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Element Builder

Name:
Problem:
1. What is the relationship between the number of protons, neutrons, and
electrons in an atom?
2. What patterns can be seen between numbers of subatomic particles and the
periodic table?

Procedure
Log onto the web site Explorelearning.com and go to your class section. In this
section you should see the Gizmo called Element Builder. Launch this Gizmo.

Part 1: Chemical Families - Use the Gizmo to build a stable atom of the
elements listed in the table below. On the right side of the simulation, click on the
boxes shown to give you more information. Make sure you are showing a stable
atom and not an ionized form.

Fill in the information into the table provided.


Element

Proton #

Neutron #

Electron #

Electron Dot
Formula

H
Li
Na
Summing Up: part 1
1. What similarities did you find between the protons and the neutrons in an
atom? What differences were there? (think of number, size, and possibly mass,
etc.)

2. What similarities did you find between protons and electrons? What were the
differences? (think of number, size, and possibly mass, etc.)

3. Could you find any similarities or differences between the neutrons and the
electrons? If so, list them.

4. What numbers on the periodic table are needed to tell you the number of
protons in any atom? Which number on the periodic table corresponds to the
number of electrons? The number of neutrons?

5. The elements listed in part 1 are part of a chemical family. The next element in
the family is Potassium. What structural similarity do you think you would observe
with Potassium that you should have noticed with these other three? Go back and
look at the stable atoms again if you dont see the trend. Also, find out the name of
this chemical family.

Part 2: Noble Gases - Use the Gizmo to build a stable atom of the
elements listed in the table below. On the right side of the simulation, click on the
boxes shown to give you more information. Make sure you are showing a stable
atom and not an ionized form.

Fill in the information into the table provided.


Element

Proton #

Neutron #

Electron #

Electron Dot
Formula

He
Ne
Ar
Summing Up: part 2
1. What structural similarity did you observe between all the Noble Gases? (note the structure for Helium is slightly different than the other 2)

2. What structure would you predict for the next Noble Gas listed on the table?
Also, draw the electron dot formula for the next element.

3. Give a possible reason for why the electron dot formula shows the electrons in
pairs around the chemical symbol.

Part 3: Periodic Trends - Use the Gizmo to build a stable Ion of the
elements listed in the table below. On the right side of the simulation, click on the
boxes shown to give you more information.

Fill in the information into the table provided.


Element

Proton #

Neutron #

Be
C
O
F

Electron #
(ionized)

Ionic Charge
+2
+/- 4
-2
-1

Summing Up: part 3


1. Explain how an ion differs from an atom?

2. How is ionized Beryllium different than oxygen and fluorine in the way if forms
an ion? * You may need to check with your instructor as to what the most common
ionic forms are for each element. How does this relate to its oxidation number?

3. Theoretically, how is Carbon unique in this group in regard to forming ions? (hint - it
has to do with its position within the period)

Part 4: Isotopes - Use the Gizmo to build THREE stable atoms of the
element listed in the table below. On the right side of the simulation, click on the
boxes shown to give you more information.

Fill in the information into the table provided.


Element
Si - 28
Si - 29
Si - 30

Proton #

Neutron #

Electron #

% of Isotope

Summing Up: part 4


1. Looking at the subatomic particles in the table above, explain how isotopes
differ from each other.

2. Which type of particle(s) contributes most to the mass of the atom?

3. Which subatomic particle determines the elements identity? Justify your


choice. (You may need to look at some of the other tables above to get a
complete answer!)

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