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HUMAN RESOURCES LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. NURUL HAZIRA BINTI ZAKARIA This report is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Bachelor of Computer Science (Database Management) FACULTY OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA 2008 ABSTRACT Human Resources Leave Management System (HRLMS) for KrimNetwork Sdn.Bhd is systems that encircles leave application, leave approval, and the process to record the other leave type. Before this, they used manual method in manage leave where all information are recorded on paper and keep in manual file. This system function is leave application, leave balance, leave approval and generate report staf on leave by department. Beside that, this system also can backup and recover the data from the database. This system will be use by all staff at krimNetwork Sdn.Bhd. Only the accesses the systems are different between the categories that are staffs, assistant manager and manager. This expectation of the system is to improve their management especially leave. vi ABSTRAK Human Resources Leave Management System (HRLMS) untuk KrimNetwork Sdn.Bhd adalah sistem yang merangkumi proses permohonan cuti, persetujuan serta merekod jenis cuti-cuti yang lain. Sebelum ini, cara manual di gunakan dalam pengurusan dimana semua informasi disimpan di dalam file secara manual. Sistem ini berfungsi untuk meminta cuti, melihat baki cuti, menunggu untuk persetujuaan dan membuat laporan kakitangan yang bercuti mengikut bahagian. Selain itu, sistem ini berfungsi untuk menyimpan data dan mengambil data daripada pangkalan data. Sistem ini akan di gunakan oleh semua kakitangan krimNetwork Sdn. Bhd sahaja. Hanya capaian sahaja yang berbeza mengikut ketogori iaitu kakitangan, penolong pengurus dan pengurus. Sistem ini akan dijangka dapat membantu krimnet dalam memperbaiki sistem pengurusan mereka terutamanya bahagian cuti, CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Project Background Human Resource Leave Management System (HRLMS) for KrimNetwork Sdn.Bhd is a smart online leave management that allows staff to apply their leave conveniently. It is designed with auto-routing for approval and online leave approving capabilities, making every level leave application a total breeze for both applying as well as those approving. HRLMS is developed to upgrade the current leave application record which manually process in KrimNetwork Sdn.Bhd. The users for this system are staff, assistant manager and manager in KrimNetwork Sdn.Bhd. The manager is admin instructor for this system. HRLMS is a web-based system for handling all types of leave. For example, annual leave, hospitalisation leave, medical leave, and others. This system allows staff and assistant manager to apply leave online. It also allows manager and assistant manager to approve or reject staff leave that are requested from virtually anywhere around the world via the web, thus saving time and increasing efficiency. Staff can also get up-to date information of leave status without contacting human resource department. It is the simple and easy to use system that eliminates paper work, save time and money. The modules involve are registration for new staff module, leave application module, leave detail module, people on leave module, leave approval module, personal setting module, report module, staff record module, leave type module, backup and recover data, import/export data and transaction logging. 12 Problem Statement First, for the current manual filing system the data will be kept in files according to the year or company alphabetically. This may take time to search for the information needed in time as the staff may have to look for the file, one by one and other related files just to search for some information. For example, if the assistant manager wants to calculate leave balance of their staff, he or she has to search every file, one by one and it will take a long time. Second, when staff wants to apply for leave, he or she must take time to see the manager to submit applications. Third, the manager has a problem to approve or reject application because he does not know the leave balance when using manual system and the staff have to refer to the assistant manager to know their leave balance to fill the application form and there is a problem when the assistant manager is on leave or not in office. Fourth, Leave report for each staff is design on paper. For management purpose, the manager needs a leave report for each staff. However, the clerk only record on paper and the record will be check every month. Fifth, the manual file system has no backup and if the file with all the information are lost or damaged, the staff at KrimNetwork Sdn.Bhd will lose all its valuable information, 13 Objective ‘The following are the objectives for this project: * To apply leave online and upgrade the current leave application and record that is manually processed in KrimNetwork Sdn.Bhd. © To prepare the HR (Human Resources) Department with more efficiency and simplicity in leave processing. * To calculate leave balance from a fix amount of annual leave. ‘* To generate report based on staff leave. * To backup and recover important data about the staff. 14 Scope The project scope will define for HRLMS which include system functionality, users and operating location/availability. 1) System Functionality ‘Modules to develop are: 1) Registration for new staff module This module will process the function for manager to register new staff in KrimNetwork sdn.bhd. it is also for the new user registration to be the authorized user in HRLMS. 2) Leave application module This module will process the function for staff and assistant manager to apply leave online. 3) Leave detail module This module is to show the leave balance and leave status. 4) People on leave module This module shows the staff take the leave by view the graft by department. 5) Leave approval module This module will process the function for manager or assistant ‘manager to approve the leave application, 6) Personal setting module This module will process the function to change the new password and update the profile for more security. 7) Report for leave module Reports that are generated can be a graphical form such as a bar graft or table, Example of the reports is report the staff take the leave by department. 8) Staff record module This module will process the function for manager to edit profile or remove data staff from the database. 9) leave type module This module will process the function for manager to add new leave, edit leave entitlement and remove leave type from database. 10) Backup and Recover The data will be backup from database to WordPad and recover from WordPad to database. 11) Export / Import Data The record from database can be exported to Excel format and import data record can be imported from Excel into the database, 12) Transaction Logging This module will process function for users to know last login from the system. b) Users 1. Manager a) Responsible to approve, reject or remove the leave application. b) View a bar graft to know people on leave by department, ©) Responsible to register new staffs. 4) Responsible to update staff record ©) Update personal profile and password. f) Check the report of staff takes the leave. 8) Responsible to add, update or delete leave type. 1h) Responsible as database admin such as backup and recover data and import/export data, 2. Assistant Manager a) Apply leave online b) Check the leave balance and leave status. ©) Responsible to approve, reject or remove the leave application. 4) View a bar graft to know people on leave by department. €) Check the report of staff takes the leave. 1) Update personal profile and password. a) Apply leave online. b) Check the leave balance and leave status. ©) View a bar graft to know people on leave by department. 4) Update personal profile and password. ©) Operating location/availability 1. Available to deploy at KrimNetwork Sdn.Bhd, 2. A desktop server in manager 3. A desktop client at the assistant manager 15 Project significant Human resource leave management system is very important project. This project is expected will improve the leave management of the KrimNetwork Sdn.Bhd. Nowadays, KrimNetwork Sdn.Bhd still use manual system in managing staff leave. Although there is local area network, it is not used to improve their management. ‘This system can improve the existing system. Without this system, the staff have to apply leave manually and the manager has to approve and reject leave application manually and the reports are generated manually. There are many processed of leave application system that should be simplified using a systematic system. The features that are available in this system will benefit to system will benefit the KrimNetwork Sdn.Bhd. By using this system, the staff simplifies processes in applying leave. Lastly, certain database operations such as backup data from the database to notepad and recover data from notepad into database can be done using the ‘System Maintenance module. 1.6 Expected Output submit application receive application receive application ———— — —_ Wve notice ‘approve leave, F approve eave STAFF MANAGER HRLMS ASSISTANT MANAGER Figure 1.1: Level of approval for HRLMS at KrimNetwork Sdn Bhd Figure 1.1 shows the flow for level of leave approval for HRLMS. HRLMS have two (2) level approvals. Staff applies leave application and submit this application to assistant manager. Assistant manager receive application from staff and make approval for level one. Then, assistant manager approve leave application from staff’ and manager receive leave approval from assistant manager. Manager approves leave application of staff and staff receives notice from the HRLMS. 1.7 Conclusion Human resources leave management systems (HRLMS) for KrimNetwork ‘Sdn.Bhd being develop is to overcome the weaknesses of the current manually apply leave. Chapter 1 is all about understanding the objectives of the HRLMS, problem with the current scenario and why this project is important for this company. HRLMS is a web-based application for the staff to apply the leave through online. The next chapter is more about the research on the HRLMS and the project methodology that used to develop this project. CHAPTER IL LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROJECT METHODOLOGY 2.1 Introduction The purpose of the literature review is to give a summary of facts and findings on this project. This can be done by studying or finding the references or other related finding. This review will give a better understanding to the need for this project and also help in designing the methodology for this project. In the project methodology section will describe in detail about the selected methodology or approach that will be used in this project. By the selecting the suitable methodology, the productivity and quality of the project will be increased and improved. Besides that, the project requirements those including the software and hardware also are included in this chapter. A Gantt chart will be created to show the time line during the development of this project and the detail activities for each stage will be described in the section of project schedule and milestones. 22 Facts and Finding Fact and finding is the result after reading, determining, analyzing different types of sources such as from journal website, articles, books and other materials. Fact and finding is very important to developer to support the research of this system. Fact and finding can determine the advantages and disadvantages of the system since developer can distinguish it with other system. IT also include about the backup and recovery for this system. 2.2.1 Domain The domain of this project is application online and process backup and recovery data. It has many benefits when using the online system. The online application can get the information anytime and anywhere but must have the internet connection to access the system, Without internet connection, the system cannot access to the system, Besides that, this system will provide the automated backup and recovery process for the data security and this process can be manage by manager only. After the end of the office hour, the automated backup and recovery for all the data will be made by the manager. This process is quite important to avoid the loss of the data or others possible that may be occur. Important database administration support tasks include backup, which involves creating a copy of the database files, and recovery, which involves restoring the database to a working state after a hardware or software malfunction. Database backup and recovery is a complex database administration process [1]. Backup operations on an Oracle9i database can be classified as offline or online backups. An offline backup, which is also called a cold backup, requires shutting down the database, then copying all of the database files to an altemate location. An online backup, which is also called a hot backup, involves backing up critical database files while the instance is running, as well as creating an ongoing archive of database changes so the DBA can restore the database to its state at any point in time. The following below describe how to create cold and hot backups and outline the recovery process {1}. OMline (Cold) Backup [1] ‘An offline (cold) backup can be created by shut down the database instance, copy specific database files to an alternate disk location, and then restart the database 10 instance. The alternate disk location should preferably be at a different physical location, so the data will not be lost if the site that houses the database server is destroyed by a natural disaster such as a fire or flood. When create cold backup, make copies of the following database files: * Parameter file, which stores the database specifications, and points to the locations of the database control files. Recall that the startup process automatically creates a new parameter file if the existing parameter file is not present. Create a backup of the parameter file if have modified it with custom parameter settings. Recall that by default, Oracle9 stores the parameter file for each database instance in the server's Oracle_root\admin\SID\pfile folder. * Control files, which contain information about the database structure. Recall that the control files are mirror images of one another, so need to copy only one of the control files when create a cold backup. Recall that by default, Oracle9i stores the control files in the Oracle_rootioradata\SID folder on the database server. © Datafiles, which store the actual data values. Copy all of the datafiles when create a cold backup. Recall that by default, Oracle stores datafiles in the Oracle_root\oradata\SID folder, which is the same folder that stores the control files. Do not make copies of the redo log files for a cold backup. When the database is shut down using the normal, transactional, or immediate shutdown option, all of the user transactions are committed, so the redo log files do not contain any current rollback information. If make the copies of the redo log files and then use them in a recovery operation, the resulting database may contain inconsistent information. When create a cold backup of an Oracle9i database, copy the files to a hard drive that has the same operating system block size as the database server. If do not, then the backup files will have a different block size, and the backup files will not work when attempt to recover the database, i Qnline (Hot) Backup [1] Recall that an Oracle9i database instance writes rollback information to redo log files. By default, when all of the redo log files are filled, the instance starts overwriting the oldest entries. To create a hot backup, configure the database instance so it saves all redo log file information in archive files. An archive file stores the contents of the redo log file after a log switch occurs, which creates an archive of all database transactions that have occurred since the last hot backup. Creating a hot backup is a four step process: 1, Place the database instance in ARCHIVELOG mode so it automatically creates archive files. 2. Back up the control file, 3. Back up the datafiles. 4. Instruct the database to write the current contents of the redo log files to the archive files, and then create backup copies of the archive log files. Database Recovery [1] Recovery is the process of restoring a database from either cold or hot backup files. Recovery is necessary after a database failure caused by a software malfunction, such as a corrupted datafile or control file, or a hardware malfunction, such as a damaged hard drive. Recovery is also necessary if the DBA shuts down the database using the Abort shutdown option. The following below describe recovery using cold and hot backups. Recovery Using a Cold Backup Recovery using a cold backup allows the DBA to recover the database to the state it was in at the time of the last cold backup. All subsequent changes to the database structure and datafiles are lost. Use the following recovery steps for a system that uses cold backups: 1. Shut down the database, if t is still running. 2. Restore the backed up control file and datafiles to the database server. 3. Restart the database. 12 Recovery Using a Hot Backup Recover the database that uses hot backups to the point at which the last hot backup was created. Then, use the control trace file to generate a new copy of the control file. Next, restore the backup copies of the datafiles. Finally, perform media recovery, which uses the archive files and current redo log files to update the datafiles to reflect all subsequent changes since the datafiles were backed up. Use the following recovery steps for a system that uses hot backups: 1. Shut down the database, if tis still running. 2. Restore the database from the last hot backup. 3. Restart the database in a restricted session, so only users with the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege can log on. 4. Use media recovery to recover the changes from the archive files, and apply them to the datafiles. 5. Restart the database in an unrestricted session, and make it available to all users. To perform media recovery, execute the RECOVER command in SQL*Plus. The RECOVER command causes the database to take the contents of the archive files, and apply the information to the datafiles. The RECOVER command has the following syntax: RECOVER DATABASE; Recovery operations tend to be complex and difficult, and usually cannot be performed by novice DBAs. All of the recovery components must be in place and configured correctly, or the database will not run correctly [1]. 2.2.2 Existing System 2.2.2.1 Case Study 1: The importance of the application going online “It was a lot more convenient,” she says. "The problem with paper is that you have to mail it. Thing get lost. Sending it online was more secure." ‘Audrey Martinko, a freshman at Ohio State University 13 Nowadays, more and more people choose the simpler, quicker and more secure alternate ways to settle their things by going online. There are myriad advantages for online application: ‘© Apply anywhere: Whether you're at home, school or work, apply anywhere you have an internet connection, ‘* One click: In general, once you click your mouse to send your application, that’s it ~ there’s no further paperwork. + Cateh errors: Many online applications alert you if spaces are left blank; preventing you from sending an application that is missing required information. * Immediate confirmation: Usually a page thanks you for your submission right away. If you submit your application via email, save a "sent" copy. ‘* Quick processing: Sponsors have the ability to score and select applications automatically, which means less time to find out if you’re winner. * Save money: There’s no charge for postage. Plus, you avoid paying overnight shipping costs if you need to submit an application in a hurry. © Save time: Online applications enable you to complete more applications in less time. ‘The online applications not only benefit the user but also the sponsors. By accepting online applications, sponsors do not have to email out applications, or manually process them when they come back, saving time and money. "Paper costs a lot of money to process; average mailing can be in the hundreds of thousands of dollars. The money we save can be used to fund more scholarships, large scholarships." Greg Lee, associate program manager at the Coca-cola Scholars Foundation 14 2.2.2.2 Case study 2: Benefit of the E-leave system There are some of the benefits of the e-leave system: E-leave is a paperless application for employees to apply leave. It is an environmental friendly application. Employees can apply their leave such as leave type Annual, Sick, and family, if eligible, leave balance, leave history anywhere anytime without barrier. Employees can also view their leave history online. Reduction of overhead costs involve in manually apply leave, Employees receive an email of approval or denial of their leave request faster. This will save the time and hectic for both parties without need to wait the clerk to slowly processing the manually. Other than that, company can save cost on buying the stationery for ‘company such as ink, paper, file, cabinet and etc. 2.2.2.3 Case study 3: Current E-leave system 1) E-leave for CIO “Esleave is an easy to use intemet or web-based system for creation, submission, confirmation and reporting of all type of leave." The Division of the State Chief Information Officer (CIO) (2002) The advantages of this e-leave system are employees can see at any time, see real time Annual, Sick, Family, if eligible, and leave balances, along with pending leave (which is leave into the feature). Besides that, user can also view online up to two years of your detail leave transaction history. Your leave stays on our mainframe leave system even longer than two years, but will appear for a maximum of two full years in the e-leave system, Moreover employees will receive an email from their supervisor notifying them of either an approval or denial of their leave request. It is a fact that many employees would rather get an email confirmation than have to ask their supervisor if they approved a leave request. Another advantage is that employees can go into a negative PENDING balance by requesting leave have not yet camed, e-leave does allow this. The employees and the supervisor can both see that the leave is not available at the present time. But using leave accrual calculations 15 they can determine that it will be available by the time taken, which is the key factor. The employee will be accruing leave during this time. You might call this "elayaway", because you aren’t taking it until it’s paid for. This is different than "advanced leave” which only an agency director has authority to grant. This allows employees up to fifteen days of sick leave. Finally, e-leave system for CIO is very unique because it can allow the user to donate the leave which is another advantage of the E-leave system for CIO. 2) E-Leave for just login Pte "E-leave is a smart online leave management system that allows users to apply for their leave conveniently anytime, anywhere. It is designed with the auto- routing for approval and online leave approving capabilities, making every leave application a total breeze for both those applying as well as those approving." JstLogin Pte Ltd (1999) The system flow for this eleave application is users submit the leave application using e-leave system to the approving officer, and then the officer will approve or reject the leave and then send email notification to the user. This e-leave system is very unique because they have additional feature. User can view who is currently on leave in the company at the company calendar. Moreover this e-leave system is designed to handle the leave rules of different companies in different countries. Each company is able to configure the leave rules to suit their specific company policies. Beside that, leave records can be exported to any backend system. The different between the e-leave system at CIO and JustLogin Pte are the e- leave system at CIO does not have functionality that allow user to view who is currently on leave through calendar, does not allow user to configure the leave rules to suit the specific company policies. E-leave for CIO will fix the leave type based on the need of theirs own company leave policies. Finally, e-leave system for CIO 16 can not export leave records to any backend system while the e-leave for JustLogin Pre have this functionality, 2.2.2.4 Conclusion of Facts and Finding After looking the several case studies, the online leave application is very important. It because the staff can apply anywhere and any time to apply leave. Beside that, the staff can also get the information anytime and anywhere but must. have the internet connection to access the system. It also can make easier to manager as a database admin to generated report and update profile staff. The backup and recovery can save all the data staff in the good manner. 2.2.3. Techniques for Data Collection ‘There are several different techniques carried to gather all the data related to help developer build this system. For KrimNetwork Sdn.Bhd, developer is focus on the online application, admin maintenance that will be going as the main subject of this system, so information collected is more directed to En Abdul Latif Bin Awang as manager of the KrimNetwork Sdn.Bhd. 2.3 Project Methodology Leave application online is use two (2) types of methodology approach to develop the system. The methodologies are Software Development Life Circle (SDLC) to the system development and Database Life Circle to develop the database. 2.3.1 Software Development Life Circle, SDLC SDLC is the history of an information system. It is the reference by the database design and the application developer. Feasibility study can help in the initial state in the SDLC. These methodologies are divided to five (5) phases, which are, planning, analysis, detailed system design, implementation, and maintenance. 17 ‘cton(s) Ina assessment Co Feanibty study User requirements Existing system evaluation Logical system design @ Detaled system specication Implementation ‘Coding. seutng. end debugging Ansttiation, fine-tuning Evaluation Ce Maintenance Enhancement igure 2.1: The Software Development Life Circle, SDLC Figure 2.1 show the software development life circle that will be implementing to develop the leave application online. It is will be describing according to the phases that exist in the software development life circle. 2.2.3.1 Planning Planning phase is the general overview of the leave application online. There are two (2) indicates to be focused, the initial assessment and feasibility study. Initial assessment needs to the manual system changed to the new system (leave application online), as the systematic leave management for Krimnetwork Sdn.Bhd. For the feasibility study, it shows the hardware and software needed in general. Hardware is include the operating system is used, Windows XP Professional 18 platform, software development used Macromedia Dreamweaver 8 application, and database development used MySQL application. 2.2.3.2 Analysis Analysis phase is the definition of the problem that defines at planning phase. It identifies the leave application online. It also needs for study the user requirement and the manual system. The result is logical data design. It is the specifying the conceptual data model, inputs, processes, and expected output requirements, HRLMS. has eleven (11) modules or processes that to be function. The logical design is describe using data flow diagram, DFD and entity relationship, ER diagram. The results of the logical design are entities, attribute and the relationship of the entities within the database. It also describes the function of modules for each process within the database environment. The users that involve in the HRLMS are employees, assistance manager and manager. 2.2.3.3 Detailed system design Detailed system design phase is the completed design of the system processes. It is the specification of the leave application interface system, menus of the system, and the reports. The other approach that use is the web application development methodology. 2.2.3.4 Implementation The implementation phase is starting at process installing hardware and software requirements. Installation hardware is setting up the PC desktop hardware requirements. specification. Then, the operating system installation, which is, Windows XP Professional platform. Macromedia Dreamweaver 8 and MySQL are installing following the steps that required. The language is used are Pre-Hypertext Processor, PHP script and Structured Query Language, SQL script. These scripts are type in HRLMS system application 19 development. This will be testing and debugging, until it is ready to be delivered. ‘The actual database is created and customizes the tables The testing process is to be doing to test the system application operation. After testing is concluded, the final documentation is reviewed and printed, and end users are trained. The system is in full operation at the end of this phase but will be continuously evaluated and fine-tuned, 2.2.3.5 Maintenance Maintenance phase is involve when HRLMS is used in several times, there are the changes of the leave application online is be request by the manager. The changes generate the system maintenance activities, which can be grouped into three types, corrective maintenance in response to system errors, adaptive maintenance due to changes in the business environment, perfective maintenance to enhance the system, SDLC model that are used to develop the HRLMS was iterative approach. An iterative lifecycle model not attempt to start with a full specification of requirements. Instead, development begins by specifying and implementing just part of the software, which can be reviewed in order to identify further requirements. This process is repeated, producing a new version of the software for each cycle of the model. ments ——* Besign Start + Rete oni (Implementation & Test Complete — Figure 2.2: Iterative Model 20 Figure 2.2 show four main phases in iterative methodology. The first phase is the requirement phase. Requirements phase, is where the requirement for the software are produces a complete and final specification of requirements. The primary objectives of the requirement phase are to identify the scope of the Human Resources Leave Management System (HRLMS) for KrimNetwork Sdn.Bhd to ensure that the project is feasible and develop a schedule, resources plan and budget for remainder of the project. In the design phase, the objective is to design the solution of the HRLMS. The design phase uses the information obtained during the analysis phase as its input. High level design consists of the developing an architectural structure for software programs, database, the user interface and the operating environment. Low level design entails developing the detail algorithms and data structures that are required for program development. ‘The implementation and test phase is when software is coded, integrated as tested. The objective is to have reliable, well-working information system but also ensure that the users are trained and that the organization is benefiting as expected from the use of the HRLMS. All the prior activities must come together during this phase to culminate in an operational system. There are five major activities make up the implementation phase: construct software components, verify and test, convert data, train users, document and install the HRLMS. The reviews phase, in which the software is evaluated, the current requirements and reviewed, and change and additions to requirements proposed. This phase is to keep the system running productively during years following its installation. Beside that, if have other upgrades of enhancement can be carried out to expand HRLMS capability. 2 2.3.2 Database Life Cycle, DBLC HRLMS use the Database Life Circle, DBLC methodology approach to develop the database. DBLC contains six (6) phases. Which are, database initial study, database design, implementation and loading, testing and evaluation, operation, and maintenance and evaluation. | Figure 2.3: The Database Life Cycle, DBLC Figure 2.3 shows the database life cycle that implement in HRLMS. The explanation is divided to the six (6) phases that exist in the database life cycle. 2.3.2.1 Database initial study There are four (4) purposes of the database initial study; analyze the company situation, define problem and constraints, define objective and define scope and boundaries. Analyze the company situation is discovering the company’s operational, the function and the interaction. Figure 2.4: Summary of Activities in the Database Initial Study Figure 2.4 is the summary of the first phase in DBLC, database initial study. The define problem and constraint is the problem definition process might initially appear to be unstructured. Company end users are often unable to describe the larger scope of company operations precisely or to identify the real problems encountered during company operations. Define objective is a proposed database system must be designed to help solve at least the major problems identified during the problem discovery process. Scope and boundaries is the two (2) set of system limitation. The system scope defines the extent of the design, according to operational requirements. The system boundary is external to the system and also imposed by existing hardware and software. 23 In the database initial study for the leave application is the analysis of the management situation. Human resource manages all information about employees and gives employees to take a leave by using leave. The situation is HRLMS objective, HRLMS operations and company structure. Then there are the definition of the problem and constraints of the database that is to handle at the database system specification. The problem is comes from the ‘manual system that be used before, which is the leave application is used the manual system. The results of database system specification are the objectives, scope and boundaries that include in the HRLMS. 23.22 Database design The second phase focuses on the design database model that will support leave operations and objectives. It consists of three part as had been explains below. 1) Conceptual Design Data modeling is used to create an abstract database structure. In this system, there have user password to manage security system, Manager, assistance manager and employees are as entities. Beside that, the system can produce the registration, leave application, report and maintenance the data in database. 2) Logical Design Data Flow Diagram (DED) and decomposition diagram are design based on new system that wants to build. Microsoft Visio 2003 is used to design both of the diagrams. Before identified the business rules, entities must be listed such as ‘manager, assistance manager and employees. 3) Physical Design This process is for selecting the data storage and data access characteristics of the database. The storage characteristics are a function of the types of devices 24 supported by hardware, the type of data access methods supported by the system and the DBMS. 2.3.2.3 Implementation and loading A HRLMS database implementation requires the creation of storage-related constructs to house the end-users tables. In this system the database storage group should be created, and then create the tablespace and at last create the tables. During the implementation and loading phase, address performance, security, backup and recovery, integrity, company standards and concurrency control must be added. 2.3.2.4 Testing and evaluation When the system is complete, the HRLMS system should be tested and fine~ tunes the database for performance, integrity, concurrent, access, and security constraints. Database tools are used to prototype the applications during the coding of the programs. If the database implementations not get the criteria, several parts should be considered to enhance: For performance-related issues, consider fine-tuning specific system Modify physical design Modify logical design Upgrade or change the DBMS software or hardware platform eee 23.2.5 Operation When the database has complete and passed in evaluation stage, it is considered to be operational, At this part in the database, the system should have complete information about its management, users and it is application programs. The operational phase unfortunately starts with process of system evolution. In any case, the demand for change is lead on phase maintenance and evolution.