure drop calculation procedures. for
Giffeent than what vas assumed during Yaiety of flow types tal are encountered
sizing. The sizes thus may tum out to be the dst.‘This paper assumes that the readers
are conversant with presture drop
‘calculation procedures and concepts
underlining them, at least for the
single phase flow. The paper attempts
‘to Duid on this background.
‘The paper reviews the following
‘TYPES OF FLOW
‘Single phase, Two phe, Muiti=
phase
Horizont, nctned
‘Through straight rapes, through
‘complex routings
Isothermal, non-isothermal
Incompressible, compressible
Laminar, Turbulent
BERNOULLI’S EQUATION
SINGLE PHASE PRESSURE
DROP CALCULATIONS
Horizontal, straight, constant cross-
section segment
Inclined, straight, constant cross-
section segment
Fitings and valves
Equivalent length in actual terms
Equivalent length in diameter terms
TWO PHASE PRESSURE DROP
CALCULATIONS,
Flow regimes ani their
idenuiications
(Baker Parameters)
Pressure drop caleulations
(Lockhart Martinelli, Baker)
Confidence levels in. caleuated
pressure drops|
‘¢ Effect of inclination
‘+ Scientific approach
MULTI -PHASE FLOW PRESSURE.
DROP CALCULATIONS
+ A possible approach
PIPE SIZING
4 Velocity considerations
4 Pressure drop considerations
4+ Beonomie considerations
‘TYPE OF FLOW
Although the flow canbe
‘categorized on several basis the
classification based on number of phases
fnvolved isthe most commonly used. When
the flowing medium bs unifoum piysicl
properties across the low cross-section, the
flow is « single-phase flow. Flow of pure
single liquids, soltions of slid in liquids,
‘mixtures of ‘completely miscible tiguids,
mixtures of gases and/or vapors come inthis
‘All other flows are multiphase flows.
The two phase flow would involve {70
distinct phases such as Liquid with is vapor,
a liquid with an incondensible gas, et
Tiguid or gas!vapor stream with suspended
solid partcles is also a two phase flow.
However, ato phase flow would normally
refer to two uid phases. When to
immiscible liquids are involved with thie
vvapor andor another inert gs, it is a three
phase flow and s0 on,
Eucigy seyuiied Wo sustain sult
flows in ppestubes is avery important
information which has tobe generated
through calculations of pressure drop that
the flow would cause in & conduit of given
cross-section, and extent. This information
is then wsed in locating equipments, sizingpipes, deciding their routes, rating
Pressure generating equipments ts.
Temperature of the flowing
‘medium affects physical properties such
as density and viscosity which in tum
Ihave a bearing on the pressure drop.
When the temperature is constant over
‘the pipe segment under consideration, or
the temperature change along the flow
path is not significant enough so a to
‘cause appreciable change in the physical
properties, ii treated as an isothermal
flow. When the temperature change is
signifieant, it is nonsothermal flow.
‘When the density ofthe lowing medium
isnot stongly corelated with the
pressure, the medium is termed as
incompressible and the flow as,
incompressible’ flow. Liquid flow
(Gingle, or multiphase) would come in
‘his category naturally. However when
gases/vapors. which xe compressible
(Ghats thei density is strong funtion
fof pressure) ate involved, but the
pressure drop slong the flow path is not
ficant enough to affect the medium
density, their flow may also be treated as
incompressible flow. Otherwise, the
flow of gesapos i compesle
In some flow situations,
expecially two and muhiphase flaws, the
inclination of the flow conduit from
horizon! is of great significance. Also
‘whether the flow in the inclined conduit
is upward or downvard is also an
important consideration. Inthe case of
single phase flow, the inclination is
important inthe sense that i affects the
‘overall energy balance given forthe low
Suation Uy the fanuus Bexuulli's
fcqustion, But the Tow wpe and
Inydrauic pressure drop are not affected
by the pipe inetination,
CY
BERNOULLI'S EQUATION
In its original. form, Bemouli's
‘equation is merely statement of conversation
‘of energy for flowing medium. Consider a
Segment of an inlined conduit of variable
cross-section a8 shown in Fig and fi
flowing trough it. The enerey ofthe Hid at
any locetion may be expressed inter of @
vertical column of the flowing fluid itself.
‘The height al any point along the conduit is
then seen as comprising of three
components, the pressure (Pip), velocity
head (v?2g) and elevation head @,
Bemoulli’s theorem states thatthe sum of
these three componcats constant
everywhere along the flow pa, This is true
if there are no external inputs or withdrawals
fiom the conduit Applied a the two points 1
and 2 ofthe inclined pipe shown (Fig), the
Bemoulli’S equation can te ‘writes os
follows:
P,lptv;?2gtZ,=P,/ptv, */2e+Z2
SEE
‘When the pipe is horizontal (Z,= Z,) and
the conduit cross-section is uniform
(vi=¥5), the pressures at the two points, 1
and 2, should be equal, Tis isnot the case‘cause the flow is confined ky the pipe
and ther isa resistance to flow caused
by fiction between the fluid and the
‘wal, ction between diferent layers of
‘uid flowing a different velocities and
the small of big swisls creatod in the
liquid ave to flow turbulence. Flow
‘against these resistances causes
‘generation of heat rang the
temperature of the Mid a it Bows. This
Aemperstare rise is not enough todo any
‘work as this energy transfarmed: into
thermal energy is as good as lst energy.
‘This expressed in pressure units or
‘expressed in terms of an equivalent
‘column of the flowing Did is called
‘ctional pressure drop or head lose
Tneorporting this fact into the
‘Bernoulli's equation yields the following
form which is generally used in
calculating fictional pressure drop in
flow:
Pip+v)2g+Z,
=Py/p+v,*/2e+ Za APIp
SINGLE PHASE PRESSURE
‘DROP CALCULATIONS
Single phase flow is assifid as
LAMINAR, TRANSIENT OR
TURBULENT. ‘The deciding factor is
the REYNOLD'S NUMBER defined as
allows
R.=2e
: H
It is a Dimensionless number if
‘the quantics aré in consist units. For
Reynolds number valves up 40 2000, the
flow is termed laminar and for values
above 4000, it i a turbulent flow. The
range 2000-4000" is termed as the
tratsition region, D in the definition of the
Reynold’s number is the actual diameter if
the flow cross-section is crear suchas in
ete), D is defined in terms of the Hydraulic
rdis( R98 follows:
D=4x Hydeaulic radius
‘The HYDRAULIC RADIUS is
defined a8 rato of flow erose-sectioal area
to the weted perimeter For example, it the
‘ise of roctanglar cross-section with sides
Sand b, the flow cross-section i ab while
the weted perimeter is 222), Silay, for
fn annular region a5 shown (Fig2), the
Iydratic radius es shown:
R, = AEA DIN r=)
"ae, + DM
‘With D defined inthis general sense
in the definition of Reynold's number, the
limiting values of the number for laminar,
ransient and turbulent flows remain the
same as given earlier. The linear velocity
used inthe definition of Reynold's numberis obined by dividing the volametic
flow ty cies ate for
fiw
‘Ateraaive bit quvlet foms
of cnn of Ress manber wich
fe commonly wed rs follows
R28
“ie
Where Gis the linear mass
velocity of lid
ooo \ yee
| R631 \" vt
\ eo
Where W is the mass flow rate
Whe, D is pipe 1D in inches and pis
density in Ibift®
‘The fiitional pressure drop is
‘calculated using Dar’s equation as
follows.
fp is termed as the Darcy's
fiction factor and is related to the
Reynold's number and pipe roughness.
‘The applicable and widely used graphs
are given in several text s00ks.
For turbulent region, the fiction
factor value should be read fiom an
appropriate curve for a pipe of roughness
& by caleulating its ratio with pipe
iameter (@/D).
‘The log-log plo is difficult 10
‘ea an the reading is enor prone due to
nomlincarty of ssale. Several
correlations are therfore proposed by
various authors so that he fition factor
‘can be calculated from the Reynolds
imumber, Some of the frequently used
correlations are given lat.
In the case of implicit correlations,
an iterative approach is necessary to get the
value ofthe fiction factor for given value of
Reynold’s number, Newton-Rhspson
method may be sed forgetting the value in
fewer iterations.
FFanning’s equation is also used in
place of Darcy's equation as follows:
he")
(ep)
‘Comparison should show that the
Darcy's fiction factor is obviously four
times the Fanning’ ction facto, fy While
asing. any fieon fetor vs Reynolds
number graph to Teed ffiten factor and
then while using, it inthe formula. to
calculate the pres drop, eae must be
taken to choose the compatible raph and
compatible comelaion. This i oflen 8
source of err.
‘Anober fiction factor is also
attbuted to Churchill which is all of
Fanning’s icon ctor). The
conesponding formula far pressure. drop
faleulaion thus has a factor 8 in. the
numerator instead of 4 in Paoning’s
‘equation. So, one needs 10 be realy very
areal in handling this prevailing muliple
‘efnitons scenano. Generally, chemical
‘ginesing literature uses Faningsfetion
factor and Process industy fellows the
Davey ction ator.
fone uses the f vs R, plot, i
necessary to note whether itis for Fanning,
Darcy of Chueh icton aco. There fsa
simple way to do it which any engineer
hl Know If you do ney ponder overs
Tie and you would petit.
Several simplified coreltions are
available to ealeuat fiction factors from
Reynol's number under diferent
conditions of flow. Some ofthe commonly
tse ones ae given Below wih referencethe Darcy's definition of fiction factor.
Suitable" multiplying factors must be
wed t0 convert these comeatons for
othe friction factors
LAMINAR REGION.
64k,
TURBULENT REGION
Rough commercial pipes, R, less than
50000:
fs6.8x10R,*
‘Smooth Pipe, less than 34€0000
‘foster,
Avot Blau ution
fooi6R,
Smooth or rough pie, Ress
than 3400000, developing. turbulent
flow:
Most f vs R, plots would mark
transition between developing, turbulent
flows by a broken line. Most fow situations
{in process in industry would fal inthe fly
developed turbulent region and Blazius
‘equation (especially
the one with R, with exponent ~02) given
above is widely used.
‘The roughness factor eis dependent
fon the pipe material and method of
fabrication and some representative values
are given in the Table 1. Note the wide
‘arason in perceptions of the roughness by
different authors, In most plots, Mocdy"s
roughness values are used. Because of the
variation in friction factor definition’ and
roughness values, tis advisable to stick to
‘one plot with Full knowledge ofthe fietion
factor it pertains to andthe roughness values
itrefest.
“The frictional pressure drop
caleulated by any of the above methods
should be multiplied by the effotive length
‘ofthe pipe segment to get the net fitional
‘drop across the segment. This is then used in
the Bernoulli's equation to obtain the actual
pressure drop between pipe origin and
‘destination, The effective length is the
‘actual pipe length if the pipe line is straight
and long enough so tha pressure drop due to
extra turbulence created at the entrance
when fluid enters the pipe from an
equipment or atthe ext when the pipe feeds
into another equipment are relatively
insignificant as compared to overall
{tional pressure drop. In ease the pie has
fitings such as elbows, tees, valves,
expanders, reducers, ete, an hypothetical
straight pipe length of same diameter asthe
fin pipe on which the Sings exit ia added
inplace of each ofthe fitngs. The effective
length is the sum of the stsight-run pipe
Tength plus. the total equivalent for all
fitings. Entrance and exit of fuid in and
from the pipe segment also adds 10
turbulence and to extra pressure drop. Thiseffect is also incorported by adding pressure. However, if itis more than this
‘equivalent length of these. The actual engineering tolerance, above approach of
‘equivalent lengths for important fitings segmenting the pipeline may be adopted.
are given in real terms (ie. length of ‘A. good. practice would be to
pipe to be added) in Tables 2-5. (The _ealeulate pressure: drop over the pipe run
tables are taken from te famous paper assuming fluid properties a inlet or average
‘on practical pressure drop calculations" temperature/ressure conditions to. begin
by Robert Kern) with, If the pressure drop so calculated is
In another approach, equivalent within 10% or less of the actual pressure
length of fitings are mentioned in terms __Jevels at which the fui is flowing, one may
‘of diameters of the pipe. This number ignore the effect of temperature/pressure
should then be multiplied by the pipe change IF the pressure drop exceeds 10% af
size to get the equivaert length of pipe flow pressure, the above approach of
{o be added. The equivalent lengths for _segmeriing may be restored to,
valves and fiings in temns of diameters
‘ce reported in several books and are not. ©» TWO PHASE PRESSURE DROP.
een he Anges of te tel GAECUEAMNG
Spuleghns of ifeet ~<
Scceanaiataeee mse (oar dp in eo of 0
“et in phase flow is dependent on the flow regime.
‘a operas Ung a pe ae
tae spore. Using acl spe Fue hu fr cnldon 7 opines
fre posible as shown in Fig. Flow rei
nia tifiaton i done by folowing Baker's
“hove procedures applicable to‘ etifeaton is done by following Bak
‘aids, ic. Liquids and pases. Proce.
In eases the temperature varies ‘Two Baker parameters By and By
scross the pipe seymeat, the physical are ealeulated as follows:
properties vary. Also if the flid is
‘2s/vapor, is volumetis low rate may
vary duc to pressure changes arising out Bx"531(W./W,)}
of temperature change as well as due to
pressure drop. To account for these
‘effects, i may be a good practice 10
‘divide the whole line into segments over
‘each of which, the temperature change is
ot 80 significant ab to change the Inthe above definitions, following unis are
ope scaly. The ropeies we wot
suitably updated to incorporate WY Vapor flow rt, tbe
‘amber and pseu changes & ON Liquid low rate, vit
traverses these hypothatical segments. "
Calculation overall the segments thus p,~ Vapor density, tot”
ee etgs prams acon te (Tt ey, a!
pipe may be of hiporunce incase or ~Intemal cros-sctional ara, f?
compressible Quids. Itmay be ignored if Hy. Viseosty of liquid, eP
it is less than 10% of the total fluid, ~ Surface tension of ligu
dymefomNe at oh te et Phy Fy
penonte So Sein is
Pec enrems IS SDE paKeR’S METHOD
me etaet
Tlie postin ae Depg oe i ate
fim anh eel ate jes cae, apse enn ct
Toning pnitonotic, Sauk ga ere ogy it
DANE CEL; lanes dp kn
Pein Sonn ge ps pep
“Efe dop lain Festtwebiripaton
fen pone pat in
Seliger Sues
sn clowns dws
GAP y
‘These comeations were derived by
LOCKHART MARTINELLI the respective authors by _ extensive
METHOD experimentation on aiewatet flow, but
‘Assuming that only te Higuid mostly on smaller diameter pipes. Thee
ows in the pipe line, eabulste the applicability for lager dimension industal
pressure drop that it would cause over pipes i suspect, However, these remain the
Imost used corelations, Beiter approaches 9
voit pipe length, (AP), Sina, :
‘ ‘to phase flow pressure dop estimation are
considering tha only vapocgs lows in" hase flow pressure drop
‘the pip, alclate the presse dropper
Snes GAGE Tn two phase. flow calculations,
eee eee confidence levels are low. Aso, itis not safe
orelations are to be used in geting tp overdsign here asthe flow regime may
these two pressure drops. Lockhart change and ene may get an undesirable low
Martinelli Modulus, X, is thendefined 8s Sogime uch ae’ sug’ flow, Exteme
an precaution is therefore necessary at
: tngincering stage in designing pipes for to
X*(AP) MBP) phase flow and the engineer must be ready
{o handle problems that may surfece at the
For this value of modulus, a commissioning stage.
mutipier Ys or Yy the ca fom The Bale map is apple only if
tne plot in Figs and it is appropriately low line al on has &
used in oe of te fllovinglatons owt fet om flow pater andthe low
ct the "two phase pee drop, YekiMe: may change for same. vapor
fe har liquid flows in same size pipe line i the
CPDex ee unit feng. Multiplying ipetinatons are diferent. Also, in inclined
Pedra eroetve engin (atter pipes, it matters whether the low is upward
including, equivalet lengtis of the or downward. Extensive work has. been
fitings) of the pipe, one ges the tial PRportad "on these. aspects but. nds
‘so pase ftiona drop. prctices ted to ignore this fact
BP) ¥, (AP),MULTIPHASE —_ PRESSURE.
DROP CALCULATIONS
Two immiscible or partly
miscible liquid phases end a gas phase
‘comprising. of vapors of these liquids
andlor other gases give rise to three
phase flow situations. ‘There are no
reported reliable presture drop
calculation approaches for three phase
flow. What is proposed bere is 2 possible
extension of the Locthart Martinelt
approach which was reasonably
svecessful in using single phase flow
Correlations and predicing two phase
flow pressure drop. The approach would
‘be something like this:
StepI
Consider only that the liquid phase
including the two ligids is flowing
through the pipe. Let thse liquids be T
and L . Using Lockhart Marinelli
method or other method (say Baker’),
calculate the pressure drop per unit
length that would be caused in this case.
Letthisbe AP,
‘Step IT
‘Consider only gusivapor is lowing and
calculate the pressure crop that would
‘occur per unit Jength using single phase
pressure drop comelation. Let this be
Abo
‘Step It
Calculate the Lockhart Martine
modulus a8 was done ia the two phase
Flow situation a fallows
KPa ARy Ae
Step IV
For this value of modus, ¢ multiplier Y,
Gey Jor, (or¥) is then rad forthe
plot in Fig, 5 and itis appropriately used in
cone of the fllowing relations to get the
thre phase pressure drop, (AP)ap per uit
Jeng (afte including equivalent lengths of
the fitings) of the pipe, one gets the ttl
three pase coma pressure drop.
(APY AR
(AP)y oA
1 may be appreciated that this is
nothing but using the Lockhart Martinelli
approach on itsell In absence of any other
‘correlation with proven merit this is ikely
(0 bea good engineering aproseh,
PIPE SIZING
“The earlier mentioned three pipe
sizing approaches are discussed ere in
brie.
PIPE SIZING BASED ON VELOCITY
CONSIDERATIONS
This is the simplest of approaches
Herein, recommended values of linear
velocities for the flowing medium are used
slong withthe design flow rates to baek out
the pipe diameter. Recommendations for the
linear velocities may arise due to process
‘considerations, material of construction
considerations, corrosion considerations,
‘economic considerations. based on prior
experience etc. or a combination of these.
Consider the following exampies
8) In a steam carying pipe, if the linear
steam velocity is beyond a certain value,
the flowing steam may pick up the
condensate, break it up into fragments
‘These entetined condensate droplets mayimpinge agnnst the pipe wall causing
erosion and erosion corrosion,
¥) Too low a steam velocity in steam
headers may mean a large diameter
pipe for design requirement of steam,
‘This would inerese pipe cost,
insulation cost, cic. thereby
adversely affecting econonies.
© A gaseous steam camrying
Particulates (uch as pnewnatc solid
transport lines) must flow above a
‘minimum velocity to eliminate solids
setting down at pipe botom causing
flow obstruction, increased pressure
Arop ete.
A gaseous steam —canying
pariculates must not flow above a
Certain linear velocity tc eliminate
severe erosion of pipeline or elbows
©) Aline carrying two phase must be of
suitable dimension so. that cersin
‘two phase flow regimes (aich as slug
low) are avoided or acerain regime
jis guaranteed (such as concentric
flow).
4) Linear velocities in exhaust lines
should be below eertsin level to keep
‘nose within acceptable levels
These are just representative
examples to help appreciate the origin of
such restrictions on linear velocities of
flowing medium,
‘Some of the more accepted linear
velocities in a variety of design eases are
‘complied in Tables 6 and 7.
PIPE SIZING BASED ON
AVAILABLE PRESSURE DROP.
This is a more involved method
of pipe sizing and perhaps the most
important. Pipes are sized here to meet
‘ertain process requirements. ‘These
process requirements are translated into
the maximum hydraulic pressure drop that
‘one can accept over the pipe segment of
interest. A minimum pipe size which causes
a pressure drop at the most equal to this
maximum acceptable pressure drop is thus
recommended. Any size more than this size
would also be acceptable, but would be
‘uneconomical as it would involve higher
capital cost.
The procedure would be one of tial
and emor. A commercial pipe size would be
assumed in terms of NB. The pressure
design ofthe pipe would decide the
Schedule. From the appropriate tables, the
ID of the pipe size would be obtained.
Taking this asthe hydraulic diameter and for
the design flow rates, hydraulic pressure
drop over the proposed pipe route is
calelated wsing appropriate pressure drop
comelations. If this pressure drop is more
than the acceptable eve, a highee pipe size
is taken for next traf the pressure drop is
‘much smaller than ‘that acceptable, next
lower pipe size can be tried. Minimum pipe
size meeting the pressure drop requirement
is recommended.
Some important sitwatons where
pipe sizing needs to be done using avaliable
pressure drop consideration ae as follows:
1. Suetion Pipe Sizing fora pump: A. igi
fs to be pumped from a storage tank to
‘an equipment. The storage tank pressure
is fixed. On its way ffom the storage
tank to the pamp suction, the liquid
‘would loose pressure dve (0 frictional
pressure drop. If this pressure drop is
excessive, the fluid. pressure as
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