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Delay box
Multiplexer
Switch
Network
T seconds

Message,
packet,
cell
arrivals

Message,
packet,
cell
departures

Lost or
blocked

A(t)

n +1
n

n 1

2
1
1

## Time of nth arrival = 1 + 2 +

+ n

Arrival
n arrivals
1
rate = 1 + 2 + + n seconds ( 1 + 2 + + n )n

n + 1

1
E[]

Delay box

A(t)

D(t)

N(t)

Assumes
first-in
first-out

T7

A(t)

T6
T5
T4

T3

D(t)

T2
T1
Arrivals

C1

Departures

C2

C3

C4
C1

C5
C2

C6
C3

C4

C7

C5

C6

C7

Servers

Arrival process
A(t)

D(t)

1
Queue

i + 1

B(t)

Service time

## Arrival process Service time Servers Max occupancy

Interarrival times
M = exponential
D = deterministic
G = general
Arrival rate:
= 1/E[]

Service times X
1 server
M = exponential c servers
D = deterministic infinite
G = general
Service rate:
= 1/E[X]

K customers
unspecified if
unlimited

## Multiplexer models: M/M/1/K, M/M/1, M/G/1, M/D/1

Trunking models:
M/M/c/c, M/G/c/c
User activity:
M/M/, M/G/

N(t) = Nq(t) + Ns(t)
Ns(t)
Nq(t)
1
2

(1Pb)

Pb

T=W+X

## N(t) = number in system

Nq (t) = number in queue
Ns (t) = number in service

T = total delay
W = waiting time
X = service time

Poisson
arrivals
rate

Exponential
service time
with rate

K 1 buffer

1 t

1 ( + )t
t

1 ( + )t

1 ( + )t

1
t

1 ( + )t

t
2

n1

1 ( + )t

t
n+1

n
t

separate
systems

versus

One
consolidated m
system

Infinite buffer = 1/E[X]

Poisson
arrivals
rate

MM1

MH1

MD1

MEr1

Interarrivals

Constant

Erlang

CX2

<1

>1

E[W]E[WMM1]

12

12<, <1

>1

Exponential Hyperexponential

N(t)
2

(1 Pb)

Many
lines

Poisson
arrivals

Limited
number
of trunks

Pb

E[X ] = 1

## Performance parameter: Pb fraction of arrivals that are blocked.

c] B(c, a) where a .
PB(c, a)P[N(t)
is
the
distribution. Erlang B formula, which is valid for any service time
b

B(c, a)

ac
c!

j0

aj
j!

1 t

1 ( + )t 1 ( + 2)t
t

t
1

1 ( + (c 1))t 1 c t
t

c1

2t

c
ct