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NDICE

INTRODUCCIN. EL PUNTO DE PARTIDA 9


Salvador Mart i Puig, Jos Aylwin, Claire Wright, Nancy Yez
y Anna Ayuso

PRIMERA PARTE. RECURSOS NATURALES, DESARROLLO


Y DEMANDAS: LUCHAS Y FRUSTRACIONES? 19
CAPTULO 1. BALANCE Y RETOS DE LA LUCHA DE LAS
POBLACIONES INDGENAS EN EL CAMBIO DE CICLO 21
Salvador Mart i Puig
CAPTULO 2. LOS MECANISMOS INTERNACIONALES
PARA LA RECLAMACIN DE DERECHOS INDGENAS
EN AMRICA LATINA: AVANCES Y TENSIONES 43
Jos Aylwin

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CAPTULO 3. ESTADOS LATINOAMERICANOS FRENTE


A LA CONSULTA INDGENA: TENSIN CULTURAL EN LA
IMPLEMENTACIN DE LOS DERECHOS TERRITORIALES 68
Jorge Rowlands
CAPTULO 4. DERECHO DE CONSULTA INDGENA E INNOVACIN
DEMOCRTICA: UN DEBATE COMPLEJO 99
Sebastin Linares

SEGUNDA PARTE. EXPERIENCIAS DESDE AMRICA LATINA


Y FILIPINAS 131
CAPTULO 5. CHILE: EL AGUA, LOS DILEMAS JURDICOS QUE
PLANTEA UNA PERSPECTIVA DE DERECHOS HUMANOS,
INDGENAS Y AMBIENTALES, A PARTIR DEL CASO
DE LA COMUNIDAD DIAGUITA DE LOS HUASCOALTINOS 133
Nancy Yez
CAPTULO 6. BOLIVIA: DESARROLLO O BUEN VIVIR. EL CASO
DEL TIPNIS 168
Jos Aylwin
CAPTULO 7. ARGENTINA Y PARAGUAY: MOVILIZACIONES
INDGENAS EN REAS NATURALES PROTEGIDAS 201
Sara Mabel Villalba Portillo
CAPTULO 8. FILIPINAS: DERECHOS DE LOS PUEBLOS INDGENAS
Y SU RELACIN CON LOS RECURSOS NATURALES 227
Isabel Inguanzo

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TERCERA PARTE. RESPUESTAS DE LOS ESTADOS


Y LOS PUEBLOS INDGENAS 263
CAPTULO 9. PER: EL ESTADO DE EMERGENCIA COMO
MECANISMO DE REPRESIN DE LA PROTESTA INDGENA
EN EL CONTEXTO DE CONFLICTOS SOBRE RECURSOS
NATURALES 265
Claire Wright
CAPTULO 10. CHILE: PASANDO DE LA GALERA
A LA CANCHA. PARTIDO POLTICO MAPUCHE WALLMAPUWEN:
UN INSTRUMENTO DESCOLONIZADOR HACIA
LA AUTODETERMINACIN 293
Vctor Tricot
CONCLUSIN. ALGUNAS REFLEXIONES TENTATIVAS 323
Salvador Mart i Puig, Jos Aylwin, Claire Wright y Nancy Yez
AUTORES 333

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CAPTULO 1

BALANCE Y RETOS DE LA LUCHA DE LAS POBLACIONES


INDGENAS EN EL CAMBIO DE CICLO
SALVADOR MART I PUIG

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A0049 Entre el desa (F).indd 26

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A0049 Entre el desa (F).indd 27

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No

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No

No

No

S5

No

S8

Argentina

Bolivia

Brasil

Chile

Colombia

Costa Rica

Ecuador

El Salvador No

PASES

Guatemala

Mxico

Nicaragua

Panam

Paraguay

No

No

No

No

EXISTENCIA
DE GRUPOS
INDGENAS

No

No

No

DERECHO
A LA
PROPIEDAD
DERECHO
COLECTIVA
CONSUETUDINARIO DE LA TIERRA

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

DERECHO
A LA
PROPIEDAD
INTELECTUAL
COLECTIVA

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

S4

S3
No

DERECHO
A LA
EDUCACIN
BILINGE

S1

USUFRUCTO
DE RIQUEZAS
NATURALES
EN SUS
TERRITORIOS

DERECHOS RECONOCIDOS EN LAS CONSTITUCIONES MULTICULTURALES

TABLA 1

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

S2

No

DERECHO
A LA
APLICACIN
DE JUSTICIA
INDGENA

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

S6

No

No

No

AUTONOMAS
DERECHO A LA
TERRITORIALES PARTICIPACIN

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

CUPOS DE
REPRESENTACIN O
CIRCUNSCRIPCIONES
ELECTORALES
ESPECIALES

A0049 Entre el desa (F).indd 28

2/10/13 13:40:29

PASES

Per

Venezuela

S
S

No

DERECHO
A LA
PROPIEDAD
INTELECTUAL
COLECTIVA

No

No

USUFRUCTO
DE RIQUEZAS
NATURALES
EN SUS
TERRITORIOS

DERECHO
A LA
EDUCACIN
BILINGE

DERECHO
A LA
APLICACIN
DE JUSTICIA
INDGENA

No

No
S

No

AUTONOMAS
DERECHO A LA
TERRITORIALES PARTICIPACIN

CUPOS DE
REPRESENTACIN O
CIRCUNSCRIPCIONES
ELECTORALES
ESPECIALES

1. CONCRETAMENTE, EL TEXTO CONSTITUCIONAL SE REFIERE A LA PARTICIPACIN EN LA GESTIN REFERIDA A SUS RECURSOS NATURALES Y A LOS DEMS INTERESES QUE LOS AFECTAN.
2. ES RECONOCIDA DE MANERA INDIRECTA, DADO QUE EL ARTCULO 119 SOSTIENE QUE LAS PARTES EN CONFLICTO GOZARN DE IGUALDAD DE OPORTUNIDADES PARA EJERCER DURANTE EL PROCESO LAS FACULTADES
Y LOS DERECHOS QUE LES ASISTAN, SEA POR LA VA ORDINARIA O POR LA INDGENA ORIGINARIA CAMPESINA.
3. EL ARTCULO 231 DE LA CONSTITUCIN SEALA QUE EL APROVECHAMIENTO DE LOS RECURSOS HIDRULICOS, INCLUIDO EL POTENCIAL ENERGTICO, LA BSQUEDA Y EXTRACCIN DE LAS RIQUEZAS MINERALES EN
TIERRAS INDGENAS SOLO PUEDEN SER EFECTUADAS CON AUTORIZACIN DEL CONGRESO NACIONAL, ODAS LAS COMUNIDADES AFECTADAS,
QUEDNDOLES ASEGURADA LA PARTICIPACIN EN LOS RESULTADOS DE LA EXTRACCIN EN LA FORMA DE LA LEY.
4. NO SE HABLA DE MANERA EXPRESA DE EDUCACIN BILINGE, PERO EL ARTCULO 206 SEALA QUE LA ENSEANZA FUNDAMENTAL REGULAR SER IMPARTIDA EN LENGUA PORTUGUESA
Y SE ASEGURAR, TAMBIN, A LAS COMUNIDADES INDGENAS EL USO DE SUS LENGUAS MATERNAS Y MTODOS PROPIOS DE APRENDIZAJE.
5. EL ARTCULO 7 DE LA CONSTITUCIN RECONOCE LA DIVERSIDAD TNICA Y CULTURAL. DE HECHO, NO HAY UNIFORMIDAD EN CUANTO A LA TERMINOLOGA QUE UTILIZA PARA REFERIRSE A LOS GRUPOS INDGENAS
(PUEBLOS, MINORAS, ETNIAS, COMUNIDADES, ETC.).
6. EL ARTCULO 330 CONTEMPLA LA PARTICIPACIN DE LOS REPRESENTANTES DE LAS RESPECTIVAS COMUNIDADES, EN CUANTO A LAS DECISIONES
QUE SE ADOPTEN RESPECTO A LA EXPLOTACIN DE LOS RECURSOS NATURALES.
7. CONCRETAMENTE HACE REFERENCIA A LAS COMUNIDADES INDGENAS Y OTRAS QUE TENGAN
TIERRAS QUE HISTRICAMENTE LES PERTENECEN Y QUE TRADICIONALMENTE HAN ADMINISTRADO EN FORMA ESPECIAL, MANTENDRN ESE SISTEMA (ART. 67).
8. SE HABLA DE LAS COMUNIDADES DE LA COSTA ATLNTICA DE MANERA CONCRETA, NO DE LOS PUEBLOS INDGENAS.

EXISTENCIA
DE GRUPOS
INDGENAS

DERECHO
A LA
PROPIEDAD
DERECHO
COLECTIVA
CONSUETUDINARIO DE LA TIERRA

DERECHOS RECONOCIDOS EN LAS CONSTITUCIONES MULTICULTURALES (CONT.)

TABLA 1

Efsfdip! dpotvfuvejobsjp! dpo! fm! psejobsjp-! mb! dsfbdjo! ef! vo!


Usjcvobm! Dpotujuvdjpobm! qmvsjobdjpobm! epoef! ftuo! qsftfouft!
mpt!ept!tjtufnbt!)fm!sfhvmbs!z!fm!joehfob*-!mb!dpotbhsbdjo!ef!mb!
bvupopnb!joehfob!b!usbwt!ef!jotujuvdjpoft!z!foujebeft!ufssj.
upsjbmft! qbsb! mpt! 47! qvfcmpt! psjhjobsjpt! z! fm! dpouspm! ef! mpt!
sfdvstpt! gpsftubmft! fo! nbopt! ef! mbt! dpnvojebeft! joehfobt!
tpo!qsvfcb!ef!fmmp/!Mb!dvftujo-!fo!ftuf!dbtp-!tfs!wfs!dnp!tf!
jnqmfnfoub!ftuf!psefobnjfoup!kvsejdp!z!tj-!fo!dbtp!ef!tvqp.
ofs!bwbodft!tjhojgjdbujwpt!fo!fm!cjfoftubs!ef!mpt!qvfcmpt!joe.
hfobt!ef!Cpmjwjb-!tjswf!ef!fkfnqmp!)z!sfdmbnp*!qbsb!qvfcmpt!ef!
puspt!qbtft/!
3/3/!UFSSJUPSJPT!Z!BVUPOPNB
Fo!dvboup!b!mb!bvupopnb!z!fm!bvuphpcjfsop!ef!mpt!qvfcmpt!joe.
hfobt-!tf!ib!pctfswbep!fo!mpt!mujnpt!bpt!rvf!tf!ib!jep!ftub.
cmfdjfoep! fo! fm! ejtdvstp! ef! mpt! mefsft! joehfobt! vo! wodvmp!
dbeb!wf{!nt!ftusfdip!fousf!mb!ufssjupsjbmjebe-!fm!bvuphpcjfsop!z!
mb!kvsjtejddjo-!dpnp!fyqsftjpoft!efm!efsfdip!b!mb!mjcsf!efufs.
njobdjo/!Ftuf!qmboufbnjfoup!ib!ebep!mvhbs!b!mb!ctrvfeb!ef!
sfhnfoft!ef!bvupopnb!)Qmbou-!3113*-!upnboep!fo!dpotjefsb.
djo!mbt!dpnbsdbt!qbobnfbt!rvf!bcbsdbo!qsdujdbnfouf!fm!31!
qps!djfoup!ef!mb!tvqfsgjdjf!efm!qbt-!jotujuvdjpoft!rvf!qvfefo!
tfs! ipnpmphbcmft! bm! nvojdjqjp! z! qps! mp! uboup! qbsujdjqbs! fo! mb!
benjojtusbdjo!ef!dpnqfufodjbt!z!tfs!tvkfup!ef!usbotgfsfodjbt!
joufshvcfsobnfoubmft/!Tjo!fncbshp-!ubncjo!tf!ib!ufojep!fo!
dvfoub!fm!dbtp!ef!mbt!Sfhjpoft!Bvuopnbt!efm!Bumoujdp!Opsuf!z!
efm!Bumoujdp!Tvs!fo!Ojdbsbhvb-!rvf!qsfwo!fm!gvodjpobnjfoup!
ef!foujebeft!ufssjupsjbmft!tvcobdjpobmft!ef!dbsdufs!nvmujuoj.
dp!dpo!vob!dnbsb!sfqsftfoubujwb!z!dpo!djfsub!dbqbdjebe!fkfdv.
ujwb!z!gjobodjfsb/!
Dpo!upep-!bo!op!ibz!bdvfsep!tpcsf!dvm!ft!mb!nfkps!gpsnb!
ef! bsujdvmbs! mpt! ftqbdjpt! bvuopnpt/! Efousp! efm! npwjnjfoup!

3:

A0049 Entre el desa (F).indd 29

2/10/13 13:40:29

joehfob! njtnp! fyjtufo! qptuvsbt! rvf! wbo! eftef! qptjdjpoft!


dpnvobmjtubt! ibtub! sfhjpobmjtubt/! Mbt! qsjnfsbt! tptujfofo!
rvf! mb! dpnvojebe! mpdbm! dpotujuvzf! fm! ftqbdjp! wjubm! z! fm! tjujp!
epoef!dsfbs!mb!bvupopnb-!njfousbt!rvf!mbt!mujnbt!sftqpoefo!
rvf! vo! ojwfm! tvqsbdpnvojubsjp! ef! bvupopnb! sfhjpobm! ft! vo!
sfrvfsjnjfoup! qbsb! mb! dpfyjtufodjb! ef! dpnvojebeft! mpdbmft!
qmvsjuojdbt-!zb!rvf!bm!usbubstf!ef!ftqbdjpt!nt!bnqmjpt!bufob!
fm!wodvmp!fousf!mpt!sfdmbnpt!ef!ufssjupsjp!dpo!mpt!sbthpt!uojdpt!
ftqfdgjdpt/! Befnt-! ubncjo! fyjtuf! fm! efcbuf! efm! spm! ef! mb!
bvupsjebe! efm! Ftubep! fo! mbt! bvupopnbt! joehfobt! z-! fo! ftuf!
tfoujep-! fm! dbtp! ef! mpt! nvojdjqjpt! bvuopnpt! ef! Dijbqbt!
dpousbtub! dpo! mpt! sfdmbnpt! ef! mbt! dpnvojebeft! fo! Ojdbsbhvb-!
Fdvbeps!p!Cpmjwjb-!rvf!qjefo!sftqfup!z!nfdbojtnpt!qbsb!efgfo.
efstf!ef!mb!qfstjtufodjb!efm!npefmp!fyusbdujwjtub!rvf!nboujfof!
fm!Hpcjfsop/!
Ibtub! mb! gfdib-! z! b! mb! ftqfsb! efm! eftbsspmmp! ef! mb! ovfwb!
Dpotujuvdjo!ef!Cpmjwjb-!tpo!qpdpt!mpt!bwbodft!dpotfhvjept!fo!
ftub!ejsfddjo/!Mb!qbsbmj{bdjo!ef!mb!mfz!ef!bvupopnb!joehfob!
fo!fm!mfhjtmbujwp!nfyjdbop!)b!qftbs!efm!eftbsspmmp!b!ojwfm!ftub.
ubm*-!mb!ofhbujwb!efm!Ftubep!dijmfop!b!pupshbs!dvbmrvjfs!ujqp!ef!
sfdpopdjnjfoup! dpotujuvdjpobm! bm! qvfcmp! nbqvdif! )z! b! mpt!
efnt!qsftfouft!fo!fm!ufssjupsjp!dijmfop*-!mb!dsfdjfouf!joufotj.
ebe!efm!dpogmjdup!bsnbep!fo!Dpmpncjb!z!mb!bqmjdbdjo!ef!qpmuj.
dbt! ofpmjcfsbmft! rvf! ibo! wbdjbep! ef! sfdvstpt! b! mbt! foujebeft!
joehfobt-!z!mb!fsptjo!ef!dpnqfufodjbt!z!sfdvstpt!fo!mbt!sfhjp.
oft!bvuopnbt!ojdbsbhfotft!ibo!efdfqdjpobep!mbt!fyqfdubuj.
wbt!hfofsbebt!evsbouf!mpt!bpt!opwfoub/!
Pusb! dvftujo! nvz! jnqpsubouf! z! wjodvmbeb! dpo! mb! bouf.
sjps!ft!mb!ef!mb!ujfssb/!Dbcf!tfbmbs!rvf!fm!psefo!opsnbujwp!ef!mb!
usbejdjo!mjcfsbm!tf!ib!mjnjubep!b!dpotbhsbs!fm!efsfdip!jssftusjd.
up!ef!mb!qspqjfebe!joejwjevbm!z!b!dpogfsjs!bm!Ftubep!fm!sftup!ef!
qspqjfebeft!cbkp!mb!dbmjgjdbdjo!ef!ujfssbt!cbmebt/!Fo!ftuf!tfo.
ujep-!ft!qsfdjtp!qsfhvoubstf!dnp!dbcf!dpodjmjbs!ftub!dpodfqdjo!

41

A0049 Entre el desa (F).indd 30

2/10/13 13:40:29

dpo! mbt! efnboebt! ef! mpt! qvfcmpt! joehfobt! bmsfefeps! ef! mbt!
ujfssbt! bodftusbmft! gvoebebt! fo! fm! Efsfdip! dpotvfuvejobsjp!
rvf!tf!fyqsftb!fo!fm!vtp!jonfnpsjbm!ef!mbt!ujfssbt!z!mpt!sfdvstpt!
obuvsbmft/!Ftub!dpousbejddjo!ib!tjep!nt!qpufouf!fo!mpt!Ftubept!
rvf!ibo!gjsnbep!usbubept!z!dpowfojpt!)dpnp!ft!mb!Dpowfodjo!
27:!ef!mb!PJU!p!mb!Efdmbsbdjo!ef!mbt!Obdjpoft!Vojebt!tpcsf!mpt!
Efsfdipt!ef!mpt!Qvfcmpt!Joehfobt!ef!3118*!efcjep!b!rvf!ibo!
jnqvmtbep! nfejebt! ef! joejwjevbmj{bdjo-! sfhjtusp! z! ujuvmbdjo!
ef!mb!qspqjfebe-!z!ibo!qfsnjujep!dpodftjpoft!ef!fyqmpubdjo!ef!
sfdvstpt!gpsftubmft-!njofsbmft!z!ef!hbt!fo!ufssjupsjpt!tvqvftub.
nfouf! qspufhjept! qps! mb! qsftfodjb! ef! qvfcmpt! joehfobt7/!
Tpcsf!ftuf!ufnb-!ft!gdjm!qsfefdjs!rvf!ovfwpt!z!ufotpt!dpogmjdupt!
fousf! mbt! dpnvojebeft! joehfobt! z! Ftubept! z! fnqsftbt! rvf!
dpejdjbo! tvt! sfdvstpt! ftuo! btfhvsbept! )Bqbsjdjp! Xjmifmnj-!
fe/-!3122<!Bttjft-!3118*/!
3/4/!QPMUJDB!EFTEF!QBSUJEPT!JOEHFOBT
Pusp!ufnb!sfmfwbouf!kvoup!dpo!)p!eftqvt!ef*!mb!fnfshfodjb!ef!
mbt!sfjwjoejdbdjpoft!joehfobt-!ib!tjep!mb!bqbsjdjo!ef!gpsnb.
djpoft!qpmujdbt!rvf!ujfofo!fousf!tvt!sfdmbnpt!gvoebnfoubmft!
efgfoefs!b!mpt!qvfcmpt!joehfobt/!B!ftubt!gpsnbdjpoft!tf!mbt!ib!
mmbnbep! qps! qbsuf! ef! mpt! qpmjumphpt! qbsujept! uojdpt8-!
foufoejoepmpt! dpnp! pshboj{bdjpoft! bvupsj{bebt! b! dpnqfujs!
fo!fmfddjpoft!fo!mbt!dvbmft!mb!nbzpsb!ef!tvt!mefsft!tf!jefouj.
gjdbo! dpnp! njfncspt! ef! vo! hsvqp! uojdp! op! epnjobouf! z! fo!
dvzbt! qspqvftubt! qsphsbnujdbt! ftuo! qsftfouft! efnboebt!
sfmbdjpobebt! dpo! dvftujpoft! dvmuvsbmft! z! uojdbt! )Wbo! Dpuu-!
3116;!4*/!
Ftubt! gpsnbdjpoft! ibo! ufojep-! fo! bmhvopt! dbtpt-! djfsub!
dbqbdjebe!ef!dpoejdjpobs!mb!qpmujdb!ef!tv!qbt!efcjep!b!mb!pqps.
uvojebe! ef! gpsnbs! qbsuf! ef! vob! dpbmjdjo! hvcfsobnfoubm! p!
qpsrvf!ibo!qpejep!qsftjpobs!efdjtjpoft!efm!Hpcjfsop!eftef!mb!

42

A0049 Entre el desa (F).indd 31

2/10/13 13:40:29

pqptjdjo/!Ftub!sfmfwbodjb!ib!tjep!fo!bmhvopt!qbtft!b!oj!.
wfm! obdjpobm!z!fo!puspt!sfhjpobm/!Mpt!dbtpt!nt!jnqpsubouft!b!
ojwfm!obdjpobm!ibo!tjep!mpt!ef!Fdvbeps!z!Cpmjwjb/!Fo!Fdvbeps!mb!
gpsnbdjo!Qbdiblvujl!Ovfwp!Qbt!)QOQ*!uvwp!vo!spm!nvz!sfmf.
wbouf! eftef! 2::1! ibtub! 3116-! pcufojfoep! 9! ejqvubept! fo! mbt!
fmfddjpoft!ef!2::7-!:!fo!mbt!ef!2::9!z!22!fo!mbt!ef!3113/!Z!fo!fm!
dbtp! ef! Cpmjwjb! dbcf! tfbmbs! fm! eftfnqfp! efm! qbsujep!
Npwjnjfoup!bm!Tpdjbmjtnp!)NBT*!fo!mb!qsjnfsb!edbeb!efm!qsf.
tfouf!tjhmp-!qvft!fo!mbt!fmfddjpoft!ef!3113!pcuvwp!38!ejqvubept!
obdjpobmft! z! 9! tfobepsft-! fo! 3116! pcuvwp! 83! ejqvubept! z! 23!
tfobepsft<!z!fo!311:!pcuvwp!ept!ufsdjpt!ef!mpt!ftdbpt!fo!kvfhp!
z!mb!nbzpsb!fo!fm!Tfobep/
B!ojwfm!sfhjpobm-!ft!qsfdjtp!tfbmbs!mpt!dbtpt!ef!Ojdbsbhvb!
dpo! mb! gpsnbdjo! Zbubnb9-! dpodsfubnfouf! fo! mb! Sfhjo! Bv!.
uopnb!efm!Bumoujdp!Opsuf!)SBBO*!z!fo!nfops!nfejeb!fo!mb!
Sfhjo!Bvuopnb!efm!Bumoujdp!Tvs!)SBBT*/!Puspt!dbtpt!b!eft.
ubdbs! tpo! mpt! ef! mbt! gpsnbdjpoft! Bvupsjebeft! Joehfobt! ef!
Dpmpncjb! )BJDP*! z! Bvupsjebeft! Joehfobt! efm! Tvspftuf! )BTJ*!
fo!Dpmpncjb-!z!mbt!efm!Qbsujep!Vojep!Nvmujuojdp!efm!Bnb{pobt!
)QVBNB*!z!efm!Dpotfkp!Obdjpobm!Joejp!ef!Wfof{vfmb!)DPOJWF*!
fo!Wfof{vfmb-!epoef!fo!dpbmjdjo!dpo!pusbt!gvfs{bt!ibo!dpotf.
hvjep!dvpubt!ef!qpefs!fo!jotujuvdjpoft!sfhjpobmft:/!
Tjo! fncbshp-! vob! ef! mbt! qsfhvoubt! dsvdjbmft! tpcsf! ftuf!
ufnb!ft!mb!ef!qps!rv!tpmp!fo!mpt!qbtft!djubept!mpt!npwjnjfoupt!
joehfobt!ibo!ufojep!mb!gvfs{b!z!mb!dbqbdjebe!ef!dsfbs!qbsujept!
dpo!qptjcjmjebe!ef!hbobs!ftdbpt!z!bmdbo{bs!dvpubt!ef!qpefs!b!
ojwfm! obdjpobm! p! sfhjpobm/! Ejdib! dvftujo! ft! sfmfwbouf-! tpcsf!
upep-!qbsb!brvfmmpt!qbtft!epoef!mb!qsftfodjb!ef!dpnvojebeft!
joehfobt!ft!nvz!bnqmjb-!dpnp!fo!Qfs-!Qbsbhvbz!p!Hvbufnbmb-!
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hfob-!dpnp!fo!Dijmf-!Nyjdp!v!Ipoevsbt/!
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b! fyqmjdbdjpoft! be! ipd/! Fo! fm! dbtp! ef! Nyjdp-! mb! qbsujdjqbdjo!

43

A0049 Entre el desa (F).indd 32

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joehfob!fo!fm!nvoep!mpdbm!tf!ib!djsdvotdsjup-!dpo!ejgfsfodjbt!
tfho! fm! Ftubep-! bm! nfdbojtnp! ef! vtpt! z! dptuvncsft/! Mb!
fydfqdjo!b!ftub!mhjdb!gvf!mb!dsfbdjo!efm!qbsujep!joehfob!pyb.
rvfp!Npwjnjfoup!ef!Vojgjdbdjo!z!Mvdib!Usjrvj!)NVMU*-!dpo!
sftvmubept!npeftupt!ef!vop!p!ept!ejqvubept!ftububmft-!evsbouf!
mpt!bpt!opwfoub/!Bduvbmnfouf-!tj!cjfo!fyjtuf!vo!joufotp!efcbuf!
tpcsf!mb!qbsujdjqbdjo!joehfob!fo!Nyjdp!fo!fm!ncjup!nvoj.
djqbm-!mb!fyqfsjfodjb!ef!mpt!nvojdjqjpt!bvuopnpt!ef!Dijbqbt!
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eftubdb! mb! qsftfodjb! ef! bmdbmeft! joehfobt! eftef! jojdjpt! ef! mb!
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!wfmjdb-!qfsp!ovodb!cbkp!mb!njtnb!pshboj{bdjo/!Z!fo!fm!dbtp!ef!
Hvbufnbmb-!tj!cjfo!mb!wjeb!qpmujdb!mpdbm!op!qvfef!dpnqsfoefs.
tf!tjo!mb!jogmvfodjb!ef!mbt!dpgsbebt-!ovodb!ib!ibcjep!vo!qspzfd.
up!qbo.nbzb!ibtub!mb!dsfbdjo!ef!mb!gpsnbdjo!Xjobr-!mjefsbeb!
qps!Sjhpcfsub!Nfodi-!z!rvf!fo!mbt!fmfddjpoft!qsftjefodjbmft!
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hjpt/!Pusp!dbtp!b!eftubdbs!ft!fm!ef!Dijmf!dpo!mb!qpcmbdjo!nbqv.
dif-!dvzbt!pshboj{bdjpoft!bvuopnbt!op!ibo!ufojep!dbqbdjebe!
ef! ftubs! sfqsftfoubebt! jotujuvdjpobmnfouf! z! epoef! mb! ovfwb!
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fm!Tfswjdjp!Fmfdupsbm!dpotjefsb!rvf!tvt!ftubuvupt!z!cbtft!qsphsb.
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nb-! obdjo! nbqvdif! z! tncpmpt! dpnp! vob! cboefsb! qspqjb*!
jodpotujuvdjpobmft/!
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dpotjtufouf!eb!dvfoub!ef!rvf!op!fyjtuf!vob!sfmbdjo!mjofbm!fousf!

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CAPTULO 2

LOS MECANISMOS INTERNACIONALES PARA


LA RECLAMACIN DE DERECHOS INDGENAS
EN AMRICA LATINA: AVANCES Y TENSIONES+
JOS AYLWIN

2/!JOUSPEVDDJO
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