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HIV/AIDS and STIs

1. Go to the following web sites to answer the following questions:


http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/dc-ma/aids-sida-eng.php
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/dc-ma/sti-its-eng.php

What does HIV and AIDS stand for? Human Immunodeficiency Virus
and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and

What happens when you get these diseases? HIV attacks the immune
system, resulting in a chronic, progressive illness that leaves infected people vulnerable to
opportunistic infections and cancers

How is HIV transmitted? Engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse (anal or vaginal).


Sharing sex toys. Sharing needles or equipment for injecting drugs or steroids. mother-to-child
transmission during pregnancy, delivery, and breast-feeding.

Why is HIV so difficult to treat or develop preventions for?


Because it attacks the immune system
Which groups of people are most at risk today? Anyone that
partakes in the activities that can transmit HIV
Go to one of the reports on AIDS. Describe two things in the
report that you did not know before about AIDS. I didnt know
that AIDS turns into HIV. Also I didnt know that It was fatal

4. Go to the STIs web site and describe the symptoms of each of


the following:
i) Chlamydiavaginal dischargeburning sensation when urinatingpain in the lower abdomen,
sometimes with fever and chillspain during sexvaginal bleeding between periods or after
intercourseSymptoms for men can include:discharge from the penisburning sensation when
urinatingburning or itching at the opening of the penispain and/or swelling in the testicles

ii) Gonorrheadischargeanal itchingsorenessbleedingpainful bowel movements

iii) Herpes (Genital) Women's symptoms can include:sores inside or near the vagina, the cervix, on the
external genitals, near the anus, or on the thighs or buttockstender lumps in the groin (lymphadenopathy)Men's
symptoms can include:sores on the penis, around the testicles, near the anus, or on the thighs or buttockstender lumps
in the groin (lymphadenopathy)

iv) Human Papillomavirus (HPV) In women, warts may appear on the vulva,
thigh, anus, rectum, or in the vagina or urethra with the cervix being a
common HPV infection site. During pregnancy, the number and size of warts can
increase, but usually decrease after delivery. With an inactive infection, the cells of the
cervix appear normal under a microscope during a Pap test and the woman may never
know she was infected. With an active infection, the cervical cells undergo a change. An
active infection can follow one of two courses:
v) Syphilispatchy hair lossa rash on the soles of the feet, the palms of the
hands, or elsewhere on the bodyfevermalaiseswollen glandsflat grayish-white
sores in mouth and on genitals

5. How are each of the above treated or cured?


i) ChlamydiaThe only reliable way to know if you have chlamydia is to be tested. It
is diagnosed through a urine sample or by swabbing the infected area and is treated with
antibiotics.
ii) Gonorrheahis bacterial infection is on the rise in Canada and becoming
increasingly resistant to antibiotics.
iii) Herpes (Genital) There is no vaccine or cure

iv) Human Papillomavirus (HPV) There is no cure for HPV infections, but
many of the symptoms are treatable.
v) SyphilisSyphilis is diagnosed through a simple blood test and is easily treated with
penicillin or other antibiotics

6. What are the consequences of each of these diseases?


i) ChlamydiaMen can develop scarring of the urethra, making urination difficult and
occasionally causing infertility. Although rare, both sexes are at risk of a type of arthritis
known as Reiter's Syndrome that causes inflammation and swelling of the joints.
ii) GonorrheaIf a pregnant woman has gonorrhea, the infection can be passed to the
baby in the birth canal during delivery, causing blindness, joint infection, or a lifethreatening blood infection.
iii) Herpes (Genital) Genital herpes can sometimes be passed from an infected
mother to her child during pregnancy or birth. The infection can be life-threatening to the
child or result in skin lesions or brain damage. Antiviral medication and a cesarean
delivery can reduce the risk of infecting the child.
iv) Human Papillomavirus (HPV) HPV causes almost all cervical cancers but
is also linked to cancer of the throat, oral cavity, penis, anus, vagina or vulva.
v) SyphilisIt is at the tertiary stage that syphilis can do the most damage to the body,
affecting the brain, blood vessels, heart, and bones. If untreated, syphilis can eventually
lead to death.

7. Find a RELIABLE source to describe the different types of


hepatitis:
i) Hep A A person can spread the hepatitis A virus about a week before his or her symptoms appear
and during the first week of having symptoms. People with no symptoms can also spread the virus.

ii) Hep B B is a virus that infects the liver

. Most adults who get it have it for a


short time and then get better. This is called acutehepatitis B.

iii) Hep CA sneaky virus causes hepatitis C. Here's where to learn how the virus spreads from person
to person.

8. What are the symptoms of hepatitis?


i) Hep A Loss of appetiteFatigueMild feverMuscle or joint achesNausea and
vomitingAbdominal painLess common symptoms include:Dark urineLight-colored
stoolsJaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes)Generalized itchingAltered
mental state, stupor, or comaInternal bleeding

ii) Hep B A Loss of appetiteFatigueMild feverMuscle or joint achesNausea


and vomitingAbdominal painLess common symptoms include:Dark urineLight-colored
stoolsJaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes)Generalized itchingAltered
mental state, stupor, or comaInternal bleeding

iii) Hep C A Loss of appetiteFatigueMild feverMuscle or joint achesNausea


and vomitingAbdominal painLess common symptoms include:Dark urineLight-colored
stoolsJaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes)Generalized itchingAltered
mental state, stupor, or comaInternal bleeding

9. Describe the treatments or cures?


i) Hep A Antiviral medications. Several antiviral medications including
lamivudine (Epivir), adefovir (Hepsera), telbivudine (Tyzeka) and entecavir (Baraclude)
can help fight the virus and slow its ability to damage your liver. ...

ii) Hep B

is treated with drugs, such as lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil. Hepatitis C is treated with
a combination of peginterferon and ribovarin.

iii) Hep C he treatments have changed a lot in recent years. The latest is a once-daily

pill called Harvoni that cures the disease in most people in 8-12 weeks. It combines two
drugs: Sovaldi (sofosbuvir) and ledipasvir. Inclinical trials, the most common side effects
were fatigue andheadache.

l0. What are the consequences of each of the three types of


hepatitis?
i) Hep A In extremely rare cases, hepatitis A can lead to acute liver failure.
ii) Hep B People who get Hepatitis B and C may have the infection for life. It increases the risk for cirrhosis
(scarring of the liver), liver cancer, and liver failure, all of which can result in death.

iii) Hep C In time, the hepatitis C infection can affect the entire body. Early
symptoms, including yellowing skin and fatigue, may be mild and easily dismissed