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APPENDIX II THE LANGUAGE OF THE FREEDMEN IN THE CENA The language of the freedmen in the Cena (see Introduction IIC) naturally contains features which would occur in the ordinary speech of Romans of any social level, e.g. constructio ad sensum, ellipse, proverbs, present tense in place of future. Parallels for these features may be looked for in Cicero’s letters and.in the plays of Plautus and Terence. But the freedmen’s speech also contains features which point more specifically to their lower- class background. In this appendix some details of abnormali- ties of different types in the Cena will be given; but the reader is advised to consult V. Vaananen, Le Latin vulgaive des inscrip- tions pompéiennes in order to appreciate the much wider range of abnormalities from which Petronius has given a selection. For a full study of the language of the Satyricon see D. C Swanson, A Formal Analysis of Petronius’ Vocabulary; his work is, however, not as helpful as it might have been, since he believes that no distinction is possible between the language of the freedmen and that of Encolpius, and he therefore does not usually classify separately the facts for each of these categories. A. Phonology au to 0: 44. 12 coda (but 89 v. 38 cauda); 39. 12 copones (cf. CIL iv. 3948, 6700), but 98. 1 cauponi; 40. 7 lotam (totam H); 45.13 plodo (but 70. 10 plaudebat). Note also the story recounted by Suetonius (Vesp. 22) ‘Mestrium Florum consularem, ad- monitus ab eo plaustra potius quam plostra dicenda, postero die Flaurum salutavit.’ Cf. W. S. Allen, Vox Latina, 60 f., Vaananen, Introduction, 39 f. Syncope: 44. 11 bublum (but 35.°3 bubulae), But 66. 3 caldus (for calidus) should not be cited as a Vulgarism, since it occurs APPENDIX II 22 also in narrative at 65. 7, and Augustus is said to have corrected C. Caesar for using calidus, the more affected form (cf. Quint. i. 6. 19). Inserted consonants: 44. 18 plovebat for pluebat. But several examples sometimes cited of the insertion of y are doubtful. In Habinnas’ speech H has frustrum at 66. 5, but frusta at 66. 7, as well as 35. 3 frustrum, 59. 7 frustra (both in narrative). In these cases the intrusive r looks like a scribal error; so also with 38. 5 culcitras H (Hermeros), cf. 98. 5 culcitra L (in narrative), and 38. 1 credrae H. 4 B. Morphology (a) Accidence NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES Gender In later Latin the neuter tended to disappear (see Vaananen, Introduction, 107 ff., Palmer, pp. 159 f.), a development illus- trated in the Cena. Note these types of change of gender: masculine in place of neuter: 39. 4, 39. 6, 45. 3 caelus, 75. 10 candelabrus, 42. 5,71. 1, 77. 3 fatus, 39. 4 fericulus, 47. 5 lasanus, 57. 8 lorus, 67. 6 reticulus, 57. 8 vasus, 41. 12 vinus; also 71. 1 lactem (for lac) (at 41. 11 balneus is conjectured by Gronovius for baliscus H); feminine in place of neuter: 76. 11 intestina, 66. 7 rapa, 44. 8 schema, 45. 9, 69. 1 stigma, 78. 1 stragula (narrative). The reverse changes are also found, although less frequently : neuter in place of masculine: 50. 6, 66. 7 catillum, 46. 7 librum, 45. 11 nevvium, 46. 8 thesaurum (see notes ad. locc. on the effective placing of the solecisms libva and thesaurum); neuter in place of feminine: 63. 3 margaritum, 75. 8 quisquilia (pl.), 76. 6 seplasium, 50. 6 statuncula (pl.). Swanson, p. 253, points out that all 31 instances of change of gender in the Satyricon occur in the Cena. In fact almost all occur in the speech of the freedmen. Declension Apart from declension changes included above, note also: 39. 5 cornum, 44. 16 diibus (aedilibus H), 76. 5 gustus -i, 70. 2 palumbus, 46. 1 pauperorum, 68. 8 strabonus. 222 APPENDIX II Back-formations 62. 13 bovis for bos, 45 4, 66. 3 excellente, 47. 4, 58. 2 Iovis for Iuppiler, 59. 1 sanguen for sanguis. VERBS Voice There was a gradual disappearance of the deponent in Latin (see Vaananen, Introduction, 136, Palmer, p. 163), but in the Cena, as in early Latin, there are fluctuations between active and deponent forms. Active in place of deponent: 63. 8 amplexo, 46. 1, 57. 8 arguto, 57. 2 convivo, 76. 10 exhorto, 46. 1 loquo (also 140. 8 vemunero). Deponent in place of active: 45. 7, 64. 2 delector, 48. 4 fastidior, 47. 4 pudeor, 57. 3 rideor, 74. 14 somnior. Note that fluctuations of voice in the Satyricon are almost entirely confined to the Cena. Conjugation 69. 2 defraudit (for -at), 74. 14 domatus (for domitus), 50. 7 olunt (for olent), 53. 8 vetuo. Miscellaneous 68. 6 erudibam (for erudiebam), 71. 10 facia(n)tur (for jia(n)t), 69. 6 (narrative) farsus (for fartus), 61. 8 fefellitus (for falsus), 77. 5 mavoluit (for maluit), 58. 5 parsero (for pepercero), 45. 10 vinciturus (for victurus). (b) Word-formation NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES Some use is made of endings which suggest specifically vulgar speech: -monium: 61. 3 gaudimonium, 63. 4 tristimonium, -o, -onis (see Vaandnen, Introduction, 92, Swanson pp. 78 ff.): 60. 8 Cerdo, Felicio, Lucrio, 46. 3, 71. 11 cicavo, 76. 10 Graeculio, 38. 8 Incubo, 39. 10 lanio, 58. 10 Occupo, 50. 5 stelio (scelio H), 63. 8 vavato. -ax: 42. 5 abstinax, 52. 4 nugax, 43. 8 salax. -osus: 57. 10 dignitosus, 57. 8 lacticulosus, 43. 4, 63. 1 linguo- sus, 38. 6 sucosus. APPENDIX IL 223 Diminutives are common in colloquial speech of any social level (cf. Fordyce on Catullus 3. 18). Swanson (pp. 7 ff., 84 ff.) lists many from the narrative sections of the Satyricon, but even so it is clear enough that diminutives are given rather more freely and effectively to the freedmen in the Cena: cf., for example, 58. 5 comula, 57. 6 glebula, lamellula, 58. 8 sponsiun- cula; 63. 5 audaculus, 38. 3 meliusculus. Popular compounds are likewise used more colourfully by the freedmen: e.g. 61. 6 bacciballum, 45. 11 burdubasta, 45. 5 caldicerebrius, 57. 3 lavifuga, 45. 11 loripes. VERBS Some compounds are used in place of simple verbs (cf. 40. 7 etc. comedo, 69. 3 debattuo; one or two verbs have a double prefix (cf. 43. 4 vecorrigo) as often in later Latin (cf. Vadnanen, Introduction, 100). Frequentatives, desideratives, etc., are also used like simple verbs: e.g. 64. 2 canturio, 43. 6, 44. 16, 75. 3 fruniscor, 62. 14 exopinisso. This tendency is found in narrative as well, although to a more limited extent. (c) Lexicon Swanson (pp. xxvi f.) calculates that the Greek element in the entire lexicon of Petronius amounts to nearly 10 per cent; but the more vivid and uncommon Graecisms tend to occur in the speech of the freedmen: e.g. 62. 3, 67. 3 apoculo, 42. 2 laecasin. Note especially the Greek element in the language of Hermeros: 37. 4 topanta, 37. 6 saplutus, lupatria (a hybrid with a Greek suffix), 37. 9 babae babae, 37. 10 babaecalus, 57. 11 athla, 58. 7 deuro de. C. Syntax (a) Most of the abnormal uses of cases reflect the gradual move towards the establishment of the accusative form as an all- purpose oblique case (see Vadnanen, Introduction, 118 f., Elcock, The Romance Languages, 60 ff., Palmer, pp. 160, 166) : e.g. 46. 2 ‘te persuadeam’, 58. 13 ‘maiorem maledicas’, 44. 16 ‘meos fruniscar’; 30. 3 ‘foras cenat’, 44. 14 ‘domi leones, foras vulpes’, 47. 5 ‘omnia foras parata sunt’ (cf. CIL iv. 3494 ‘foras 224 APPENDIX IL rixsatis’). The accusative is also used irregularly with the pre- position prae: cf. 39. 12 ‘prae mala sua’, 46. 1 ‘prae litteras’ (cf. Vaananen, Introduction, 119, Palmer, p. 166, CIL iv. 698 ‘cum discentes suos’). (b) Pronouns ille for reflexive: 38. 4, 38. 16. reflexive for is: 43. 1. ille for is: e.g. 46. 4 (see Vaananen, Introduction, 128 on the weakening of is). (c) Negatives For the pleonastic double negative cf. 42. 7, 58. 5, 76. 3, Vaananen, Introduction, 162 f. But although colloquial, this perhaps sounded less of a solecism to an educated Roman than one might assume (see note on 42. 7). (d) Indirect speech introduced by quod and quia The classical accusative with infinitive construction is several times replaced by an indicative clause introduced by quod or quia: 45. 10 ‘subolfacio quia’, 46. 4 ‘dixi quia’, 71. 9 ‘scis quod’. See Vaananen, Introduction, 173f., Palmer 333f. on the development of this construction in later Latin. (e) Indicative in indirect speech Once or twice the indicative is used in place of the subjunc- tive: 44. 1 ‘nemo curat quid annona mordet’, But note, as with the quod and quia clauses in (d), the restraint with which this abnormality is inserted.

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