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9/30/2014

Peralatan Pengesanan dan


Penentududukan

Kaedah Pengukuran/ Perolehan


Data untuk Pemetaan Utiliti

PCL

Total Station

GPR

GNSS

Mengapa pepasangan utiliti bawah


tanah perlu dikesan?
Bagi mengelakkan kemalangan yang
melibatkan nyawa dan kemusnahan aset
utiliti sedia ada.
Bagi mengelakkan pertambahan kos
semasa kerja-kerja pengorekkan jalan.
Sebagai maklumat awalan sebelum
kerja-kerja pengorekkan
Bagi memenuhi kewajiban pihak
kontraktor.

Persediaan yang perlu sebelum memulakan


kerja-kerja pengesanan utiliti
1. Dapatkan peta atau pelan utiliti bagi
kawasan tersebut (maklumat awalan)
2. Perhatikan keadaan tempat semasa
(keadaan tanah (basah/kering), pili bomba,
gas valve dll)
3. Menilai keberkesanan pelbagai teknik
pengesanan bagi mengesan pepasangan
utiliti. JANGAN bergantung kepada satu
teknik pengesanan sahaja.

Maklumat-maklumat yang
diperlukan sebelum kerja-kerja
pengorekkan dilaksanakan
1. Apakah maklumat utiliti yang tertanam di kawasan
itu?
(jenis, pemilik, material bahan, saiz dll)
2. Dimanakah kedudukan pepasangan utiliti
tersebut?
(alignment, direction)
3. Berapakah kedalaman pepasangan utiliti
tersebut?
(kedalaman utiliti ditanam)

Bagaimana Data Utiliti Diperoleh


Pengesanan
Untuk pepasangan (installation) sudah ditanam

Ukuran Terus
Untuk pepasangan baru yang belum ditanam

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Bagaimana Data Utiliti Diperoleh


Pengesanan

Teknik Perolehan Geofizik


Secara Pengesanan
Untuk pepasangan (installation) sudah ditanam
Libatkan pengesanan utiliti di bawah tanah secara
non-invasive
Menggunakan kaedah pengesanan geofizikal e.g
PCL dan GPR
Libatkan pengukuran tanda di permukaan
diukur menggunakan peralatan ukur konvensional
atau GNSS
Hasil ukuran tahap Kualiti B

Untuk pepasangan (installation) sudah ditanam

Ukuran Terus
Untuk pepasangan baru yang belum ditanam

Peralatan utama yang digunapakai


bagi mengesan pepasangan utiliti
bawah tanah:
Electromagnetic Locater (Pipe and cable
locater)
Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

Pengesanan Menggunakan
Pipe and Cable Locator (PCL)
Mengandungi 2 komponen
utama
Pemancar (transmitter)
Penerima (receiver)

Terdapat pelbagai jenis PCL


dengan berbagai saiz dan
bentuk serta frekuensi boleh
diperoleh dipasaran. Julat
frekuensi yang biasa
digunakan : 50 Hz ke 480 kHz
PCL berupaya mengesan
pada ketepatan 10cm dan
kedalaman pada 5%
daripada nilai sebenar

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Teknik pengesanan menggunakan prinsip


radio detection
Menggunakan prinsip elektomagnetic untuk
mengesan utiliti bawah tanah.

Prinsip Asas Operasi PCL


Pemancar

Penerima

Arus elektrik yang mengalir pada bahan konduktor


mengeluarkan medan magnet bulat di keliling
konduktor.

Koil penerima boleh digunakan untuk mengesan


amplitud medan magnet
Amplitud berubah bergantung kepada kedudukan dan
arah penerima dalam medan magnet
Amplitud paling tinggi apabila penerima berada tepat
diatas bahan konduktor

Digunakan untuk kesan bahan logam yang


boleh mengeluarkan gelombang elektromagnet

Medan magnet

Pemancar keluarkan isyarat gelombang


Isyarat gelombang jana medan magnetik
Medan magnetik mengarahkan isyarat ke dalam
penderia penerima
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Pengendalian PCL
Adakah pengukur
tersebut sedang
mengesan kabel?

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Apakah yang sebenarnya dikesan?

.yang sebenarnya dikesan adalah


medan magnet (magnetic fields)

?
Apakah itu Medan Magnet?

Terdapat 2 kaedah bagi mengesan


medan magnet iaitu secara;

1. Peak and
2. Null
Medan magnet adalah arus yang dipancarkan oleh
konduktor yang membawa arus.

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Peak Response

Peak Response

Null Response

Null Response

Null Response

LOCATING

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Locating

Pipe or Cable Direction

Pipe or Cable Direction

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Marking

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Frequency

BAGAIMANA
MEMILIH
FREKUENSI
YANG SESUAI?

Frequency vs Range

Which Frequency ?

Low frequency = long range (minimum


capacitance signal loss to ground).
This frequency is better for connection and
locating longer metal pipes or cables.

Radiodetection

Frequency = Range
(Capacitance Effect)

Which Frequency ?

Higher frequency = shorter range (greater capacitive


signal loss to ground).
This frequency is better for induction onto small or
short length conductors, such as telephone drops,
CATV cables or street light cables.

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Pipe = Surface Area = Range


Pipe = Surface Area = Range

Ground Moisture

Low Frequency Better Identification

Higher Frequency, Broader Peak

High Frequency Signal Coupling

Higher Frequency

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APPLICATION

Passive

Active
There are two methods of signal
detection.

Two types of Passive Signal

1. Radio Signal
2. Power signal

Passive Signal - Radio

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Passive Signal - Power 50/60Hz

Passive Sweep

Passive

Active
There are two methods of signal
detection.

DIRECT CONNECTION
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Direct Connection

Direct Connection

mA

Connection

Direct Connection

mA

A successful connection to the


metallic pipe or cable will be
indicated by a change in the
transmitter audio or visual
indicator. Always make the best
possible connection for reliable
signal.

Direct Connection

Direct Connection

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Signal Clamp

SIGNAL CLAMP

Signal Clamp

Signal Clamp

Signal Clamp

Higher Frequency

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INDUCTION
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Induction

Induction

Induction

Induction - Signal Strength

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Induction - Identification

Active Sweep

Induction - Identification

Induction - Never Locate Near To


The Transmitter.

Min 10 paces away from the


transmitter.

Check the signal with the receiver.

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Induction : Re-Bar Interference

General Locating

During excavation, keep checking in


the trench. This may show smaller
conductors which were not detectable
at ground level.

Problems Solving

GENERAL LOCATION

Locate A Death End Pipe, But NOT


Pot End Cable!

Locate A Bend

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Locate A Submerge Pipe or Cable.

Locate A Tee.

Locate Problem: Re-bar

Connection

Remote ground = better range,


less signal transfer.

Connection

Badly positioned remote ground


causes more signal transfer.
Always place ground rod away
from adjacent utilities.

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Connection

Ground stake too close to target


conductor: Less range, some
signal transfer.

Metal fences may seem a


convenient ground point, but
might produce interfering
signals.
Always use an independent
ground such as a screwdriver or
ground stake.

Connection

LOCATOR LIMITATIONS

SIGNAL
DISTORTION
Grounding to a structure which is also
grounded can produce multiple signals.

Distortion

Distortion
1
3

Peak

Null

This distortion varies depending upon the


direction and magnitude of the current flow,
causing a discrepancy between the peak and
null aerial responses.

Current on one line may induce 'stray'


signals to nearby conductors.

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Distortion

Unique Features For Cable Identification


DEPTH MEASUREMENT
CURRENTMEASUREMENT(CM)
CURRENT DIRECTION(CD)

Distorted field may appear to come


from a different point.

Depth Measurement

HOW TO TAKE DEPTH


MEASUREMENT?

Depth Measurement

Depth Measurement

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Distortion and
Depth

Depth Measurement
Peak
Null

Peak
Null

When there is a discrepancy between the aerial


responses the following must be observed.
1. The Peak response will always be more
accurate.
2. Push button depth estimation should not be
used until the two responses agree.

Depth Measurement

Low Frequency Better Identification

Current Measurement(CM)

Signal Coupling: How to identify?

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Current Measurement(CM)

Current Measurement(CM)

Current Measurement(CM)

Current Measurement(CM)

Current Measurement(CM)

CURRENT DIRECTION(CD)

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Current Direction
(CD)

Expected current
direction indications
and return signal path.

Current Direction(CD)

The target line is


identifiable by
Current Direction.

Current Direction(CD)

Current Direction(CD)

Current Direction (CD)

Penentuan lokasi
Menggunakan Alat penerima
Global Navigation Satellite System
(GNSS) latest boleh menerima
isyarat dari 3 system GNSS
GPS, GLONASS dan Galileo
untuk menentukan lokasi.
Teknik pengesan utiliti tidak boleh
position cuma detect kedudukan
Pengesan akan tanda dengan
tepat kedudukan utiliti dan
kemudian di ukur menggunakan
GPS dan total station

Possible current direction indication on


conductors.

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Ground Penetrating Radar

Basic concept of GPR

GPR can be defined


as a radar which able
to detect buried
objects and to
characterize the
subsurface structure
and properties in a
wide variety of
applications.

The GPR is a device


used for non-invasive
scanning and precise
detection of
underground utilities.
GPR is composed of
a receiver and
transmitter antenna, a
control unit, battery
supply and a survey
cart

Basic concept of GPR

Basic concept of GPR

Generally, when the survey cart moves on the site surface the
transmitting antenna send polarized, high frequency electromagnetic
(EM) waves in the ground. Because of different existing
inhomogenities in the ground, e.g. soil layers, underground utilities,
stones, gravel, cavities and other anomalies, part of the EM waves
is reflected from the dielectric boundary between different materials
and other part is refracted and goes to the deeper layer

Frequency selected

Attenuation,

GPR image

0.001

General character of EM
field phase velocity and
attenuation with
frequency illustrating the
GPR plateau(Annan,
2002)

GPR Plateau

1000

Frequency (MHz)

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Teknik Pengesanan menggunakan


Pengesanan Menggunakan Ground
Penetratin/Probing Radar (GPR)

GPR Limitations
The factors affecting the GPR performance
and should be consider are the design of a
GPR (hardware), target types, material of
the target and the surrounding
(environment)

Teknik radio detection tidak boleh digunakan untuk


kesan bukan metalik termasuk paip air dan gas plastik,
paip di perbuat dari tanahliat dan cable gentian.
GPR berfungsi dengan menghantar microwave kedalam
tanah dan proses pantulan balik dari pelbagai lapisan
yang diterima oleh akan menghasilkan imej dalam
bentuk hyperbola.
Imej perlu dibuat interpretasi

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Teknik Pengesanan menggunakan


Pengesanan Menggunakan Ground
Penetrating/Probing Radar (GPR)

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Operasi Pengesanan

Jarak Selang Pengesanan


B

BM

(xB ,
yB )

GPR
Mula
1

GPR
Henti
4

(x1 , y1)

(x4 , y4)

GPR
Mula 5

Lubang
Ujian

Laluan PCL

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Kabel (sedang dipasang)

(x11 , y11)

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(xA , yA)

(x2 , y2)

GPR
Henti

(x3 , y3)

(x12 , y12)

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(x10 , y10)

Laluan GPR

PCL

Laluan GPR

Laluan GPR

(x5 , y5)

Kesan setiap 20m


Garis Rentas
Garis lintang
Arah pergerakan
Lihat muka 11 garis panduan

GPR
Mula
Tanda Cat (GPR)
Tanda Cat (PCL)
Air

(x6 , y6)

GPR
Henti

Stesen Kawalan
Elektrik
Telekomunikasi

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Pelbagai Jenis Antena GPR

Bagaimana Data Utiliti Diperoleh


Pengesanan
Untuk pepasangan sudah ditanam

Ukuran Terus

Dari kiri ke kanan:

Sistem Antenna GPR.

Untuk pepasangan baru yang belum ditanam

1,500, 900, 550, 400, 300, 200, 120, 100, 80


MHz

Kelas Antena

Frekuensi
Antena

Frekuensi Tinggi

> 1000 MHz

Kedalaman
Pengesanan
< 0.5 m

Frekuensi Sederhana
Tinggi

400 600 MHz

0.5 m 1.5 m

Frekuensi Sederhana
Rendah

200 400 MHz

1.5 m 2.0 m

Frekuensi Rendah

< 200 MHz

2.0 m 3.0 m

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Kaedah Ukuran Terus

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Lubang ujian

Libatkan pengukuran
kepada utiliti yang terdedah
Menggunakan peralatan
ukur konvensional
Ukuran lubang ujian
Ukuran terus sebelum
pepasangan utiliti ditimbus
Hasil ukuran data utiliti
pada tahap Kualiti A

Backoe
Penggalian menggunakan alat asas
Ekskavasi hampagas

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Peralatan Ukuran Terus

Perbandingan Pengesanan & Pengukuran Terus

Kegunaan

Tahap Kualiti

Peralatan

Pengesanan

Kaedah

Pepasangan
Tertanam

Pengukuran
Terus

Pepasangan
baru belum
ditanam

PCL
GPR
Total Station
GNSS
Total Station
GNSS

Ketepatan
(relatif)

Kos (relatif)

Rendah

Tinggi

Masa
Perolehan
Data (relatif)
Lama

Tinggi

Rendah

Cepat

Sesuai mulakan pemetaan utiliti secepat mungkin


Penggunaan kaedah pengukuran terus terbaik bagi pepasangan baru
Penggunaan kaedah pengesanan kaedah terbaik untuk pepasangan sedia
ada

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