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MYP Biology Genetics Test

Name __________________________

This test consists of 35 multiple-choice and short answer questions. You have 50
minutes to complete the exam. For each multiple choice question, circle the most
correct answer. Short answers should be written in the form of sentences to
receive full credit. Note that you will not always be given a Punnett square where it
would be helpful to use one!
1. In human reproduction, individual gametes produced by meiosis have:
a. identical genetic information.
b. a random mix of parental and maternal chromosomes.
c. a perfect 50/50 mix of paternal and maternal chromosomes.
d. no genetic information.
2. Gametes produced from diploid cells through meiosis are:
a. haploid
b. diploid
c. triploid
d. polyploid
3. Meiosis is known as a reduction division because it reduces:
a. the number of cells
b. the time to divide cells
c. the number of chromosomes in daughter cells
d. the number of organisms
4. Which of the following statements is correct about fertilization?
a. It fuses two gametes.
b. It splits a cell into two new cells.
c. It splits a cells into four new cells.
d. It creates a clone of an organism.
5. Which of the following is required for sexual reproduction?
a. meiosis
b. fertilization
c. cloning
d. both a and b
6. What
a.
b.
c.
d.

mixes pieces of homologous chromosomes during meiosis?


crossing over
random assortment
anaphase
none of the above

7. How many individual alleles of a gene that you have could you pass on to
one of your children?
a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. None

8. If a diploid cell with 24 chromosomes completes meiosis, how many


chromosomes would be in one of the cells that are produced?
a. 6
b. 12
c. 24
d. 48
9. How many copies of each type of gene does a diploid organism have in its
cells?
a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Four
10.A farmer observes that the calves produced from his brown and white cows
have brown-and-white spotting. This is because:
a. The brown color is dominant over white.
b. The white color is dominant over brown.
c. The colors are codominant.
d. The colors are incompletely dominant.
For questions 11 - 13 , the letter B represents a dominant allele that produces thick
hair, and the letter b represents a recessive allele that produces thin hair.
11.Which of the following would be the genotype of a person who is
heterozygous for the thick/thin hair gene?
a. BB
b. Bb
c. bb
12.Which of the following would be possible genotypes of children produced by
two people who have thin hair?
a. BB
b. Bb
c. bb

13.A mother who has thick hair has a child who has thin hair. What is the
genotype of the mother?
a. BB
b. Bb
c. bb

14.A man and woman who are both heterozygous for the hair gene want to have
children. If they have four children, how many could be born with thick hair?
a. Only one
b. Only two
c. Only three
d. All four could
15.Positive blood type is dominant (B) and negative blood type is recessive (b). If
two people who are heterozygous for the positive/negative blood trait have
children, what percentage of their children would we predict would be
homozygous dominant for the trait?
a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. 100%

16.How many dominant alleles for a gene would a diploid organism need to
have in its genotype to show that dominant trait in its phenotype?
a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Four
17.If a father passes on his X chromosome to his child, what is the sex of that
child?
a. male
b. female
c. male or female
18.Genes, which are the units of inheritance composed of DNA, are found in:
a. sugars
b. proteins
c. microtubules
d. chromosomes
19.Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a debilitating muscle degenerative
condition that is caused by a recessive allele on the human X chromosome.
Which of the following best describes a woman who has only one copy of
the DMD allele in her genotype?
a. She has DMD
b. She does not have DMD
c. She is a carrier for DMD

20.The ability to taste PTC is caused by a dominant allele (T); a recessive allele
(t) does not give the testing ability. If someone who cannot taste PTC has
children with someone who is homozygous for the dominant PTC allele, what
is the chance that their children will be able to taste PTC?
a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. 100%

Use the pedigree below to answer questions 21 to 23. Darkened symbols indicate
that a person has sickle cell anemia. This is an autosomal recessive trait.

1
A

2
B

3
C

21.Assume that the children in the fourth generation inherited a recessive allele
from their great-grandmother. Knowing that, lightly half-shade in the symbols
of all of the people who must be carriers for sickle cell. (If you shade in the
symbols with letters, dont make them unreadable!)
22.Which of the following people have a homozygous genotype?
a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
23.What
a.
b.
c.

is the genotype of person A?


Heterozygous
Homozygous dominant
Homozygous recessive

24.What is the probability that the children of individuals B and C are


heterozygous for this trait?
a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. 100%

25.If an organism reproduces through asexual reproduction, the genetic


information of the offspring is usually ____________ the parent.
a. identical to
b. unrelated to
c. half the amount of
26.If you notice that a trait 'skips generations' in your family, what kind of trait
would it be?
a. dominant
b. recessive
27.What
a.
b.
c.

is the genotype of someone who is a carrier for a trait?


homozygous dominant
heterozygous
homozygous recessive

Use the pedigree below to help you answer questions 28 - 30. Darkened symbols
indicate individuals who have hemophilia, caused by the allele Xh. This is a sexlinked recessive trait. The dominant version of that gene (XH) does not cause

hemophilia.

28.Half-shade in the symbols of all of the people who must be carriers for this
trait.

29.Use the Punnett square below to calculate the possible genotypes of the
children of individuals 3 and 4. What is the probability that these parents will
have children with hemophilia?
a. 0%
b. 25%
Xh
Y
c. 50%
d. 100%
XH

XH

30.If a man has hemophilia, he has a recessive allele on his X chromosome that
causes that trait. From which of his parents did he inherit that X
chromosome?
a. Mother
b. Father
31.A child with straight hair and blue eyes was recently born to curly-haired
parents with brown and green eyes. They are a little confused by their child's
appearance, and would like to understand how this could have happened.
How can you explain why this child looks so different from her parents?

32.Debilitating genetic diseases tend to be caused by recessive alleles, not


dominant ones. Why would these disease-causing recessive alleles tend to be
passed down in families, and not disappear entirely from family lineages?

33.Why do men tend to have conditions caused by recessive alleles located on X


chromosomes, such as colorblindness and hemophilia, more often than
women?

34.The diagram below shows the results of one of Mendels experiments with
pea plants. First, he crossed true-breeding round-seeded plants with
wrinkled-seeded plants, which resulted in 100% round-seeded offspring.
Then, he allowed those round-seeded plants to self-fertilize (reproduce with
themselves) and in the next generation he saw 75% round-seeded plants and
25% wrinkle-seeded plants. How do scientists explain why the wrinkled trait
disappeared in the first generation but reappeared in the second generation?
You may use Punnett Squares to support your answer, but they must be
explained.

(75% round-seeded plants)


(25% wrinkle-seeded plants)

35.What is one trait about yourself that you would like to pass on to your
children (if you choose to have them someday)?