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173

abstracts

S o k o l o v R . A . On the relations between secular and metropolitan power during the epoch of
Dmitry Donskoy.
The article focuses on the relationship between secular and metropolitan power during the epoch
of Dmitry Donskoy. The author concludes that the epoch is characterized by convergence of interests
between secular and metropolitan power that was primarily due to some subjective circumstances
and resulted in secular power reinforcement and unstable situation concerning metropolitan
power.
Keywords: medieval Russian history, history of the Russian Church, Dmitry Donskoy, Russian
metropolitans, the Metropolitan Alexei.
D a u d o v A . H . , M a m y s h e v a E . P. On the History of alphabet latinization in the USSR.
National linguistic policy of the Soviet Union was an integral part of the national state building
project. The article focuses on the problem of establishing new writing language for the ethnic groups
of the country that would result in solving the major Soviet Union`s problems, namely: eradication
of illiteracy, cultural and educational programs, promotion of the ideas of the new government. As a
result, the transition to peace-building course was accompanied by converting the writing languages
of the Soviet peoples into the Latin-based writing language, with the preference shifting from the
Latin alphabet to the Cyrillic one from the middle of 1930s. The article pays a special attention to
the reasons and peculiarities of the conversion process from one alphabet to another as well as to the
importance of the development of national languages within the multinational Soviet state.
Keywords: National linguistic policy, alphabet latinisation, eradication of illiteracy, unification of
the writing systems.
P e t r o v P. V. Reconnaissance of the Baltic Fleet before the Soviet-Finnish War 19391940.
The navy reconnaissance played a very important role in the military preparation process of Red
Banner Baltic Fleet on the so-called Winter War eve. The article provides an insight into the structure
and work of Reconnaissance department Red Banner Baltic Fleet. The Soviet navy reconnaissance failed
to get reliable information about the Finnish Navy and Coastal Defence before the Soviet-Finnish War.
The main part of information, which had been received by the soviet navy reconnaissance, proved to be
fallacious that resulted in lack of thorough preparation for the Soviet-Finnish War 1939-1940.
Keywords: reconnaissance, staff, fleet, agent, information, border.
P e c h a t n o v a L . G . The geronte election in Sparta.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the ancient tradition of the election to the Spartan
gerousia. Spartans maintained the ancient and primitive way of the geronte election as it was very
convenient for the ruling elite. One can conclude that only the notable and rich Spartans were the
members of the gerousia, although ex officio all Spartans without any exception had a legal right
to be elected in the college. But the real practice strongly differed from the official ideology. As a
rule, to achieve their purposes the ruling elite used non-formalizing canals to exercise its influence.
According to the tradition the gerontes were elected only from the circle of the privileged families
without any juridical legalization of this practice. Monopolization of the election system was one
of the key factors in achieving political power. The Spartan oligarchy in its classic form was fully
embodied in the gerousia.
Keywords: Ancient Sparta, Gerousia, gerontes, spartan oligarchy, gerontokratia, election system.

174

V i v a t e n k o S . V. The special committees of the French Parliament during the First World War.
During the First World War the French Parliament paid much attention to the management of the
French industry trying to solve the problem by the special committees, which were to control the budget
expenditures. Nevertheless, these attempts were bound to fail.
Keywords: The First World War, France, Parliament, parliament Committees.
S o k u r o v a O . B . The themes and ideas of the The Tale of the Low and Grace in the history of
Russian culture.
The article considers the impact of The Tale of the Low and Grace by Ilarion Kievsky (its subject,
ideas, images) on the Russian culture, the Russian worldview and its greatest works of art.
Keywords: Ilarion Kievsky, Low and Grace, The Russian Truth, mercy, hypocrite, A.S.Pushkin,
A.N.Ostrovsky, F.M.Dostoevsky, V.Rasputin.
M o r o z o v a A . V. The Stages of Development of Russian Researches of Art and Spanish Studies
(19171953).
The article deals with the stages in the development of Russian Researches of Spanish Art that is
connected with the stages of Soviet Researches of Art and with Cultural and Ideological Life of the
Country. These stages are important for understanding Soviet Researches of Spanish Art.
Keywords: Spanish Studies, Spanish Art of XVII century, ideology, realism, picturesque stylistic,
formalism, line-plastics interpretation of form, fight with cosmopolitism.
S m i r n o v a M . A . Memoirs and diaries of St-Petersburg merchants (the end of XVIII the
beginning of XX century): methods of source study analysis.
The article is devoted to the problems of source study methods of memoir works. The main stages
of source study analysis such as identifying and choice of sources, studying their origin (including
problems of the authors, circumstances and purposes of creating, the features of the form, their structure
and composition) and textual analysis (detection of the main text, analysis of variant readings, study
of source base and problem of accurateness of their testimonies) are examined on the material of StPetersburg merchants memoirs and diaries of the end of XVIII the beginning of XX century.
Keywords: source study, memoirs, diaries, merchant class, source study analysis, methods of research.
T i k s z C s . O . Womens autonomy in the Old Believers society (on materials of Novgorod Province
the 19th century from).
Today argued that gender stereotypes are influenced by culture, society and different spheres of social
activity. In this regard, researchers show that despite the fact that church is a very conservative social
institution, the roles of men and women are always changing in it. Regarding to Old Believer religious
group is mentioned that old believer women, going beyond their gender status, have more significant
role according to Pravoslavian women. On the basis of church and state statistics, ethnographic and
historical sources the author examines the following questions: in which conditions women could play
important role in the Old Believers community, as well as historical and religious-dogmatic reasons of
the old believers womens free status.
Keywords: Gender, Old Believers, Russia.
Z a s l a v s k a y a N . A . On the history of municipal government in Kiev during the end of the
XIXth beginning of the XXth century.
The article focuses on the history of municipal government in Kiev, which was established in
accordance with the law of 1870 and was reformed in 1892. The article describes the structure of

175

Kiev council, the distinguishing characteristics and the main areas of its work. The author came to a
conclusion that the city benefited from the municipal government.
Keywords: municipal government, municipal reform of 1870, municipal counter-reform of 1892,
Kiev.
U s a c h e v a J . S . The problems of nationalism and patriotism in the works by P. Srtuve.
The problems of self-consciousness and mentality of the Russian people, the problems of nationalism
and patriotism were in the sphere of the problems which excited Russian thinkers of the first part of the
20th century. A lot of representatives of the Russian intelligensia reflected on those problems, but only in
the works by P. Srtuve the problems were revealed to the full extent. These works were created at different
times, under different historical circumstances, but they are absolutely necessary for considering those
problems. For understanding Struves conception it is important to define such key notions as nation,
nationality, people, patriot, patriotism, nationalism. To precisely define these categories P.
Struve correlates them with statehood which he considers to be a decisive factor. The philosopher
brings mysticism into these notions and into the understanding of the problems of nationalism and
patriotism, but in spite of this his approach remains academic and relevant to the present time. The great
achievement in the development of the problems of nationalism and patriotism is Struves conclusion of
equality of the notions nationalism and patriotism.
Keywords: Nationalism, patriotism, self-consciousness, mentality, russian people, P. Srtuve,
philosopher, nation, nationality, people, patriot, papers, source, mysticism, state, statehood, history,
power, culture.
B o g o m a z o v N . I . The regiment of interior guard of Petrograd in 1918-1919: the specific traits
of formation and its joining the White Army.
The article deals with the regiment of interior guard of Petrograd. The author analyses the history of
formation of the regiment, internal life, regiment`s joining the enemy army and its reasons.
Keywords: Civil war, Petrograd, Semenovsky regiment.
N i k u l i n . . Renovationist dissent in West Siberia in 19201930.
The article is concerned with the development of renovationist dissent in West Siberian dioceses
of the Russian Orthodox Church. Upon formation of two renovationist groups in Tomsk and NovoNikolaevsk in 1922, sanctioned by government agencies (SibBureau CC RKP(b) (Siberian Bureau of
the Central Committee of the RCP(B)) and Sibrevcom (Siberian Revolutionary Committee)), the
struggle between these groups was over by the end of 1922 and eventuated in victory of the Tomsk
SibCU (Siberian Central Authority) headed by Pyotr (Blinov), the archpriest and renovationist bishop of
Tomsk. In 1922 P. Blinov assumed the title of Metropolitan of Siberia, and further augmented his power
since SOCS (Siberian Regional Church Council) elected him as a president. As of January 1, 1925, the
Renovated Church in Siberia had 15 dioceses, 1650 churches and cathedrals, 25 bishops, 1679 priests and
254 deacons. The apex of P. Blinovs career proved to be the starting point in continuous degradation of
Siberian renovationism. Generally, the history of the Renovated Church may be characterized as being
a period of gradual formation of a new confession. Renovationism in West Siberia succumbed to state
repression and ceased to exist by the end of 1930s.
Keywords: Siberian Renovationists; Renovated Church in Siberia; PP GPU in the Siberian region;
the Living Church in Tomsk; the Union for the Renewal of the Church in Novo-Nikolayevsk;
P. F.Blinov, Metropolitan of Siberia.
M e h a m a d i e v E . A . Some aspects of the barbarization process of the Byzantine army in 378
395 A.D.
The paper deals with the character of the barbarization processes in Byzantine army of 378
395 A.D., under the reign of Emperor Theodosius I. The main attention is paid to the legal status of

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the barbarians in this period as well as to the organization structure of the East Roman army in 378
395 A.D. The author suggests a revision of the conventional theories exaggerating the level of
barbarization in Byzantine army. The theory elaborated in this article defines a new hypothesis about
the existence of barbarians only as the auxiliary irregular militia, separated from the regular Roman
troops on the basis of ethnic criteria.
Keywords: The Battle at Adrianople, The Goths , The Alamanni, recruits, the barbarian-federates,
The List of Offices (Notitia Dignitatum ), the auxiliary troops, legion, The Master of Soldiers
(magister militum).
M o i s e e v I . G . On the structure of Jacobian cooptation in the Order of the Garter.
This article focuses on the problem of the cooptation in the Order of the Garter during the reign of
James I Stuart. Having explored a large amount of published sources on this subject the author concludes
that there was a connection between appointments of James I in the classic political institutions and the
appointments to the Order of the Garter.
Keywords: Cooptation, the Order of the Garter, James I Stuart, problem, knighthood.
P a v l e n s k a y a E . A . The image of children in the Spanish state portrait at the end of the 16th
beginning of the 17th centuries.
The interpretation and evolution of the child state portrait are significant for the Spanish painting
of the end of the 16th beginning of the 17th centuries as a whole. So far there are no special researches
devoted to this subject in the scientific literature. The article suggests an attempt at tracing the evolution
of the child portrait within the specified time. A wide range of artifacts was used for the investigation
with some of them being analyzed for the first time in the Russian literature.
Keywords: Spanish painting, the image of children, state portrait, the end of the 16th century, the
beginning of the 17th century.
P r o n i n a E . A . With the pen on the sword: Genealogies of French and Flemish nobility by Andr
Duchesne.
The article investigates the genealogies of French and Flemish noble families composed by Andr
Duchesne (15841640), a royal geographer and historiographer, as an important source for understanding
major tendencies of government policy towards nobility. The works by Duchesne focus on such issues as:
the government traditional concerns on rebellious aristocracy, its support by the gentry, an urge to purify
the second estate, the growth of the royal authority as well as the new trends in further development of
the noble race and its role in history.
Keywords: The 17-th century, France, genealogy, nobility, social ideas.
T a l y a A . Y . The first characteristics of Thomas Jefferson in Russia.
The article provides a detailed analysis of the information about the third USA President Thomas
Jefferson and the politics of his administration, as it was published in Russian newspapers and magazines.
The author cites the accounts of the contemporaries of the events and other materials describing
Jeffersons personality and some features and achievements of so-called American democracy upon
the Russian society at the beginning of the XIX century. The considerable part of the material has been
introduced in the researches of this kind for the first time.
Keywords: the history of the USA, American democracy, Thomas Jefferson.
A n i s i m o v O . V . Coup dtat of 2 December 1851 in France and the problem of the Holy Sites in
Palestine.
This article examines the religious dispute between France and Russia in 1850s in connection with
Louis-Napoleon Bonaparts coup dtat. The author inspects the tactics of the French and Russian
diplomacy, the reasons and the results.

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Keywords: history of France, history of Russia, international relations, diplomacy, XIX century, the
Middle East, Palestine, Holy Land, the Eastern Question, Napoleon III.
S k v o r t s o v a E . A . Selections of the ancient costume of Great Britain and Ireland from the VIIth
to the XVIth century by Ch.H.Smith, engraved by J. A. Atkinson: the uniqueness of the artistic
language.
The paper is devoted to distinctive features of the artistic language of Selections of the ancient
costume of Great Britain and Ireland from the VIIth to the XVIth century by Ch. H. Smith, engraved by
J. A. Atkinson. This is a unique album combining the topics of costume and iconography of the historical
persons with the traditions of illustrated ethnographic books. The album is valuable not only for history
and art studies but also for historical reconstructions in the theatre and cinema. The peculiarities of the
genre and stylistics of this work of art are described in a broad historical and cultural context with an
emphasis on the problem of national style and its role in the reflection of national character in art. The
analysis involves comparison of artistic methods of Smith and Atkinson the artists who devoted their
best works to foreign countries.
Keywords: costume albums, ethnographic albums, iconography of historical persons, costumehistorical album, the peculiarities of a genre, the peculiarities of the stylistics, national artistic style, a
reflection of national character in art, historical truth and imagination.
S y l o v a E . A . Crisis of Epoch, City and Person in Contrast Symbolism of the Novel Petersburg
by Andrei Bely.
The article is devoted to the novel Petersburg by Andrei Bely. The analysis reveals the system of
the antinomical motives that are used to describe the crucial changes occurring in Russian history
including the Revolution. The overall system of the motives helps to determine profoundly the authors
concept.
Keywords: Literary criticism, history of Russian culture, Andrei Bely, Petersburg, Russian History,
XX century.
R i z h e n k o v V . J . The director Nikolay Nikolaevich Evreinov: the initial stages of his career.
The article deals with the initial stages of N.N. Evreinov`s career (1879-1953) and is devoted to the
period from 1879 to 1908. The author pays special attention on the childhood and youth of the director
to be, his first dramaturgic experiences and his participation as the inspirer and the director in the
Antique theatre that was created to stage the plays of the Middle Ages.
Keywords: Nikolay Nikolaevich Evreinov, the Antique theatre, history of the theatre of the
beginning of 20th century, stage direction of 20th century, drama of 20th century.
P o t e m k i n a V . V . The image of a positive hero in the context of poetic and prosaic trends of film
language (films by Alexander Dovzhenko and Friedrich Ermler in the 1920es30es).
Analyzing the evolution of film language in 1920es30es and the problem of analysis and syntheses
of poetic and prosaic trends of film language, the author tries to examine it through a perspective of a
positive hero. The article offers a detailed analysis of images of the specific cinematographic works.
Keywords: Soviet cinema, romanticism, realism, 1920es30es, Alexander Dovzhenko, Friedrich
Ermler, film language, positive hero.

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CONTENTS

istory of Russia
Sokolov R.A. On the relations between secular and metropolitan power during the epoch of Dmitry
Donskoy...............................................................................................................................................................
Daudov A. H., Mamysheva E. P. On the History of alphabet latinization in the USSR.......................................
Petrov P. V. Reconnaissance of the Baltic Fleet before the Soviet-Finnish War 19391940................................

3
7
13

General history
Pechatnova L. G. The geronte election in Sparta.........................................................................................................
Vivatenko S. V. The special committees of the French Parliament during the First World War........................

21
29

History of art and culture


Sokurova O. B. The themes and ideas of the The Tale of the Low and Grace in the history of Russian
culture..................................................................................................................................................................
Morozova A. V. The Stages of Development of Russian Researches of Art and Spanish Studies (19171953)..

38
47

Publications by dissetatsionnym research


Smirnova M. A. Memoirs and diaries of St-Petersburg merchants (the end of XVIII the beginning of XX
century): methods of source study analysis...................................................................................................
Tiksz Cs. O. Womens autonomy in the Old Believers society (on materials of Njvgorod Province the 19 th
century from)......................................................................................................................................................
Zaslavskaya N. A. On the history of municipal government in Kiev during the end of the XIXth beginning
of the XXth century.............................................................................................................................................
Usacheva J. S. The problems of nationalism and patriotism in the works by P. Srtuve........................................
Bogomazov N. I. The regiment of interior guard of Petrograd in 1918-1919: the specific traits of formation
and its joining the White Army.......................................................................................................................
Nikulin . . Renovationist dissent in West Siberia in 19201930..........................................................................
Mehamadiev E.A. Some aspects of the barbarization process of the Byzantine army in 378
95 A.D..................................................................................................................................................................
Moiseev I. G. On the structure of Jacobian cooptation in the Order of the Garter...............................................
Pavlenskaya E. A. The image of children in the Spanish state portrait at the end of the 16th beginning of
the 17th centuries................................................................................................................................................
Pronina E. A. With the pen on the sword: Genealogies of French and Flemish nobility by Andr Duchesne....
Talya A. Y. The first characteristics of Thomas Jefferson in Russia..........................................................................
Anisimov O. V. Coup dtat of 2 December 1851 in France and the problem of the Holy Sites in Palestine....
Skvortsova E.A. Selections of the ancient costume of Great Britain and Ireland from the VIIth to the XVIth
century by Ch.H.Smith, engraved by J. A. Atkinson: the uniqueness of the artistic language........
Sylova E. A. Crisis of Epoch, City and Person in Contrast Symbolism of the Novel Petersburg by Andrei
Bely.......................................................................................................................................................................
Rizhenkov V.J. The director Nikolay Nikolaevich Evreinov: the initial stages of his career............................
Potemkina V. V. The image of a positive hero in the context of poetic and prosaic trends of film language
(films by Alexander Dovzhenko and Friedrich Ermler in the 1920es30es)...........................................

53
60
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72
79
85
91
98
104
111
118
124
129
135
142
149

Reviews
Sirenov A. V., Shtykov N. V. review of the book: Soloviev S. M. Ancient Russian princes.....................................
Turygina N. V. Review of the book: Khrisanfov V. I. The Luzhsky land in 1917-1920. ..........................................

182

156
158

Chronicle
Adamova N. E. International Academic Conference Nationalism and xenophobia in the European and
American countries in Modern history.......................................................................................................

160

Results of field expeditions, and practices


Chaldeeva N. I., Belyaeva V. I., Zubov A. A. Excavations 2010. Anthropological Analysis of the site
Pushcari ITooth Morphologic Feature....................................................................................................

163

Abstracts............................................................................................................................................................................

168

Authors...............................................................................................................................................................................

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