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Program Structure

Basic Terms
Character
Word
Block
Program

These are the basic building bocks to creating a


program for a CNC system.

Character

Is the smallest unit of a CNC program

Digit

Letter

The 26 letters of the alphabet make up this section. Only certain letters are accepted
within a code. For example the letters X and Y for coordinates

Symbol

These are regular numbers that can range from 0-9

These consist of the decimal and minus sign as well as other various symbols.

Combined into Alpha-numerical Program input

All of these characters are combined into your program and are used to pass
instructions to the machine.

Word

Combination of characters

Creates single instruction

Will indicate

Axis

Speed

Feedrate

And more

Block

Multiple instruction

Multiple instructions can be created within blocks. This means that you are giving
various commands within one line of code. Each line is considered a block.

A line of code will be considered a block

Composed of words or characters

Using a return at the end of a line will end the block and start a new one

Program

Begins with a program number

Contains blocks of instruction

Typically a program will have some sort of identifier or identification of its number.
May begin with a start code as well and a header of additional information.

Blocks of code are created within the program to be run in sequence. A word
address is used in order to identify a specific register within the control memory.
(tells who is receiving the instruction)

Ends with a stop code or termination symbol

Format

CNC code will follow a Word Address Format

This is a combination of a single letter and one or more digits

This arrange creates the word

The address portion refers to the how the control memory registers the specific
words.

The letter must be written first and define the meaning of the word

Some Examples of Common Words

G01

Preparatory command

M30

Miscellaneous function

D25

Offset number selection - mills

N105

Sequence number (block number)

Y0

Coordinate word

T05

Tool function

T0505

Tool function

F12

Feed rate function

S2500

Spindle sped function

Sample Code to be created