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HBS UNIT 1 IDENTITY SUMMARY

KATHERINE SALGADO

HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS


All humans have these systems:
Skeletal System
Muscular System
Nervous System
Endocrine System
Cardio-Vascular(Circulatory) System
Respiratory System
Digestive System
Immune System
Lymphatic System
Urinary System
Integumentary System
Reproductive System

SKELETAL SYSTEM
The skeletal system is all

the bones in the body and


the tissues that connects
them. The primary function
of this system is to provide
support for our body,
protect our internal organs
and fragile body tissues,
besides provide the
structure for muscles to
attach. A newborn has up to
350 bones, but as soon a
body goes into adulthood it
has 206 bones, due to the
fusion that some bones
passed through.

MUSCULAR SYSTEM
It is an organ system

consisting of skeletal,
cardiac, and smooth
muscles It allows
movement, maintains
posture and circulates
blood through the body.
Often times, it is
controlled by the
Nervous System.

NERVOUS SYSTEM
It is a system that coordinates voluntary

and involuntary movements and


transmits signals between different parts
of the body. This system is made divided
into two main parts: the Central Nervous
System and the Peripheral Nervous
System.
CNS is made up by the brain and the

spinal cord. This end signals from one cell


to others or from one part of the body to
others and receive feedback.
PNS it includes motor neurons, mediating

involuntary movement, the autonomic


system, among others. It also includes
the Somatic and the Autonomic Systems.

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

The endocrine system is the collection

of glands that produce hormones that


regulate metabolism, growth and
development, tissue function, sexual
function, reproduction, sleep, and
mood, among other things. It is made
up of the pituitary gland, thyroid
gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal
glands, pancreas, ovaries (in females)
and testicles (in males), and gets
some help from organs such as the
kidney, liver, heart and gonads, which
have secondary endocrine functions.

CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM

The cardiovascular system consists of

the heart, and blood vessels. This


system is the responsible for
transporting oxygen, nutrients,
hormones, and cellular waste products
throughout the body, the cardiovascular
system is powered by the bodys
hardest-working organ the heart. The
average heart easily pumps over 5 liters
of blood throughout the body every
minute.

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Also known as Respiratory Apparatus, and System, is made up of the organs in your body

that help to breathe. The goal of breathing is to deliver oxygen to the body and to take
away carbon dioxide. This main organs of this system are:
Nose
Pharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Lungs

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
The digestive system is a group of organs working together to

convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire
body. Food passes through a tube inside the body known as the
alimentary canal or the gastrointestinal tract. The alimentary
canal is made up of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus,
stomach, small intestines, and large intestines. Accessory
organs of the digestive system include the teeth, tongue,
salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The six major
of this system are
Ingestion
Secretion
Mixing and movement
Digestion
Absorption
Excretion

IMMUNE SYSTEM
The immune system is the

bodys defense against


infectious organisms and other
invaders. Through a series o+
steps called the immune
response, the immune system
attacks organisms and
substances that invade body
systems and cause disease. The
immune system is made up of a
network of cells, tissues, and
organs that work together to
protect the body. The cells
involved are white blood cells, or
leukocytes, which come in two
basic types that combine to seek
out and destroy disease-causing
organisms or substances.

LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
The primary function of the lymphatic

System is to transport lymph, a clear,


colorless fluid containing white blood
cells that helps get rid off the body
toxins, waste and other waste materials.
The lymphatic system, which is a subset
of theCirculatory System has a number
of functions, including the removal of
interstitial fluid, the extracellular fluid
that bathes most tissue. It also
transports white blood cells to and from
the lymph nodes into the bones, and
antigen-resenting cells to the lymph
nodes

URINARY SYSTEM
The urinary system consists of the

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and


urethra. The kidneys filter the blood
to remove wastes and produce urine.
The ureters, urinary bladder, and
urethra together form the urinary
tract, which acts as a plumbing
system to drain urine from the
kidneys, store it, and then release it
during urination. Besides filtering and
eliminating wastes from the body,
the urinary system also maintains
the homeostasis of water, ions, PH,
blood pressure, calcium and red
blood cells

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
The integumentary system is an organ

system consisting of the skin, hair,


nails, and exocrine glands. The skin is
the largest organ in the body. The
average persons skin weighs 10
pounds and has a surface area of
almost 20 square feet. Skin forms the
bodys outer covering and forms a
barrier to protect the body from
chemicals, disease, UV light, and
physical damage. Hair and nails
extend from the skin to reinforce the
skin and protect it from environmental
damage. The exocrine glands of the
integumentary system produce sweat,
oil, and wax to cool, protect, and
moisture the skins surface

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
The reproductive system is a collection of organs

that work together for the purpose of producing a


new offspring The major organs of the
reproductive system include the external genitalia
and internal organs, including gonads that
produce gamete, which is a cell that fuses with
another cell during conception in organisms that
reproduce sexually. Substances such as fluids,
hormones, and pheromones are also important to
the effective functioning of the reproductive
system. The male reproductive system consists of
two major parts: the testes, where sperm are
produced, and the penis. The two major parts of
the female reproductive system are the: vagina
and uterus.

1.2 HUMAN TISSUES

All organisms are

made up of
tissues, these are
made of
individual cells
that share a
similar structure
and function.

NERVOUS TISSUE
Nervous tissue consists of two

main types of cells:


Neurons
Neuroglia
Neurons also know as Nerve Cells,

transmit nerve impulses that


move information around the
body. Each consist of a cell body
which contains the nucleus, and
process called dendrites that
receive the nerve impulses.
Neuroglia are not sensitive to
stimuli and do not generate or
conduct nerve impulses. Their
functions within the nervous
system depend on the specific
type of neuralgia.

MUSCULAR TISSUE
Muscle tissue is enclosed in facial,

which is attached to other


structures including ligament.
There are three types of muscle
tissues:
skeletal
cardiac
smooth
Muscle tissue provides posture and

body support locomotion and heat


production.

CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Is sparsely populated

by cells and contains


an extensive matrix
consisting of protein
fibers, glycoproteins,
and proteoglycans. Its
function is to provide
structural and
mechanical support
for other tissues.

EPITHELIAL TISSUE

Are tightly fitted cells

with very limited


intracellular substances.
They share a common
basement membrane,
and line organs and body
cavities. Some functions
of the Epithelial tissues
are: protection,
secretion, absorption,
diffusion and sensory.

HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM


Purpose: to provide structure and support to the human body

Bones are where new blood cells are generated (in the marrow)
and require the mineral calcium for strength
Major Bones of the Human Body
-- femur (thigh bone)

-- humerus (upper arm)

-- radius and ulna (lower arm)

-- cranium (skull)

-- sternum (breastbone)

-- clavicle (shoulder blade)

-- fibula and tibia (calf)

-- vertebrae (back)

-- scalpula (shoulder)
-- coccyx (tail bone)

-- pelvic bone
-- phalanges (fingers/toes)

APPENDICULAR SYSTEM
In humans the Appendicular skeleton is

made up of 126 bones. It is involved in


locomotion of the Axial Skeleton and
manipulation of objects in the environment.
This skeleton forms during the development
from cartilage by the process of
Endochondral Ossification. It is divided into
six major regions:
Pectoral Girdles (4 bones)
Arms and Forearms (6 bones)
Hands (54 bones)
Pelvis (2 bones)
Thighs and Legs (8 bones)
Feet and Ankles (52 bones)

AXIAL SYSTEM
The Axial skeleton is the part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the head and

trunk of a vertebrae. In humans, it consists of 80 bones and is divided in 8 bones:


Skull Bones
Ossicles
Hyoid Bone
Rib Cage
Sternum
Vertebral Column

VERTEBRAL
COLUMN & STERNUM
The major function of the
vertebral column also known as
the spine or the back bone is
protection of the spinal cord it
also provides stiffening for the
body and attachment for the
pectoral and pelvic girdles and
many muscles. In humans an
additional function is to
transmit body weight in
walking and standing. The
sternum connects the rib bones
via cartilage, forming the
anterior section of the rib cage
with them, thus, it helps
protect the lungs, heart and
major blood vessels, and its
divided into three parts: The
manubrium, the body and the

FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY
Anthropology is the scientific study of

the origin, the behavior, and the


physical, social, and cultural
development of humans. Forensic
anthropologists are trained physical
anthropologists who apply their
knowledge of biology, science, and
culture to the legal process. They
identify human remains, alone with
anthologists, homicide detectives and
other specialists. The main tones to
determine see as well the ethnicity will
be the skull and the pelvis, to determine
height will be the femur and sometimes
the humerus. However, other bones can
also be helpful to determine it as well.
These could be the radius, etc.

DNA STRUCTURE
The structure of DNA is a

double helix and has 2


strands running in an
opposite direction. Each
chain is a polymer of
subunits called nucleotides.
Each strand has a
backbone of sugar
molecules linked together
by phosphate groups. Each
is covalently to four bases:
Adenin, guanine, Cytosine
and Thynine. DNA is a
unique sequence of
nucleotides, therefore, the
genotype in a offspring will
be unique and different

GEL ELECTROPHORESIS
It is a laboratory method

used to separate mixtures of


DNA, RNA or proteins
according to a molecular size.
Here the molecules are
separated by an electrical
field through a gel that
contains small pores. The
results can be interpreted
after the gel has been placed
on a UV trans illuminator,
then the results will be
aligned like a ladder. After,
you will compare the length
of the samples each to each
other to find similarities.

BIOMETRICS

Biometrics is a technique

of the use of unique


physiological
characteristics to identify
an individual. Biometrics
have been developed to
authenticate the
persons identify, by
using special
characteristics such as
face, fingerprints,
signatures, etc.

RESTRICTION ENZYMES

Also known as

restriction
Endonucleases, are
enzymes that cut a
DNA molecule at a
particular sequence
and are produced by
bacteria.

RFLPS

Also known as Restriction

Fragment Length
Polymorphisms, is a
technique that exploits
variations in homologous
DNA sequences.