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416

Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook

40

3.0

FSX-414
IN-738
GTD-222

2.0

Kg/cm 10

Stress
4.0

KSI

60

U-500

N-155
1.0

10
Temp,
100,000 Hrs
Life

GTD-111

Blades
Nozzles
500

600
1000

800

700
C
1400

1200

1600

F
40

42

46
48
50
44
Larson - Miller Parameter
3
PLM = T (20 + log t) 10

Figure 11-4. Larson-Miller parameter for various types of blades.

Ductility is erratic in its behavior and is not always repeatableeven under


laboratory conditions. Ductility of a metal is affected by the grain size,
the specimen shape, and the techniques used for manufacturing. A fracture
that results from elongation can be of two types: brittle or ductile, depending
on the alloy. A brittle fracture is intergranular with little or no elongation. A
ductile fracture is trangranular and typical of normal ductile tensile fracture.
Turbine blade alloys tend to indicate low ductility at operating temperatures.
As a result, surface notches are initiated by erosion or corrosion, and then
cracks are propagated rapidly.
Cyclic Fatigue

All materials would fail at a certain load if cycled over a large amount of
cycles. A very common type of failure, which blades in turbines undergo is
known as ``high cycle fatigue.'' This type of failure is caused when the blade is
subjected repeatedly to an unsteady load. Most materials under these alternating loads would fail in about 107 cycles, assuming that the resonance
frequency for a given blade is 103 Hz. This would tend to mean that the
material would fail within 104 seconds, about 2.8 hours, if the blade was
subjected to an alternating force, which would excite the blade resonance
frequency. This type of failure would be depicted by a chevron
type of markings on the failed surface, near the trailing edge of the blade.