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Acid Base Experiment

Determination of CaCO3 in Toothpaste


Nontamongkoltorn (Bank) 11-1



(Folk) 11-1

Waraphan Sumetawenunt

(Eve) 11-1


(Eye) 11-1


DATE: 27th February 2015


Acids and bases are substances that can be found everywhere in a

simple everyday life. One of an example is the utensils which are usually in a
form of a liquid substance. Most of them contain a concentration of acidic and
basic however each kind and benefits of them depends on its concentration
For instance, the toothpaste. It is acting as a basic substance. Mostly
produced from calcium carbonate, dehydrated silica gels, hydrated alluvium
oxides, magnesium carbonate, phosphate salts and silicates. Its essential to
your daily oral health care. We use toothpaste to brush and clean our teeth.
Since, it is considered as the basic substance, so it has an ability to clean
things like most of the other basic substance did. It helps remove plaque and
bacteria. The fluoride contained in toothpaste also has the capability to prevent
tooth decay it strengthening the teeth. In this experiment, we used toothpaste
to test for a base in calcium carbonate.
There are many theories that state about the difference of Acid and base.
First is called Lewis Theory. It defines that acidic substances have an ability to
accept electrons whose are given by basic substances. So, the basic
substances are the one who gives off an electron to the acid one. Related to
Arrhenius, an acid is any substance that ionised in an aqueous solution that will
produce the hydrogen ion. On the other hands, a base will produce Hydroxide
ion. Another famous theory is called Bronsted-Lowry theory. This would be
different from Lewis one because it focusses on the proton while Lewis focused
on the electron of on a substance. The Bronsted theory states that the proton
will be given off by acids to the proton acceptor whose are the bases.
The molarity of acid can be defined by the method called Titration. This
method is the process that determines the number of a substance by reacting
substance with a known amount of another substance. For example, the using

the phenolphthalein color indicator. It can define the amount of Acid and Base
by a change in colors of phenolphthalein indicator which tested on a substance.
This indicator allows us to see the change in color, but not the number of pH. In
this experiment, we use the procedure of back titration which we added the
excess amount of the standard trident to the analyse. So, it would be a bit
different between this two type of titration.
To demonstrate the titration technique
To be able to calculate the molarity by using the result from titration
To understand and be able to read the titrations graph properly
To find the amount of CaCO3 containing in the toothpaste

Our Hypothesis are the color of the toothpaste solution will turn pinkish
due to the reaction of the indicator and of HCl in it. We might see the change in
color when its pH reach around 7 to 9. And also, we should have got the
Calcium Carbonate in the toothpaste.
3 of 125 mL Erlenmeyer Flasks (Conical Flask)
1 spatula
1 stand with double burnt holder
1 buret
1 stir bar
1 pH meter
1 graduated cylinder
A heater


1. Zero scale.
2. Put 125mL Erlenmeyer (conical flask) on scale.
3. Weigh around 0.50 gram of toothpaste, using spatula, directly into 125mL
Erlenmeyer flask.
4. Record the weighed value.
5. Using a 10mL graduated cylinder, add 10 mL of H20 (distilled water to the
6. Utilise a 10.00 mL volumetric pipette, pipette exactly 10.00 mL of 0.10 M
HCL (Hydrochloride acid) into toothpaste/water solution.
7. Add a stir bar, heat and stir for 5 minutes on hotplate.
8. Remove from heat and let it cool down.
9. Add few drops of Phenolphthalein indicator.
10.Staring adding your titrant (0.10M NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide) in buret)
11.Check the pH after every 1mL of titrant added.
12.Record both the initial volume and initial pH.
13.When solution starts to turn pink but return to transparent, clear after
swirling, add slower (drop-wise perhaps).After end point has been reached,
record the final pH and final volume.
14.Continue adding titrant, an additional 4 mL of titrant.
15.Again checking the pH after every 1 mL has been added.
16.Repeat experiment 2 more times. This will give a total of 3 separate
17.Dispose of your waster in large beaker provided, do not dispose of down the

18.Leave left over NaOH solution in buret after use.

Sample 1 (20mL HCL)

Weight toothpaste (g)

Initial Volume (mL)
Initial pH
Final Volume (mL)
Final pH (mL)
Total Volume (mL)
Volume HCL reacted
with toothpaste
Moles HCL reacted

Sample 2 (30mL HCL)

Sample (30 mL HCL)

0.48 g

0.43 g

0.47 g

32.52 mL

39.50 mL

44.81 mL, 40.18 mL




39.50 mL

44.81 mL

49.73 mL, 41.49 mL




6.98 mL

5.31 mL

6.21 mL




3.02 x 10-4

4.69 x 10-4

5.08 x 10-4

Sample 1 (20mL HCL)

Moles CaCO3
Amount CaCO3 (mg)
Amount CaCO3 (mg/g)

Sample 2 (30mL HCL)

Sample (30 mL HCL)

1.51 x 10-4

2.35 x 10-4

2.54 x 10-4







Average CaCO3 (mg/g)


Standard Deviation




pH and the amount of NaOH


This experiment is about using the Titration method to find out for the CaCO 3 containing in
the toothpaste. It is some kind of chemical analysis process so the heating method takes a very

important role in this method. The first step that we did in the beginning of the experiment is we
weigh the toothpaste and then pour the distilled water into it. After that we heated the solution. The
purpose, of heating the solution was to evaporate or to remove the Carbon dioxide out from the
solution. Moreover, the heating process also helps in increasing the rate of reaction within the
solution. The increase in temperature would make the CaCO3 and HCl reacted between each other
easier and quicker. It helps evaporation of CO2 happen quickly because CO2 can make change in
the result.
The second step was added to the acid and base to the solution in order to go on the process
of titration. We added an acid solution which is HCl to find the amount of Calcium Carbonate
contained in the solution. The method was that we mixed the HCl with the toothpaste, the HCl will
react with the toothpaste, some of them did and some of them did not. Then follow by NaOH, we
added NaOH which is a basic solution to titrate with the remaining HCl within the toothpaste
solution, while each of the acid and basic solution we added into the toothpaste contained the same
amount. After they reacted to each other, we will be able to determine an amount of CaCO 3 within
the toothpaste by deducted to the amount of NaOH which we added the equal amount as the HCl.
At the time we putted NaOH into the solution. We can see that the color of it will slightly
change of pinkish color. This is called an end point which is very important part of the Titration
method. It is the point when the color of the solution in a flask turned to some kind of pinkish color
that can be noticed. And as the flask was stirred, it would be a little tough to see it immediately
because the color change so quickly. However, another point which also related to the end point of
this process which is as important as the end point is called an equivalence point. This was when
both solutions were added in the same amount that will be shown after the changing in color.
As we can be clear from the experiment that the time when the solution turned pink is called
an end point. For our group, the solutions color turned to pink at the pH of 7.94. As we added the
indicator to the solution, in this case we use Phenolphthalein. We dropped into the solution that will
determine the solution whether it is an acid or base after the color was changed. And the reason why
it turned pink because of its characteristic that will react with the solution. The Phenolphthalein will
show pinkish color when the solution slightly basic. According to our experiment, the solutions
color turn pink when the volume of NaOH was 51.24 mL.
Since we did the experiment three times because we tried to be accurate with the result. It
will be more accurate with three samples rather than only one sample was tested. So, thats why
three replicates performed, in order to obtain the most accurate amount of CaCO 3 we need to
average three numbers together. Also, as this was our first time doing this experiment, some of the
step could be a mess up or incorrect. So we will have another chance to do it again for a correct step
and the way of using the equipment. To ensure the amount of CaCO 3 by the average of the three
times experiment.

After we have done the experiment, we learned about the Titration method which we used to
find the amount of Calcium Carbonate contained in the toothpaste we brought to test. Depending on
our hypothesis that we state at first that there were Calcium Carbonate in the toothpaste and also the
color of the solution will turn to a kind of pink color when the amount of pH reached around 7 to 9.
And we found that the result of our experiment follows the hypothesis. However, this was the first

time of our group to do the experiment, some of the step woman not do it correctly or the equipment
we were not used it correctly leads to some errors to our experiment.
There were some errors during the experiment which made the result slightly change from
what it should be or from wHat we expected. The first error was the fact that we cannot actually
stop or pause the amount of NaOH dropped into the solution immediately at the time that the colour
was changed. And sometimes we also did not really notice the change in colour of it because the
colour changed so quickly and at the same time the colour got too dark so fast too. By observed it
with a naked eyes, it may not be so accurate but we tried our best to make it the most stable value. It
is also the first time that we have tried this kind of experiment, some of the equipment and solutions
is quite mess up at the beginning. Another error that weve found was on the pH meter. We thought
its not functioning properly because as we added more of NaOH to the toothpaste somehow the pH
still remained the same. We decided to clean it again and again until the pH changed as the only
way we can do to solve this problem.
There was one more problem in the experiment. We didnt get to the pH of 12 because we
thought that the pH meter wasnt working very well. It might be the unclean of it that lower its
ability to determine pH. Thats why the graphs shape is not likely to be S but just a curve that if
we continuously on to it, we can see the shape of the graph which is likely to be S.

Colgate Total Whitening. Colgate-Palmolive Canada Inc., Toronto, Ont. M3C 1W3
Canada, Lot no. 4211US5601
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