Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 65

..

-2004

..





- 351500.

-2004

517.98(07)
22.162(97)
88
88 .. .
.-: , 2004.- 62 .

351500

, - ()
. ,
, .
: 4 .
-

. .-. , . ..
:
, .
.-. , . ..; .-. ,
.-. , . ..; .-. , .
.., . .-. , . ..

.., 2004

, 2004


...............................................................................................4
1. . ...............................................5
2. ..........................................................7
3. ...............................................................11
3.1. .....................................11
3.2. .........................................12
3.3. .......................................14
3.4. . . .19
3.5. .....................................................22
3.6. ........................................24
3.7. .................................28
4. ........................................32
4.1. .................................................32
4.2.
......................................................................................38
4.3. 42
4.4. ......................................................44
5. .........................................................................51
5.1. ......................................51
5.2. .................55
5.3. . 59
6. ..........................................................................................61
7. ..................................................................................62
8. ...................................................................................63
9. ....................................................64



351500
.
,
.
, ,
- . ,
,
, .

.
. ,
,
.
,
.
, .

, .
..,

.

1. .

. ,
.
,
.
.

, , .
.
1. f: XY ,
X
Y. Y, X,
f (). X1 X, X1 f
f(X1) = {f(x): xX1} Y. Y1 Y,
Y1 f
f 1(Y1) = {x: f(x) Y1} X. i: X
i(x) = x xX. f:XY
(), f(X) = Y
, f(1) = f(2) 1 = 2.
2. f:XY, g: YZ,
fg:XZ, fg() = g(f()).

. f 1:Y X
f, ff 1 = iX, f 1f = iY.
, .

, .
,
. , 2
R, . ,
[0,), , x .
f
1
f.
: (fg)1= g1f1.
5

,
, .
.
,
, , .

sup ( ).
, ,
, inf (
).
,
,
. , ,
, .
. ,
(0,1), [0,1] 1 0.
, .
sup, , (
sup max ).
min .
3.

( )
X, x+y
x,
:
1) x+y = y+x;
2) (x+y)+z = y+(x+z);
3) () 0 X, x+0 = x
x;
4) xX (x), .. , x+
(x) = 0;
5) ()x = (x);
6) (+)x = x+x;
7) (x+y) = x+y
8) 1x = x.
x1, x2,, xn ,
1x1+2x2++nxn = 0 , 1 = 2 = = n = 0.
.
4.

-,
.
n-
.
-
1x1+2x2++nxn {x1,,
xn}.
,
.

, [0,1]
.
X,
,
. ,
, (
),
. x y , ,
x y x +y
, , +=1. ,
, .
.
5.


,
. x y ,
, x y x +y
, , ,0, +=1. x
y [x,y]. , (
) .
6.

2.
1.

p, q , ,
, b

1 1
1, p 1, q 1.
p q

ab

a
b

p
q

.
, , , b .
(t) = tmmt t>0, m(0,1).
(t) = mtm1m =m(tm11).
, (t) t=1, ..
tmmt 1m tm1 m(t1). t = ap/bq, m=1/p (
, p > 1), abq/p1 (1/p)(apbq1).
bq, abqq/pbq (1/p) (ap bq).

ap
1
a p bq
b q 1

p
p
p
q

qq/p = 1. , ab

, .

2. .
x1,x2,,xn; y1,y2,,yn .
p
n
xi yi xi
i 1

i 1
n

1/ p

i 1

1/ q

yi

1 1

1, p 1, q 1

p q

.
1/ p

xi

i 1

,B

1/ q

yi

i 1

, A>0, B>0 x1==xn=0 y1 ==


yn = 0 . a = xi/A, b = yi/B
p

. 1,

xi yi
x
y
i p iq
AB
pA
qB

xi y i

xi

yi

. ,
q

1 1
i 1 p i 1 q 1 ,
p q
pA
qB

i 1

AB

.
p = q = 2
-
n 2
xi y i xi
i 1

i 1
n

1/ 2

i 1

1/ 2

yi

. .
3.

xi

i 1

, yi
i 1

1 1

1, p 1, q 1

p q

xi yi ,

i 1

yi .

i 1
i 1
i 1

.

xi yi

xi

4. .
(t), y(t) , [0,1],
1 1

1, p 1, q 1

p q

.
1/ p 1

p
1

x(t ) y (t ) dt x(t ) dt
0

1/ q

y (t ) q dt

. 2.
1
p
A x(t ) dt
0

1/ p

1
q
, B y (t ) dt
0

1/ q

. , , A >

0, B > 0
. . 1
= (t)/A, b = y(t)/A. :
p

x (t ) y (t )
x (t )
y (t )

p
AB
pA
qB q

0 1, :
1

x(t ) y (t ) dt

AB

x (t ) dt

pA p

y (t ) dt

qB q

1 1 ,
1
p q

.
5.

i 1

p 1/ p

xi y i

p 1/ p

xi
i 1

p 1/ p

yi
i 1

p > 1.
.

xi yi xi xi yi
i 1

p 1

i 1

yi xi yi

p 1

i 1


(.2):
p

xi yi
i 1

1/ p

xi

i 1

xi yi

i 1

1
p

n p
xi yi xi
i1

i 1
n

q ( p 1)

1
q

1/ p

1/ q

yi

i 1

1/ p

xi yi

i 1

q ( p 1)

1/ q

q(p1) = p. ,

p
xi yi

i 1
n

1/ q

n
p
yi
i 1

1/ p

p
xi yi

i 1
n

xi yi
i 1

1/ q

1/ q

.
6. . p>1.
p
p
p

i1 xi , i1 yi , i1 xi yi ,

1/ p

xi yi
i
1

p
xi
i 1

1/ p

yi
i

1/ p

.
7. . (t), y(t)
, [0,1], p>1.
1/ p

1 x(t ) y (t ) p

1
p
x(t )
0

1/ p

1
p
y (t )
0

1/ p


. 5.

10

3.


, .
,
, . ,
.
1.
, () ,
(,), :
1) : (,) 0, (,) = 0
, = . ,
.
2) : (,) = (,).
3) : (,) (,z)+(z,).
:
.
.

: (,z)(z,) (,),
.
,
(,z) (,) + (z,), (z,) (,) + (,z).
(,z) (z,) (,), (z,) (,z) (,).
, b,
b b.
Y X .
X.
.

1, 2,, n,.
11

{n}.
.
,
, ,
.
2. 0
{n}, (n,0)
( 0).
,

: 0
{n},
> 0 N n > N (n,0) < .
: n0, lim n = 0.,
, .
.
{n} n1<n2<
<nk< - , xn
{n}. , {n}
.

k

1.

.
.
,
.
.
2.
, .
. n, nb.
, : (,b) (,n) + (n,b).
(,b)
,
12

(,b) = 0, 1 = b,
.

.

3. {n}
,
{(,n)} .
. n0.
(,n) (,0) + (0,n).
{(0,n)}
{(,n)} .
, {(,n)}
.
.
3. a , r > 0. B r
a , a
, r, .. B(a,r) = {x:(a, x) < r}.

B (a,r) = {x:(a,x) r}. a
a.
, a
B(a,1/n) n.
n0 ,
0 ,
.
4.
, .
4 ,
.
a,
-
. , M B(a,r), xM
(a,x) < r.
13

(b, x) (b,a) + (a, x)<(b,a)+r,


.. M B(b,r+(b,a)).

1. R.
, , .
(,) = . 1 2 ,

+b a + b a: = z, b: = zy. ,
,
.
2. lnp .
= (1,2,, n) c
.

. 1. p(,) = xi yi
i 1

1/ p

. 1 2 ,
(. 2). n
p(,) ,
lnp .
. (k)(0),

k
0
xi xi

i 1

p 1/ p

0.

k
0
xi xi 0 k.
i 1

xi k xi 0 xi k xi 0 ,
i 1

, x x 0.
, xi k xi 0 . xi k xi 0 i,
k

k
0
xi xi 0 ,
i 1

l . ,
lnp .
(k)

(0)

p
n

14

n-
xi yi . ,
: (,) = max
i
, .
.
.
= 2.
2
l n , ,
.
l 2p
0 = (0,0) 1.
{(x1,x2): x1 p+ x2 p 1}.
(1,0), (0,1). =2 , < 2
, = 1
, .
> 2 , = ,
.
3. .
,
[0,1]. , .
( !) :
x(t ) y (t ) . x(t ) y (t )
(,) = max
t
[0,1], (.
!) ,
.
.
1) , (,) 0. (,) = 0. ,
x(t ) y (t ) = 0 t [0,1], . ( = ).
2) , x(t ) y (t ) y (t ) x(t ) ,
.
3)
, :
x (t ) y (t ) x (t ) z (t ) z (t ) y (t ) . ,

x(t ) y (t ) (,z) + (z,y).
, (,) (,z) + (z,y),
15

. [0,1].
. nx0
xn (t ) x0 (t ) 0 , ..
[0,1], max
t
>0 N n>N t[0,1] xn (t ) x0 (t ) .

, , n(t)x0(t) t[0,1],
..
t[0,1] >0 N n> N x (t ) x (t ) .
4. .
=(1,2,,n,),
, . n () ( ,
). ,
(1000, 1, 1000, 1, 1000, 1, 1000,) ,
(1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 1, 4,) .
(
xi y i
, ): (,)= sup

i
, ,
xi yi , ..
.
. , =(0,0,,0,);
xi yi
=(0, 1/2, 3/4,,(n1)/n,). , max
i
, (,)=1.
(k)(0) . i
xi k xi 0 sup xi k xi 0 =((k) ,(0))0,
i
xi k xi 0 0, ..
.
:
.
(k), k- , xk k 1 . ,
xi k 0 i (
). , ,
(k)0=(0,0,,0,), ((k),0) = 1 k.
:
,
.
5. .
n

16


xi y i
= (1,2,,n,) (,) = sup
i
. ,
.
6. Lp.
( 3)
, [0,1].
1
p
p(,)= x(t ) y (t ) dt
0

1/ p

, 1.


. .
, Lp
0 (0,1).
[0,1] 3 f1(x)
, 0 0 1, 1
[1/3, 2/3] [0,1/3] [2/3,1].
4 f2(x) , 0
[3/4,1] 0, 1 [1/4,1/2],
[0,1/4] [1/2,3/4] f3(x) , 0
[0,1/4] 1, 1 [1/2,3/4],
[1/4,1/2] [3/4,1]. .
.
2 , 1
, 0 ,
.
( p),
. (
Lp
).
7. lp.

p
=(1,2,,n,) , i1 xi . ,
,

1,

17

1 1
1
, ,..., ,... l 1 .
2 3
n

1 1
1
2
1, , ,..., ,... l ,
2
3
n

lp

(x,y)=

1/ p

p
xi y i
i 1

, ,
.

xi yi xi yi
i 1

1/ p

= (x,y),

lp ,
, .. (n)(0) , xi n xi 0
i. - ,
.
7. .

, (x,y)=1, xy. (,
) = (,1) (1 > > 0) . ,
n ,
.
.


.
.
5. - , ,
. ,
\{a}. ,
, .
. 1. , ,
. , 0 1
(0,2), ,
.
2. .
. , 1
(1,0){1}.
3. ,
n M,
.
18

1/n
, . ,
, .
6.
.

,
. ,
( 8 . ) B(a,1) (
a) B (a,1)
.
.
1. M .
.
2. N, M N . , a M ,
a , a .
N. a N .
.
M N M N . N, N N, M M N ,
3.
N M N 2, M N M N .
. M N .
N, , , M N . M N \(N).
3, n N,
. ,
,
(, )
, .. ,
xnk xnk . (. 3),

, M N M N .
4.
M M . 1 M M . M . ,
M . M . :
M ,
. . r > 0. B(a,r/2) b a
M . B(b,(a,b)/2) .

(a,) (a,b) (b,) (a,b) (a,b)/2 = (a,b)/2 > 0, a .
19

(a,) (a,b) + (b,) < 3(a,b)/2 < r. ,


r , a
, a, .. M .
.
5. .
, .
, 3, .
,
.
7. M X ,
M = M.
M X ,
X\M.
M X X,
M = X.
.
8.
M, B(a,r)M r, . .

. M,
B(a,r)/M r, . .
. ,
,
M, .
, ,
,
M.
4. ,
, ,
.
.
1. . M , M.
X\M ,
.
X\M, ..

20

M
.
2. . M
X\M. ,
, M, ..
M. M, ,
X\M X\M , , M
.
[a,b],
[a,). (a,b), (a,). [a,b)
( b,
a).
5
.

.
3 , (
) .
, (
)
4. ,

, ,

1 n 1
n

n 3 n

= (0, 1).



.
.
9. , Y .
f: Y a,
, na , f(n) f(a).
, .
.
21

5.
, ,
Y
.
. . f
, f1(U)
U Y . ,
f1(U), f1(U), ..
, ,
f1(U). nf1(U), (n,)<1/n.
, n f(n) f(a).
f(n)U. f()U U
, f(n)U n.
.
.
Y n. U
=B(f(),) Y f().
, ,
. >0 B(, ) f1(U).
n , nf1(U)
n, .. f (n) U n,
, f (n)f().
,
,
.
,
. , (1,1)
y = x2 [0,1),
. , ,
. ,
f [1,1]
{a,b} (. ), f[1,0] = {a}, f(0,1] = {b}.

, .
, 1/n0,

22

,
f(1/n) = bf(0) = a.
,
.
,
. ,
[0,2)
, ,
- ,
, .
, .. .1 . ,
.

( 3.15).
10. f: Y
, ,
.


( ).
11. {xn}
,
>0 N n>N p (xn xn+p)<.
,
.
6. {xn},
.
. xn, >0.
(xn, )</2.
p (xn+ ) < /2.
,
(xn, xn+) (xn ) + (xn+ ) < /2+/2 = , .
23

.
, ,
.
12.
,
.
,
10 ,
.

. = (0,1) (x,y) = xy ,

xn = 1/n.
,
. 0, 0,
.
.
7. Y
X .
. {xn}
Y. Y X
X , xnx0 X. x0
{xn}, YX.
Y , x0Y, .. {xn}
Y, .
, lnp
. {(k)}
(k s)
i

. x x
(k )
i

n
p
x (jk ) x (jk s )
j 1

1/ p

p(x(k), x(k+s)),

{(k)}
xi k
i=1,2,,n. ,
xi k i. xi k xi 0 .
lnp
(. ), (k)(0)= x1 0 , x2 0 ,..., xn 0 , ..
lnp .
24

.
{xn} . t[0,1]
xn ( s) xn p ( s ) (n, n+p).
xn (t ) xn p (t ) max
s
, {xn(t)}
.
, ,
x0(t). , {xn}
x0. ,
. >0. N,
n>N

xn (t ) xn p (t ) max xn ( s) xn p ( s) . p
s

x (t ) x (t ) . , xn x0 .
xn ,
x0(t) , ..
x0(t)[0,1] {xn} .
,

, , ..
.
Lp . ,
.
n

n n 1
f n ( x) x
2 4 2

1 1
x 0,
2 n
1
1 1 1

x ,
2 n 2 n
1 1

x ,1
2 n

(=3,4,. ).
, Lp
( ).
(
Lp ),
Lp .
.
, m,c.lp .

, :
25


[a1,b1] [a2,b2] [an,bn] ,
(bnan)0, .
1. ,
0,
. ,
,
.
.
, (,

1
0,
n

).

,
,
.

13. A:XX
X ,
(0,1) x,yX
(Ax,Ay) (x,y).
2. ( ). A
X,
y A, ..
, Ay=y.
.
1. .
, n0. (An,A0) (xn,0).
(xn,0)0 ,
(An,A0)0, .. AnA0, .
2. 0 X.
1 = 0, 2 = 1,, n+1 = n, . ,
(
). = (x1,0).
(x2,1) = (x1,0) (x1,0) = ,

26

(x3,2) = (x2,1) (x2,1) = 2,

(xn+1,n) = (xn,n1) (xn,n1) = n,

, :
(n+p,xn)(xn+1,n)+(xn+2,n+1)++(n+p,xn+p1)
(n+n+1++n+p1) < (n+n+1++n+p1+) = n/(1).


( , <1).
n0, (n+p, xn)
. ,
{xn} .
3. X ,
{xn} y. , y = y.
n+1=n. n n+1y
ny .
. , .
4. . z
.
(y,z) = (y, z) (y, z). (y, z)(1) 0.
1 > 0, (y,z) 0, (y,z) = 0, y = z.
.


-,

. .

.
14.
,
.

.
27

( )
.
8.
.
.
. ,
n=1,2, xn , (,xn) n.
{xn}
. . ,
.
9. Y
.
.
Y. B(a,1/n) nY\{a}. n
. {n}
a. Y ,
{n} Y.
, aY, .. Y .
8 9
.
3. Y
l , ,
.
p
n

.
8 9. . {(k)}Y.
Y ,
x1( k ) . .
{(k)}.
, ,
.
, n {(k)},
xi(k ) i=1,2,,n.
xi( 0 ) lim xi( k ) , (k)(0). Y
28

(0)Y. Y
.
. ,

, .
, . ,
, .

.
4 ().

.
.

.
5. X
.
. f:XY ,
f(X) = Y. {yn}Y.
n , f(n)=yn. ,
f(X)=Y, .
X , {n}
xn . xn a .
yn f xn f a f . ,
{yn}
, .
. f:XR

, f(X) .
( ). , ,
,

.
k

. 1.
. ,
29

sin(x) ()
[1,1].
2. . ,
1
x [1, ) (0, 1].
,
.
1. , ..
.

(. . ).
.
2. (. 3.4),
. R.
3. ,
( 3.16).

3. 1. - X. ,
*(x,y) = min{(x,y),1} , ,
,
.
3.2. ,
.
3.3. f(x) ,
R. , (x,y) = f(x) f(y) .
3.4. ,
,
.
3.5. {xn},{yn} .
, lim (xn, yn).
3.6. , l1, l2

) {x(n)}=

1
,1,...,
1,0,0,...
n

,
30

) {x(n)}=

1
/ n
,1
/n,...,
1
/ n,0,0,...
n

) {x(n)}= 1,1 / 2,...,1 / n,0,0,... ?


3.7. ,L1c

) fn(x)=sin(x/n),
) fn(x)=en(x1),
) fn(x)=(1)n?
3.8. ,

L2c, .
3.9. ,
L2c
L1c, .
3.10. U={(x1,x2,,xn,)l2: n xn>0}
l2?
3.11. , U ={f(x)C: f(x) > 0
x [0,1/2]} .
3.12.
) {xX:(x,a) = 1},
) {xX:(x,a) = (x,b)}
?
3.13. ,
.

3.14. , f(x) = i 1 xi
l1.
3.15. ,
.
3.16. ,
, (,y) < (,y)
. ,
(,y) (,y)?

31

4.


,
.
, .. (x,y) = (x+z,y+z)
. .
15.
,
1. X ,
2. ||||
(), :
- |||| 0, |||| = 0 = 0,
- |||| =
||||,
- ||+y|| ||||+||y||.
: (x,y) = ||y||.
10. (x,y)
.
.
1. (x,y) 0,
(x,y) = ||y||=0, y = 0, .. = y.
2. (y,x) = ||y || = ||(1)( y)|| =
1 || y|| = || y|| = (x,y).
3. (x,y) = || y|| = ||( z) (y z)|| || z|| + ||y z|| =
= (x, z)+(z, y)
(. ) .
,
, .. (x,y) = (x+z,y+z).
, ,
, . ,
,
, .
,
. ,

32

.
.
1. lnp .
.

||||= xi
i 1

1/ p


), , . ,
. =:
||||=max xi . , .. .
2. .
[0,1]
,
() c
1-8 . 1.
|||| = max((t)), t,
, , . .
,
. , .

33

3. m.

,
.
. ,
.
|||| = max(i) (
!), m (.)
. .
,
m.
4. Lp.
, . , ||
1
p
||p= x(t ) dt
0

1/ p

. .

5.
lp.
.
, lp
l . l ||||=
p

xi

i 1

1/ p

. lp
.
,
.
11. n, yny n
R,
1)
2)
3)

n+yn+y;
nn;
||n|| ||||.

.
1) ||(n + yn) ( + y) || = ||(n ) + (yn y) ||
||n || + ||yn y||.
0 n,

||(n+yn) (+y)||0, .. n+yn+y.


34

2)

||nn || = ||n(n ) + (n )||


n ||n || +
+ n ||||.

0 n,
{n}.
, ||nn ||0, .. nn.
3)
(||n|| ||||) ||n ||. ,
||n|| ||||.

. ,
0, .. .


.
12. ( )
.
. B(a,r) (
). x,yB(a,r) ,
, 0, + = 1. ,
x +y B(a,r), (. 1). ||x
+ y a|| = ||(x a) + (y a)|| ||(x a)|| + ||(y a)|| =
=
|| a|| +
||y a|| < r+r=r, .
13. B(a,r) (r>0)
B (a,r). ,
(. . ).
. 1. y B(a,r),
.. n nB(a,r) ,
||yn|| < 1/n. : ||y a|| ||y n|| + ||n a|| < r+1/n.
n ||y a|| r, .. y B
(a,r). , B(a ,r)
B (a,r).
.
2. y B (a,r)\B(a,r). , ||y a|| = r.
, y B(a,r).
35

n =
||na|| =

1
ya
n

1
1
y a.
n
n

< r, .. nB(a,r). 11, ny, ..

B (a,r) B(a, r).



.
16.

.
,
.
, l1

S={xl1: i1 xi 0 }. ,
. S.

xi xi (
i
1
i 1

xi l1.
), .. f(x) = i
1
l1 (.
3.14). S {0}
.
,
.
.
,

(
), ..
.
(, 1/2 ).

. ,
, .

6 (.). L
,
. >0 y ,
y 1, y x 1 L.
36

x y0 . , d
. y0L, d = inf
xL
> 0. , d = 0, y0 L, ..
L y0L,
y0.

0 L , d

x 0 y0

< d/(1).

y 0 x0
y 0 x0

yL,
y0 = 0+y x0 y0 L. ,
y

y 0 x0
y 0 x0

1
y 0 x0

y 0 x 0 1.

L.
yx

y x0 x y 0 x 0
y 0 x0
x 0
y 0 x0
y 0 x0

L, d
y0 x0 x y 0 x0 d . 0
d
x0 y0 < d/(1). y x d /(1 ) = 1,
.
(
) , ,

.
, y 1, y x 1
.
(. ) .

x0 x y 0 x0


. Y
, :
Y , (1+2) = (1) +(2), () = (). ,
37

{a1,a2,,an}
, {a1, a2,, an}
Y. ,

.

.
17. , Y
. : Y (:
), (1+2) = (1) + (2),
() = (). ,
1 .
, Y ,
: Y.
,
,
.. ,
(
).

(. ) (. ).

1
(, x
(0,1] [1,)).
,
5.
14. : Y
, ()
.
. ,
d
d. () .
, n n
, ||(n)|| >n. yn=n/n. ||yn|| = ||n/n|| = ||
n||/n /n d/n0, .. yn0.
38

||(yn)|| = ||(n/n)|| = ||(n)||/n >1, .. , (yn)0,


.

.
7. n
.
.
, n
ln2 .
,
.
{a1, a2,, an}.
n

= xi ai .
i 1

i 1

: ln2 xi ai =(1, 2,, n). ,



(1+2) = (1) + (2), () = ().
1.
1.

i 1

1/ 2

= ai

i 1

i 1

x xi ai xi ai

n 2
xi ai xi
i 1

i 1
n

1/ 2

i 1

1/ 2

ai

Ax . , n0 , n0, .
1 .
x

S={y: yi 1}

2.

i 1

l f: SR,
f(y) = A y . , f(y) > 0 y
0 (
ln2 ). 1 ,
11 .
, f
(.). ,
(
2
n

-1

39

). 3
. 4
f S .
, > 0. f(y) . y
y

ln2 , y/ y S . f(y/ y ) A y >


0.
1

A 1 y
y

. ,

A 1 y

(, y=0).
y=, Ax x /.
. .
.
ln2 (.), (
)
. (. 3.16)
,
, . .
. .
,
. ,
. ,

1
t 0
t
0
t 0

t sin

f (t )

( ),
, .
,

,
..
.
,
.
.
18. , Y
,

f: Y, , .. , (x,y) = (f(x), f(y))


40

().
,
, ( ).
.


.
6
. , lnp
. =2; =1, =2.
f . l 21
=(1,0) y=(0,1). ,
x y
x y
1.
2

x y

f ( x) f ( y ) f

1.

f(x) = (x1,x2), f(y) = (y1,y2),


x y x1 x2 y1 y2
,


2
2
2

,
2
1

2
1

x +x2 =1, y +y2 =1,

x1 x2
y y2

2
2

1.

2 ,
,

4,

2
2
(1 y1) + (x2 y2) = 0.
1 = y1 x2 = y2, .. f(x) = f(y). f.


,
. . , lnp
. ,
, .
.

41

8.
,
.
. 1. . 6, -
ln2
. (. ) . : ln2
, M .
(M) ,
M 1 (.)
(. ). , (M) ln2 (. ).
M
1 (. ), .
2. .

.
0 (
), 0-, . . .
1
||1|| = 1. L1 1, ..
{11: 1R}. = L1,
().
L1
(.).
(.) = 0.5 2 , ||2|| = 1,
||2 || 0.5 L1. L2
1 2, ..
{11 + 22: 1, 2R}. = L2,
().
L2
(.).
(.) = 0.5 3 , ||3|| = 1,
||3 || 0.5 L2. L3
1, 2 3, ..
{11 + 22 + 33: 1, 2, 3R}. = L3,
().

42

, :
=Ln,
1, 2,, n, ||i|| = 1
||ij|| 0.5 ij. ,
, (
).
.


. .
(. ),
. .
,

,
.
1. .

. (t),
U, ,
>0 >0 t1, t2U t1t2 < x(t1) x(t2) < .
,
. ,
, [a,b],
.
> 0 > 0,
.

,
>0 >0 x t1, t2[0,1] t1t2 < x(t1) x(t2) <.
9 (). ,
,
,
.
2.

43

l.

10. ,
l ,
,

>0 N x xi .
iN



,
, , ,
.
. (, ) .
19.
(
(x,y)), :
- (x,y) = (y,x);
- (x1 + x2,y) = (x1,y) + (x2,y);
- (x,y) = (x,y);
- (x,x) 0, (x,x) = 0
x = 0.
.
15 ( -).
(x,y)2 (x,)(y,y).
.
,
(x + y,x + y) 0. ,
, : 2(y,y) + 2(x,y) + (x,) 0.
.
,
, .. (x,y)2 (x,)(y,y) 0, .
16. x x,x
.
.
44

1.
.
x x, x x,x x,x x
2.
x y x y,x y x,x 2 x,y y,y
3.
x,x 2 x,y y,y .
-,
2
2
2
x y x,x 2 x,x y,y y,y x,x y,y x y .
, x y x y .
.
, ?
.
.
2

17.
:
||x + y||2 + ||x y||2 = 2||x||2 + 2||y||2.

:
.
.

||x + y||2 = (x + y, x + y) = (x, x) + 2(x, y) + (y, y) = ||x||2 + 2(x, y) + ||y||2,
||x y||2 = (x y, x y) = (x, x) 2(x, y) + (y, y) = ||x||2 2(x, y) + ||y||2.
, .
:
,
(x, y) = (||x + y||2 ||x||2 ||y||2)/2

( 4.13).
17 ,
.
(t) = t, y(t) = 1 t. (t) + y(t) = 1, (t) y(t) = 2t 1.
,
||x|| = ||y|| = ||x + y|| = ||x y||=1, .. 17
.
20.
,
45

, (
20 ).
.
, ,

x,y

xi y i ,

l (
i 1
, ).
,
.
18.
xn x, yn y, (xn,yn) (x,y).
. (xn,yn)(x,y) =
= (xn,yn)(x,yn)+(x,yn)(x,y) = (xnx,yn)+(x,yny)

(xnx,yn) + (x,yny)
||xn x||||yn|| + ||x||||yn y||.
||xn x|| 0, ||yn y|| 0
{yn} , (xn,yn)(x0,y0) 0.
[0,] x,y
cos

x,y
x y

. - ,

1, ..
. , , =/2, ..
(x,y)=0. xy L ,
x L, L.
xL.
.
11. L
. x
y + z, y L, zL. y
x L.
.
. x = y+z = y1+z1, y,y1L, zL, z1L.
yy1, z1z ,
, .
.
, xL L>0: xL,

46

x+0, L 0,
2
x y d 0 .
0+x. L inf
yL
yn ,
2
x y n d 1 / n .
{yn}. h
L. d
2
2
x yn h d , x yn h d .
, :
x yn
x yn

2 x y n ,h h

2 x y n , h h

d,
2

d.

,
d 1 / n 2 x y n , h h

d,

d 1 / n 2 x y n , h h

d,

..
1
1
1
1
2
2
h x yn , h h
2
n
2
n

,
(ym yn,h) = (xyn,h) (xym,h)

1
h
2

1 1
1
2
h
n 2
m

..
(ym yn,h) h

1 1 1


2 m n

h = (ym yn)/2.
1
ym yn
2

..

1
ym yn
4

ym yn

1 1 1


2 m n

1 1
2

m n

, yn ym
,
{yn}.
47

yny. ynL L - , ..
, yL. ,
2

d x yn

d 1/ n ,

x y

, , (xy)L.
, , (xy)h
hL 1.
,
x y h

d , x y h

,
, 2 (xy,h) 2,
, (xy,h)=0. h
L, (xy)L. .
y x
L. , L,
( ).
L1 L
L,
L L ( =LL).
21.
,
.
.
(a1, a2, , an,), (ai,aj) = 0
i j (ai, ai) = 1 i.
.
(f1,f2,,fn,)

(a1, a2, , an,) .
48

f10. a1=1 f1. a2


f1, fn1, f1, fn1 , f1,f2,
,fn11 n1>2. a3
f1, fn1, fn2 (n2>n1), f1, fn1, fn2
, f1, fn1, fn1+1,, fn21
n2>n1+1, . ( ) ,
, .

.
12. ,
(. ) (f1,f2,
,fn,) ( ),
(. ) l2.
. ,

.

4.1.
[0,1] a={x: x()=0}. , a
. ?
L2c?
4.2.
, ,
1

x (t )dt 0 , .

4.3.
[0,1] a,h={x: x()=h}. , a,h
. ?
L2?
4.4.
, ,
(0,1),
, .
4.5.

{xn},{yn} , ||xn|| 1, ||yn|| 1 (xn,yn) 1. , ||
xnyn|| 0.

49

4.6.
, {x: ||xa|| = ||xb||}
.
?
4.7.
,
.
4.8.
A,B
A+B = {x+y: xA, yB}. ,
,
,
(+) = +.
4.9.
B
. , +B .
B +B.
4.10. ,
{xl2: xi
1/i} l2.
4.11. ,

. ?
4.12. ,

.
4.13. ,
L ,
, L
, .
4.14. {tn: n=1,2,}
{sin(2nt): n=1,2,} L2.
4.15. L
, . ,
yL , || y|| || z|| zL.
5.

X,Y .
: XY . . ,
50


(x1+x2) = (x1) + (x2), (x) = (x).
.
L(X,Y). ,
L(X,Y)
. .
1. = (ij) (i=1,2,,n; j=1,2,
,n). : lnp lnp ,
(1,,n) =

j 1

j 1

j 1

a1 j x j , a 2 j x j , ..., anj x j

. (. ),
lnp , .. (n)(0), xi n xi 0 i=1,
,n. , ((n)) ((0)), ..
. ,
: lnp lnp
( ).
2. K(t,s) , 0 t 1, 0
1

s 1. (t) C y(s) = K (t , s ) x(t )dt.


0

, y(s)
, .. y(s) C. A: CC.
. ,
(1,2) = max 1(t) 2(t) <,
1

y1(t) y2(t)
0

K (t, s ) x1 (t ) x2 (t ) dt K (t, s ) x1 (t ) x2 (t ) dt K (t, s ) dt


1

max K (t, s) dt.


s

,
.
K(t,s).
3. : C C, (t) =
t

x(t )dt . .
0

51

4. ,
(. ).
.
{(sin nx)/n} (.. ) 0,
. ,
.

. , .
22. : X Y
, ,
||x|| ||x||. ||x|| Y,
||x|| X.
13.
.
.
1. . 14
, () Y
X .
||x|| 1. ||x|| .
x 0. ||(x/||x||)|| = 1. ||x||/||x|| = ||
(x/||x||)|| = ||(x/||x||)|| , .. ||x|| ||x|| x 0.
.
2.
. x, y
||x y|| = ||(x y)|| ||x y||,
xn x0 , xn x0.
.
,
L(X,Y)
.
1.
,B L(X,Y), +B
, (+B)() = +B.
2.
L(X,Y), R,
()() = (). Y
(. . 1),
L(X,Y)
. 0() = 0 .
52

A sup Ax .
, ||x|| ||x|| ,
{||x||: ||x|| 1}, ..
.
3.

x 1

19.
.
.
1. ,
A sup Ax
0. ||||=0. , |||| = 0
, ||x|| 1.
x, ||(x/||x||)|| = 0, .. ,
.
A sup A x sup A x sup A x A
2.
.
.
3. ||x|| 1.
x 1

x 1

x 1

x 1

||( + B)(x)|| = ||x + Bx|| ||x|| + ||Bx|| |||| + ||B||.


x
, 1,
A B sup A B x
x 1

|||| + ||B||,

.
.

,
4.
.
14. Y ,
L(X,Y) .
.
{An} (.).
xX . ||nx mx|| ||n m||||x||,
{Anx} Y,
Y .
53

A0x.
A0, , ||n 0|| 0.
1)
n(x+y) = Anx+Any,
0(x+y) = A0x+A0y.
2)
, 0(x) = 0x.
3)
>0 n,m
{An}
||n m|| < , .. ||nx mx|| < ||x|| . m ,
||nx 0x|| ||x||.
x
||n0|| . , n 0.
4)
0. ||
0x|| ||(0 n)(x)|| + ||nx||. n , ||
0x|| (||n|| + ) ||x||. , 0 , ..
( 12). .

: XR
. L(X, R) (. ),
.
f(x). ,
f sup f ( x) .
x 1

23. L(X, R)
, X X*.
,
.
1. .
(a1,,an) - L,
f (f(a1),, f(an)),
n

x xi ai
i 1

f ( x) xi f (ai ) .
i 1

fi = f(ai). , (f1,, fn)


- .
, , -,
54

- . ,
, .
: , .
, p > 1 , lnp ,
1 1
lnq , p q 1. (1,,n)
L, (f1,, fn) f
n

. f() = xi f i .
i 1

(. 2),
n
p
f() = xi f i xi
i 1

i 1
n

1/ p

fi

i 1

1/ q

1/ p

||||p = xi
i 1

i
i 1

f()

1,

1/ q

..
n
q
f f i
i 1

1/ q

,
, f ,
||||p = 1, f() = ||f||q.
xi

fi

q 1

i 1

sign( f i )
1/ p

fi

, sign(a) ( a) 1 a
1 a .

55

||||p =

n
p
xi

1/ p

i 1

1/ p

p ( q 1)

n
f
ni
i 1
q
fi

i 1

1,

p(q1)=q.
n

f()= xi f i =
i 1

fi

i 1

q 1

f i sign( fi )

f
n

i 1

1/ p

fi

i 1

f
i 1

q
1/ p

fi
i 1

11 / p

f q,

. p=2, q=2, .. ln2


. .
l ln1 .
,

f()

i 1

i 1

i 1

i 1

= xi f i xi f i max xi f i x f i
i

.. f f i . = (sign(f1),, sign(fn)),
i 1

|||| =1, f()= x f i , .


i 1

: l
ln1 .
2. .
. p>1
1 1
(lp)*= lq, p q 1.

(l1)*=m. , m*l1.
3. .

( ).
Lp Lq (p q
1).
4. .
.

56

15. ,
, .
. 1. f: R
. , ,
, f, f()=(f , x) (
).
L={x: f(x) = 0} (. . ).
L (. . )
0 . f(0) = 0. f() = ,

f x x0

= = 0, .. x0 L . ,

0+z, z L. f
0. f(0) = (0,0) = 0 2 = ,
= / 0

. , =

(0,) =

x0 ,

f ( x)
f ( x)

x0 z
x0

f ( x) ,

f ( x)
x0 +

z (zL).

. , (f1,x) =
(f2,x) x. (f1 f2,x) = 0 x = f1f2
f1f2=0. ,
f f.
- (f, x) ||f ||||x||, ,
||f ||. x = f/||f ||, ,
||f ||.
2. (f ,x)
. ||f||
.

.
24. {xn}
x0,
f f (xn)
f (x0).
, xnx0
( ) .
, , .

57

l2
1=(1,0,,0,), 2=(0,1,0,,0,), ( n -
, ). (. ),
l2.

f i . n
fl2. (f,n)= fn0,
i 1
0.

,

.
16 (-).
, L , f
L. f
F , ||F|| = ||f ||.

. , sin(1/x),
,
. ,
( 5.1).

.
.
17. ( ).
,
Y,
.
(.) , ,
,
. 3.15 ,
.

.
18. (-)
{An}

58

, .. ||An|| N(), ,
.. M , ||An|| M.

5.1.
,
.
5.2.

,B:CC : =

t sx ( s ) ds ,
0

B = tx(t).

, B B.
5.3.

= , B = x. BB.
5.4.
,
1

F:L R, F = x(t )sign t 2 dt .

0
5.5.

. , l2l2,

(1, 2,)(0,1, 2,); (1, 2,)(2, 3,);
(1, 2,)(1, 2/2, 3/3,).
5.6.

2

lim
x 0

F ( x)
0.
x

, F(x) = 0.

5.7.
, ,
, .
5.8.
{n}
0 ||n|| ||0||, n 0.
5.9.
{n}
0 {yn} y0,
(n,yn)(0,y0).
{yn}?
5.10. ,
.

59

6.
1.
.., ..
. , 2002.
2.
.., ..
. , 1982.
3.
.., .. .
, 1984.
4.
.. . ,
2002.

60

7.
1. .
2.
.
3.
. .
4.
.
5.
.
6. , .
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. Lp .
11. lp .
12. .
13. .
14. .
15. .
. .
16. .
17. .
18. .
19. -. .
20. .
21. .
22. . .
23. -
.
24. .
25. .
.
26. lp.
27.
.
28. . .
61

8.
1. .
.
2.
.
3. . .
4. m,c.
5. Lp.
6. lp.
7. .
8. . .
9. . .
10. .
.
11. .
12. .
13. .
14.
.
15. .
16. . .
17. . .
18. .
19. .
20. lp.
21. ,
.
22. .
23. .
24. .
25. .
26. .
27. . .
.

62

9.
..............................7
..............................................................7
..........................33
...............7
..........................................................5
............................6
................................................6
......................................21
.......................20
...................................7
......................46
.............................................23
..............................20
..........................................13
..............................19
...................................................41
.................................................38
.........9
28
..............6, 49
................................7
..32
......................36
..............................6
....................................38
................................55
.......42
.......................................................12
......................11
.......................22
.8
.................9
-..............45

..................................................................11

.........................................................10
........11
................................................6
........................................53
..............................................................5

63

..............................5
............................52
..........................................13
........................49
..............................20
................................................5
- ..............................7
............................12
.......................................12
.........24
......................12
.......................................19
...............27
........................................................5

.........................................44
..............................................49
............43

..............................44
........................................49
.......................26
.............................44
.....................................58
.....................55
......................5
.............12
..........................................44

..................................................................59
-...................59
...29
....................26
............................................36
-................................59
..................5
...................................6
..................................6
..24
.........................................................5
...............................................................13

020258 08.01.98

6084 1/16

.
. . . . . .-. . .-. .
.
.

-
450000, -, . ., 12

64

Оценить