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Think

about how the word work is


defined and used everyday.
List 4 ways you do work.
The scientific

definition of work is a force


exerted to move an object a specific
distance (both the force and the motion of
the object must be in the same direction).

Applying

the definition
of work, which of the
following examples has
a work greater than 0?
a student carrying a

book across the


room
a mouse pushing a
piece of cheese with
its nose across the
floor

scientist delivers a speech to an audience


of his peers.
A body builder lifts 350 pounds above his
head.
A mother carries her baby from room to
room.
A father pushes a baby in a carriage.
A woman carries a 20 kg grocery bag to her
car?

scientist delivers a speech to an audience


of his peers.
A body builder lifts 350 pounds above his
head.
A mother carries her baby from room to
room.
A father pushes a baby in a carriage.
A woman carries a 20 kg grocery bag to her
car?

Reread

the list you wrote of ways you do


work everyday.

Label

each example as work or not work


based the scientific definition of work just
discussed.

Work = Force x Distance


What

is the unit for force?


What is the unit for distance?
Predict

the unit of work!


1 Newtonmeter = 1 Joule

If

a man pushes a
concrete block 10
meters with a force
of 20 N, how much
work has he done?

Two

physical science students, Ben and


Bonnie, are in the weightlifting room. Bonnie
exerts a 20 N force to lift a barbell over her
head (~ 0.60 m); Ben lifts the barbell over
his head (~0.75 m) exerting a 25 N force.

Calculate

student.

the work for done by each

Bonnie:

20 N x 0.60 m = 12 J

Ben:

25 N x 0.75 m = 18.75 J

How much work will it take to move a 10 kg


mass at an acceleration of 2 m/s2 a
distance of 10 meters? This problem
requires you to use formulas for force and
work.
Remember:

Force=Mass x Acceleration
Work=Force x Distance

Step 1
Force = Mass x Acceleration
Force =10 kg x 2 m/s2
Force=20 N
Step 2
Work = Force x Distance
Work = 20 N x 10 m
Work = 200 J

Ancient

people invented simple machines


(does work with only one movement) that
would help them overcome resistive forces
and allow them to do desired work against
those forces.

machine is a device that helps make work easier to


perform by accomplishing one or more of the
following functions:

transferring a force from one place to another


changing the direction of a force
increasing the magnitude of a force
increasing the distance or speed of a force

There are six types


Lever
Wheel and Axle
Pulley
Inclined Plane
Wedge
Screw

of simple machines:

Think

about a machine in terms of the


input force (the force you apply) and the
output force (force which is applied to the
task).

When

a machine takes a small input force


and increases the magnitude of the output
force, a mechanical advantage has been
produced.

lever is a rigid bar


that rotates around a
fixed point called the
fulcrum.

The

bar may be
either straight or
curved.

First

Class

Changes the direction of the force


Ex. Crowbar, seesaws

Second

Class

When the fulcrum is located closer to the load than to the force, an

increase in mechanical advantage results


Ex. Wheel barrel, bottle opener
Third

Class

Exerted force is applied between the fulcrum and the load force
Ex. Tweezers

The

wheel and axle


consists of a large
wheel rigidly secured
to a smaller wheel or
shaft, called an axle.

When

either the wheel


or axle turns, the other
part also turns. One full
revolution of either
part causes one full
revolution of the other
part.

pulley consists of a
grooved wheel that
turns freely in a frame
called a block.

A pulley can be used


to simply change the
direction of a force or
to gain a mechanical
advantage,
depending on how
the pulley is
arranged.

An

inclined plane is an
even sloping surface.
The inclined plane
makes it easier to move
a weight from a lower
to higher elevation
Produces a mechanical
advantage by
increasing the distance
through which the
force must move

The

wedge is a
modification of the
inclined plane.
Wedges are used as
either separating or
holding devices.

The

screw is also a
modified version of
the inclined plane.

While

this may be
somewhat difficult to
visualize, it may help
to think of the threads
of the screw as a type
of circular ramp (or
inclined plane).

Mechanical

advantage is the ratio of output force


divided by input force.

When

the output force is bigger than the input


force, a machine has a mechanical advantage
greater than one.

MA = Fout Fin

If

a machine increases an input force of 10 N


to an output force of 100 N, calculate the
mechanical advantage of the machine.

In

a perfect world the work input into a


machine would equal the work output.

However, a

small amount of input work is


transferred to friction (or heat).
Efficiency = (Wout Win) x 100

Calculate

the efficiency of a machine that does 800 J of


work if the input work is 2,000 J.

Workers

do 8,000 J of work on a 2,000 N crate to push it


up a 2 m high ramp. What is the efficiency of a ramp?