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NQ 1 (25)

2007



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85159,

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60252)

39269,

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

.
,

2006

.

N2 77-17733 09.03.04 .

... . 42

Ten.: (495) 269-52-98, 269-66-00,


268-40-77.
: (495) 269-48-97.
E-mail: realiz @mashin.ru ,
utp @mashin.ru

.. .. . .. . . ..... . .... ... . ....... ..... .

"", " ", 2007

. .... .. 53

NQ 1 (25)

January

2007
Since 2005, January
Editor-in-Chief
Dr of Phys. Math. Sci. ,
The honoured worker
of science of the RF
V.N. NEVOLIN

CONTENTS
~

Nevolin V.N., Fominski V.Yu., Gnedovets A.G., Lavruhin D.V. Computer


modeling of ion implantation treatment of plates from pulsed laser
plasma containing multiple-charge ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Chair of Editorial Council


Dr of Eng. Sci , The honoured
worker of science and
technics of the RF
V.F. BEZYAZYCHNYI

Khimukhin S.N. Conditions of spark process occurence at low-voltage


electrospark processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Editorial Assistants:
I.N. ZHESTKOVA
Dr of Phys. Math. Sci.
V.Yu . FOMINSKY
Chairman Assistants:
Dr of Eng. Sci .
V.Yu . BLUMENSTEIN
Dr of Eng . Sci .
A.V. KIRICHEK
Dr of Eng. Sci .
O.V. CHUDINA
Editorial council:
Yu .P. ANKUDIMOV
. . BABICHEV
V.P. BALKOV
S.N. GRIGORIEV
V.Yu . ZAMYATIN
V.A. ZEMSKOV
S.A. KLIMENKO
V.A. LEBEDEV
V.V. LYUBIMOV
F.l. PANTELEENKO
Yu .V. PANFILOV
. . RAHIMYANOV
. . SAUSHKIN
V.P. SMOLENTSEV
. . SMYSLOV
V.A. SHULOV
M.L. KHEIFETS

Oleynikov V.N. The method of calkulation and analysis


of characteristics of the friction and the wear ion-implantation
65 steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 16
Paykin A.G., Shulov V.A., Engelko V.l., Tkachenko K.l. ,
Kraynikov A.V., Teryaev A.D., Teryaev D.A. Crater creation
on the surface of titanium alloy parts during irradiation with intense
pulsed electron beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

~ CHEMICAL, CHEMICO-THERAL AND ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSING


Guryn S.V., Pohreliuk I.N., Fedirko V.N. The regularities of carbooxide
coating formation on titanium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

~ METHODS OF DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONAL COATINGS


irichek A.V., Zvyagina .. Research of influence of epilamirovaniye
method on increase resistance of axled instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

. . 36

Maslyuk V.A., Baglyuk G.A., Napara-Volgina S.G., Yakovenko R.V.


Strengthening of fast weared surfaces wolframfree solid alloys
and carbide-containing steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 42

.V. PARAYSAYA

Journal is registered RF Ministry


Tele- and Broadcasting of Mass
Communications Media. The certificate
of registration N 77-17733,
March 9, 2004

QUALIY CONTROL Of STRENGTHENING PROCESSING


Kovalev .. The basic laws of cave-in spherical indenter
and the estimation of physicomechanical properties of the surface
layers of parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Edition:
N.A. FETISOVA
Journal is spreaded on subscription,
which can issued in any post office
(index on the catalogues: "Rospechat"
85159, "Pressa Rossii" 39269,
"Pochta Rossii" 60252) or in puishing
office.
Ph.: (495) 269-52-98, 269-66-00,
268-40-77.
Fax: (495) 269-48-97
E-mail: realiz@mashin.ru,
utp@mashin.ru

PROCESSING CONCENTRATED STREAS OF ENERGY

Zhukov ., Schapova L.A. The statistical analysis of influence


of chemical compound of steels on parameters of quality
of the nitrogenized layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

INFORATION. PRODUCTION EXPERIENCE


The index of the articles

puished

in 2006 ..... ..... ....... .. ..... ...... ..... ..... ........ 53

Journal is included in the List of the Highest Attestation Committee of Russian Federation (VAK RF)
for puication of basic results of doctoral theses

" Mashinostroenie Puishers ", " Strengthening Technologies and Coatings", 2007

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of the si of plsed lase plasa cotaiig sigle d d!


electrodes - laser t-get and 1vork piece. s,. high-enel'g)l ion iplantation, negative
high-voltage plse with give shape was applied to 1vork piece. Tl1e possibllity is show of applicatio of the particle-in-ce/1
odel to the {/esciption of physical pocesses i plasma tlr lead to the fm-ation of 17igl7-enel'g)l ion dependig tl7e
plasa pa eters and the tegies of the high-voltage plse switchig-o . The calclated enel'g)l spectr of ios bobding
tl1e ptocessed plate was sed fot modeling of the depth profile of the iplated ions.
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are

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3. Ion-assisted depositio of MoSx film s from laserplume Llllder pulsed electric field / V.Yu. Fomiski ,
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Vol. 89. . 2. . 1449- 1457.
4. n

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1991. 240 .
2. Handbook of Plas ma lmm e rsio ! 1mplat a tio / ed .
Aders. New York: Wiley, 2000. 400 .

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7.

//
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2005. N2 7.

1985 . 128

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2006 . N2 10. . 38- 44.


9. Time-of-tlite profil e of mllltipl y-cllarged ion currets
prodllced plllse laser / J. Ki sa, . Lorusso, D. Doria, et al. //
Plasma Phys. Cotrol. Fu sio . 2005. Vol . 47 . . 1339- 1349.
1 . Angular di striblltio of e l e ctro te mperature d d e s ity
i laser-ai a tio plume / . Toftman , J. Scl1ou, .N. s ,
J .G. L // Phys. Rev. Let. 2000. Vol . 84. No. 17.
. 3998-400 1.
11 . ., .
. . : , 1989 . 452 .
12. Ziegler J.F. // SRIM.com.

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(495) 269-66-00

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(495) 268-40-77

();

e-ail: rea/iz@ashin.r, tp@mashin.r

n .

2007 . N2 1

15

.. ( )

- 65
ffi~R,
, , Ar+

Al

. , ffi~R
.

The reslts of stdy of the icreasig of criticallevel of eergy ffi~R, that etal st destroied d the redcig of
the saples had alloyed ! with the ethod of i ixig were sbitted.
There were aalyzed the tribollogice characteristics with the ethod of acostic eissio . The forla that showing the
dynaics of icreasig of criticallevel of eergy ffi~R d the redcig offrictio stregth fro iplated saples was

frictio stregth d frictio coefficiet fro

give .

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+ (

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F

L -

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4.

1985. 44

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t-

, .

5.

6.

1991. 240 .
/ . ..
, 1985. 392 .

. . .:

.. . .: ,

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65,

Ar+

Al

.
,
,

. ,

65

.,

Pyre

r:

1987. 424

. - : . .

. . . . . : ,

8.

ro;R,

. .: ,

, ;

1990. 216

.., .., ..

N vt

. : .

r;V
ll = F
'

1.

1984. 264

.. . . :

FN -

., .

. .: ,

(J)~RI / ro;R2 =0,22 <1; (J)~RI / ro;R =0,15 <1,


ro;R2/ro;R4 =0,47 <1; ll J /ll2 =1,3 >1,
/l l /11 = 1,55 > 1, /l 2 /11 4 = 1,25 > 1.

1983. 360

/ . . .. , . ,

.. . .: ,

1993. 454 .
9. Herman . lon lmplantation into Metals. N.Y.: Pergamon
Press, 1982. . 102-109.
1 . Surface Modification of Metals ! Beams 1 ed .
G . K. Wolf, W.A. Grant, R.P.M . Procter. Lausanne ; N.Y.:
Elsevier Sequoia S.A. , 1985. 551 .
11 . 1 . . ,

. . , . . , . . . . : r

1998. 256

..,

0.8.

) F--.

18

2007. N!! 1

539.213
.. , .. , .. r, .. ,
.. , .. , ..
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*

, 8 9.
.

The paper reviews the experietal res/ts dedicated the effect of the irradiatio coditios itese p/sed
crater creatio takig / the siface of , 8, 9 refractory titai al/oy targets. The ost
r! echaiss of crater creatio are also described.
electro s

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[9].

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530 ... 560

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8)

15

6 , 8 9 ,

, , ,

9)

450 6 .

[ 1-5]

w=

= 32 ... 36

/ 2

: (

2-4.

). -

20

2007. N!! 1

)
.

1.

, n

n 9
n:

- (w =
26 ... 28 / 2 , = 25 ) ; -
(w = 26 ...28 j 3 ,
= 25 ) ; - (w =
= 30 ... 32 / 2 , = 30 ); -
(w = 60 ...65 / 2 , = 40 ) ;
- (w = 36 .. .40 / 2 ,
1: = 30 )

151652-

[9],

1)

n n n

);

( );
, ,

1,5

840

18

1,4

790

15

++

0,5

520

14

+++

1,5

190

29

+++

35

620

+ ++ +

42

650

++++

36

600

++++

39

540

3)

2)

BTS,

, -

4)


,

, ,

5)

, , ,
,

6)

(w

< 18 ... 20 /

) -

115 .. . 120

. : =

32 ... 36 / 2 ; n = 1; '= 30 .
: - ;

; - n
; - n;

0 8 03 -

; - .

2007. N!;? 1

21

3.

530

)
.

2.

9,

- ,
:

w = 18 ... 20 j 2 , n = 7, = 30 ; - w =
= 32 ... 36 j 2 , = 30 (
)

. ;

BTS, w = 30 ... 36 / 2 , n = 1

7)

. ,

(w >
), -

. f

> 30 ... 36 j

'-1" ,

;

8)

4.

,
,

(+)-
:

( 9 = 1 (300
15) ) , (
= 1 (360 20) )
r ( = 1 (345 15) );
9)

[1-5, 9],

5);
,

8);

,
, -

22

6);

7).

2007. N!! 1

5.

(w =

= 18 ... 20 /\ = 30 )

(
, )


,
.

6.

() ()

- w = 40 .. .45 j 2 ; - w = 30 .. . 36 j 2

8 (. .

4) .

w (

6, 8 9 w

60 .. .80

3 .
(20 ... 25 ). ,

= 20

j 2 ) .

9,

(.

5).

, w

= 20 /\ ,

( .

2007. N!! 1

6).

23

~-)

, ,

-
.

Zr-J
.

7.

Cr-J

1100 .. . 1300

no

rw= 16... 18j 2 ,n= 1

(ZrJ 4 )--+ [Zr]+4(J) ;


(CrJ 2 )--+ [Cr]+2(J),

. n (

(99, 999 %),

) ,
.

(99 ,999 %),

( )
.

[14].

[15] ,

, ,

, .

[ 15]

1109 ... 1 10 11

j 2 ,

[15].

(+~)-
n

, ,

16 ... 36

/ 2 ,

- .

[15]

[9]

. ,

8 9

24

2007. N2 1

8.

.. , .. .//
. ,

2001. . 229-23 1.
2. Yatsui . igh power pulse ion beam app lication for
technology // J. Laser and Particle Beams. 1989. Yol . 7.
. 733-749.
3. Shulov V.A., Remnev G.E., Nochovnaya N.A. High power
ion beam treatment of titanium alloy parts // Proc. of the 8th
lntern. Conf. Titanium , U.K. , 1996. Vol . 3. . 2126- 2132.
4. .., .., ..
n

//

. .

. 1 3- . . "

1997. . 1. . 130- 132.

.., .., ..


.. .

. 1995. N2 6.

//
.

. , ,

: .

.-. . .: ,

7.

: ,

2002 .

230-233 .

151652-

.. , . . , . . .//

2006. N2 10. . 9-14.


10. / . . ,
. . , .. . . : , 1980.
463 .
11. Albrecht J., Lutjering G. Microstructure and Mechanical
Properties of Titanium Alloys // 1- .
. - , 7-11 1999 . . l.
. 363-375.
12. GESA-1 and GESA-2 accelerators of intense pulsed
electron beams / . Enge1ko, . Yatsenko, G. Mueller,
. Bluhm // J. Yacuum. 2001. Yol. 62. . 211-214.
13.

866-

. . , .. r , . . , . . //

17-26.
14.

2005 . N2 12 .

.., .., ..

77-91.

..

6.

. . 6- . .

1. inetics of evaporation from the surface of refractory


nickel and titanium alloys with heat resistant coatings during
their irradiation high power pulsed ion beams / . . ,

5.

.., .., ..

//

9.

". : . ,

1992. 130

.. .

. .: ,

15.

1983. 143

..

. . , . . ,

.. . . . //

...

. . -. . : ,

2002. J 12 .

2003 . N2 1.

22-27.

!
-
7- -

" , ,
, "

20-22

2007

. ,

-


-


, ,

-

:

2, .
+38-044-430-85-00.
E-mail: atmu@ism.kiev.ua; atmu@atmu.freeet.kiev.ua
04074,

, . ,
./:

2007. N!! 1

25

620. 194:621.795
.. , .. , ..
(- . ..
, )


- -

. ?
.

The ijl of the paraeters of oxygen-carbo-cotai/ng di the strctral d phase state of di.ffsive
has ivestigated. The treatet coditios resltig i obtai th.e di.ffsive carbooxide coatig have

coatigs titai
deteried.

, .

[1, 2].

, .

[3]

.
,

-,

t = 250 .. . 300

[4],

, ,

[5].

-,

15 1

'

BTI-0.
Ra = 0,4 ,



-r =

1... 23

t = 900, 950

170621.
1000

02

-
11 - 3 ... 11 02 .

02 =2 10-4 ... 2 10 .

[5, 6].

26

( 2 =2 10 2 ) (02 =2 10 3 ... 210

2007. N2 1

).

)
.

1. r r r r-
(t = 950 , = 5 ) r , , :
- 1 10- 4 110-2; - 110- 2

110 1; - 110 1. . 1102; - 110 2 1103 ; - 1 103 1104 ; -> 1104

..

-3,0

Cu - I = 20 . -

-.

U = 30

0,05

( . .

1,

).

"" ""

!1

( )

EPIQUANT,

, "

",

[7, 8].

[9, 10],

02 =110 2 .. . 110 3

(.

1).

950

, -r =

(. .

1,

).

= 5 . 2 =
=1 10-4 .. . 110- 2 R (5 ... 7 )

li ,

(55 ...60

) .

02 = 11 0 3 . .. 110


( . .

1,

) .

02 = 11 - 2 . . . 11 1

(8 ... 11

TiCo,ss ... o.63 0 0 42 ... o, 37 ,

(100 ... 105

) (. .

1,

).

=110 1 ... 110 2 (


("'='130

""13

:) ,

).

: -

("'=' 165 )

(. .

02 > 110

1, ) .

("'=' 110

(35 ... 55

) (. .

1,

) .

t = 950

110- 2... 110 2

2007. N!! 1

1 )

27

/,

10~

2.
t = 950 ,
2
2
, =1 10- . . 1 10

't, q

15

. 4.

[6 , 11]

, ,

[ 12].

1... 5

(.
(.

3. 1-0
, = 1-10- 1 5 (-)

2,

2,

),

). ,

5... 1

,
(.

15 () t = 1000 (), 950 (), 900 () 850 ():


l - ; 2- ; 3 -

2,

).


. ,

=10

0 2

t = 950

(.

2, ) .

5 (. . 1, ).
t = 1000

, 1 =

, .

02 =1 10 - 1 (. 3, ) .

2,

t = 900

),

28

) , ,

(.

3,

) ;

o-t , ! 2 =

, -

< 950

. , 02 = 1

.
( -

(t

).

(.

1000

Ti(O)

[4, 9].

( ) ,

900

, 1: =

23

850

2007. N2 1

(.

3,

, ,

(.

4).

11 o-z ... 1102 ,


900 ... 950 5 ... 15 .

1.

: ,

1984. 294

.., .., ..

. : ,

3.

5.

1981 . 144

6.

7.

1974. 288

.., .. . .:

1973 . 400

..

. : ,

8.

1974. 288

.., ..

. .: ,

1978. 208 .
9.

/ ..

, .. , . . . .:

/ . . , . . , . . .

2.

. . , .. , .. . .:

I.M.
1995. 220 .

i . 'i: . ,

).

i .., r

4.

IVA

VA

1991 . 224 .
10. .. : 2 . .:
, 1971.
11 . /
.. , .. , .. . .:

i i

12.

1976 . 360

.., r .., ..

i / .. , .. i ,

I.M. i . //
2003 . Ng 6. . 66-70.

//

i-i i i ii.

2004. NQ 10.

34-38.

8-
"
"

-8

"-2007"

8- "
", 8- -
" - ", 6-
- "

- ", 8- -
"
", 5- - "

", 6-
-

, .
28 1 2007

() .

" - " ( "").

"-2007".
: , ,
" - ",
, .

61108,

, , /

-:

10363
www.ottom.com.ua

E-mail: v.shulayev@kipt . khakov. ua


(057) 335-64-32, 335.-63-23;

. :

./:

335-25-45, 335-35-29

: ; .:

(057) 335-63-23,

: ;

.:

./:

(057) 335-64-32,

2007. N!! 1

335-25-45;
335-35-29

29

.. , .. ()




, .

.

of experietal researches of the ifl of the epila coatig the coditio of the fast cttig
the process of cttig at drillig are give. The dd of epilairovaie ejjiciece
the coditios operatig d ofprocessig with the axis istret is discovered dring the preliiaryfrictio tests.
The

reslts

istret workig coatig d

, ,

u , .

(.

[1 , 2].

\).

, ,

kr------------------------------------,

()

8~---------------------------

6~------------------------------

( , ),

( ,
- ,

, ,

11

12

(),

2 - -
3 - ;
4 - ; 5 -
; 6 - ; 7 ; 8- ; 9- ; 10-

.),
(, )

).

30

13

10

- (),

J-

.),

1.

11 - ; 12 13 -

2007. N!! 1

...

~'

2.

n ;

1 -

2 -

-----

----~

[4]:

:.~

F,

-----

3.
[5]:
1, 2 - n ; 3 - ;
4 - n

n n

n:

[3].

1)


,
.

F,.

(.

2;

F -

);

2)

- ()

2 ... 2,5

) ,

1:1,

(40 ... 80 )

( .

( -
2 .. .4 / 2 ),
, , ,
n

3)

3);

n ,

[];

4)

.
n

3500 / 2 250 .



, poll -

, n

(. .

, n
li , ,
.

2).

-
.

11.. .50

(-1, -2),

, ,

(), -180-05, -180-20 ();

, .

2007. N!! 1

[7 , 8].

31

~~-,

-2 6-180-05 ,
0,05 % - 0 , 5 % -
6-180

(R1 COOH)

113.

1-+-=t
)

4.

() () n

1- ; 2-

3-

4- ; 5-

65

Ra = 0,2 ,

Ra

- 880

-3

-
0,5 ... 0,6

, ,
.

19

/)

( .

4, ) ,

2Hl25,

65 ( .

[4].

(vp =

, 1 . :

S = 0, 14 /,
= 20
vP = 0,19 j .

. ,

170311 ,

0 8,5

4,

0 8,5

) ,

355

- 1

(vp = 0, 15 j

),

'

15

(Ra

= 1,6 ) 500

, -

10

).

[9]

6-180-05 (

t = 227

-) ,

, . .

45

32

- 7,

-60 ( -

2007. N!! 1

0,20
0, 16
0,12
0,08

0,04

5.

, r

-2 (

-2

2 -

);

-7;

6-180-05

+ - ; 9-

-2 ( );

3 -

-;

5 -

( );

7 -

4 -

-2

6-180-05

);

-180-05

8 -

0,07 .-------4.,...------------,

1:,

, :

1 -

6.

-180-05

-~5

0,06

~~=

0,02

0,01

-7

0
200

Q 2 35)

().
.

300

400

600

700 n,

- 1

7. -180-05

1-

500

-;

5-

2-

3-

4-

-7

- .

Q (. 6)

. ,

-2 ,

, ,

Q = 55 .. .60.

2,5

Q = 35 .. .45,

6-180-05

Q
Q = 29,
-2 + -7 Q =

-7 -

6-180-05

Q = 18,

-2

== 34, 6-180-05 Q = 40, 6-180-05

Q = 42,

..

+ -7

, ,

n n.

I .

,
,

-7.

Q < 5

6-180-05,

-2 , n

, -2,

6-180-05

10

n 11/2 (. . 4, )

).

(.

(, -7, -40)

-7 ( .

8).

2007. N!:! 1

9) .

33

0,06 ----------------,

1,4 +---------=-'""'7~-1
1,3 +----::::::::-::::---~.:;....___;~5
1,2 r--=------..~----=-."...~

0,05
1

0,04

.f-~;~~~~=~~~~3

11,,1
0,9 +--s..-===--""""::;;_------"'---1

0,03
0,02 .t__:!:=;:=:::=::;:==::::;:==:::;::=::;:._~
700 n, 200
300 400
500
600

' ' 12

0 8
1

10.

0,13

,14

0,15

0,16 0, 17v, /
vP

:
.

8.

-2

1-

- ;

5-

:
;

2-

2- -7 ; 3 - -7 +; 4 5- -180-05 + -7; 6-180-05 + -7 + ; 7 - -2 ( ) ; 8 -2 + -7; 9- - 2 + -7 +


1-

-180-05 ( ) ;

3-

4-

-7

0,07

1,4

0,06

1,2

0,05

1,0

0,04

0,8

0,03

0,6

0,02

0,4

0,01

0,2

0
200

300

500 n, -

400

9. -180-05
n CQTC:
1- ; 2- ; 3- ; 4-7 ; 5- -40

0,15

0,25 t,

0,20

. 11.

-180-05

1-

(vp = 0,125

0,10

0,05

5-

j):

2-

-180-05

-7 ;

3- -7 + ; 46- -180-05 +

-7 ;

-7 +

. .

(. .

vP

10-12

65

0 6,7

11).

-180-05 -2.

. ,

S = 0,14

/ ,

vP

0,125

, 175 / (-7

-7 )

(vp =

/) -

. -

= 0,125

34

2007.

N!~

\,2

1,0

0,8

l c'

0,4

~~j<

0,05

12.

1:

-2

1-

(vp = 0,125

5- -2 +

0 8,5

2-

-7;

3-

-7 +;

-7; - -2

45

, n

.



:

1)

2)

r~

!i'c.
7

1
~
9

13.
0 8,5 65 vP =, 15 j

4-

20 % (. 13),

lf! fti

-7 +

65 n

li)\

1.

.)

/):

~;~

t"i

.....

lI'Ji:

0,2

W!

0,6

.., ..

: . : ,

272

2000.

2. i /
. .

..

..

. . . 2- . , . . : ,

2005. 336 .
3.

/ ..

, .. . // .

1990. N2 10. . 31.


4.
/ .. , .. , .. , ..
11 . 1990. . 11 . N2 5. . 792-800.
5. ..
( -53)
-: .... .
. :

6.

05.02.03.

.,

2002. 180

.., .., ..

: . . :

3)

4)

7.

1999. 69

.., .., ..

8.

1996.

17. N2 6.

..

: . .... . . :

9.

1/

764-768.

01.02.99.

21

..

. .... . . . ,

2007. N!! 1

1999. 16

35

lrJlli ~JL&

~)])JL[!rn]

.. (-
. .. )


-

. ,
.

The /aws of cave-i spherical ideter are discssed. Receptio of necessary atheatical dependences and
with reslts j01 definitio of the d/ of e/asticity, co tact pressre and deforations the basis of
cotinos registratio forces and depths of introdction spherica/ identer are considered.

settleet forlas

0-1-2

(1)

. ,

, ,
, ,

;
, -

.. .

2 3

( , - ..), .


(
,

..) ,

.

[1-3]

, -

~.:

. -

l!.h .

hYJ.

. J!

hPJ.

-
.

36

1.

[4] ,

1.

2007. N!! 1

300

200

100

2. h 0

hz.; -

hz.yj

n -

3-4)

(hy; = hp; - ho)

3.

r (R'-
)

(2)

, , ,

n,

, -

bj -

]
~1 lgP; +l -lgP;
n=-- L.
N -l i =l lgh "f.(i +l) -lghLi

hp; -

hoj-

(i-) ;

1 ,

, .hj,

N-

( , , r ).
,

[1]
1 2

-
.

(.

2)

h0

.
,

P=ch ~ + ,

r-

bj;

(,

[5 , 6]) ,

h0 .

, ,

(.

r = 1.

3).

2007. N!.! 1

37

h;;

.
:

(3)

(6)

h2,;

(7)

R-

[1, 7]:

q,

2..JA,:;

dP
dh - -r. 0

(4)
'

0 =

+ 1

, ,

qi

(1 - ~-t 2 )/+ 0-~-t ~ )/ 1 ( 1 -

1-1, 1-1 1

(3)

(2)


, )- ()

= Pj(h i.j - h

0 ;)'",

(5)

hp; - h0 ; = hi.j - h0 ;

bj =


-
. ,
, .

;
(

(1 -~-t 2 )mPj

2~2Rh 4 (hr.j -h 0j )-e1mPj

(5)

(5)

do'

1,5.

- Anp

=----

d0

n -

(6)

d
2R'

=~ =-.

(8)

_ h_J_(h. -h .)m - 1
2r.R hl.j -h oj
'
OJ

qp;:

- ; - h n-1
- . - 2r.R 'l.i '
;

);
Anp -

q;

don -

( 1)-(3)

dPjdh -

1)

2)

38

2007. N!:! 1

3)

(8)


- ;

; =

hi{2 / D,

(13}

( 13)

q/3,

(9)

3& =

-.fi

3n(1-fl 2 )

{h;'

VR

(10)
,

(14)

, = / , ,

q/ 3.

k" =2.fi/ [9n(l-Jl 2 )] ; fl

0,3 k,

0,10993,

fl = 0,35 kc = 0,114.

( 11)

(12) ,

( 12) k.

R),

( 11)

(14)

= , 11785) ;

0 - .

(5).

(14) ,

(12)

hpi

6 ~2Rhr.j -hi_j

cr =

[8] .

dr.; -


( .

4) ,

r -1

. .


,%
R ,

,%

(15)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(5)

5, 172

2,417

35 ,44

115,6

3,010

0,976

35 ,54

11 5,4

1,750

, 179

34,08

115,5

- ,
=

r .

2007. N!! 1

39

3400
3000
2600
1, +----fblii?----+--+----+----1

2200

L--~___.J

1800
1400

1000

0,4

1,2

0,8

.
.

4. q

( VS-424) ( )
-1 ( )

R,

, =

_1_

~\

0,451

3,0
2,5

_.,. v

2,0
1,6

~~ ,

1......

l/

1,2

0,2
.

[......-" 1.-'

../

""" ~

0,6

1,6 f.,%

6.

1 -

( ) ;

t = 860 ,

--=

1,25

3-

2 -

...t!. ~

./

(15) (16) ,

a=2n - 2;

r\ez

0,4

...".. ~

1,2

t = 860 , -- =
= 1,25 () t = 750 , --= 1 , =
= 6,665 ; 4 - t = 860 , -- = 1,25 t =
=750 C , -r= 1 , = 1 , 333;5-t=860 , -r=
= 1,25 t = 750 , --= 1 , = 0, 1333

q ,
1

0,8

-1

()

1 - 1; 2 - 2; 3 - 3; 4 - 4

tg ,=

0,4

,%

1,6

tg 2 =

,6
n- 2

R _k
B= -a_
0,8 1,0 1,2

1,6

2n

,%

5. q

( VS-424) (1) -1

(2)

2-2n

(17)

,
(
)
,

n.

(8)

[h n-1

R n_- 1 _ I : _ k 2(n- l )
__
_
q- 2nR Rn - 1

(=

(17)

const) .

R:

(18)

k "l(n- 1)'

(1) , (2), (5) , (7), (17) , (18)

, (.

6) ,

n -2

R
q- - - -- k 22n

40

2n

2n - 2

(16)

,
m .

2007.

N~

, ,

120

100
-

80

>-----

=-

r-

60
40

[t

20

2
.

rr-

1-

r-

1--

1--

1.

//

7.
;

4-

= 200

2-

2. . .,

3-

3.

1979. NQ5.

69-81.

.., ..

. .:

1990. 224

4.
7) ,

58-64.

()//

5- + = 300 ; 6- +
= 400 ; 7- + + = 200 ;
8 - + + = 300 ; 9- +
+ + = 400

, (.

1976. NQ 2.

.., ..

() =

.., .., ..

1-

/ .. , . .

-1 ,

, .. , .. . . : ,

144 .

~-

1988.
5.

n .

. . . . . . . :

1968 . 544 .
6. ..,

..

130.
1972. . 145-149.
7. ..
. .: , 1955.
8. ., ., .
: . . .

) .
n

.., . :

.,

n .

. .:

1968. 504

11

28-29

2007

- "-

-" (

- 2007)

- ;

;

;
;
;

;
.
:

394006,

, . ,

./:

18,

(4732)39-18-90; e-mail: pteis@comch.ru

2007. N!:? 1

41

.. , .. , .. -, ..
( . ..
, , )



,
- /

Cr3 C2 (10... 25 %)

MoS2 (3 ... 5 %)

X18HJ5

. , ,

65, - 65

20... 50% . TiC.

XJ8HJ5-Cr3 C2-MoS2
-
.

Resistace

of rigid al!oys basis of siple d coplicated carbldes of hri of type , d


powder ateria/s basis ofstai/ess stee/s asteitic of class X18Hl 5 with dopes Cr3 2 (10... 25 %) d MoS2
(3 ... 5 %) agaist wear process for wat of availabllity d s i z offrictio of abrasive particles are ivestigated.
Coditios ofderivig three-/ayered of aterials represetig coposite which average strat cosists fro qick-cttig
65 stee/, d r d /ower strats of 65 stee/ with 20... 50% TiC, are cosidered. The idstrial tests of
r of ites, detailses of techologica/ qit d qit fro the deve/oped ateria/s, d also coposite
ateria/s XJ8Hl5-Cr3 C MoS2 i coditios of abrasive wear process d corrosio-active dis cofir high
efficiecy of s the.
coposite

, ,

. ,

. ,

6 , - 5 ,
- 8 [ 1, 2].
-

. .. , ,

85 HRA [3] .

, .

[4, 5] .

(),

() () .

42

r .

2007. N!! 1

85

TiC
30 % ( 0,480 0,630 j ) ,

( .

20

1).


- n
,
.

1.
crw Cr3C 2

Cr3C2 (10... 25 %)

MoS 2 (3 ... 5 %),


[7] .

1)

[8].

2)

u ,

, -

() .

: .

. ,

Cr3C2 1 20 %

.

-2

= 1/ W

HRA

BKI5

86,0

0,80

20

84,0

0,60

W ,

(.

1),

Cr3C2- Fe
15 60 %,
, 0,480 0,253 j
. ,

-

- ,
.

40 % [6].
crw

1 5

85 ,0

0,35

1 5

84,5

0,23
0,25

60

87,5

50

86,0

0,31

85

75 ,0

0,48

20

90,0

0,30

KHTI6

89 ,0

0,30

50

86,0

0,35

85

88 ,6

0,63

2007. N! 1

43

180 . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,

5,5

160

5,0
1

4,5

140

4,0

120

3,5

10

3,0

15

r .. ,,

2,5

800
600

2,0
1,5

400
200 ~~--.--.---.----,~

1,0

20

0,5

15

10

20

3. () rr ()
XISHIS Cr3Cz:
1 - MoS 2 ; 2 - 5 % MoS 2

2.

1815

1, 2 -

5 % MoS 2 Cr3C 2:
J, 4-

65 ,

(.

20 ... 50 % TiC.

2) .

30 %

MoS 2

5%


, rn

- ~ ,

10.

1 ,

. ,

TiC

rn

30 %

870 ...900

0,35 ... 0,40,

rn .

65

10, 15

5 .

5,

65 . (.

2) ,

5 %

MoS 2 ,
MoS 2 ,
2 ... 3 ,

(.

3).

Cr3C 2

10

30 %

(
)

Xl8Hl5

MoS 2 ,

65

.
-

65

, ,

44

65
-

TiC- P6M5

2007. N2 1

P6MS

, /

5
10
15

0,44
0,36
0,32

5,4
7, 1
9, 1

5
10
15

0,46
0,44
0,30

4, 1
6,7
8,3

5
10
15

0,48
0,42
0,28

3,4
5, 1
7, 1

)
.

4.

P6MS
- :

65

x iOO;

65 ,

100; -

, ;

65 , ;

65 , 100

20 ...40 %

-.

- ,

- ,

50

(.

4).

15,

. .

14 .

4,

- ,

15,

(. .

4,

).

600

,
15

252

\5. ,

0,005

252

[9].

Q
, , -

- .

Cr 3 CFe

60 ... 70%

2007. N!! 1

45

.

, -
,


.


(,
).

,

5.

70

. ,

,

70 %

, ,

15 .. .45

. ,
, .

2 ... 8

, 35, 30,

35, 30 65.

.
,

3.
70

84 ... 85 HRA.

,
,

13

65.
,

.
,

70,

2 5.
, Cr 3 CFe
,

, ,

- .

, ,

10 ... 13


(.

5),

:15.

70

[10].

, (

30Xl 3

3.. .4

8.

15

46

r .

2007. N!! 1

13

1,2

.. , .. , .. .//
.

, 15 .

5.

,

,

7 ... 15

,
r
.

1.

. 2- ., . . .: ,

2.

.., ..

394

1983. 328 .

.: ,

1967.

3.

.., ..

4.

1969. NQ 3.

//

24-29.

49-52.

// .

6.

1973. NQ 2.

1-4.

..

Ng 1. . 80-85.
7. ..,

//

1983.

4.

-r ..

.. : .

1975. NQ 1.

.., .., ..

//
108-114.
8.

1996. NQ 11 / 12.

.., -r .., ..

9.

2000. NQ 11-12.

//

33-38.

.., ..

Ng 12. . 32-39.
10. .. 1729698

//

.-. -.

1983.


. . , .. . ().

/ . ,
1992. . Ng12.

-

". "

10- !

.

" "

r .

2007. N2 1

47

669.017:621.785
.. , .. ( . .. )




,
.
the basis of the statistical aalysis of literary d idstrial data are received correlative-regressio depedeces
of hardess d thickess of the itrogeized layer of steelfro cheical d that will allow ost is proved to choose
ark of steel for receptio of reqired paraeters of the itrogeized layer.

, ,

, -

.

,

, .

,
,
.

[1-3].

F - -.

11

0,25

0,28 %.

(.

h
1).

, , ,

[1-5],

.

,

STAISCA


(.

1).

Mn, Cr, Si, ,


W, Ni
1,5 .. .2,5 .
:

0,15 0,30

6.0,

2,0 %

, ,

6,0 %,

()

[1, 3, 8].

, -

0,12

, , -, 'f

. .

, -

48

[ 1, 9],

2007. NQ 1

0,5/ 0, 15/ 320

, 1/ 0,40/ 200

0, 1/ 0, 13/ 300

0,2/ 0,40/ 230

0,2/ 0,38/ 200

0,5/ 0,48/ 21

0,2/ 0,46/ 220

0,2/ 0,49/ 200

0,3/ 0, 15/ 250

1,0/ 0,25/ 400

0,3/ 0,24/ 21

0,3/ 0, 15/ 400

0,4/ 0,35/ 260

0,5/ 0,30/ 200

1,0/ 0,46/ 220

0,5/ 0,43/ 400

0,5/ 0,47/ 210

0,5/ 0, 18/280

1,5/ 0,29/ 500

0,5/ 0,20/ 220

0,5/ 0, 16/ 480

0,6/ 0,32/ 300

0,8/0,26/ 200

1,5/ 0,45/ 230

0,8/0,40/ 510

0,8/ 0,44/ 220

0,7/ 0,21 / 310

2,0/ 0,30/580

0,7/ 0,18/ 230

0,7/ 0, 18/530

1,0/ 0,30/ 620

1, 1/ 0,25/ 200

2;0/0,42/ 240

1,0/ 0,39/ 550

1,0/ 0,42/ 230

1,0/ 0,25/ 360

2,5/ 0,28/ 650

0,9/ 0, 16/ 250

0,9/ 0, 19/ 570

1,5/ 0,28/ 720

1,5/ 0,24/ 210

2,5/ 0,40/ 250

1,5/ 0,36/ 600

1,5/ 0,39/ 280

1,3/ 0,30/ 420

3,0/ 0,25/7 20

1,1/ 0, 16/ 270

1, 1/ 0,20/ 590

2,0/ 0,27/740

2,0/ 0,22/ 220

3,0/ 0,38/ 270

2,0/ 0,34/ 640

2,0/ 0,37/ 330

1,4/ 0,33/ 450

3,5/ 0,21 / 770

1,3/ 0, 15/ 280

J ,3/ 0,20/ 61

2,5/ 0,25/700

2,5/ 0,21 / 230

4,0/ 0,34/ 290

2,5/ 0,32/ 650

2,5/ 0,35/ 380

1,5/ 0,35/ 470

4,0/ 0, 18/800

1,5/ 0, 15/ 310

1,5/ 0,21 / 620

3,0/ 0,24/ 640

3,0/ 0,21 /240

5,0/ 0,32/ 320

3,0/ 0,31 / 660

3,0/ 0,34/ 430

2,0/ 0,60/740

4,5/ 0, 16/8 30

1,7/ 0,14/ 330

1, 7/ 0,21 / 640

3,5/ 0,23/ 600

4,0/ 0,21 / 250

6,0/ 0,28/ 340

3,5/ 0,30/ 660

3,5/ 0,34/ 470

2,3/ 0,53/8 1

5,0/ 0, 14/850

1,9/ 0, 13/ 350

1,9/0,22/ 650

4,0/ 0,22/ 570

5,0/ 0,21/ 260

8,0/ 0,22/380

4,0/ 0,29/ 660

4,0/ 0,33/ 520

2,5/ 0,51/ 830

5,5/ 0, 12/ 860

2,0/ 0, 14/ 360

2, 1/ 0,23/ 650

4,5/ 0,21 / 540

5,5/ 0,21/ 250

9,0/ 0,20/ 400

4,5/ 0,29/ 670

4,5/ 0,34/560

3,0/ 0,50/ 880

. ,
( =

10

h,

) .

1,

1,

AI , Cr, Mn,

2,0 %), V, Ti.

(.

, ,

2).

. ,

, ,

(. .

. -

2),

Al

Si

Ni

Mn

r -h

0,99

-0,99

0,99

- 0,99

-0,99

- 0,98

-0,97

0,95

- 0,92

r - v

0,99

0,99

0,99

0,96

0,97

0,98

0,96

0,98

0,99

. r .

2007. N2 1

49

HV

h,

800

0,40

HV

f."/

0,28

hf

0,24

1 /
1 1
1

0,20
0, 16

, 12

".".

'\
/

HV
700

600

500

'\
2

0,30

0,25

\.

400
0, 15

'\

0,35

0,20

\,

300
Al,%

0, 10

/.

0,4

/'"'

0,30
0,26
0,22

700

tr

0,34

500

1/

400

......

,.._

300
200

,%

0,42
0,38

HV
\- h

0,30

0,32

'1

1/ \

1.

0,18

117

HV

h,

400

0,4

0,8

1,2

250

HV

0,45

230

">

0,35

300

0,3 5

vv

HV

240

i'\

8 S1,. '

200

h,

HV

0,6
500

0,3
300

r-..-,

/.'.

0,2
200

n, '

v
0 1

'

800

/;
/1

400 0,4

"" r---

~ r-.

0,5

280

HV

~v

)<
.._

320

\
0,40

360

210
200
Nt,%

vv

"k"

240

h,

400

300
2,0 V, %

1,6

\h
1\

500

0 12

0,25

'

0,20

600

Vh

200
2,0W,%

/~

~/

220

600

0,5 1,

)
.

1,6

0,24

4 Cr, %200

r'

500

"

0,28

0,45

""'

280

.v k'

0,14

600

1\

1
1

0,20

r--.-

1,2

0,36 1\

0,3 4

320

,/

h,

0,46

0,22

240

h,

600

'" "

)
HV

0,8

)
h,

0,38

l>

360

h ,

0,16

~ .....

.l/

1,5

400

200
2,0 2,5 3,0 1 ,%

V r :

- (h = 0,024

+ 0,3 19(Al)- O, lll (Al) 2 + 0,0103(Al) 3; = 198,78 + 232,80-(Al)- 20,466(Al) 2); - (h =


= 0,445 - 0,722-(W) + 0,569(W) 2 - 0,144(W) 3; = 178,423 + 87,279-(W)); - (h =, 125 + 0,0839-(V)- 0,0175(V) 2; =
= 282,421 + 412,587-(V) - 116,259(V) 2); - (h = 0,301 - 0,132-lg(Mo) ; = 7,005 + 827 , 894-() - 294,63 () 2 +
+ 30,477-()\ - (h = 0,389 - 0,174-(Ni) + 0,0523(Ni) 2 - 0,00487(Ni) 3; = 188,3 + 19,43-(Ni) - 1,2472-(Ni) 2) ; -
(h = 0,489- 0,0336-(Si); = 197,404 + 23,025-(Si)); - (h = 0,469 - 0,0861(Cr) + 0,0104(Cr) 2; = 147,070 +
+ 559,0985-(Cr) - 194,481 -(Cri + 21,4963-(Cr)\ - r (h = 0,509 - 0,0959-(Mn) + 0,013(Mn) 2; = 158,030 +
+ 89,007-(Mn)); - (h = 0,253- 0,273-(Ti) + 0,358(Ti) 2 - 0,0802(Ti) 3 ; V = 346,009 - 363,593-(Ti) + 448,416(Ti) 2 - 89,214(Ti) 3)

..

6.0

STAISICA

[7, 8, 10].

, .

F (Fp

Si

S - 0,03 %;
Mn 0,25 ... 0,45 %.

, , .

3.

4.

F-

[11]

F) .

R, F (.

4)

t = (55010)

50

'

= 25

38 .

, -

2007. N!! 1

n/ n

Si

Cr

Ni

Ti

Al

h,

38

0,45

1,65

0,25

1, 10

0,42

0,50
0,55

950
1000

40

0,80

0,90

1,65

0,25

0,44

0,35
0,40

650
680

2522

0,38

0,27

0, 10

1,Q2

3,02

0,52

0,09

0,29

0,50
0,55

830
850

253

0,38

0,26

0,14

3,40

3,02

0,6

0,28

0,40
0,45

780
802

1824

0,55

0,37

1,65

4,40

0,4

0,20

0,30
0,35

600
620

304

0,35

0,36

1,55

3,85

2,00

0,32

0,30
0,37

1000
1050

302

0,50

0,40

1,80

0,80

0,43

0,42
0,45

900
930

203

0,50

0,37

0,85

3,30

0,50

0,55

0,20

0,30
0,35

600
670

302

0,28

1,41

0,53

2,40

0,29

0,43
0,45

900
1000

10

302

0,27

1,27

4,00

2, 18

0;20

0,29

0,35
0,38

1000
1050

11

3044

0,26

0,4

3,95

0,64

3,95

0,32

0,28
0,30

950
1032

if

h = 0,437- 0 , 023() + 0,034(V)- 0 , 0 1 7(1) + 0,032(Ti)


- 0,004(Ni) ,
80 , 30()

+ 104,63(V) +

1 22,54(1)

~.

R = 0,836;
Fp = 2,5 ~ FT (0,95; 6; 17) = 2,9

0,025(Cr) -

+ 107,60(Ti) +

1 9 , 50()

R = 0,726;
Fp = 3,44 ~ FT (0,99 ; 5; 17) = 4,56

h = 0,86 - 5,500() + 3 , 440 () 2 + 0,880(V)- 487 ,O(V) 2 - 0,0 19(1) +


+ :7(1) 2 +, 150(Ti) - 0,034(Cr) + 0,0 14(Cr) 2 - 0,0 10(N i) + 0,0006(Ni) 2,

R= 0,890;
Fp = 1,3 ~ FT (0,95 ; 6; 17) = 2,9

= - 713,7 + 7974, 70() - 11 544,90() 2 + 95,12(V)- 31 ,56(V) 2 + 120,0(Al) - 20,30(Al) 2 + 270,07(Ti)- 209,0() + 11 4,40() 2 + 226,20(Cr)- 39,90(Cr) 2

R =0,9 15;
Fp = 3,15 ~ FT (0,99; 6; 17) = 4,56

= 546,82 +
+ 70,0(Cr)
if

F 1 F2.


h,

1000

2,

, ..

2007. NQ 1

51

Cr Al

2,

0,6 ... 0,65

,


2 , 5~--~--~~~~--~~~~-~~~~

2,0


l-+--+t----f\----+---"1---'--"'-1----'"""'=::l------=!

1 ,5 ~---------~.--4r---~---+~--+-~-1

1,0~--4-*-~~~~~~---~+---~--~~~

0,5 ~=-+-==~-dft-7~f-~.L---t""--'--f1
2,0

2,5

3,0

3,5 Cr, %

,
, .. ,


( ).

1.

.., .. . .:

4,

l'-'""+--"-->r>'<""f"o<~"'d"'""~""""'..._.".,~_,....,:f""-o;;=""""-~:-..::'1

3 , 5~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

2.

1976. 256

.., .., .. .:

3.

2002. 519

.., .. -

. .: ,
2 , 5~4-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2 , 0~-+~~~~~-F~~~~~~~~~-F--~

1,5J#=F#====J=\====t.

1969. 151 .
4.

1 ..

2001. 483 .
5.

, .. . .: . .,

1 ..

, . . .

1, 1--?.L_t-----/-t--t++-

0,5 ;,......<~+--+-~4+----1----+--~---t-===J

N2 1. . 13-17.
6. -

11

2004.

. . , . . , . . , ..

0,5

1,0

1,5

2,0

2,5

3,0

Cr,%

. .: - . .. ,

7.

. 2. V ()
h ()

.,

8.

1999. 395

1 . .

. .: .

.., ..

1976. 223

HV,

Cr"' 1,6 ... 1,7 % Al"' 1,3 ... 1,4 %.

52

.. -

. .: ,

. . : ,

9.

1999. 400

10.

1965. 465

.., ..

- . .:
,

11.

1972. 184

.., ..

. .: ,

2007. N2 1

1983. 416

4)L~

Lm~

.., ..

.. , . ., .. -

. . ....... .. ... ... .. .. ...... ...... .. .. .. .... ..

Ng 2

....... ..... ........ ... ..... .. ... ............ ........ .. .. ... .............. . Ng

.., ..

.., ..

2006 r

- ......

..

...... ..... ............ .. .. .... ....... ...... ... .. ....... .... .... . Ng 7

.., ..

..... ... .. ............. ...... .. .. ........... ................ .. .. ... ....... .... ..... ... .

Ng 9

.. .... ... ...... ... Ng 4

..

.., ..

... . Ng 5

..

... .... ... .. .......... ........... ...... ... .... .. .. .. ........ ....... ....

Ng 6

.., .., ..

........ . Ng 3

. ., . .

" -

" ""

...... ... ........... .. .. ..... .... ... ............ Ng 2

73- ,

... ... ...... .... Ng 9

..

.., .., ..,

.. , . .

.. , .., ..,

..

..... ... ... Ng 12

...... ... ........ ... .... .. ..... .... .... ...... ...... ............ ...... Ng 11

.., .., .., -

..

.., ..

.. .. .. ... Ng 5

.... ....... ........... ... ....... .. .......... ...... .. ...... ... ........ Ng 11

............. ............ ... ...... ..... ......................

. ., ..

.................................. ....... ......... ........... ...... ... .....

.., ..

.., .., ..

.... .. ...... ..... .. ....... .... .. ..... .... Ng 4

- .... .... .... .. ..... ..

Ng 8

Ng 5

.......... ... .. . Ng

.., .., .., ......... .....

Ng 11

.., .., .. -

.. ................................ .. .... .. .. .... ...... .. .... ... .. ..... .. .. ... .. .

Ng 9

.., .., ..

Ng 10

.., ..

........ ...... .. ..... .. ......... .. ....... ......

N~

.... ..... .. ..... .. ..... .... .... ............ ....... .. ...... ................. Ng

..,

..,

.. -

... ............................ NQ3

.., .. -

.... ... .................. .

Ng 4

.. -

.., .., ..

... .. .

- .......... ..... ... .. ............. .. ..... ... ..... ... ..... ..


....... ....... ..... ... ..... ..... .... ...... ... ..... ...... ... ... .. .. ........... ..

.., .. -

..

Ng 7

.., .. -

Ng 6

.., ..

... ... .... ................... ... ................ ... ...... ... .... ... .... .. .. . Ng 11

Ng

.., n .. -

Ng 5

2007. N!! 1

............. ..... .............. Ng 4

53

..

.., .., ..

.... NQ 7

................. ...................... NQ 8

.., .., ..

.., .., .. -

- -

..............................

NQ 10

..................... .. .. .. .... ........ ............ ................... ..... NQ 6

.., ..

.., .., ..

.. :... .................... ................. .......... . NQ 8

........

NQ 12

.., ..
,

.., .., .., -

......... ..... NQ 9

. ., . ., .., ..

..

151652- -

.. .. .. ............. ....... .............

........................... ........ ................... .......... ........ ....... NQ 10


NQ 9

.....

..

............. ...... ............ .. ........ NQ 9

.., .. -

....... ..... .. .. ..... ....... ..... ..... .. NQ 7

, -

.. ..... ................ ..... .......... NQ 11

.. -

.., ..

.......

.. -

...... .. ...... ...... .... .. ...................................... ... ..... NQ 10

................................. NQ 8

--

... :..................... .............................. .

.............. ..... ......... NQ


NQ 6

.., .. -

.............. .

NQ 3

.., ..

....... ............ ................... ....... ......... .....

.., ..

NQ 11

.., .., ..

NQ 12

.., .., ..,

..,

NQ 8

.., ..

........... ..... .. ......... ....... .. ... .. .. .... NQ 4

.., ..

............... .. ..... .........

NQ 5

.., ..

................. ................... NQ 12
0.0.

........... ... ........ ................. ............... NQ 2

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2007. N!! 1

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E-mail: utp@mashin.ru.
Web-site: www.mashin.ru.
(495) 268-40-77, 269-54-96;

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26.10.06

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15

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