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.......................................................................................................... 4

1.

..... 6
1.1. ..................................................................................... 6
1.2. .......................................................... 7
1.3.
.......................................................................................................................... 16
1.3.1.
....................................................................................................................... 18
1.3.2.
........................................................................................... 20
1.3.3.
............................................................................................................... 21
1.4. ,
................................................................................. 22
1.4.1. ...................................................................... 22
1.4.2. .................................................................... 24
2.
....................................... 29
2.1. ................................................................................... 29
2.2. ........................................................................... 30
2.2.1. , ................... 30
2.2.1.1. ................................................... 30
2.2.1.2. ................................................................ 38
2.2.2. ,
.................................................................................. 41
2.2.2.1. ................................................................ 41
2.2.2.2. ................................................................... 45
2.3. ................................................................... 52

2.3.1.

................................................................................................. 53
2.3.1.1. ...... 56
2.3.1.2.
....................................................................................... 60
2.3.1.3.
......................................................................... 63
2.4. 2 .......................................................... 65
3.
............................................................................... 67
3.1. ................................................................................... 67
3.2.
......................................................................................................... 69
3.2.1. ............................................................................. 69
3.2.2. ......................................................................... 71
3.2.3.
......................................................................... 83
3.3.
.................................................................................................. 85
3.4.
....................................................................................................... 88
3.5. 3 .......................................................... 96
4.

........................................................................................................... 98
4.1. ................................................................................... 98
4.2.

.............................................................................................................. 98
4.1.2. ....................................................................... 103
4.3.

........................................................................................................................ 107
2

4.4.
........................................ 119
4.4.1. ............................................................................ 124
4.4.2. ............................................................................ 142
4.5. 4 ........................................................ 151

5.



............................................................................................. 153
5.1. ................................................................................. 153
5.2.
-
............................................................................................................... 154
5.3. .................................................. 164
5.4. ........................................................... 172
5.5. 5 ........................................................ 180
................................................................................................ 181
.......................................................................................... 185



.
,
,
.

,

.. , ..

, .. , .. , .. .

.
.. , .. , Y.
Akita, V.U. Mynorsky, K.A. Reckling, F. Spinelli, G.Woisin.

.. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. .

.

.


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1.

1.1.

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. (IMO 2009)
[114] ,

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.


.
,
, : ,
, ,
6

.

(- ) ( ).

, .

( , ..).

.

,
,
.
1.2.
,
, EXXON
VALDEZ Exxon [66]. 23 1989
. ,
. 260 .
(20% ) , 28
.
.

1.1 - EXXON
VALDEZ .
1992 ARISAN,
.
, .
2000 "JOHN R"
.
2007 MS SERVER
, , ( 1.2.),
.

1.2 -
MS
SERVER .
NEW CARISSA, , 1989 [93], 4
1999 1500 . , 270
-, . ,
.
,
, ,
.

6,1. ,
, .

( 1.3.)

1.3 - NEW CARISSA,


.

10


COSTA CONCORDIA 13 2012 ,
,
.
, . 22
- , -
( ),
, ,
. 53
( 52- 125- ) 7,3 .
5 , ,
. ,
, [60].
SEA EMPRESS [106] 131000
, - 1996 .
, ,
, ,
-
.
, 2500
. ,

.
. 1.5 ,

. ,
, , , .

11

1.4 - COSTA
CONCORDIA, : )
, ) ,
, )
.

12

1.5 - SEA EMPRESS,


.
VALDIVIA [125]
, 1997 .
.
,
.
.
,
.

,
.
EL PASO PAUL KAYSER 130000 3
98000 1979 .
18 ,
,
, ,
185 67 .
13

. , [53],
1.6.

1.6 - EL
PASO PAUL KAYSER
1979.

MS SVEAFJELL ( 1.7).
,
[87].

1.7 - MS SVEAFJELL
.
14

,

:
-
, ,
;
-
,
;
;
- ,
,
, .


, .
COSTA CONCORDIA, SEA EMPRESS
EL

PASO

PAUL

KAYSER

.
SEA EMPRESS ( 1.5)

, COSTA CONCORDIA ( 1.4-) EL
PASO PAUL KAYSER (. 1.6)
.
,
,
, , .

.
15


.
VLCC,
, NEW
CARISSA .


- .
, ,
,
.
,

, ,
. , NEW
CARISSA,
,
. ,
VALDIVIA,
, .

.
, ,
.
1.3.

16

,
.
,

, .. [3] [4].
110 , ,
, ,
, [23].
.. ,
,
:
1. .

.
2.

().

-
.
3. .
- (
),

.
,
. ,

,
.
(
)
17

. ( )
.
()
[2].
,
,
: (
) [58], [97], [98] [124]

, .
.

.


.

.. , , ,
.
1.3.1.

,
.

, , , , -
-
.
.
.
, .
18


1.7. 1.8.
, -
.


( )
( ) .
,
.

1.7 -
, : ) ; )
; ) .

19

1.8 -
, : )
; ) .
1.3.2.


, ,
, , ,
.
,
,
.

,

.
.

, ,
.
:
20

- ;
- ;
- ;
, ,

,

.
1.3.3.



,
. ,

,
.

.

,

- [19].

21

1.4. ,

1.4.1.

Minorsky

(1959)

[92].

26

:
E 47.2 RT 32.7

()

RT PN LN t N Pn Lntn

(3),

(1.1)

RT

) , .
E - .
PN , Pn -

N - n -

, .
LN , Ln -

N - n -

, .
t N , tn -

N - n -

, .
(1.1)
- . Minorsky
,
, t 2
t . ,
, ,
. Minorsky's ,

22

.
Minorsky , .
, Minorsky's
.
, Woisin (1979) [127]

E 47.2 RT 0.5 h t 2

()

(1.2)

RT - (3).
h -

(),
t s - ().

Vaughan

(1978)

[126]


()

E 93 RT 33 A,

(1.3)

RT - (3), A - ( 2).

Jones

(1987) [75]

,
, :
2

1
2w
RT 0
,
2
l

(1.4)

RT -

,
0 - ,
2 w - .
l


.
23

Lu Callidine (1990) [89]


,
:
E C ol1.4t1.6 ,

(1.5)

l - ,

t - ,
C - 0,9 3,5 .

Paik (1994) [96] ,


.

;
, :
1.5
,
E C1.5 ol1.5teq

(1.6)

C1.5 1.112 1.156 3.760 2

- (),
t eq - .

, Minorsky's
, .
1.4.2.

.
.

.

, ( , ,
, ) (
24

),

[10].
, .



, -
.
McDermott . (1974) [91]
.
,
, ,
. ,
( 70-85 %)
.
.
.
, .. [15], [16], [17] [18]
.

.

,

,
-.

25

. (
)
E1 2 T F l f 02

(1.7)

- -

; F - ;
l

- , ..

( );
f0

wp
l

- , ,

f 0 0,1 .
,
,
,

E C t w ,

(1.8)

w ;
t ;
C, - .

.,
, [1], .. [19], .. [5], [6], ..
[11] .

1.4.3.

,
.
26

, , () [13],
[22], [21].

.
,
.

.

,
.
,
LS-DYNA-3D, ABAQUS, MSC/DYTRAN,
.
Kitamura (1997)
[80], Sano Muragish (1996) [104], Kuroiwa (1996) [81], Ahmed DerradjiAouat, Gavin J. Earle, St. John's [48], Sang-Gab Lee, Jae-HyungNam, Jin-Kyung
Kim, Tuo Zhao Hong-Anh Nguyen [103].
Amdahl J. and Kavlie D.
(1992) [54], Lemmen P. M., Vredeveldt W. and Pinkster J. A. (1996) [86], Lin
Hong, Amdahl J [87], Y. Quemener C.H. Huang [131].
, ,

,

..,

. [9], .., .., . [8],


.., . [38], [39], [40], [41], [42] [43].
27

1.5.

.
1. ,

.
2.
,
.
3.

, .
4.


.
5.


, .
6.


.

28

2.

2.1.


.
, , ,
.
,
,
, ,
, ,
, .


.


:
.


, .

. ,



.

29

2.2.
2.2.1. ,
2.2.1.1.
,
,
(1993) [118]. .
:
, .

,
OB OD ( 2.1).

2.1 -
: ) ; )
.
30

,
.

M0 ,

;
Eb 2M 0l (cos )1 ,

(2.1)

0 -
.
,

,
( [69]),

Vn V sin

.
R
R

(2.2)

Vn

. (2.2)

Eb

4 0t 2 l
V tan .
3 4 R

(2.3)



Em t dS ,

(2.4)


, S - .

1
2

(u , u , ),

(2.5)

u (vx , vy ) - ,
.

31

(2.5) ,

.
,

xx = 0. ,
,
. ,

, xy 0 .


(1993) [118].

;
xx2 xx yy yy2 3 xy2 02 .

(2.6)


(2.4) :
lp ( x)

Em 2t
0

( x)

lp ( x)

2
0 yy dydx 2t
3
0

dv
2
0 y dydx,
3 dy

(2.7)

. 2.2
.

2.2

32


, w(x)
(x).
,

(),

.
( x) ,
.
(2.7)
lp

4
Em
t 0 v( x)dx,
3
0

(2.8)

v( x)
, v( x) vy ( x 0) vy ( x ) vy ( x 0)
,
, V tan ,
( E).
Ax3 .

Vsep ( x)

( x) x

.
t 2 x 2 t

(2.9)

1 x

sin cos
R 3 R

:
2

R 3
1, 44 t (cos ) 3 (sin ) 1
t
t
1

lp

(2.10)


3 x
Vsep ( x) t V
2l p l p

33

dx dt V .

x lp

( )

Vsep ( x l p )

3 t
V.
2l p

(2.11)

(2.11) ,

. ;
Vh V tan .

(2.12)

vsep vh
2.3. , tan 3t 2l p
(. 2.3)
.

2.3

,
CE (
34

2.3).
.

l p
.

2

x
V ( x) V tan .
l
p

(2.13)

(2.13) (2.9)
:
Em

4
3 3

0tl pV tan .

(2.14)


:
FpV Eb Em

(2.15)


Fp

1 l 2 lp
2
0t 2

tan .
3
2 R 3 t

(2.16)

R 3
1, 44 t (cos ) 3 (sin ) 1
t
t

lp

(2.17)

(2.16)
:
2

2
R 3
2 1 l
Fp
0t
tan 0.96 t (cos ) 3 .
2 R

3
t

(2.18)

(2.18)
R, R2 3 .
, Fp ( R)
35

R . ,
, ,

. ,
dFp dR 0 .
2 3

R 0.86t 5 l 5 ( t ) 5 (sin ) 5 (cos ) 5 .

(2.19)

(2.19) (2.18)

Fp

2
0 ( t )0.6 t1.6l 0.6 (sin )0.4 (cos )1.2 (0.58 0.87)
3

(2.20)

1.67 0 ( t )0.6 t1.6l 0.6 (sin )0.4 (cos )1.2 ,

0,58 0,87
.
,
( 0 t ), ,
.

. -

Vt V cos

(2.21)

-
(
),
Vn V sin

(2.22)

,
, V,
Vt 2 Vn2 V ,

(2.23)

36

,
,
. ,

.
-

Ff V 2Fn V ,

(2.24)

Fn ( Fp 2)sin

. ;
Ff

Fp
sin

(2.25)


,
(2.20), (2.25).
Fc Fp Ff 1.67 0 ( t )0.6 l 0.4t1.6 g ( ).

, g ( )

1
(cos )1.2

(2.26)


0.4
(sin ) (sin )0.6

(2.27)

g ( ) ,
- , . ,
0,3 , g ( )
10 20 2%. -

,
g ( ) .

sin

3
2

(2.28)

g ( )
3 0.4 3 0.6
g ( ) min 0.4 1.96 0.4
2
2
37

(2.29)

, , 60%
, 40%
.
(2.29) (2.26)
:
Fc 3.28 0 ( t )0.6 0.4l 0.4t1.6

(2.30)

E Fdl 2.34 0t1.5l1.4 0.25

(2.31)

2.2.1.2.

, -

. [108]
2.4.

2.4 -
.
,
ABCEF, , .
BE :
38

.
BE ,
.
,
.

.
,
, AB EF. lAB l cos ; l - .


Eb 2M 0

V sin
1
l
l AB
0t 2 V tan ,
R
R
3

(2.31)

0 ( y u ) 2 - ,

, t - R - .

Em

2
0t11dxdy,
3

(2.32)

S 11 -
y.
11
11

d 11 dx
d
V 11
dx dt
dx

(2.33)

(2.33) (2.32)
x
Em

E
E
2
2
0tV 11 BE 11 dy
0tV 11 BE dy.
B
B
3
3

39

(2.34)

BE

. BE
w R(1 y b) ; b BE. BE
, ,
: 12 R b 2 b R 2 .
,

Em

E
2
4
0tV dy
0tV 0.5 R.
B
3
6

(2.35)

-
:
FpV Eb Em ,

(2.36)

Fp - .
(2.31) (2.35) (2.36),
Fp

1
l
4
0t 2 tan
0t 0.5 R.
R
3
6

(2.37)

R
R 0.5946t 0.5l 0.5 0.25 tan

0.5

(2.38)

,
:
Fp 1.942 0t1.5l 0.5 0.25 tan .
0.5

(2.39)

(2.39) ,
( 0 and )
( t, l ).
:
Fn Fp (2sin ) .

.
40


Ff 2 Fn cos Fp

tan

(2.40)

(2.39) (2.40) Fp
Ff ,

0.5
F 1.942 0t1.5l 0.5 0.25 tan 1
.
tan

(2.41)

,

1

0.5
E Fdl 1.295 0t1.5l1.5 0.25 tan 1
.
0
tan

(2.42)

2.2.2. ,

2.2.2.1.

[107]
2.5

2.6 -
.
,

.
,
41

.
(= b1 + b2). ,

Eb 4 M 0 b1 b2

(2.43)

2 0t 2
M 0
, - .
3 4



2 H 1 cos H 2

(2.44)

2 H

(2.45)

2H - .
:

Eb

b b
1
0t 2 1 2
3
H

(2.46)

Eb 2 M 0 b1 b2

0t 2 b1 b2

(2.47)

Em
S1

2
2
0t 1 dS 0t 2 dS
3
3
S2

(2.48)

S1 2H b1 S1 2 H b2

,

2

0 0 2
2 b1
b1

42


z .
z
z 0 2H
2H

z
1
2
2 H b1
2

S1 2 H b2

1
1
1 1
z
av 1ds
ds

S1 S1
2 H b1
2 H b12
3 b12 3
S1
2

(2.49)

, 1/3
.
, :

Em


2 2
0tH
3 3
b1 b2

(2.50)

, 2H ,
:
Em

1 1 2 H 4 2
1 1
1 2
0tH 2
0tH 3
3 3
3 3
b1 b2
b1 b2

(2.51)

E Eb Em

E Eb Em

b b 2 2 tH
1
0t 2 1 2

0
3 3
3
H
b1 b2

0t 2 b1 b2

1 1
4 2
0tH 3
3 3
b1 b2

(2.52)
(2.53)

b b 2 2 tH 1 1
1
0t 2 1 2

0
3 3
3
H
b1 b2
43

(2.54)

Fm

1 1
E

1
2 2

0t 2 b1 b2

0tH 2
2H 2 3
H 3 3
b1 b2

(2.55)


.
Fm
0
H
1

3
3
3
H
b1b2t 0.8383 b1b2t
16

(2.56)



F 0.631 0t1.83

b1 b2 0.645 t1.33 b1 b2
0
0.17
0.67
b1b2 0.5
b1b2
5

Fm 1.082 0.541 0t 3

b1 b2 1.623
b1b2

1
3

5
3
0t

(2.57)

b1 b2
b1b2

1
3

(2.58)

, b1 b2 b ,
,
F 1.262 0t1.83b0.67

0.5

1.290 0t1.33

1
b

0.33

(2.59)

Fm 3.25 0t1.67b0.33

(2.60)

H 0.838t 0.33b0.67

(2.61)

,

- 2H . ,
,

2H . ,

75%
2H (, 1983) [47]. ,


Fm 4.33 0t1.67b0.33

(2.62)

44

, 3H ,
. ,
. ,
.


3H

Em1

4.62 tH 2H / b d 2.31 tH
0

(2.63)

/b

2H

,
.
, ,
. ,

Em2 4.62 0tH 3H 2H / b H 4.62 0tH 3 / b

(2.64)



Fm1 Em1 Em 2 / 2H 3.465 0tH 2 / b 2.435 0t1.67b0.33

(2.65)


Fc Fm Fm1 4.33 2.435 0t1.67b0.33 6.77 0t1.67b0.33

(2.66)

2.2.2.2.
,
[123] 2.7.

, ,
, .
,
:
45

F u Eb Em Esh E f

(2.67)

Eb , Em

E sh

Ef

, (2.67),
. ,
Fm
t

Fm Fdt

(2.68)

, .. , ,
2H .
, 2H / u , 2H - .
t

Fm u 2 HFm Eb dt Em dt Esh dt E f dt
0

(2.69)

Fm

1
Eb Em Esh E f
2H
t

(2.70)

Eb Eb dt

(2.71)

2.7
, . .

46

, :

Eb M 0lii

(2.72)


Eb M 0 lii

(2.73)


2.1.
.
2.1

li

2b

/2

b 2

/2

/2

2.1
Eb 2 M 0 b 2

M 0

1
2 3

(2.74)

0t 2 -

. FL
GM (2.74) , ,
H / , .

47

2.8 -



Em t dS , , 1, 2

(2.75)

(.
2.8).
, .

, ,

(. 2.8).

1
u , u , , , ,
2

(2.76)

u u u -
,
.
, ,
, u 0 0 .
, 0 ,
, .
48


, u .

, 2.7

2.8

. ,

, .

,
, 2 3 0 .

Em

H u
H
2
2
0t
d d
0t ud
0

0
3
3

u u u

(2.77)

.
, :
u

(2.78)

-
. (2.78) (2.77)

Em

1
0 H t
3

(2.79)

H ,
[123].
(2.78) :
Em

2H
max 0t
3

(2.80)

49

max H 2 4 .


/ .
Em

1
H3
0
t

(2.81)


. ,

S H .

Esh1

0
3

t 2 dS

(2.82)

(2.75), (2.76) (2.77),



Esh1

1
H2
M0
2
t

(2.83)



. ,
:
H2
Esh 4 Esh1 2M 0
t

(2.84)

. ,

. ,
(2.77), ,
,
[0,2H]. (2.77)
.
,
50

.
.
E f Em dt

2H
t
2
2
0t d du 0t t 2 H
0
0
3
3

(2.85)

Eb , Em , Esh E f

(2.70)
Fm
b
H2
H
R
2
2 4 3
Mo
H
H t
t
0t

(2.86)

H

1 2H

b 2 0
t t H 2

2 H 2

0
H 2t

:
H b

t t

0.57

(2.87)

b
0.4
t
t

0.855

(2.88)

,
.
H
(2.84),

Fm 3 t 5/3b1/3 2Rt

(2.89)

(2.89) ,
2H.
, ,
75% .
(2.70)

51

Eext Fm

3
3
2H Fm H . ,
4
2

4/3.
8
Fm 4 0t 5/3b1/3 Rt
3

(2.90)


. ,
GMN C'D'G',
H .

Fm
b

H2
2 2
Mo
H
H
t

(2.91)


H ,
b/6

(2.92)

2/3 1/3
2/3 1/3
H
b t 0.56b t
180
1.3

(2.93)


Fm 3.25 0t 5/3b1/3 2Rt

(2.94)

(2.87) ( 8 %
)

,
.

4/3 ,
8
Fm 4.33 0t 5/3b1/3 Rt
3

(2.95)

2.3.

,
.
, , ().
52


(1888-1972),
( 1920.) - ( 1934.)
, (1966).
,


(Curant R. Variable methods for the solution of problems of
equilibrium and vibration. Bull. Amer. Math. Soc.,49, 1, 1943).

. ,
.

,
, .

,

.

,
.

.
2.3.1.

.

-.
.
53

,
.
.

,

. ,
, .
,
:

T
T
T
T
T
d u f d u f S ds uL f L u u d u u d ,

S1

(2.96)

- (

) ;

f d

f S ds -

S1

;
u L f L -

T
u u d -

u d -

.

:

M q C q Kq p ,

(2.97)
54

- ;

C - ;
K

- .

q, q, q

- ,

, p - .
(2.97)

).
.

(2.97),
,
.


.
,
,

.

(2.97).
, ,

.
55

,
().

.


.

.

.


.
.
2.3.1.1.

, .

.

(2.97).
:

M q(t ) C q(t ) K q(t ) P(t ),

(2.98)

q0 q(0),


q0 q (0),

(2.99)

- (
)
56

t k 1 t t ,

t k 1 t t ( qt qk , qt t qk 1 , qt t qk 1 ).

tk t ,

qt t , qt t

qt t

t
qt q t q
O(t 3 ),
t
t 2

qt t

t
qt q t q
O(t 3 )
t
t 2

(2.100)

(2.100):

qk 1 qk 1 2qk qk t 2 O(t 3 ),
qk 1 qk 1 2qk t O(t 3 )

(2.101)

(2.101), t 3 ,
qk 1 2qk qk 1
,
q
t 2
k
qk 1 qk 1
q
2t
k

(2.102)

,

. (2.98),
t k .

M q


C q K qk P(t k )
k
k

M q
t

k 1

2qk qk 1

C q

2t

k 1

qk 1 K qk P(t k )

(2.103)

qk 1 , qk , qk 1

M C q
k 1
2
t

2t

M C q P(t )
2M
K qk
k
k 1
2
t
t 2 2t

B D q P(t )
k
k 1
2

2t

B D q
2B
K qk
k 1
2
t
t 2 2t

(2.104)

(2.105)

(2.105)
.
57

,

.
: q 0

q 0 :

q0 q0 ,
(2.106)

q1 q0 q 0 t

(2.105) qk1

M C . ,
2
2t

,
, .

. ,
.

qk qk 1

q
t
k

(2.107)

(2.98) t k

M q
t

k 1

2qk qk 1

C q q K q P(t )
k
k
k 1
k
t

(2.108)

qk1

M q
t

k 1

P(t k )

M C q
2M C

K qk
k 1
2
t
t
t 2 t

(2.109)

- -
.
.


T

t
, t - ,
T

- .
58



( )
, , t ,
.

()

() .

,

(, )
.
- ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
. ,
, -
.

.
.
,


59

, ,
, .
2.3.1.2.


.
-
.

, .

,
.
,


1
ij ij T 0 ,
2
3
2

(2.116)

ij sij ij ;

(2.117)

T T 0 E p effp .

(2.118)


[68],
,
Td


1 T 0 E p effp
C

(2.119)

p C ,
:

ij ij

(2.120)

60

,

, 0 1.
,

- .

T
T 0 E p effp .
, E p
Et E
,
E Et

Ep

(2.121)

effp

1/ 2

2 p p
ij ij dt
3

o
t

p
eff

(2.122)
p

ij
e

ij ij :
p

ij ij ij

(2.123)

,
:
ij ijn Cijkl kl

(2.124)

ij - ;
ijn - n - ;

Cijkl - ;
kl - .

(2.116) ,
,
, .
61

sij
n 1
1
,
sij ij kk
3

(2.125)

ij sij ij

(2.126)


0
3
2
2
ij ij T 2 T
2
0

(2.127)

0 - .
0 - .

p n 1
eff

effp

T
effp
3G E p

effp

(2.128)

n 1

ij

ij

3G effp

ij ,

(2.129)

n 1

ij

ij

1 E p effp

ij

(2.130)

, ,

.
.
,

,

. ,
62

,
.
E v ,

.
2.3.1.3.


.

.
,

.

, .

,
. ,
,
. ,
,
,
u m , ,
h. h 0 , um 0 .
h<0,
um Kh2 ,

(2.130)

K - , .
63

h 0 ,
, h
(2.130).
(2.94)
.
, .
,
h .
,
.

. ,

.

[68], [14].

.
, .

.

,
.

:

d s d e c v

(2.131)

- ;
64

s - ;
d - ;

v - ;
c - .
2.4. 2
,
,
.
,
.
,
.
:
.
.
,
.


.
, ,
, , ,

, .
,
.

,
..
65


,
,
,

,

.

66

3.

3.1.
-
.
,
,
, ,
. ,
,
.
,

.

,
, ,
, ,
, .

[112],
3.1.
.

67

3.1 -
, : )
( ); )
; )
.

68


,
.

.

(. 2) ANSYS/LS-DYNA
[56].
3.2.

3.2.1.

1,47 , 482,6 419,1 .


,
- . 305
70 , ,
20, V=5 /.
3.2.

.
5 . 0,2
0,1.
3.3.

69

3.2 - .

3.3 - -
.

.
,

. 2,1
, 225 ; 1 ;
0,3; 7850 /3

70

0,25;
: C 40 , p 5 .
2
.

0o ,

10 o ,

2 40 o ,

2 60 o

2 80 o ,

20 o .

3.2.2.

,
2 :40, 60 80.
0 o .

3.4 3.5.
,

, .
.
.

71

3.4 -
0 o
( ): ) 2 = 40 ;
) 2 = 60 ; ) 2 = 80.

72

3.5 -
0 o
: ) ; ) .

73

80

(. 3.5-).

( 3.5, ).

,
2 40 o ( 4,34 )
1,27 , 2 80 o (
5,51 ).
2 40 o ( 0,182 ) 1,56 ,

2 80 o ( 0,285 ).

,
. 3.6 3.7

2 40 o . ,

,
.
.
20 o ( 4,34 ) 1,46
, ( 6,34 ).
20 o ( 0,182 )
1,59 , ( 0,289 ).

74

3.6 -
2 = 40 ( )
:
) = 0; ) = 10; ) = 20.

75

3.7 -

2 = 40 :
) ; ) .

2 60 o

3.8,
- 3.9.
,
2 40 o , .

20 o 1,65 , .

20 o 1,93 , .

76

3.8 -
2 = 60 ( )
:
) = 0; ) = 10; ) = 20.

77

3.9 -

2 = 60 :
) ; ) .

78

2 80 o
3.10 3.11
.

.
,
"". ,
(. 3.11-).


3.12.

2 80 o 0 o .
2 40 o
20 o .

,

.
,
.
,
, ,
.

79

3.10 -
2 = 80 ( )
:
) = 0; ) = 10; ) = 20.

80

3.11 -

2 = 80 :
) ; ) .

81

3.12 -

o
o
( 2 40 , 0 ; 2 60o , 0o ; 2 80 o , 0o ;
2 40o , 10o ; 2 60o , 10o ; 2 80o , 10o ;
2 40 o , 20 o ; 2 60 o , 20 o ; 2 80 o , 20 o )
) ; ) .

82

3.2.3.


1992
[118]. ,
.3.2.1. ,
2 60 o , 20 o .

, 2, 2.2.1.1. (
) 2.2.1.2 ( ).


3.13.

3.13 -
,
.

83

, ,
, ,
.
,
.
.

.

3.1.

. ,
,

,
.
3.1 -

()

4,60

5,89

4,52

4,04

+14%

+46%

+12%

0%

84

3.3.

,
(. 3.1-) -


,
20 o , 2 80 o ,

_ 0.30 ,

10 .

3.14 3.15. ,
3.14,
.

.
,
.

.
, ,
(. 3.15).
,
,
.

200
. ,
.
25%.

85

3.14 -

: ) _ 0.30 ; ) _ 0.40 ; ) _ 0.50 .

86

3.15 -


:
) ; ) .

87

3.4.



, b
t 30 - 60 ( 3.16).

3.16 -
.


2 80 o
10 .
20 o .
: 0,5 ,
1,0 1,5 . -
3.17.

88

3.17 -

: ) 0,5 ; ) 1,0 ; ) 1,5 .

89

3.17 -

:
) ; ) .

90

, ,
. ,
3.16, , 0,5 ,
1,5 .


3.17. ,

. ,
,
.


,
(1994) [127].

1,12 , 540 , 356 ,
0,7635
1,8312 54 .
10 20 ,
2 90o 2,4 ,

10 o ,
V=5 /.

3.18, - 3.19.

3.20.
(. 3.1).

91

3.18 - ()
()

92

3.19 -

.

3.20 -
,
: ) ; ) .

93

, ,
, ..
.
, , , ,
.
,

2H.
,
( ),
. ,
,

.
, ,
(1994) [127]
, 3.21.

3.21 -

,
.
94


, 2.
,
.
.
. ,

- .
, , .

3.2.
3.2 - ,

H 0,56b 2 / 3t1/ 3
(2.94)

F 4,33 0t 5/ 3b1/ 3 (8/ 3) Rct

(2.90)

H 0,838b 2 / 3t1/ 3

F 6,77 0t 5/3b1/3

(2.66)

(2.61)

: F - (); t - ;
b - () ; 0 -
(); Rc , Rc =
300 ~ 1000 (/).

3.3.

, ,
.

, ,
: 8,5 10,07 , 7,42 8,36 .

95

3.3 -


()

(H)

6,05

8,50

8,30

7,42

12,40

10,07

6,39

8,36

,
,
.

(2.90) ,
(2.66) - .
3.5. 3


.

: ,


.

96

.
.

,
.

,

, .

, ( ,
).

, . ,

97

4.


4.1.

.
:
.

,
, .

- .

, ,
.

ANSYS/LS-DYNA.
4.2.


.
1 - ,
.
,
. 1 4.1-.

98

2 .

, ,
.
2 4.2-.

. 70 ,
- 300 ( 4.3).
,

99

4.1 -
1: ) ; )
.

100

4.2 -
2: ) ; )
.

101

4.3 -
.

- .

25 .
,
.
.
,
,
.


1 106

2,11011 , 335 ;

; 0,3,

7850 /3

0,15,

: C 40 , p 5 .
,
102

: 0,2
0,1.
4.1-
( 1) 4.2- ( 2).
4.1.2.

. 4.4 4.5

: ( 4.4-
4.5-) ( 4.4- 4.5-). ,
,
.

4.6.

4.1.

103

4.4 - 1
; , )
, ) .

104

4.5 - 2
; , )
, ) .

105

4.6 -

: ) ; ) .

106

4.1

0,108

2,08

0,088

0,621

5,03

0,702

0,126

1,94

0,077

0,621

3,87

0,511

: ();
(); - ().


1, 14%
2. 1 7%
2.

1 37%
2. 30%
2.
4.3.


, 4.1- (
1) (. 4.3).

/,

: 1- , 2 , 3- 4-
.

107


4.7.

4.8 - 4.9.
,
,
.

,
.
,
.

4.7 - :
1 - ; 2 -
; 3- ;
4- .

108

4.8 -
.
:
) 1; ) 2.

109

4.9 -
.
:
) 3; ) 4.


,
4.10 4.11.
110

,
, , 1 2.
1 ,
,
100 .
, .
,
150 .
2
181 .
170 310
.
1 2, 100
.
3
115 166
, 340 .
166 180 ,
330 .
15 108 ,
173 .

360 .
160 ,
, 175
. 15 123
, 300 .

111

4.10 - ,
, :
) 1; ) 2.

112

4.11 - ,
, :
) 3; ) 4.

113

4.12 4.13

.
, 1 ,
, , .
,
, .

4.2.

, 6%. ,
, - .

. -
-
, 40% ,
. 110%
.

, 46% .
,
,
17%.


4.14.

114

4.12 - ,
,
: ) 1; ) 2.

115

4.13 - ,
,
: ) 3; ) 4.

116

4.2 -

,
,

,
1,19
0,022
0,119
0,282

0,145

0,022

0,69
0,711

0,022
0,022

0,104
0,140

1,74

0,385

1,320

0,181

0,129

0,406

0,260

0,043

0,764
1,09

0,434
0,434

0,134
0,088

1,92

0,394

1,760

0,340

0,175

0,662

0,108

0,047

1,02
0,997

0,455
0,340

0,088
0,085

1,96

0,395

1,580

0,130

0,134

0,642

0,123

0,024

0,750
0,973

0,455
0,427

0,099
0,152

2,04

0,409

117

4.14 -

:
) ; ) .
4.14- ,
3 , .
3 ( 2,04 ) 1,17 ,
( 1,74 ).
3 ( 0,164 ) 1,04 ,
( 0,171).

118

4.4.


- ( 4.15) [97], [98].

4.15 -
-.
6 : , -
, - , - , - Y-
, ,
.

4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21.


6 2 .

119

4.16 - - ( )
( 1)

4.17 - - (
) ( 2)

120

4.18 - -
( ) ( 3)

4.19 - - X- (
) ( 4)

121

4.20 - - Y- (
) ( 5)

4.21 - ( ) ( 6)
,
.

4.3.
4.3 - -

122

()

( 1)

( 2)

-
Y

( 3)

( 4)

( 5)

()
( 6)

510

59

3,5

3,5

3,5

()


()

520

520

540

540

540

720

4,539

4,539

4,539

4,539

4,539

4,54
9

1606

1630

1402

1451

1352

1770

()

(4)
()

45.
100 .

, 6 /. LSDYNA.

2,11011 , 300 ;
355 ; 0,3,
7860 /3
123

0,34,

: C 40,4 , p 4 .
,
: 0
0,2.
4.4.1.

:
1 -
.
.
2 -
, .
.
,
4.22.

4.22 -

124

4.23

1. ,
,
.

125

4.23 - 1: ) 1; ) 2; ) 3; ) 4; ) 5; )
6.

126

4.24

1.

.

127

4.24 - 1: ) 1; ) 2; ) 3; ) 4; ) 5; )
6.

4.25

2.

.

128

129

4.25 - 2: ) 1; ) 2; ) 3; ) 4; ) 5; )
6;

130

4.26

2.

.

131

4.26 2: ) 1; ) 2; ) 3; ) 4; ) 5.


4.27 ( 1) 4.28 ( 2).

132

4.27 -

1: ) ; ) .
: ) 1; ) 2; ) 3; ) 4; ) 5;
) 6;

133

4.28 -

2: ) ; ) .
: ) 1; ) 2; ) 3; ) 4; ) 5;
) 6;

134

,

, 4.4.


,
4.29, 4.30 4.31.

135

136

137

()

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

4.29 - :
1 - 1, ; 2 - 2, ;
3 - 1, ; 4 - 2, .

1
2
3
4

138

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

30000

35000

4.30 - : 1 - 1,
; 2 - 2, ; 3 - 1, ; 4 -
2, .

()

139

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1
2
3
4

4.31 - : 1 - 1,
; 2 - 2, ; 3 - 1, ; 4 - 2,
.

()


, ,
1 2,
.
, ( 6)
,
,

, .
,
,
-
.
,
( 1 2)
;
.
, - Y-
( 4 5) ,
,
.
,


,

.
( 1) ( 2) ;
- ( 4) Y- ( 5)
, .
140

Y- ( 5)
,
.


, .


.
1:


( 6).

- X ( 4).

- X-
( 4).

-
( 2).
2:


( 6).

X- ( 4).

141


4 5.
1 6.
4.4.2.
(. 4.22)
200
,

/,

4.32).

:
1 -
;
2 -

4.32 -

142

4.33 4.34.


4.35 ( 1)
4.36 ( 2).
,

, 4.5.
,
,
, 4.37 4.38.

143

4.33 -
1.
, :
) 1; ) 2; ) 3; ) 4; ) 5; ) 6;

144

4.34 -
2.
, :
) 1; ) 2; ) 3; ) 4; ) 5; ) 6;

145

4.35 -

1: ) ; ) .
: ) 1; ) 2; ) 3; ) 4; ) 5;
) 6;

146

4.36 -

2: ) ; ) .
: ) 1; ) 2; ) 3; ) 4; ) 5;
) 6;
.

147

148

149

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

4.37 - : 1 - 1,
1; 2 - 2, 1; 3 - 1, 6; 4 - 2,
6.

()

150

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

4.38 - : 1 - 1,
1; 2 - 2, 1; 3 - 1, 6; 4 - 2,
6.

()

.

-
Y- ( 5).
( 1),

.

, 1,6 .

.
4.5. 4


.
, .

,
, .

( ).

,
2.
ANSYS/LS-DYNA.
151


, .

.
, ,
.


.


(-) .

152

5.

5.1.

-
,
.
,

.

.

.
,
- .
,

153

5.2.



.

,
. ,
, ,

, -.

,

, , ,

,
, ,
.


- (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian - ALE),

-,


, ,
,
. ,
154

,
,
.
-,
,
( )

, ,

-
.
ALE
, , :

i i
0;
t
xi
xi

(5.1)

ij, j bi i i ;
t
xi

(5.2)

E
E
,
ij i , j bi i j
t
x j

(5.3)

- ;
E - ;

- , :
ij ( ij ) d P[ I ] 2ij PEOS ( K , )

P ;
[I] ;
ij ;
( ij ) d ;

ij .
155

(5.4)

(5.1)(5.3)
. ,
f 1 . :

g (t ) f 1

(5.5)


:
n h (t ) f 2

(5.6)


. (5.7)
L c
V s .
t f Lc / Vs

(5.7)

- .
:
Vs

E 1 v
1 v 1 2v

(5.8)

(5.8) , ,

, .
,
. ,
.

() ( )
, ALE.
,
2 .
(5.1) - (5.3) ,
.
156

,
.
,
( ),
:

i
ij, j bi
t

(5.9)

E
ij i , j bi i
t

.
:
PEOS B (

1)
0

(5.10)

0 -
.
.
,
.
:

div( , v, X i , X j ) 0
t

(5.11)

- , (, ) . ,
:
S eVe S lVl S l j Flux j

(5.12)

S - , (, , );
V - ;

157

S j ,

j ;
Flux j - j ;

e , l - ,

.
-
,
.
,

.
,
,
.
, , , ,

0 f 1 . ,

.

. ,
, 5.1.

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