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* Signal theory

Digital signalling methods is multiple techniques

which are used to improve the accuracy of data
sent. These method will work by clarifying the
data signal. An example of this would be data
being sent over a network being sent over a
network that contains some irregularities. The
digital signalling will then remove these
irregularities caused by the transmission which
increases the accuracy of the data.

Digital signalling

There are multiple forms of represented electronic

data., one example is bits. They are the smallest
unit of data used in representing electronic data.
Because they are so small they only have a single
binary value. They are used to store data and follow
instructions. 8 bits will make up a byte.
A byte is the second smallest unit used in
computing. As they are comprised of 8 bits they can
store more data and will work in the same fashion.

Representing data

Packets are units of data which are carried

across a network. Packets are structured with
different layers, these layers comprise of a
header, payload and the trailer. The header is
used to ensure that the packet is being delivered
to the correct location. The payload is the data
that is being transmitted and the trailer is to
notify that the data has arrived.

Representing data

* Synchronous transmission
Synchronous transmissions are a method where a data
signal sequence is sent and accompanied by timing
signals. Because of this the transmitter and receiver will
be in sync with each other. This form of data transfer is
used in protocols such as Ethernet.
* Asynchronous transmission
Asynchronous transmission is essentially the opposite to
the synchronous transmission as it refers to the data
being sent in spurs. This kind of transmission is common
within communications like telephone lines

Data transfer methods

* Error Detection
Error detection is when a software is used in a certain
way to ensure that certain data is correct and has no
errors present within it. Errors can occur during
transmission of data because of channel noise.
* Error Correction
Error correction is the next step in detecting errors
within data after it has been transferred. After being
transferred the data will then be reconstructed and
ensures that there are no erros.

*Error Detection And


Bandwidth is the measurement of data transferred
within seconds. Bandwidths can be measured in
multiple forms depending on the amount of data
which can be transferred. Some examples of
bandwidth measurements are BPS and MBPS. BPS is
bits per second and MBPS means Megabits which is
1,000,000 times bigger than 1 bit. Recently as
technology has advanced we now have GBPS which
means gigabits per second which in comparrison to
megabits per second is 1000 times bigger.

*What is bandwidth

* Bandwidth Limitation
Bandwidth limitation are set by the internet provider so they
are able to sell different speeds of internet. This helps the
providers provide steady internet connections as it takes a
lot of money to provide fast and stable connection speeds.
* Bandwidth Noise
Bandwidth noise can be defined as a form of
electromagnetic energy which causes the signals and data to
become degraded. If someone happens to use error
detection and correction, then bandwidth noise would be

*Bandwidth Limitation

And Noise

* Telephone
Telephone communication is when people speak to each
other over a short or long distance with the use of a phone.
This has been made possible with electric signal conductors
or radio signals. This happens over radio channel where bitstream information is sent by the transmitter to the receiver.
* Satellite
Satellites are essential for communication, satellites are
man made objects which are placed and orbit the planet.
Satellites allow the use of high bandwidth and are able to be
used by a large area because of its location above the planet

*Channel Types

* Microwave
Microwave is a type of transmission method which is
electromagnetic radiation. This form of radiation can
differ in size which allows for transmission at high
bandwidth. Microwaves can also use multiple channels
for transmitting data wirelessly.
* High Frequency (HF) Radio
HF radio waves is used as a quick form of transmission as
the waves are used at a high frequency between 3-30
MHz. This form of radio is used by mobile phones and
other wireless devices.

*Channel types

* Data compression
Data compression is used to compress files so
they take up less space. Data compression makes
transferring files. There are two different forms
of data compression, there is lossy and lossless.
Lossy will sacrifice the quality to compress the
file. Lossless will do nothing to the file other
than compress the file.

*Other issues