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Delay box
Multiplexer
Switch
Network
T seconds

Message,
packet,
cell
arrivals

Message,
packet,
cell
departures

Lost or
blocked

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A(t)

n +1
n

n 1

2
1
1

Time of nth arrival = 1 + 2 +

+ n

Arrival
n arrivals
1
rate = 1 + 2 + + n seconds ( 1 + 2 + + n )n

n + 1

1
E[]

Arrival rate = 1mean interarrival time

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Delay box

A(t)

D(t)

N(t)




















Assumes
first-in
first-out

T7

A(t)

T6
T5
T4

T3

D(t)

T2
T1
Arrivals

C1

Departures

C2

C3

C4
C1

C5
C2

C6
C3

C4

C7

C5

C6

C7

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Servers

Arrival process
A(t)

D(t)

1
Queue

i + 1

B(t)

Service time

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Arrival process Service time Servers Max occupancy


Interarrival times
M = exponential
D = deterministic
G = general
Arrival rate:
= 1/E[]

Service times X
1 server
M = exponential c servers
D = deterministic infinite
G = general
Service rate:
= 1/E[X]

K customers
unspecified if
unlimited

Multiplexer models: M/M/1/K, M/M/1, M/G/1, M/D/1


Trunking models:
M/M/c/c, M/G/c/c
User activity:
M/M/, M/G/

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N(t) = Nq(t) + Ns(t)
Ns(t)
Nq(t)
1
2

(1Pb)

Pb

T=W+X

N(t) = number in system


Nq (t) = number in queue
Ns (t) = number in service

T = total delay
W = waiting time
X = service time

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Poisson
arrivals
rate

Exponential
service time
with rate

K 1 buffer

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1 t

1 ( + )t
t

1 ( + )t

1 ( + )t

1
t

1 ( + )t

t
2

n1

1 ( + )t

t
n+1

n
t

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separate
systems

versus

One
consolidated m
system

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Infinite buffer = 1/E[X]

Poisson
arrivals
rate

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MM1

MH1

MD1

MEr1

Interarrivals

Constant

Erlang

CX2

<1

>1

E[W]E[WMM1]

12

12<, <1

>1

Exponential Hyperexponential

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N(t)
2

(1 Pb)

Many
lines

Poisson
arrivals

Limited
number
of trunks

Pb

E[X ] = 1

Blocked calls are cleared from the system; no waiting allowed.

Performance parameter: Pb fraction of arrivals that are blocked.

c] B(c, a) where a .
PB(c, a)P[N(t)
is
the
distribution. Erlang B formula, which is valid for any service time
b

B(c, a)

ac
c!

j0

aj
j!



1 t

1 ( + )t 1 ( + 2)t
t

t
1

1 ( + (c 1))t 1 c t
t

c1

2t

c
ct

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