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..

2001

. .




24.01.00

2001

629.4.016.12 (075)
76


, .

2. 105-95

.

: .. , , .

: .. , ,

(), 2001


.
..
1 ,
.
2 , ...
2.1
2.2
2.3
......
2.4 -
( )...
3 ..
4
( ) ...
5
( )...
6 V(S) t(S)
..
7 ....
7.1 VT, V
..
7.2
.
8 ..
8.1 ....
8.2 ...
..

4
7
11
12
12
14
15
17
18
20
24
27
28
28
29
30
30
31
33




.
.
.
,
. ,
,
/1 6/ .
.

,
, .
.

. () /1/
,
.
: 1 = 9,81 , 1 = 9,81 .

/1/:
50 ;
, ( ,
, ) 500 ;
()
;
/
;
( )
, ( )
;
/ ;

;
/104
/104
.
2.105-95
, :

4 (210297 ), , ,
.
4.
: 30 ; 10 ; 15 ;
20 . ;

, .
;
.
, - (
, ..). ;
,
,
.
,
;

, 297 .
:
;
;

;

.
,
, , . ,

,
.
.


.
, .

, .
. -
, , ,
.
,
, .


:
1 ,
.
2 ,
.
3
.
4 , ( ).
5 .
6

( ) .
7

.
8 V(S) t(S);
, .
9
t(S).
10
.
,
:
( 1) ;
( 3)
.
2,
4.




( ), %:
-

, :
-
-



, /


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

14

17

10

11

12

13

86

95

94

83

92

91

90

89

88

87

154
82

156
80

158
78

160
76

162
74

154
74

156
76

158
78

160
80

162
82

90

V,
m,

F,

V,
F,
/

2116
506
24,2
276
100
813
3
310
210
2121
8
10
311
60
80

404
759
506
657
465
460
690
368
512

20,5
23,4
23,4
24,0
43,3
46,7
46,7
43,5
43,5

254
414
276
300
184
184
276
138
192

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
110

582
960
813
942
607
626
939
497
691

l,

36
34
51
34
43
28
33
50
21
33

3 m


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

0
4300
0
4300
1
5300
2
5300
3
5300
4
5300
5
5300
6
6300
7
6300
8
7300
9

1
3400
0
5400
1
4400
2
4400
3
4400
4
4400
5
4400
6
5400
7
5400
8
6400
9

2
3500
0
4500
1
4500
2
4500
3
5400
4
4500
5
4500
6
5500
7
5500
8
6500
9

3
3600
0
6300
1
6400
2
4600
3
4600
4
4600
5
4600
6
5600
7
5600
8
6600
9


4
5
3700
3800
0
0
3700
3800
1
1
4700
4800
2
2
7700
4800
3
3
4700
4800
4
4
4700
4800
5
5
4700
4800
6
6
5700
5800
7
7
5700
5800
8
8
6700
6800
9
9

6
4900
0
4900
1
4900
2
4900
3
4900
4
4900
5
5800
6
5800
7
6900
8
6900
9

7
5000
0
5000
1
5000
2
5000
3
5000
4
5000
5
5000
6
6000
7
6000
8
7000
9

8
5100
0
5100
1
5100
2
5100
3
5100
4
5100
5
6100
6
6100
7
7100
8
7100
9

9
5200
0
5200
1
6200
2
6200
3
6200
4
7200
5
7200
6
7200
7
8200
8
8200
9

.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
.
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
.

1150
900
1600
1200
600
4800
1900
1200
600
1800
1050
1000
4500
900
300
500
5000
1200
800
700
1250

01
, ,

R
S
+2,5
0,0
-2,0
1000 600
0,0
+1,5
+9,0
700
350
-4,0
+9,0
-2,0
900
500
+11,0
-2,0
0,0
+4,0
-11,0
800
500
+4,3
+3,0
-9,0
-1,0
700
400
+5,0
0,0
+1,5

23
, ,

R
S
+2,0
-1,0
800 500
-2,0
+1,0
900 100
+3,0
+8,0
-3,0
-1,0
700 600
-2,0
+10,0
-2,0
+1,0
210 500
+3,0
-10,0
+4,0
+3,0
-8,0
150 500
-2,0
+3,0
0,0
+1,5


45
, ,

R
S
+1,5
2100 700
-2,0
-4,0
900 600
0,0
+3,0
-7,0
-3,0
1800 900
-9,0
+6,0
+4,0
-1,0
+5,0
+7,0
-2,0
1400 800
0,0
-4,0
-1,0
+9,0
0,0
900 400
+1,0
+2,0

67
, ,

R
S
-2,5
+1,5
+6,0
-9,0
800 100
+4,0
1200 600
-6,0
+4,0
-8,0
+4,0
+3,0
0,0
+2,0
2000 100
+6,0
-2,0
-4,0
+3,0
+2,0
1800 900
+9,0
-3,0
-5,0
+1,0
2100 900

89
, ,

R
S
-1,0
+4,0
900 300
+6,0
-7,0
600 600
-4,0
-7,0
-3,0
+5,0
+3,0
+10,0
+1,0
800 450
0,0
-5,0
0,0
+3,0
1400 300
+4,0
+8,0
1200 500
+4,0
-8,0
-4,0
+2,0

. 0, 2, 4, 6 8 . . ; 1, 3, 5, 7 9 . . ( ).

1 ,

, ..
,
.
,
(, ),

, .
,
,
,
.
.

2 ,
2.1
, ,
m
,
/1/.

.

F = mc g(wo + ip)+m g(wo + ip),

g
m

(1)

, g = 9,81 /2;
, ;

wo wo
, /;

ip

, .

i = i + i,

(2)

i , ;

i , .

i =

700 S

,
R
S

R , ;
S , ;
S , .

(3)


( ) /1/

w0 = 1,9 + 0,01 V + 0,0003 V 2 ,

(4)

V , /.


/1/:
4 -

3 + 0,1 V + 0,0025 V 2
= 0,7 +
w04
;
m04

(5)

8 -

6 + 0,038V + 0,0021V 2
= 0,7 +
w08
,
m08

(6)

m04, m08 ,
4 - 8 - ( ).

,
,
"
"
p 8 w 08
+ p 4 w 04
w 0 =
,
100

(7)

p8, p4 ( ) 8 -
4 - (. 1).

(1) (7) F ,
V ( (4) (6) V)
m . .
()
F V 23 / m 270 ,
- V 42 /, m 190 (1)

F. F
(. 2)
, .
()
(1) (7), .

F = (1,0 - 1,05) F.

(8)


,
.
.
2.2
,

, , -
.
,
, ,
,
. ,
V V S
S.

S=

4,17 (Vp2 V2 )
f w

S ,

fw
V V,

(9)

f w =

F (w0 + i ) m g (w0 + i ) m g
(m + m ) g

(10)

i , ;
F
V V, .

F
, /1/ (
).

w0

w0 .

: V = 75 80 /,
V = 80 90 /,
.
V V 2 3 .
(9)
S S,
,
, ,

. ,
( , , 100 )
,
, .
, S S.
2.3


m =

F
( w + i ) g

P,

(11)

F , ;
i
() (
), ;

w
, /,

w = 4 w
4 + 8 w 8 .

(12)

w
4 , w 8

4 8
, /;

4 , 8 ( !) 4
8
(. 1).

w
=

28
m0 + 7 .

(13)

m , ,
m c , ..

m m c . ,
,
,
.

2.4
( )
,
,
.

ni =

mc i

m 100 ,

(14)

m (. 1), .
10

l = ni li+ l+10,

(15)

l , ;

li , .
, 8 -
20 , 4 - - 15 .

3


S,
.
, :
; ,
.

ic =

i1 S1 + i2 S2 + ... + in Sn i j S j
=
S1 + S2 + ... + Sn
SC ,

(16)

i1, i2, ... in , ;

S1, S2, ... Sn , .


-
,
/1 3/

Sj

2000
,
i

(17)

S j , ;

i
, .
,
. (17),
.
,

700 n S
ic =

Sc 1 R .

(18)

ic = ic + ic" .

(19)

5.
5

S,
i,

R, S,

S,

i c, i c , ic,

4
5

, ic
( ), ( ).
i c .

.
()
,
, .

, .

4
( )

6, ( )
:
- w0 ;
( ) - w0;
:

w0+0,5 w0 + .
6 0

10 / (1 ). ,
,
;
.

.
,
4 5 /1/.

4
.

w 0

(4).
w 0 10 /
(5)-( 7). V=0 ( ) w 0
w , (12).
6 - 9
6.
6
.

0
10
20
.
.
.
.
.

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

w0x +, /

w0x+ 0,5, /

T=1000kpp, /

kp

w0x= Wx+ W0/(mc+m)g,


/

Wx+ W0,

Wx=wx mg,

wx , /

fk-w0=Fk-W0 /(mc+m)g,
/

Fk -W0 ,

W0 = W0 + W0,, /

W0= w0mcg,

wo, /

W0 = w0 mg ,

w0, /

F ,

V, /

6 ( )
.................; m+ m =.........................

17

()

wx = 2,4 + 0,011 V + 0,00035 V 2 .

(20)

V=0 ( ) w 0
10 / ( w 0 V=0
).

= 1000 ,

(21)

, /.

(21) /1/:

= 0,27

V + 100
;
5V + 100

(22)

= 0,36

V +150
.
2V +150

(23)

K p
mg

( K p4 n4 + K p8 n8 )
mg

(24)

n4, n8 4 - 8-
;
Kp4, Kp8
4 - 8- (
4 = 8 = 70 /,
- 4 = 8 = 42,5 /).

6 ( 9, 13, 16) ,
.
,
7.
7

1 2 3 4

1 /
6
10
1
2

1 /
1
2
1
2

1
20
48
120
240

30
25

10
10
1

100
10
50
.
.

1 4


,
,

, ..

,
V=f(S)
.

5
( )

,
1200 .
.

(25)
S = S + S,
S ,


;
S ,
.
(25) ,

S S
. .
17
f = w0x+T

, , ,
V S ( 1).
, w0x+T S
. S ,
ST = 1200 .
7.
V(S)
, ..
.
w0x+T ,
, .. 5, 15, 25, 35, .. /.
w0x+T,
( ), ,
.. . V(S)
0 10 /.
, .. 10 20 /.
V(S). ..

..,
.


Sn = 0,278 V t,
V , /;
t
, , :
200

tn = 7

10 ic
;
bT

(26)

(27)

200 300

t n = 10

15 ic
;
bT

(28)

300

t n = 12

18 ic
.
bT

(29)

ic ,
( );

b T .
`
(. 1), (26)
, , 0 100 /.
( )
Vmax
.
, , ic = 5 , Vmax(ic),

.

/2 6/.

,
, .

6 V(S) t(S)

V(S) t(S)

( ), /1 6/.

.
,
, 40 /.
, 90 /

.


. 50-60 /
,
20 /.

,

( )
. ,
,
.

( . 2.2
).
t(S) ,
. , 10 .,
,
0.

297 ,
,
- .
.
.

7
7.1 VT, V


(
) ( ), V .
8,
t(S) 0,1 .,
.
8
- ,
,

VT =

60 L
,
t1 + t 2

(30)

t1 t2
, .;
L , .

(30). L
(30)
( ) ( ),
( ).

7.2

, ,
. :

V;
-
.

/1 6/, ,
V
,
6 .

.
9.
9

S,

i,

V,

60

60S ,
V

1
2
.
.

2 /./

I /. /

, ,
2 1 .
.
n

t=
1

60S
+ ( 3 6)
V

(31)


3 ,
.

8.1

, .

V(S) I(V) ,
4 /1/ ( ).
V(S)
(. 7) ,
V(S) t(S) .
. I(S).

.
,
.
I(S) t(S) A ,
.

A =

UIcp ti
1

601000

(32)

U (U = 3000
25000 );

I ,
i- , ;

ti ,
i- , .

10.

10
I,
I(S)

ti,

I ti,

1
2
.
.
n


A 2% 3%

A=(1,021,03) A

(33)

A 10 4
,
a=
mc L

(34)

a , /(10. ).

8.2


( )
n

E = G t + qx t x ,
1

G
, /;

t ,

(35)

G , ;
qx , /;
tx
, .
G qx
5 /1/. G
, qx -
.

104

E 10 4
e=
mc L .

(36)

e = ,

, = 1,43.

(37)

1 (). .:
, 1985. 287 .
2 / . .. ..
. .: , 1979. 367 . .
3 / . .. .
.: , 1971. 352 . .
4 .. . . .: , 1987.
256 . .
5 .., .., .. .
. .: , 1987. 264 .
6 .., .., .. .
.: , 1972. 440 .




24.01.00

..
03581 19.12.2000
620034, . , . , 66,
_________________________________________________________________
. . . 2,1. . - . . 1,82
1
6084 1/16
400

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620151 . , , 20,

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