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Unit 7: Genetics

Lesson 1 Mendels Pea Plants


Vocabulary:
Trait: a characteristic an organism can pass on to its offspring
through DNA

Inherited: traits that were passed on from parents to offspring


regardless of the environment

DNA: carrier of the genetic information

Gene: a segment of DNA that codes for a specific trait

Notes:
Gregor Mendel

Noticed that pea plants had certain identifiable and measurable


characteristics or traits.
Mendel observed that some characteristics such as flower color, seed
shape and seed color were inherited or passed on from parents to the
offspring.
Mendels work led him to the understanding that traits, such a plant
height, are carried in DNA.

Lets Practice!

Inherited
DNA

Matching

Segment of DNA that codes


for a specific trait.

Characteristic an organism
can pass on to its offspring
through DNA.

Unit 7: Genetics
Lesson 2- Genes and Alleles
Vocabulary:

GENE
Chromosome: tightly wound DNA

Alleles: two different forms of a single gene

Traits that were passed on from


parents to offspring regardless
of environment.

Carrier of genetic information


Trait
o Dominant Alleles: alleles that determines what the

organism will look like (Upper case letter)


o Recessive Alleles: the allele that is not expressed in the
organism unless both alleles are recessive (lower case letter)

Notes:
DNA
Found in all living cells.
Controls all functions inside the cell.
It stores all the genetic information for an entire living organism.

Gene

A segment of DNA that codes for a trait

Lets
Practice!

Unit 7: Genetics
True or False.
1. Alleles are the same form of a single cell. False
2. Dominant Alleles determines what the organism will look like.
TRUE
3. DNA is found in all living cells. TRUE
4. Chromosomes are tightly wound DNA. TRUE
5. DNA stores all genetic information for part of a living organism.
FALSE

Lesson 3 Inheritance
Vocabulary:

Unit 7: Genetics

Inheritance: passing on of traits from parent to offspring

Notes:
Inherited Traits
A sperm cell will join with an egg cell and become fertilized and begin
to develop.
Sex cells have the same number of chromosomes as other body cells
because one sex cell from each of two parents combines from a new
organism.
o Sperm: male sex cell
o Egg: female sex cell

Every cell (other than sex cells) carries 23 pairs or 46 total of


homologous chromosomes.
o Sperm carries 23 and an egg carries 23.
When they join, the new offspring will have 46.

Homozygous vs Heterozygous

Homozygous: both alleles in a pair of genes are the same


o Prefix homo means the same
o AA = homozygous dominant
o aa = homozygous recessive
Heterozygous: both alleles from a pair of genes are different
o Prefix hetero means different
o Aa= heterozygous

Genotype and Phenotype

Genotype: actual Gene makeup


Phenotype: the Physical appearance

Lesson 3 Inheritance (cont)


Male and Female?

Unit 7: Genetics

In mammals, the two sex chromosomes are called X and Y. Females


have two X chromosomes (XX) and males have one X and one Y. (XY)
The sperm only carries a single X or Y, so it is the father who
determines the sex of a baby.

Lets Practice!
Fill in the blank.
Genotype | Heterozygous| Inheritance |Homozygous | Egg |Phenotype
1. Inheritance is the passing on of traits from parent to offspring.
2. Homozygous means both alleles in a pair of genes are the same.
3. The female sex cell is called an egg.
4. Heterozygous means both alleles from a pair of genes are different.
5. Genotype is the actual gene make up and phenotype is the physical
appearance.

Lesson 4 Punnett Squares


Vocabulary

Punnett Square: a grid used to predict the results of genetic crosses

Notes:

Unit 7: Genetics
Punnett Squares
Reginald Punnett created a tool, which is a grid used to predict the
results of genetic crosses.
This tool is called Punnett Squares

Example: Showing cross between two black rabbits. Both


heterozygous for fur color (Bb). (Black is the dominant phenotype-B,
white is the recessive phenotype- b)

Genotype vs Phenotype
Genotype is the combination of alleles for a trait (BB, Bb, bb)
Phenotype is the visible trait that an offspring exhibits (black or
white fur)

Lets Practice!
Black or Blue? Fill in the Punnet Square.

Unit 7: Genetics

GO TO NEXT PAGE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWER!

ANSWER: There is a 50% chance the baby chick will be blue and
a 50% chance it will be black.

Unit 7: Genetics

Lesson 7 Similarities Among Organisms


Vocabulary

Species: group of organisms that closely resemble one another and


are able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring

Unit 7: Genetics

Variation: differences that exist between individuals of the same


species
o can be genotypic or phenotypic
tall/short, dimples/no dimples

Notes:

Genes and alleles are responsible for different traits in a species.

Chromosomes

Each species carries a certain number and a certain kind of


chromosomes.
Humans carry 46 chromosomes.
Due to chromosomes, we would never confuse a human with a
different species of animal

Lesson 8 Chromosomes
Vocabulary

DNA: (deoxyribonucleic acid)the code carrying material in our body

Double Helix: shape of DNA

Chromosome: a single long molecule of DNA wound around special


proteins

Unit 7: Genetics
Notes:

Lets Practice!
Label the parts with the terms below. Use above as a guide

DNA
Cell | Chromosome |Gene |Nucleus
Lesson 9 and 10 Meiosis
Vocabulary

Sperm: male sex cells

Egg: female sex cells

Gametes: sex cells (egg and sperm) (GAME of life)

Unit 7: Genetics
Mitosis- division of the nucleus of a cell forming two daughter cells,
each receiving the same number of chromosomes

Meiosis- a type of cell division resulting with the chromosomes


of the parent

Notes:
Meiosis

Meiosis produces daughter cells that each have half the number of
chromosomes the parent has.
A zygote is the first cell of a new individual when egg and sperm come
together and contains a full set of chromosomes.
o 23 from egg + 23 from sperm =46 from egg and sperm

Meiosis vs Mitosis
MITosis take the cell and Makes It Two
o Results in two genetically identical cells
Meiosis has to do with sex cells
o Results in four genetically different cells

Lesson 9 and 10 Meiosis (Cont)


Mitotic phase:

PMAT or People Meet And Talk

Prophase- the chromosomes coil and become more compact, the


nuclear membrane breaks down, and a system of fibers called the
spindle starts to form
Metaphase- the chromosomes arrange in a plane at the middle of the
cell
Anaphase- the chromosomes split and move apart
Telophase- the chromosomes reach two sides of a cell and are
incorporated into two new nuclei

Unit 7: Genetics
Lets Practice!
Answer the questions below.
1.
2.
3.
4.

What are sex cells called? Gametes


How many cells does MITosis make? Two
How many cells does Meiosis make? Four
What are the four steps in Mitosis? Prophase, Metaphase,
Anaphase and Telophase
5. What is the first cell of a new individual when egg and sperm come
together and contains a full set of chromosomes? Zygote

Lesson 12 Mutations
Vocabulary

Mutation: any change in a gene or DNA (can be helpful, harmful or


have no effect at all)

Substitution: occurs when a single nucleotide is exchanged for


another

Deletion: one or more bases are REMOVED or left out of the DNA

Insertion: one or more bases are added to the DNA


Notes:
Large-Scale Mutations

Unit 7: Genetics
o Large-Scale Mutations are more serious
o Large sections of chromosomes are changed
o Sections of a chromosome may be duplicated
o May result in extra copies of a gene that may amplify the effects
of that gene
o Large sections of a chromosome may be deleted, resulting in the loss
of entire genes

Lets Practice

Lesson 13:Genetic Engineering


Vocabulary
o Natural Selection: process by which organisms with certain traits
survive to reproduce and pass on those traits to their offspring
o Selective breeding: the process of breeding organisms with the most
desirable traits
o Genetic engineering: the manipulation of DNA to produce molecules
or organisms with new properties
o Gene therapy: a process in which defective genes are replaced with
normal genes

Notes:
Genetic Engineering
Highly controversial issue today!
For it:

Unit 7: Genetics
o Using less pesticides
o Growing more crops
o Improving nutritional content of food
Against it:
o It is trying to control nature
o We dont know how it could impact us down the road

Lets Practice!
Fill in the blank with words found below.
1. Gene therapy is a process in which defective genes are replaced with
normal genes.
2. Selective breeding is the process of breeding organisms with the
most desirable traits.
3. Natural Selection is process by which organisms with certain traits
survive to reproduce and pass on those traits to their offspring.
4. Genetic engineering is the manipulation of DNA to produce
molecules or organisms with new properties.
Word Bank:
Genetic Engineering | Natural Selection| Selective Breeding |Gene Therapy