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1
1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6
1.7 . . . . . . . . .
1.8 . . . . . .
1.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10 . . . . . . . .
1.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.12 . . . . .
2
2.1 . . .
2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3
2.4 - .
2.5

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2
2
4
4
6
7
9
11
14
15
16
17
21

.
.
.
.
.

23
24
24
27
29
30

. , : , ;
. , !
, , ,
, .
: .
. . , , ,
.

,
. .
, .

1.1

:
1
1 1 1
1, , , , . . . , , . . .
2 3 4
n
(. 1).
0

1
4

1
3

1
2

. 1. 1/n (n N)
, ( ). n = 10
1/10 ; n = 100 1/100 ;
n = 1000 1/1000 . .
, 1/n , ,
. :
1
= 0.
n
, 0.
.

lim

an = 3 +

1
n

(n N)

3.

lim an = lim

1
3+
n


= 3.

, a , a
, . ,
an a :
, an , , a
.
, 1, 1, 1, 1, . . . :
. , , 1 ? ( ,
, 1), 1 2.
, ,
1.
, . , y = f (x) , x y. x
, y .
2

.
. y = f (x)
, x .
, . 2 y = x2 .
x = 2 A(2, 4).
Y

. 2. y = x2
, x 2 ( ).
A, . ,
4, :
lim x2 = 4.

(1)

x2

? . , x 2, x2
22 = 4. , - ?
. . 3.
Y
1

. 3. y =

sin x
x


sin x
.
x
: x = 0 ( f (0)
), (0, 1). ,
f (0) , x 0 1.
, :
sin x
lim
= 1.
(2)
x0 x
f (x) =

.
(2), . :
sin 0,1
,
0,1

sin 0,01
,
0,01

sin 0,001
,
0,001

...

, .

1.2

(1) (2) . (1) , 2,


f (x) = x2 : lim x2 = 22 = 4. (2) x2

0 f (x) = sin x/x (, ,


).
a x f (x)

lim f (x) = f (a),
(3)
xa

f (x) a.
a.
, f (x) = x2 x = 2 ( ).
, .
f (x) = sin x/x x = 0. , (0, 1)
.
. :
x2 4
.
y=
x2
, ,
. .

1.3

60 /. ? :
, 60 .
, , . ,
, , -
60 /.
. , 60 /?
. , s, ,
t :
s(t) = t2 ,
, . , t = 0 ,
t = 1 s(1) = 1, t = 2
s(2) = 4, t = 3 s(3) = 9, .
, . : 1;
s(2) s(1) = 3; s(3) s(2) = 5, .
4

. , ,
. ? ,
t = 3?
: v = s/t
( ). ,
.
. t = 3
t, s, , s t.
t, .
, . t = 1.
s = s(4) s(3) = 42 32 = 7,
:
7
s
= =7
t
1

(4)

(, , /).
t. t = 0,1:
s = s(3,1) s(3) = 3,12 32 = 0,61,
s
0,61
=
= 6,1.
t
0,1

(5)

t = 0,01:
s = s(3,01) s(3) = 3,012 32 = 0,0601,
0,0601
s
=
= 6,01.
t
0,01
t = 0,001:

(6)

s = s(3,001) s(3) = 3,0012 32 = 0,006001,


s
0,006001
=
= 6,001.
(7)
t
0,001
(4)(7), , s/t 6.
, t = 3 6 /.
, t s , s/t v,
t:
s
.
(8)
v = lim
t0 t
:
s(t + t) s(t)
v(t) = lim
.
(9)
t0
t
s(t) = t2 ,
. :
s = s(t + t) s(t) = (t + t)2 t2 = t2 + 2tt + t2 t2 = t(2t + t),
:
t(2t + t)
s
v(t) = lim
= lim
= lim (2t + t) = 2t.
(10)
t0 t
t0
t0
t
, t = 3 (10) : v(3) = 2 3 = 6, .

.
5

1.4

. , .

.
y = f (x). , x .
X x, Y
f (x) (. 4).
Y
y = f (x)

f (x + x)
f
f (x)
x
x

x + x

. 4.
x , x. x + x.
f (x + x).

f = f (x + x) f (x)
(11)
, x.
? x
t, f
s, t. .
.
. f 0 (x) f (x) x
, :
f (x + x) f (x)
f
= lim
.
x0
x0 x
x

f 0 (x) = lim

(12)

(8) (9). , ?
, .
. .
, (12).

1.5

, : f (x) = c.
:
f = f (x + x) f (x) = c c = 0.
, :
0
f
= lim
= lim 0 = 0.
x0 x
x0
x0 x

f 0 (x) = lim

, :
c0 = 0.
, f (x) = xa .
f (x) = x. :
f = f (x + x) f (x) = x + x x = x.
:
f
x
= lim
= lim 1 = 1.
x0 x
x0 x
x0

f 0 (x) = lim
,

x0 = 1.
f (x) = x2 .
s(t) = t2 , .
( ) , (10).
:
f = f (x + x) f (x) = (x + x)2 x2 = x2 + 2xx + x2 x2 = x(2x + x).
:
x(2x + x)
f
= lim
= lim (2x + x) = 2x.
x0
x0
x0 x
x

f 0 (x) = lim
,

x2

0

= 2x.

f (x) = x3 . :
f = f (x + x) f (x) = (x + x)3 x3 =
= x3 + 3x2 x + 3xx2 + x3 x3 = x(3x2 + 3xx + x2 ).
:
f
x(3x2 + 3xx + x2 )
= lim
= = lim (3x2 + 3xx + x2 ) = 3x2 .
x0 x
x0
x0
x

f 0 (x) = lim
,

x3

0

= 3x2 .

, :
x4

0

= 4x3 ,


5 0

x = 5x4 ,
...
(xn )0 = nxn1 .
, n,
a:
(xa )0 = axa1 , a R.
(13)

,
f (x) = x:
0  1 0 1 1 1 1 1
1
x = x2 = x2 = x 2 = .
2
2
2 x
, . :
.
. , :

 0
1
1
= 2.
x
x

: ) ( ); ) (13).
. f (x) = sin x.
:
f = sin(x + x) sin x.
, :
sin sin = 2 sin

cos
.
2
2

:


x
x
f = 2 sin
cos x +
,
2
2

x
x
2
sin
cos
x
+
2
2
f 0 (x) = lim
.
x0
x
:


sin x
x
0
2
f (x) = lim x cos x +
.
x0
2
2

(14)

(14) . , .
. t = x/2. , t 0 x 0. :
lim

x0

sin x
2
x
2

sin t
=1
t0 t

= lim

( (2) ). ,
.
8

, , x 0 x.
x + x
2
, (
). , (3) ,
x = 0:


x
lim cos x +
= cos x.
(15)
x0
2
(14) 1
f 0 (x) = 1 cos x = cos x.
,
(sin x)0 = cos x.
. ,
(cos x)0 = sin x.
:
cos cos = 2 sin

+
sin
.
2
2

(, , ) . , . ,
.
( ) , .
,

: f (x) = x7 sin 3 4x2 5x? (12) . ,


.

.

1.6

, f (x) a, f (x) a
: lim f (x) = f (a). ,
xa
.
-: f (x) a,
lim f (a + x) = f (a).

x0

(16)

, ? x 0, a + x a,
a + x a.
(15).
(16) .
f (a + x) f (a), f (a + x) f (a) .
f (a + x) f (a)? f f (x) a. :
1

, a, b, ab. ,
.

f (x) ,
x 0:
lim f = 0.
(17)
x0

. , ( (12) x ).
? , . Y
: f (x) = |x|
y = |x|
x = 0. . 5.
:
f = |x + x| |x|.
x = 0 :

f = |x|.

. 5. y = |x|

? : x
( ), ( ).
1. x 0, x > 0. f = x,
f
= 1.
x
2. x 0, x < 0. f = x,
f
= 1.
x
, f /x .
, x , x (, x
1; 0,1; 0,01; 0,001; . . . ). f /x
1 1, , , .
, f (x) = |x| x = 0.
, .
, . (0, 0) y = |x|.
? , , . ,
.
, f (x) x. f /x
x 0. x ;
, . (
? , ,
, , -
.) , f 0 x 0; (17)
x.

10

1.7

,
.
,
.
, ,
(12).
u v , . :
u(x + x) = u(x) + u,

v(x + x) = v(x) + v,

u v u v x.
(11) .
.
0. . c , (cu)0 = cu0 .
2
. , ,
.
, :
(5x2 )0 = 5(x2 )0 = 10x,
(3 sin x)0 = 3(sin x)0 = 3 cos x.
1. . (u + v)0 = u0 + v 0 ( ).
, f (x) = u(x) + v(x). :
f = f (x + x) f (x) =
= u(x + x) + v(x + x) u(x) v(x) =
= u(x) + u + v(x) + v u(x) v(x) = u + v.
:
u + v
f
= lim
= lim
f (x) = lim
x0
x0
x0 x
x
0

u v
+
x x


.

u/x v/x x 0 u0 (x) v 0 (x).


2 u0 (x) + v 0 (x):
f 0 (x) = u0 (x) + v 0 (x).
.
, 0 1, :
(sin x + cos x)0 = (sin x)0 + (cos x)0 = cos x sin x,
(x3 + 4 cos x 10)0 = (x3 )0 + (4 cos x)0 + (10)0 = 3x2 4 sin x
2

, a, b,
a + b. , .

11

( 10 !).
2. . (uv)0 = u0 v + uv 0 .
, . f (x) = u(x)v(x). :
f = f (x + x) f (x) = u(x + x)v(x + x) u(x)v(x) =
= (u(x) + u)(v(x) + v) u(x)v(x) =
= u(x)v(x) + v(x)u + u(x)v + uv u(x)v(x) =
= v(x)u + u(x)v + uv.
:
v(x)u + u(x)v + uv
f (x) = lim
= lim
x0
x0
x
0


u
v u
v(x) + u(x)
+
v .
x
x x

u0 (x)v(x). u(x)v 0 (x).


v? u
u0 (x), v
u
x
x
, v(x) x
. . :
f 0 (x) = u0 (x)v(x) + u(x)v 0 (x),
.
:
(x2 sin x)0 = (x2 )0 sin x + x2 (sin x)0 = 2x sin x + x2 cos x.
0:
(cu)0 = c0 u + cu0 = cu0 ,
c0 = 0.
3. .
 u 0
v

u0 v uv 0
.
v2

.
f (x) =

u(x)
.
v(x)

:
u(x + x) u(x)
u(x) + u u(x)
v(x)u u(x)v

=
,
v(x + x) v(x)
v(x) + v
v(x)
v(x)(v(x) + v)
v
v(x) u
u(x) x
f
x
=
,
x
v(x)(v(x) + v)
v
v(x) u
u(x) x
u0 (x)v(x) u(x)v 0 (x)
x
f 0 (x) = lim
=
.
x0 v(x)(v(x) + v)
v 2 (x)
f =

v v(x).
12

,
.
0

(sin x)0 cos x sin x(cos x)0
cos2 x + sin2 x
sin x
0
=
=
,
(tg x) =
cos x
cos2 x
cos2 x

(tg x)0 =

1
.
cos2 x

,
(ctg x)0 =

1
.
sin2 x

.
, , , ,
.

, , u(x) = sin x v(x) = x. x (


x v), (
v(x) u). :

u(v(x)) = sin x.
, u v. : x
v, v(x) u.
, , u , v . x
, . :

v(u(x)) = sin x.
.
()
() . :

1
(sin x)0 = cos x ( x)0 = cos x ,
2 x

1
1
( sin x)0 =
(sin x)0 =
cos x.
2 sin x
2 sin x
:
[(4x2 + 3x + 2)5 ]0 = 5(4x2 + 3x + 2)4 (4x2 + 3x + 2)0 = 5(4x2 + 3x + 2)4 (8x + 3),
[A sin(x + )]0 = A cos(x + ) (x + )0 = A cos(x + ).
, ? .
4. . [u(v(x))]0 = u0 (v(x))v 0 (x).
f (x) = u(v(x)). :
f = u(v(x + x)) u(v(x)) = u(v(x) + v) u(v(x)),

u(v(x) + v) u(v(x))
u(v(x) + v) u(v(x)) v
f
=
=
.
x
x
v
x
13

x 0 v 0,
u(v(x) + v) u(v(x))
u0 (v(x)).
v
,
u(v(x) + v) u(v(x)) v
= u0 (v(x))v 0 (x),
x0
v
x

f 0 (x) = lim
.

1.8

y = f (x) (. 6)
: A (x0 , f (x0 )) B (x0 + x, f (x0 + x)).
, f (x) A.
Y
y = f (x)

y = kx + b

f (x0 + x)
f
A

f (x0 )

C
x

x0

x0 + x

. 6. : f 0 (x0 ) = tg = k
AB . AB X . , [0, 180 ); .
AC BC X Y . ,
BAC = , AC = x BC = f ,
f
BC
=
= tg .
x
AC

(18)

x . f /x f 0 (x0 ).
? B A,
A.
, , , tg
tg ( ).
, :
f
f 0 (x0 ) = lim
= lim tg = tg .
(19)
x0 x
x0
14

, ,
k y = kx + b. :
f 0 (x0 ) = tg = k.

(20)

, . ,
f (x) ? . 7.
Y

f (x0 )

f < 0
B

f (x0 + x)

x
x0

x0 + x

X
y = f (x)

. 7. f 0 (x0 ) = tg = k
, , : f = BC. , BAC = 180 , tg BAC = tg . :
f
BC
=
= tg BAC = tg .
x
AC
, (18). (19) (20). ,
.
. x0
, x0 , ,
, k .

1.9

, y = f (x) (x0 , f (x0 )). - , f (x) x0 .


y = kx + b, k b. k
: k = f 0 (x0 ).
:
y = f 0 (x0 )x + b,
(21)
b.
15

, (x0 , f (x0 )) ,
. (21):
f (x0 ) = f 0 (x0 )x0 + b,

b = f (x0 ) f 0 (x0 )x0 .


b (21):
y = f 0 (x0 )x + f (x0 ) f 0 (x0 )x0 ,

y = f 0 (x0 )(x x0 ) + f (x0 ).

(22)

(22) .
y = x2
x0 = 3. : f (x0 ) = 9, f 0 (x) = 2x, f 0 (x0 ) = 6. (22):
y = 6(x 3) + 9 = 6x 9.
. y = 1/x . , , ,
2.

1.10

, ,
. , , .
, , . : f (x) = |x|
x = 0.
,
. ,
Y
, . 8,
B
x1 x2 .

, x1 x2 . ,
A B y = f (x)
A
( ). A
B . ,
x1
x2
X
,
, , . 8.
.
(
)
. ,
. , ,
.
16

,
, , . ,
, , , .
. 9.
Y
y = f (x)

x0

. 9. ,
C , X.
= 90 , tg . , f 0 (x0 ).
(22), . 9 .
: x = x0 .

. y = 3 x (0, 0).

1.11

, ,
. .
. 10 y = f (x)
x1 x2 .

2
1
x1

x2

X
y = f (x)

. 10. : f 0 (x1 ) > 0, f 0 (x2 ) < 0


x1 . , x1
1 X. ; , x1 :
f 0 (x1 ) = tg 1 > 0.
x2 . x2
2 X. ,
x2 :
f 0 (x2 ) = tg 2 < 0.
17

.
. , .
. ,
.
, ,
. ,
:-)
. ,
,
f (x) = x3 3x.
, , .
:
f 0 (x) = 3x2 3 = 3(x + 1)(x 1).

(. 11).

. 11. f (x) = x3 3x
, (, 1] [1, +) [1, 1]. . : f (1) = 2,
f (1) = 2, (. 12):
Y
y = x3 3x

1
1

X
2

. 12. f (x) = x3 3x
1 1 ? . , , .
18

, .
.
1. .
. 13 x = a f (x):
a , .
Y

y = f (x)
a

. 13.
M , X.
f 0 (a) = 0.
a : . , (+) ()
.
2. .
. 14 x = b f (x):
b , .
Y

y = f (x)

. 14.
N . f 0 (b) = 0.
b :
. () (+) .
. , ;
.
19

3. .
. 15. S ,
f 0 (c) = 0.
Y

y = f (x)

. 15.
x = c : ,
. (+), .
, , .
, x = c .

. .
, .
. , x = 0 :
) f (x) = 2x;
) f (x) = x2 + 5;
) f (x) = 1/x;
) f (x) = |x|;
) f (x) =
x3 ;
) f (x) = x;
) f (x) = 3 x.
. sin x cos x. , tg x
.
:
f (x) = x4 4x3 .
, , ,
.
: D(f ) = R.
:
f 0 (x) = 4x3 12x2 = 4x2 (x 3).
x : x = 0 x = 3. ,
.
20

.
(. 16).

. 16. f (x) = x4 4x3


x = 0 :
(, 0], [0, 3]. x = 0
.
x = 3 () (+). [3, +) , x = 3 .
: f (3) = 27.
X:
x4 4x3 = 0 x3 (x 4) = 0.
, X x = 0 ( ) x = 4.
(. 17):
Y
y = x4 4x3

3
0

27

. 17. f (x) = x4 4x3

1.12

(2) :
lim(1 + t)1/t = e = 2,718281828459045 . . .
t0

(23)

. :
1,110 ,

1,01100 ,

1,0011000 ,

...

, (23),
e .
21

e , .
: 2,7,
,
:-)
. . (23) , t (1 + t)1/t e;
, 1 + t et ; , et 1 t; , (et 1)/t 1. ,
et 1
= 1.
t0
t

lim

(24)

e ,
, . e
? , ex ( )
:
(ex )0 = ex .
(25)
. :
ex+x ex
ex (ex 1)
ex 1
= lim
= ex lim
= ex ,
x0
x0
x0
x
x
x

(ex )0 = lim

, (24).
e.
ln:
ln x = loge x.
ax . , a = eln a :
(ax )0 = (ex ln a )0 = ex ln a (x ln a)0 = ax ln a.
:
(ax )0 = ax ln a.
?
. y = ln x. x:
x = ey ,
x :
1 = ey y 0 .

y0 =

1
1
= .
y
e
x

,
(ln x)0 =

1
.
x

(13). :
(xa )0 = (ea ln x )0 = ea ln x (a ln x)0 = xa

22

a
= axa1 .
x

,
, .
-, . ,
? , .
, x(t) v(t) :
x(t) = 1 + 12t 3t2 ,
v(t) = 12 6t.

(26)
(27)

, t, x
.
-, .
, :
x(t) x(t).

(28)

, ,
:
dx
(29)
x(t)
dt
( ).
(29).
:
x
x(t + t) x(t)
dx
= lim
= lim
,
(30)
t0 t
t0
dt
t
, dt,
dx x(t). ,
; .
, , (29)
. dx dt. dt
, dx/dt (30)
.
, , ,
dx,
dt,
. .
.
(26) ,
(28) (29):
x(t) = 1 + 12t 3t2 x(t)

d
(1 + 12t 3t2 ) = 12 6t.
dt

( dtd
.)
,
(27). , .

23

2.1

, (27) , . , t < 2, t = 2
t > 2.
? : ,
vx X. (27) :
vx = 12 6t.

(31)

, ,
. , vx
X:
vx > 0 X ;
vx < 0 X.
(, vx = 3 /, , 3 / ,
X.)
(31) : t < 2
X ; t = 0
; t > 2 , , X.
, v. .
1. X,
dx , dt.
x =

dx
= v.
dt

2. X, dx < 0. dt
dx, dx/dt = v
x =

dx
= v.
dt

, vx = v, vx = v.
:
x = vx ,
(32)
:
.
, () . :
x > 0 vx > 0 X x ;
x < 0 vx < 0 X x .

2.2

.
.
, .
24

, , v0 = 2 /
v = 14 / t = 3 . :
a=

v v0
,
t

(33)

:
a=

14 2

=4 2.
3

, 4 /.
, , , v0 = 14 / v = 2 /
t = 3 c? (33) :
a=

2 14
= 4 2 .
3

, , 4 /.
, ? , ,
, . : (33) t
dt, v v0 dv dt, :
dv
= v.

(34)
a=
dt
, , .
(34), , , . , ,
(34) a = v = 0. ,
, . (34) .
C , . , . ,
.
X. :
X X .
1. ~a X (. 18). X : ax > 0.
~a
X

. 18. ax > 0
X. :
(vx > 0), :
. vx .
(vx < 0), : . , vx , ,
.
25

, ax > 0, vx ,
.
2. ~a X (. 19).
X : ax < 0.
~a
X

. 19. ax < 0
X. :
(vx > 0), :
. vx .
(vx < 0), : . vx , , .
, ax < 0, vx , - , .
ax () vx (34):
ax =

dvx
= v x .
dt

(35)

ax vx . , vx
x. ax x:
ax = x.
(36)
. (26):
x = 1 + 12t 3t2
( , ).
, :
vx = x = 12 6t,
ax = v x = 6.
, 6 /2 . ,
X.
, (, , ~a = const).
.
, , .
. :
x = 2 + 3t 4t2 + 5t3 .
26

:
vx = x = 3 8t + 15t2 ,
ax = v x = 8 + 30t.
: .
. X :
x = 5 sin 2t.
, , 5 5.
,
.
:
vx = x = 5 cos 2t 2 = 10 cos 2t,
ax = v x = 20 sin 2t.
,
.

2.3

(32) (35) ,
. ,
, .
, ~u(t), . ,
.
() . ~u t :
~u = ~u(t + t) ~u(t).
, . ~u . 20.

~u(t)

~u

~u(t + t)

. 20.
t , ~u (
, , ). t 0 ~u/t
, ~u:
d~u
~u
~u(t + t) ~u(t)
= lim
= lim
.
t0 t
t0
dt
t

(37)

,
~u ; , (37).
, , .
27

, d~u/dt . , ~u, dt.


,
; .
d~u/dt , dt,
d~u ~u. dt
(37) ,
.
, OXY .
:
,
.
6.1 , ~u ~i, ~j OXY :
~u = ux~i + uy~j.
ux uy ~u , ~u
(. 21).
Y

~u

uy

~j
O

ux

~i

. 21. ~u = ux~i + uy~j


~u , , ux uy
:
~u(t) = ux (t)~i + uy (t) ~j.
t + t :
~u(t + t) = ux (t + t)~i + uy (t + t) ~j.
~u :
~u = ~u(t + t) ~u(t) = (ux (t + t) ux (t))~i + (uy (t + t) uy (t)) ~j = ux ~i + uy ~j.
, :
~u
ux ~ uy ~
=
i+
j.
t
t
t
28

t 0, ~u :
d~u
= u x~i + u y~j.
(38)
dt
, ~u (ux , uy ), d~u/dt
~u, (u x , u y ).

2.4

, M OXY (. 22). M , ,
.
Y

~v
~r
~j
O

~i

d~r
= ~v
dt

- M ~r = OM , , M . -
.
, - , .
, -.
M x y. , - ~r
(x, y), :
~r = x~i + y~j.
. 22.

(38):
d~r
= x~i + y~j.
dt
, x = vx y = vy . :
d~r
= vx~i + vy~j.
dt
~v M . :
d~r
= ~v .
(39)
dt
: - .
,
. .
.
29

2.5

, ~v . :
~v = vx~i + vy~j,
(38):
d~v
= v x~i + v y~j.
dt
, v x = ax v y = ay . :
d~v
= ax~i + ay~j.
dt
~a M :
d~v
= ~a.
dt

(40)

, .
, (39) (40) .
; ,
, - .
, , . , ,
. ( , z-).

30