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KOLEKSI SOALAN KBAT BIOLOGI 2015

Soalan 15/16

Disediakan oleh Cikgu Azrie


Answer scheme translated by SPM Soalan

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Soalan 15:
KUALA LUMPUR: MenteriTenaga,TeknologiHajaudan Air (KeTTHA) sedang bekerja
bersama dengan kerajaan negeri untuk menghadapi fenomena El Nino.
Menterinya, Datuk Seri Dr Maximus Ongkili, berkata jawatankuasa Krisis Air telah
diamanahkan untuk memantau situasi ini dan mengambil langkah untuk mengurangkan
kesan El Nino kepada Negara.
kami telah menasihatkan semua kerajaan negeri untuk mengambil langkah sepatutnya
untuk menangani fenomena El Nino. Kami bekerja bersama Jabatan Meteorologi dan
Kementerian Alam Sekitar dan Sumber Asli untuk memantau situasi, juga berhubung
dengan badan pemantau perubahan cuaca dalam Negara, katanya di sini kepada
Bernama.
KUALA LUMPUR: The Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water (KeTTHA) is
working closely with all state governments to prepare for the El Nino phenomenon.
Its minister, Datuk Seri Dr Maximus Ongkili, said the Water Crisis Committee had been
entrusted to monitor the situation and come up with appropriate measures to minimise the
impact of El Nino on the country.
"We have been advising all state governments to take appropriate measures to face the El
Nino phenomenon. We are working closely with the Department of Meteorology and the
Natural Resources and Environment Ministry to monitor the situation, as well as linking up
with relevant bodies monitoring climate change in the region," he told Bernama here.

El Nio is a band of anomalously warm ocean water temperatures that periodically


develops off the Pacific coast of South America. Extreme climate change pattern
oscillations fluctuate weather across the Pacific Ocean which results in fluctuating
droughts, floods, and crop yields in varying regions of the world.
There is a phase of El Nio, which refers to variations in the temperature of the
surface of the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean and in air surface pressure in the
tropical western Pacific shows by Diagram (a) and Diagram (b).
El Nino adalah satu kawasan di mana kepanasan suhu air laut yang meningkat
secara berkala di luar pantai Pasifik Amerika Selatan. Aliran perubahan corak iklim
yang melampau turun naik cuaca di seluruh Lautan Pasifik yang menyebabkan
turun naik kemarau, banjir, dan hasil tanaman yang berbeza-beza rantau di dunia.
Terdapat fasa El Nino, yang merujuk kepada variasi dalam suhu permukaan
tropika timur Lautan Pasifik dan tekanan permukaan udara dalam Pasifik Barat
tropika ditunjukkan oleh Rajah (a) dan Rajah (b).

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Rajah (a)
Diagram (a)

Rajah(b)
Diagram (b)
(a) Sebagai panel Ahli Jawatankuasa Persatuan Sains,anda perlu menyampaikan taklimat
Kepada ahli yang lain tentang akibat fenomena El Nino. Jelaskan kesan-kesan El Nino
Kepada ekosistem.
As a panel of Science committee member, you need to brief the other member about the
consequences of El Nino phenomenon. Explain the effects of El Nino to the ecosystem.
Menilai [10 markah]
(b).Cadangkan cara-cara yang perlu diambil untuk mengurangkan kesan tersebut kepada
ekosistem
Suggest ways that should be taken to minimize the effects to the ecosystem.
Menilai [6 markah]

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SKEMA JAWAPAN:
2 (a)

(b)

Primary effects: these are directly caused.


Alteration of weather patterns which include:
-Temperature changes/ perubahan suhu
-Precipitation changes(rain/snow/sleet/hail)/
Perubahan hujan/salji
-Storm track changes and intensity
Perubahan taufan dan kepada tannya berubah
Alteration of currents and ocean temperature:
Perubahan arus dan suhu laut:
-Fires/ kebakaran
-Drought/ kemarau
-Flooding/ banjir
-Economic changes, price of heating, food, etc./
Perubahan ekonomi,tahap kepanasan,makanan,dll
-Political and social unrest/ masalah politik dan sosial
-Crash of fisheries/ tempat perikanan musnah
-Famine(severe shortage of food)/
Kekurangan bekalan makanan (Femine)
-Plagues (hanta virus)/ disease that has a high mortality rate
plagues/penyakit menyebabkan kadar kematian yang tinggi
-Insect population explosion leading to disease /
Populasi serangga mendadak menyebabkan penyakit.
-Crop failure/ hasil tanaman tidak berhasil
-law enforcement to those who conduct open burning/factory
owner/fine/strict //
Menguatkuasakan undang-undang kepada mereka yang
melakukan pembakaran terbuka/ pemilik kilang// Hukuman/
denda yang lebih berat
-awareness campaign about haze issue/water
crisis/drought/flood/El Nino/la nina//
Kempen kesedaran mengenai isu jerebu/ krisis air/ kemarau/
banjir/ el Nino/ la Nina
-cloud seeding//pembenihan awan
- to cut down water consumption //
- to build raw water reserves //membina tempat simpanan air
- industrial plant must install a smoke filtration system
//mewajibkan setiap kilang perindustrian supaya memasang
system penapisan asap
-parents/teachers educate children to appreciate the balance
of nature / do not waste the water//
Ibu bapa/guru mendidik anak-anak menghargai
keseimbangan alam sekitar/ tidak membazir air
- Cooperation between Malaysia and Indonesia/international
about El Nino issues//
Kerjasama antara Negara Malaysia dan Indonesia/
antarabangsa mengenai isu El Nino

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Max=10

Max =6

i Think Map:
Causes and effects of El Nino

warming of the
ocean surface
off the western
coast of South
America

El Nino

upwelling of
cold, nutrientrich water does
not occur

Extreme
climate
change/unusu
al weather
patterns
Temperature
rises
Drought

Flood
/storm
Reduce crop
yield
Die of
plankton/fish

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