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2003

681.3.06
32.973.26-018.2
4-49

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Mathcad. .: -,
2003. - 496 : .
ISBN 5-94157-282-4
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681.3.06
32.973.26-018.2


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02429 24.07.00. 05.05.03.


70100'/,. . . . . 39,99.
3000 . 4223
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13.03.2002 . .

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199034, -, 9 , 12.
ISBN 5-94157-282-4

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I.

1. /i-



1.1 1.11
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2.

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3. :


3.1 3.21
3.1 .11
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4.


4.1-4.6
4.7 4.12
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8
9
10
10
13
15
15
16
18
19
20
22
25
29
32
33
35
36
37

IV

5.

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6.

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7.

39
42
44
47
48
50
52


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55
56

8.

59


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60
62

9.

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10.


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10.110.10 Mathcad
11.

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11.111.10 Mathcad

63
66
67
71
73
74
76
77
78
79
81
81

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83

12. n-

85


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13.


, ,

86
87

89
90
91

14.


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15.

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16.116.11
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17.1 17.20
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19.

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20.

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21.
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94
97
97
99
101
102

103
107
110
111
112
113
115
122
122
123
127
129
133
135
136
139
142
143
146
151
151

153
155
155

VI

22.

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23.






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23.1 - 23.10
23.1123.22
23.1 - 23.10

24.



24.1 -24.10
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25.

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26.

26.126.21
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27.

27.127.21
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27.1 - 27.10 Mathcad
28.


28.128.20 28.1

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157
159
160

161
164
165
165
167
169
172

180
182
183
183
185
185
187
189
189
190
195
196
198
202
205
205
211
213
214
218
219
219
224

VII

29.

227


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232
232

30.




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234

30.130.10
30.11-30.20
30.130.10

31.

244



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249
250
253

32.

258


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33.

237
237
238
239
241

259
261
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33.1133.20
34.

34.134.10
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35.


35.135.10
35.1135.22
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263
266
267
268
270
271
272
273
276
277
277
279
281

III.

289

36.

291


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292
292

VIII

37.


K37.I7.13
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38.

38.]38.12
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293
295
298
298
299
301
302
302
303

39.

304


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307
307

40.


40.1 40.12
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K40.I40.12 Mathcad
41.

41.141.12
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41.141.12 Mathcad

309
311
316
316
317
317
319
321
321
322
322

IV.
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325

42.

327



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43.


43./, /= 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
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330
332
332
333
337
341
342
342
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44.

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347
349
349
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45.1 - 45.10
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353
354
354
354

46.

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361
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368
372
376
379
383
384
388
388
390
392
393
396
396
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1.1.

- (1.5, 5.2, 11, 0.7, 3.2, 33.5, 8.5, 6.3);


= (3.8,4.5, 1.7,6,4.7, 12,22.3, 17.3).

1.2.

- - (5.5, 2.1, 21, 2.5, 6.2, 23.7, 9.6, 9.1, 34, 21.6, 33.2, 5.7);
= ( 2 . 6 , 1.9,5.1, 11.2,6.8,22.2,2.7,7.9, 13.5,23.5,8.3,8.1).

1.3.

= ( 5 . 3 , 1.4, 13.2,2.7,4.4, 13.4,28.3,4.2,23.5,6.3, 12.5);


= (8.8, 5.1, 3.8, 9.7, 13.7, 21.4, 12.5, 7.7, 8.1, 23.4, 4.6).

1.4.

= (16.5, 25.5, 1.1,2.8, 18.2,45.1, 13.6,5.3,55.1,4.6,2.6,14.5,45.2,23.1);


- (7.8, 9.5, 7.7, 16, 4.8, 22, 32.4, 27.5, 1.1, 32.4, 6.3, 8.3, 11.1, 8.3).

1.5.

: =(11.5, 25.2, 31,3.7, 5.2, 23.5, 8.8, 3.3, 17.2,8.2, 11.4,34.1);


= (5.8, 14.5, 11.7, 16,8.7,32,32.7,27.3, 12.4,23.1,31.2,44.6).

KI.6.

- ( 7 . 6 , 9.1, 12,2.3, 13.2,24.5, 18.5,9.3,42.1,23.4);


- (6.8, 4.3, 6.7, 6.5, 14.7, 16.4, 32.5, 27.3, 11.7. 34.6).

1.7.

= (5.5, 15.4,21.4,3.7,5.2, 13.5,5.3, 13.5,23.4,21.2,6.3);


= (6.3, 8.4, 6.7, 3.4, 9.3, 22.5, 2.3, 6.3, 21.6, 33.2, 12.8).

1.8.

= (33.5, 51.2, 19.3, 7.7, 8.2, 43.5, 28.4, 8.6, 31.3, 42.4, 35.2, 12.5, 3.4, 4.5, 42.1,
2.4, 11.4);
- (7.8, 6.4, 3.8, 9.4, 3.2, 22.3, 2.5, 7.3, 4.1, 23.2, 13.5, 24.2, 45.2, 5.6, 7.5, 21.2, 7.2).

1.9.

= (7.5, 25.1, 1.9, 4.7, 5.2, 23.1. 18.5, 16.3, 23.1, 24.5, 31.2, 41.2, 9.3, 1.2);
= (4.8, 6.5, 3.7, 7.6, 8.7, 32.2, 2.3, 7.5, 6.2, 8.2, 23.6, 42.2, 7.2, 8.1).

1.10.

= ( 4 . 2 , 15.1,21.3,2.7,4.4,3.8, 18.3,2.3, 17.3,34.1);


= (4.8, 6.2, 11.7, 16.2, 8.7, 32.4, 2.3, 7.3, 9.1, 21.2).

1..

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258,2.5,2.5);
= (18, 16, 16, 12, 19, 19, 18, 18, 13, 13, 14, 12,21,22, 12.5, 12, 12.5, 10.5, 18. 18).

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2.5

Q = (230, 55, 321, 55),


S = (250,14,33, 5, 81, 221,400),
/ = (18,5,7,3,6,4,7).

3.2.
4.5 8

Q = (90,145,40,31),

5.5 7.2 2.5 7.1 15.8 21


7.4 8.5 6.5 5.1
3

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5 =(15, 232,143,15,52,21),
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..
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7.5

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3.3

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3.5 2.1 3.7

15.9

2.5
26.4

g = (100,105,240,221,43),

= 7.4

8.6 6.7 7.5 23.4

4.8

5 =(50, 212,123,115, 66,21),

5.4

6.9 7.2 12.5 4.3

1.5

/=(9,12,23,3,15,24).

8.3

8.5 12.7 6.5 11.8 12.7

3.4.

4.3 6.2 3.4 11 3.9 2.5 \\


= 7.5 8.9 8.4 4.1 5.8 2.1 12
7.4 8.4 12 1.1 5.7 8.2 3.5

2-06.9,12.5,14.8),
S = (15, 22,3,5,8,21,40),
/ = (5, 7, 3, 2, 7, 4,1).

3.5.
21

5.3 3.6

6.5 5.6
= 4.3 5.8
4.6 6.1
7.5

2.6

8.3

3.2

2.5

8.1

5.4

2.1

2 = (120, 225, 240,111,53),

3.6

17

21

5 = (120, 202,103,105,41,21),

12

15

7.2

/ = (18,12,13,16,2,14).

1.2 3.5

8.8

1.7

3.6.
'25

13

3 10.2

4.5 6.2 3.2 5.1 5.8

Q = (60, 25, 40, 31, 36),

3.7 7.8 9.6 1.1 4

5 = (50, 202,130, 105,81),

7.4 11.1 2.7 2.5 8.2

/^(28,22,33,13,12).

7.5 1.2 7.5 1.8

2 . 4223

I.

24
3.7.
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15

32

23

15 3.2 '

82 21

71 5.8

Q = (260, 25, 40,111),


5 = (250, 78, 63, 55,111),

11.7 5.8 6.3 1.1 2.4

= (90, 42, 40,40,31).

4.5 7.1 4.2 11.5 13.2


3.8.
5
15

24 31 13 3.2 2.5
8.2 2.7 7.1 5.8 2.1

6.7

5.8 8.6 11 12.4 8

4.9

7.1 5.2 8.5 9.2 15

3.9 3.5 2

3.5 1.8 17

4.6 12.3 3.9

45 15.8 32.9

= (60, 25, 40, 11, 8, ),


5 = (250, 220, 13, 105, 8, 21),
f =(48, 2,31,13,12,14).

3.9.
'7.5 16 23
1.5 8.2

7.8

15.3 3.2 2.5 9.1


7.1 15.8 21 0.9
II

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8 0.5

4.7 6.1 2.9

6.5 7.2 1.5 0.3

3.5 1.8 17 0.4

8.5

12

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5 =(50, 2,103,5, 71, 11, 40),
(=(18,21,31,13,21,14,11).

5.1 24.6 12.3 23.3 6.7 4.5 14.7


. 10.
'25 12 13 51 3.2 35
6.5 12 21 8.1 5.8 2.1

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17 18 16 1 24 18
6 11 21 15 1.2 5

5 = (50, 2, 43, 65, 86,11),


/ = (18,31,15,21,12,32).

.31 7.5 1.2 6.5 5.8 1.7)


K3. .

(25 8.2 3 5.3 13.2 25 1.0


1.5 8.2 2 7.1 5.8 21 0.9
8 6 11 2.4 8 0.5
7
=
4 9.1 2 5 3.2 15 0.3
3 8.5 12 3.5 1.8 17 0.4

= (160,125,140,311,83),
= (150, 22,13, 15,81,211,400),
= (8, 2, 3, 3, 2, 4,1).

3. :

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(3.1), (, + + , -, +(3).
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4.6. \ - : + 3 3 = 7

+ x2 + 7x3 - 2
X. ~r 4*Xj

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4.14.

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4.16.

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I.

4.13. : D , - s
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40

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5.3. ,,&,, ... ,. (5.2).


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U = (3,1.4), ^ = (5, 2,3), - ( 1 , 1 , - 6 ) .
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42

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5.1. 5.3 5.4.
5.2. 5.7.
5.3. , , *.
5.4. : ; .
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R", .
5.7. m R"
<. , z ,
A, z .
5.15.21 , a,b,c
R , d a,b,c .
5.1. 5 = ( 3 , 1 , 3 )

=(2,1,0)

5.2. 5=(10,3,1)

=(1,0,1)

^ =(4,2,1).

=(3,9,2)

^ =(19,30,7).

= (1,4,2)

FTS.3. 5 = (2,-1,11)

=(0,1,2)

= (1,1,0)

5.4. = ( 8 , 2 , 3 )

=(4,6,10)

5.5. = ( 1 , - 2 , 3 )

d = (2,5,3).

=(3,-2,1)

J = (7,4,ll).

= ( 6 , 4 , 2 ) rf = (14,18,6).

= (4,7,2)

5.6. 5 =(3,1,8)

= (0,1,3)

=(1,2,-1)

5.7. = (2,4,1)

= (1,3,6)

=(5,3,1) rf = (24,20,6).

5.8. = ( - 1 , 7 , - 4 )
5.9. = (4,7,8)
5.10. a = (2,7,5)

= (-1,2,1)
=(9,1,3)
= (1,0,1)

^ = (2,0,-1).

=(0,-3,2)

=(2,-4,1)
= (1, - 2,0)

d =(2,1,-1).

<? = (1,-13,-13).
d = (0,3,1).

5.11. a = (3,7,2) = (2,3,4) =(6,2,2) rf = (3,-1,2).


5.12. a =(0,1,1)

= (2,3,4)

=(0,0,1)

d = (-1,-2,-4).

5.

43

5.13. = ( - 2 , 0 , - 2 )

= (0,-1,1)

5.14. = ( 0 , - 1 , - 3 )

= (0,1,0)

=(-2,0,-3)
=(-2,1,-4)

^=(-1,1,-3).
(/ = ( - 1 , 1 , - 3 ) .

5.15. = ( - 2 , - 2 , - 3 ) - ( - 2 , 1 , 1 ) = ( - 2 , - 2 , 2 ) J = ( - l , - l , 3 ) .
5.16. 5 = ( 2 , - 2 , 0 )

-(3,0,1)

5.17. 3 = ( 2 , - 2 , 4 )

-(3,1,-1)

5.18. = (3,4,1)

=(5,8,-1)

5.19. = ( - 3 , 1 , 4 )
5.20. -(-3,8,2)

= ( 4 , - 2 , 0 ) rf = ( 3 , - l , l ) .
=(-4,5,2)
=(6,-1,4)

d = (5,-1,3).

=(8,1,6)

d-(-l,2,4).

= (7,1,-5)
=(5,9,-4)

5.21. = (2,-1,3)

= (1,0,2)

/ = ( 8 , - 1 , 6 ) .

= (6,1,8)
-(3,1,1)

d = (-2,-3,-4).
<5 = ( 0 , - 2 , 4 )

5.22 - 5.42 :
5.22. 5 = ( 2 , 1,3).
5.23. = (-1,3,0).
5.24. = (2,-1,-4).
5.25. - ( 3 , 4 , 2).
5.26. = (-2, 5,3).
5.27. 5 = (2, 1,3), - ( - 1 , 3 , 1).
5.28. 5 = 0 , 2 , 3 ) , = ( 3 , - 1 , 1 ) .
5.29. 5 = ( 0 , 3 , 4), - ( 1 , 4 , 2 ) .
5.30. 5= (-1,3, 6), = ( 2 , 6 , 3 ) .
5.31. = ( 3 , 4 , 2), = (3,4,1).
5.32. 5 = ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ) , = ( 2 , 0 , - 1 , 3 ) .
5.33. = ( 2 , - 1 , 0 , 3 ) , = ( 3 , 2 , - 1 , 1).
5.34. 5 = (1,0,3,-1), = ( - 2 , 4 , 3 , 2 ) .
5.35. = (2, 4, - 1 , 6), = (3, 2, - 1 , 4).
5.36. 5 = ( 3 , - 1 , 0 , 2 ) , = (2, 1,3,6).
5.37. 5= (1,1,0,0), - ( 0 , 0 , 1, 1).
5.38. = (3, 2, 1, -1), = (4, 2, 3, 6).

44

I.

5.39. a = (3, - 1 , 4, 6), = (3, 2, - 1 , 1 ) .


5.40. a = (2, 1, 3, 4), - (2, 0, 4, 1).
5.41. = ( 3 , 2 , 4, 0, = (3, 1 , - 3 , 1).
5.42. = (2, , 1,3), 6 = (-1, 1,3,-2).

, ,
5.2. =0. 5.3 = 0. = 0 , 4.2 = 0
,
5.6.
5.3. : 5.7.
5.4. ,
. . ,
- 0 = 0. =0 = 0. = 0
5.3.
, - 5.3
.
( )
.
5.5. 5.6 () ,
= EX = D
, . , ,
EX = D X = D.
5.6. | , 2 , ..., am e R" m < .
5.2 , + ] ,

aba2, ..., am , 5 m + l , 2.2 5 + ]


. ,
5.5. ,
a{,a2, ,am,aln+t . ,

5.

45

, 5.5.
5.7. : 5.6.
3

5.21. 5.5 R
.
, , . , d

, ,

' +x,b' + 3 ' -d . . ,


5.5 , , ,
. :

0 1 5 -4

/ 0 1

-1 0 1 -2

1 0

0 2 4 2

/
0 1

5 -4

1 0 1
0 0

=>

1 0 1

5 -41
1 -2

0 0 -6

1 0 0 1

1 1

: 2~ 1,

1 -1

-V, = 1,

3 = - 1 , . . d - la + \b -\c .

5.42. , h .
:
\[a-x} = 0

J2.v, +2 +3 =0

\[ ] = 0'

[- , + 1 + , -2x^=0

2 0 1 3
-1

1 3 - 2

1 0 1/2

3 '2

1/2

3/2

-1

-2

3
2

0 I 7/2 -1/2
, 3 = -*4=" 1, , =-2,

2 = - 3 . = (-2, - 3 , 1, 1 ) .

5.7 , , .

46

I.

d, a, b, . :

[b ] = 0 ,

- 1 , + 2 4- 3 - 24 = 0.

[ ] = 0
;
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0 1

-1

-2-3

3 0"]
3 -20

10

=>

0 1

3 0

-I

1 3

-2 0

I -5

0 10 - 5 0

0 0

5 1

1 -1

0 1

1 0 - 2 1

=>

-1 1 3 - 2
1 0 -2 1

2 = -

1 0 - 7 0

3 = 1, 4 = - 5 , :2 - - 6,

| = 7.

^ = (7, - 6, 1 , - 5 )

- 5.7 , , , d
. 5.5 R4


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=

(6.1)

, = .
(6.1).

.
6.1. (6.1),
,2, ,
Ax = ct, =2,... , =, , , 2 , ., , X1 = (|, ..., ).
(6.1)
= () (2), .
(2) (6.1), , , . (6.1)
.
6.1 4.2 .
6.2. .
6 . 1 . (6.1) , . . = .
(6.1) , .
. 5.6
, ,
N , , .
(). " " , D. 6.2
= - D ( = NX = D) . . , EX = D D
(. 3.1) , , > = . -

48

I.

. , N 1- .
NX i- , , D = NX, D
2.3 . .
6.1. ~ .
(6.2)

=
, .
(


(6.2). ~\
6.2. , , .

6.3. , ~\ , . . = ' = .
6.4. . (6.1) 1.
6.5. .
- =
.
. 6.1 - 6.3.
6.1
: () " " ( " ", );
~\


6.1. 6.1.
6.2. 6.2.
6.3. 6.3 - 6.5.
6.4. ~\ : )
/- k- ; ) i- ; ) /-
- , XI
.
6.5. .
, ()~1 = '1 '.
6.6. .

49

6.

6.1 - 6 . 2 1 (
):
62 - 93 = 3,

, + , = 1,

6.2. 2 + 23 = 6,

2 3 = ,

6.1.

, + 4 5 = -9.

- , + 2 + , = 1.

6.3.

xj + 5 2 + 1 = 2,

+ 6 2 + 3 = 3,

xj + 3 x 2 + 4 3 = 5,

6.4. \ 4, + 2 - 2 3 = 6,

5xi +2x2 + 3 3 - 7.

|-5 -42 -3 =3.


+ 22 - 6 3 = 4 ,

+ 2 2 - 3 = 1
2 + 2 = 2,

6.5.

6.6. \ , - 2 2 + 2 3 = 2,

1 + = 3
+ 22 +

6.7.

4 +

_ ^v

, + + , = -6.
, + 2 2 + 3 = 1

- 2 3 = 2,

~ ^3

6.8. < 4, + 2 - 2 3 = 2,
, + 8 2 + 2 3 = 1.

=1

, +2-> -- = 1.

2 + 3 = 2
6.10.

6.9. -~ 2 + > =

- , -12x3 = ~ 3 .

+ +'.53 = - 3

2xj + 5 : + 7 3 = 2,

2, + 2 + 4 * 3 = 2

6.11. , + 2 2 + 53

3,

2, + 2 + 4 3 = 5,

6.12.

5, - 2 2 + 3 = 7.

4, + 7 2 + 6 3 = 4.

[, + 2 = 3,

6.13. 2 ; - + 3 = -2,

6.14. '2 = 2

, + 2 + 2 3 = - 5 .

V -I- Y"
_,

, + 2 : + 3 = 1,
- 2 + 2 3 =2,
, + 7, = 3.
- 1 -22 - 3 = -1,
6.18.

6.17.
, + 7 = -3.

.' f

+V
I

^V"]

= 3
'

, +10x 2 -15 3 = 5,
2 + 2 3 =10,
+ 4, = 1.
, + 2 2 + 53 = 1,
2, - 2 + 3 = 2,
, + 2 + 2 3 = 5.

I.

50

2, + 42 - 63 = 2,
6.19.

2 + 23 = 4,

6.20.

, + 2 2 + -, = -3,
2, + 3, + 4 , = - 3 .

, + 4, = -6.
+ 2 2 - 53 = 8
6.21. U , - 3 +3 3 = - 5
1

, + 2 + 2 3 = 4.

, ,
6.1. : 6.1.
6.3. 6.3: (. 6.1) 1
( ), (), , ' (. ).
6.4: ("1) = (~*) = = (. 3.1),
(6.1). ,
, = . /1 ( 6.2):
~ \ ) = ] (

) =

= =

6.5 .
6.4. : ) ' /- - ; ) i-Pi
' 1/; ) - /- , .
6.5. ()( ] ') =() ' - ' = ' - , 1 } . , ( 6.2).
6.6. \ ') = ( ) = = (. 3.1), ('"') .
6.21. - : = ,
(\

G^

-.

= 1 - 3

= -5

6.5, ^ ,
- '] . ( ), :
1

-5 1 0

3 0

2 0

1 2
1 0 => 0 - 5
0 1
0 1

-5 1
8 -1
7 -I

0 0
1 0
0

6.
1

51

0
-1
0 -1
8 -1
0 1J

-5

0 - 5

1 0

-7 1

-1

-27 4

-5

-1

-7

-1
5

27

27

21

9 -10

=> 0

27 _

3
_1_

27
27

\_

'

3
J_

3
_8_

27
4

27
1

27
5

27 27 27

3
J_
27
27

3
7

3
8

27

27

_L

27

27,

7
8
_<;

3
59

27
17

27

27 27
27 27

Alk ,
/- - . , (/, ) 1.

, | \.
.

= () 1,
-. 1, ,* {-"\)'*\1 |,
* ( \1\ 1).
:
\\ = a^^A+ a^2A12+ + .

\ \\ \~> \
"
)

\\- \\\\ + ai2<4i2 = (-1) 1 + 1 a22 + ai 2 (-1) 1 + 2 a 2 i = an a 2 2 - a i 2 a2\.


.
, , ,
.
7.1. , 1,
()
:

I = *4* . ( | | =

/- (- ).

7.

53

:
7.1. ( ), 0.
7.2. () ,
. , : /-
(/+ 1)-. . ,
4 ='

Aik = ( - \ y

+ k

\ A ' l k |.

S, + u = ( - \ ) +

l + k

\ B ' l + itk\ = - A i k .

(/ + 1)- :

=\
, /- (/ +)- .
2/ - 1 :

( ).
: \\ = (-1)^' '|1 = -]|, .
.
7.3.
( ), .
. ,
7.2 \\ = -\\,
\\ = 0.
7.4. /- -
:

.
. Aj- /- . /-
7- , . . | \ = 0 7.3. | \ - :
0 = I & I = JLa,k ,' .
7.5. , ()
X. \\ \ = \\
. 7.1.

I.

54

7.2.
() 2.
. , /- '- , X.
i- . B'lk = ] :
a

'k

+ka

.,k)B<k

=\

=\

V^a jkAlk =0 7.4. .


7.2 ,
. /- () ,*, 7.1 \\ = ,*(-1)' ' | Alk |. [ Aik
- 1. () , 2 . 7.2.
7.1. , .
. 5.6, , , , . | \ 0 7.2 7.5,
\ = 0 7.1. .

\\ ,

/},, -, ... -,

... ...

( ) .

7.2. ^0,

7.

55

. (* (i,j) ^a!LAjk. ,
i =j \\ ( 7.1), } ( 7.4).

0.... \

{ ) 0

0....

((') = , .

--,

=
-,

.(

., - 12
'21

"22

'22


7.1. 7.1 7.5.
7.2. ""
:

12 13
<*\ I 32^23 ~

33
7.3. ,
7.4. , , () , . , .
,| \ = 1.
7.5. +\ /,() = ," + aiit,.\x"'] + ...+ 1 + ,0, / = 0,1, ..., .
, ~, F, /- {aim ,,.1, ..., ,\, ) .
3 . 4221

56

I.

7.6. ,
, ,
, , . . , = -,. , .
7.7. ,, 2, ..., . :
'l , ;... <

I , , ... "'
J ;...:

, - ch 1 < / < < .


7.8. . (-lYah alu...ani

, / ={i{,i2, ...,/) 1,2, ..., ( ) ,


/ , / ( ). , , .
, \ \\.

, ,
7.1, : 7.5
, X.
7.2. : 7.1 7.
7.3. . = 1. , - 1. .

= | \ : [ | = 2 _ , \ ^ \ &\ ~ ( ^ \ >
=\
, | Bki \-\ Alk \.

7.4. . 2. ,
/7-1.

7.

57

. , , , 2

. \\ : || = = aii(-l) | \\ I - 1 , ,
, .. | \ = 22^---. \ | = ^^ , .
7.5. X - ( V "~',... , 1), ,
J

FX =0, . . Fx =0

. 5.3 F , ..
F . \F\ = 0 7.1. .
7.6.

"12

"I

...ah

- ...a2

-.
=

...a-.

.0

. - 1 ,
. 7,5 , \\= (-1)| ] . ]| = || (.
7.3), \ \= (-1)"|| \\ = ~||, \\ = 0.
7.7. .

2 - . .
1

. , - 1.
: , -, , {. :
1
/-!._

( - , ) ( -ct)c2

\C2

10
1
i

(c,, - ^ K ... ( -

0.
,',

1
-1

1 c3 c3 ... cj
1

' ...

-2

58

I.

,
- 1, .
7.8. . . , - I
.
,

Alk | Alk | { - 1)! ,


Alk . ( - 1)! ,
. , . an (-1) 1 ' L\An\. ;

/? / = <72,..., /).

ah^,a-.^,...,ami . , - -
( I
( + 1 )- -).

, {/,. /,. <

>=\.

, , / ' - 2 . . . . , .

[! - I /,. >

(7.1)

, i=(k, / 2 ,...,/). (7.1)


, ,
/' - (/2,... ,in) / = (, /2,... ,/ ), . , / , - 1 1, 2,..., -\.
p^J} + - 1. + - \ J) + + I . , ( - l ) ' " l + lalttf2(i ...am (-[)''aua2i^... ani . , \ \.


, =
. ( ) , .

* , - R" -
R". -
(,,). -
.
8.1.
- ' " . -
i ",

( , , )

=(A Ay\A d).

. , 7 . 5.3 1 = 1 , . . = 0 . 1 ,
1 7 = 0. 3.1, 3.1 3.5:
0 = 5 ' 1 = [' (7 ] = [ ' -' ' ] = [7 -7 7 ]

2
(A3)

. . = 0 (. 1 ). ( 5.3).
, . 1
(7)~ ( 6.2). ' ()~1().
, - R", ",
(

-)7

<

(-)

60

I.

~'
7

.1,

[( (' -) ] = (' -) = ^((')*' - ) =


J

)-A d) = y (A c-A e) = Q,

( - ) .

= - '

-). 1.1 (

- - +(
(

..

-, :

f+KAZ* -\2>\(* -)\2.


T

, |( Ay ) j . ,
|( \2 > 0. . .


8.1 -8.21 R ,
( , , ) R2.
8.1. =

8.2. =

8.3. =

8.4.

8.5. =

8.6. =

1 1

1 1

2 5

-3 2] '

'

2 3 -1

1 0 -1

2 -1

1 -2 1

0 3 1

-11-1

4]

, =[2 1

-1 2]

= [3 0 4 l]
T

], c =[l -1 I -l]

3 2-3

10-1
2

, c T = [ l 0 3 0]

cT=[l

1 3 - 2

= [ 2 1 -1 3]

8.
1

8.7. =

8.8. =

8.9. =

8.1. =

8.11. =

8.12. /1" =

8.13. 1 =

8.14. 7 =

8.15. 1 =

8.16.

8.17. 7 =

8.18.

8.19. 7 =

8.20. =

-1

-13

2 - 1 1 2
4

1 - 1 4

"4

-1

c =[l

- 3 1 4 1
5

c =[l

14

13

=[8

-2

2 1"

2-2

12

14

2 -3

_-3 ~2

1 4

"3-3

1 - 1 0
1 3 - 5

1
2
1

4-1-1

4-4

1 6
3

6
0

1 -1

2 -1 - 4 3
5

-l]

-2]

, c T = [ 2 1 1 2]

4 1 2 3
"-1

c' =[l

c 1 =[-1

4 2 3 1
2

-l]

- 1 0]

4 2

-1 3 4]

-2-3 1

0-1-2

2]

, c -[0 1

0 - 2

-1

61

2"
1
13

- 1 1 - 1 1

c7 =[l

-2

-3

cT=[0

c T = [ 4 -1

cT=[2

2 -l]

5 -1

l]

l]

, cT = [4 6 0 4]

, cT = [2 3 3 2]

i]

I.

62

8.21.

~1 3

2 2

, = -1

3 1

, ,
8.21. :
'1

2 -4

(\
0>
1
2
-I
-1
0
=>
=>
~!
J
V 1 " 2

( , - 3 ;
1/4; ,

2).

(. 2.3). (-1, -2)


(. 5.4). , ( 2.3). " 8.1:
D=A'A =

1 2 3
3 2 1

13
22
3 1

14 10
10 14

1 2 3
3 2 I

D , . 7:
48

48
48

* :

_7_ _J_ ^
D~\A'c)= 48

"48

48

48 J

5
12
7

f)=

, (),
(). > 0 >0
( > 0 > 0) , ().

^
, - , :
=

(9.1)

, ( ).

, \ - \ - . \ - \ = 0
.
9.1. ,
.
. = . , (9.1) { - ) = 0 . ,
( ~)= 0 .
5.3 7.1
- . .

64

I.
J

9.1. A .
. 9.1.
- .
9.2. , (
). , , . , , , ,
.
9.2.
1,
1.
. 9.2 > :
=. -, , 1, = .
- ,

= , () = , (\-)() = 0.
, . 1 - = , = 1. .

~)

,
- R" - R" , + = .
9 . 3 . ,
1.
. 9.2 9.1 , ,
, = .
, . , ,
- R"

> 0 R", + = . ( , > 0 .) -

9.

65

a : [( + )

1,1 [ ( ) ] + [

[()

- ]=[

-5 ]=[

- ] = [

]-[

- ].

-( ] = [

-].

, , [

] = [ - ], -

] . (. . 5 )

- ] = [

]-[

]>0.

[ ] > 0 . , 1 - >0.
, < 1. , -

R"

>0

Az + = z . = ,
, 0 R" .
1
\ -X \ =

A-IE

\-

= (\-)\-\.

9.1 1 . < 1, \= I . 9.2 bT =(bx,b2,,bn+i) Bb = b .


' (6,, 2,..., ). =
+ ybn +, = . . \ ~0, = , , = \
, <\. ,^0,
+ =

. ,

. -

.
9.3. ,
-
.
. , - (~)~.
R" (-)~
~ = ,

( - ) =(-)(- )'1 =

~+, (-)~

>0.

.
, , - . 6.2 , - -

66

I.

( - ) = 0 , . . = . = 1
, 9.3 1.
, , -
, . ,-
, - R", - I, . - ,
+ = . = ( - ) ,

(~)~ = {- (-) = . /- (-)~ ,


> 0 . .


9.1. 9.1.
9.2. , ,
, , , ,
, .
9.3. , , , , .
9.4. : , \\ = |]||. , , .
9.5. : ,
.
9.6, .
.
9.7. . , . . a=ab
.
9.19.21
, .
(
9.1.=

0 .

1 0 3

( 2
9.2.- 0 4
0

1
2.

9.3. -

0 4^
0
2
0

9.
15

'1 0 (

0 3

9.4. = 3 2 0

'4

5 7^

9.10./1

11

9.6. -

0 0 2 0
0 0 0 2

1 8 7

9.7. = 0 4 6

67

9.8. = 4 1

9.9. /< =

0 0 4

(\
OIOO
0 0 10

4 2
0 2 2 1
0 0 3 3

9.12. =

9.13. V

10

0 0

10

0 0

10

9.16. =

10

9.14.

99. =

5 2 0 0
4 6 3 0
10

1 2

0 0

10

10

12 0 0
12

1 1 0

0 0 2 5

2 1

9.17. -- 2 1

9.18. = 0 2 0

0 0 2

0 0 2

0 3 3 3

9.20.-

0 0 0 2

3 3 3 1

0 0 0 2

9.15.

2 1
0 0 2 1

7 8

2 1

10

2 0

10

0 2 0 2

6 2

4 2 3 4

5 6 7'

0 2

0 0

(\

O 4
'2

5 3

0 0 0 1

(\
9.11.

0 0 0

0 0 3 3

1 4 8 9
0
9.21.

0 0 0 3

3 5

6 7

0 0 2

13

0 0 2 1

, ,
9.1. : \\ ~ \AJ.
9.2. .
9.3. . 2.1. ,
- 1 . |, , ., ? -

I.

_6S

, ,, 2, ..., 5, , .
, 2, .., 3t ,

: 0 = ^, +... + akak. - \:
J

( -X\E)Q ~ ]([-\ ,) + 2(2-\ ,)+ ... + ( ak~"k\Qk)

0 = ,(, 5 , - A.I , ) + 2 ( 2 2 - ] 2)+...+ ak(Xkak-X\ ak),

2, , , ...,
, , 2(2-]),
(-]), ..., (-[) . 2 ^ . . . = ^=0, 2-
3-],..., ~] . , - , | , .. , - 0.
, .
9.4. , ,
(. 9.5 6.2). , .
\~\ = 0 ( 9.1). -
\ - | = 0. \A~\\

-'||_ =

--*-"\ = 0

-^-'1 = 0

\~1~- =0

, , 9.1 ,

'1. .
9.5. : 5.3.
9.6. 9.2 9.1,
, = . b , . . Ab = ab
, /- b , i-Pt Aj
b , , > 0, b > 0 b 0 .
b . 1.1
3.5, , :

9.
: [ar (Ab)T] = [3J - ( ) ] = [ - ], (-)[

69
] = 0.

[7 6 ] > , > 0, b > 0. =, .


9.7. (. 9.6), .. = , = . , , , /-
b . a-ab > 0 , ab ( ).

(-)=-~

(a-ab),

, a-ab , , , 9.6,
a-ab . - b = 0 T , .
9.21. \ ~ |~0:
1-?,

3-

0
0

2 -

0
0

0
0

3 = 0 .

2- 1
0
2-

, (1 - )(3 -)(2 - X)2 - 0,


.,= 1, 2=3, ^ = 2.
, ,
( - ,) = 0, / = 1, 2, 3.
:

0
0 2 5 6 7 0

0 4 8 9

0 0 1 1 3 0

0 0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0 1 0

0 2 0 0 0
0 0 10 0 0
0 0 0 10 0
0 0 0 0 10

2 ~ ~ * = xs= > < . , , |=1, ( , 0, 0, 0, )1, . -

I.

70

, , 2=3,

(, , 0, 0, 0) , . :
-1 4

1 5

7 0

0 0 -1

1 0

0 0

0 1 0

0 0

0
u

(_ ]

0 -12

0 1 5 0 0 0

0 12 0 0

0 0

0 -1

0 0

0 0 0 1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 0 0 1 0

x5 , 3 :
= 0-12.r, ~-\2x3
c4 = 0 - 0x3 = 0
cs = 0 - Ox, = 0

,
(-12, -5, , 0, 0) , .

10
c

fin d

, .
; , i-
( ); , - , 1-
&- ; , /- ,
( , , , ..); zk -\\ ( , , , ..); , /-
. 10.1,
.
10.1
1

Pi

Pi

Pi

Jfii

Pi

*12

Pi

2,

22

*2

"

21

7-2

X:

Zn


, , :
+ xin)+y,J= 1.2, ..-,.

(10.1)

I.

72

- , * > , +
, p\X]k+ p2x2k ... + ,
zk. :
= (\*\+ 22+ -

P>*nk)+zk,k= 1,2, ...,

(10.2)

/- (10.1) i = 1, 2, ..., ,
:

(10.2):

(.4)
(10.3) (10.4), :

.
, alk = xl/c/xknt . , aik
/- , - - .
^ii+ a2k+ ...+ 1< 1 k- ,
i*+ 2*+ + * 0 -
.
(10.1)-(10.2) :
,= (1]1 + 2+ -+ ^) + (=1,2, ...,,
Pk={p[dn + p2a2k+ ... + pnallk) + vk, A=l, 2, ..., ,

vk=zk/xk, - , .
- :
= + ,

, =
)

= A'p + v ,

']

'\
> =

V =

v2
V,,

(10.5)
...

2\

2 2 - <*2

... J

(, , AJ 9.1 9.3), (10.5)


.

10.

73

:
.
1
1
(10.5) = {-), = (-)~ 1 (- )'
9.3.
: v .

]
(10.5) v = (- ), . . = (- A'y v , 9.3.

(_ )
- , s> 1, , 1 < < s,
sA .
10.1. > 1 .
= , < 1 / , \
.
10.1.


eigenvals{A) eigenveciA, z)
, z
identity(n) .
max{v) mn{v)
v. if{L, , )
L, , () . , , L.

sin cos tan


1 |x|
0

Y
2
x x

-.

:=

1
0

In

log

n!

e*

"x"

. 1 0 . 1 .

74_

I.

[] (Calculator),
. 10.1, ( <|>) |ij , .
X

(Matrix):

X , .

i

. JfV_ (Matrix). , , a = (2, 4,6),

b=(2, 8, 3),

= (3, 4, 5) d , /- d,
'~-:, ,, , /- ,, .
d:=~-c
. -

, :

d (3,2,10). , d ,
-: d =
, , ,
.14

sin(d) =

.91

0.14=sin(3),

).54

0.91=sin(2), -0.54=sin(10). . , d =

'1

2'

, sin {d) .


10.1 -10.10 : , , v
, ,

10.

75

. ,
, ,
.
0.15 0.12 0.48 0.46 0.16
0.1 0.03 0.7

0.3

0.07

0.1 0.05 0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1 0.05 0.2

0.1

0.05

0.7

0.2

0.03

0.6

0.22

0.15 0.3

0.45 0.1
0.3

0.07

0.4

0.02

0.12 0.3

0.1

0.32

0.05

0.3 0.2
0.6 0.25
0.3

0.2

0.01

0.1

0.43

0.1

0.13

0.1

0.8

0.6

0.1

0.05

0.4

0.1

0.27

0.12 0.05

0.12

0.1
1../4 =

0.8

0.2

0.03

0.01 0.01 0.37

0.01

0.01

0.2

0.03

'0.53 0.3

0.08 0.06

0.21

0.51 0.5

0.04 0.41

0.7

10.4.= 0.2 0.05 0.2

0.4

0.01

0.3 0.5

0.2 0.1

0.1

0.l

0.7 0.12

0.3

0.1

'0.7
0.15

0.01 0.08 0.16 0.01


0.5

10.5. = 0.22 0.15

0.04

0.31 0.7

0.02

0.4

0.01

0.13

0.25 0.12 0.1 0.14

0.01

0.02 0.23

0.02 0.13

=(4,10,4,5.12)

=(10,0,5.-30,0)
Av

=(12,-13,12.5,14,-22).

=(12,20,11,23,30)

=(2,21,14,6,32)

=(10,0,5,-30,0)

=(32,23,3,11,12).

Av

=(-11,44,12,-21,70)
vT -(-5,30,8,12,32)

0.44 0.1

0.05 0.32

=(10,30,5,15,50)

-(5,-13,0,55,0)
=(31,23,-41,16,8).

=(31,-14,2,25,-7)
=(5,-13,-3,32,12)

=(-15,13,0,-25,4)
=(0,3,1,-26,-8).

-(1,4,2,1,-17)
vT =(5,-13,5,-2,2)
=(-15,3,10,0,12)
=(-1,-13,-21,6,28).

76

I.
'0.13 0.11 0.02 0.16 0.21
=(-21,24,-2,11,30)
0.21 0.15 0.04 0.12 0.07
vT =(25,-20,-8,2,-22)
0.2 0.05 0.2 0.44 0.13
=(-15,23,10,15,0)
0.3 0.25 0.02 0.01 0.01
AvT =(0,-3,21,-16,-8).
0.01 0.1 0.07 0.2 0.3

10.7.

0.3 0.01 0.2 0.6 0.1


0.1 0.05 0.04 0.02 0.03
0.32 0.5 0.02 0.24 0.3
0.13 0.15 0.12 0.1 0.21
0.21 0.01 0.34 0.22 0.23
0.2 0.11 0.8 0.06 0.21
0.01 0.25 0.4 0.11 0.7
0.02 0.5 0.2 0.04 0.21

=(31,-14,22,-31,10)
vT =(15,20,18,-12,32)
Ay7 =(-5,-13,30,-15,10)
1 =(10,0,-11,6,13).
=(-13,14,22,-24,-13)
vT =(-15,0,8,22,-32)

0.3 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.31

=(5,-3,0,10,-20)

0.1 0.21 0.07 0.02 0.3

AvT =(-11,23,-10,6,8).

'0.01 0.01 0.12 0.06 0.01


0.1 0.05 0.42 0.02 0.71
0.32 0.25 0.22 0.4 0.13
0.12 0.05 0.21 0.1 0.05
0.1 0.1 0.7 0.2 0.09
'0.03 0.21 0.22 0.6

0.0

0.2 0.5 0.44 0.02 0.7


10.10.= 0.02 0.15 0.12 0.14 0.03
0.23 0.15 0.2 0.21 0.21
0.21 0.31 0.7

0.12 0.23

=(1,-34,12,-21,10)
vT =(15,20,8,-13,12)
=(35,33,40,25,0)
AvT =(10,0,0,6,12).
=(23,-14,12,1,-23)
vT =(-25,10,14,-12,32)
=(0,13,-10,25,-10)
=(20,21,-16,6,25).

, ,
10.1. 9.1

- = 0.

(10.6)

- ,
\-\ = 0,

(10.7)

10.

77

= X/. 9.1
(10.7).
= .,4, (10.6)
(10.7) ( X, = ). = , #
. 9.3, , \< 1, ..
< . .

10.1 10.10
Mathcad
, , v , AY . 9.3 :
ORIGIN:=1
u:-eigenvals

a>:=| u |

{A)

pr: =if (max ()

< 1,

"yes", "no") .

10.1 s: s:=l / max(w). ,


:
t: =cols (A)

m: =1; t

rm: = A^'^

re ra : = i f (r ra > 1, "no", "yes")

X ( )\
D: = { i d e n t i t y ( t ) -A) ' l

X:=D-Y

: = ( i d e n t i t y ( t ) ~ A T ) ' l

P:=C-V.

:
:='

AP:=C-AV .

10.1. : (165, 149, 85, 75, 236);


(67, 35, 114,86,42).
10.2. : .
10.3. : 1.0065.

11

find


, -, (/, ) aik, - ,
/- . ,
,
> 0. , I, i-vt \ + + ... + ailtx,,, * k-Pi .

)
( ) :
\ + ,22+ + >, / = 1 , 2

(11.1)

1 1 . 1 . ( I ! .1) :
,!,+ a i 2 x 2 + ...+ aijc,, = x,, i = 1 , 2 , ...,/?
. , (11.1) .
, , :

(112)

) Z

^(^ja,kxk) =
'=1

=\

J(^alkxk)

=\

i=\

= ^xk{^atk) = ^xk =^ , *=|

;=1

=\

(11.2). .
11.1. 1 =(^2,...,) -, .
.
.
= ( ] , , ..., xlt), = i ( 11.1).
9.2 9.2

11.

79

\j, 1, , , (. 9.7). .
11.1 -, .


11.1 11.10 . , -, , .
0.059

0.182

0.222

0.086 0.056

0.407

0.174

0.075

0.333

0.207 0.236

0.169

0.3

0.273

0.167

0.154 0.111

0.303

0.05

0.227

0.16

0.343

0.03

0.05

0.14

0.007

0.2

0.001

0.367

0.103

0.111 0.01

'0.09

KU.I.A

0.375
0.111
0.111

0.1
0.125 0.1 0.0425 0.025 0.2
0.1
0.125 0.1 0.8
0.03
0.025 0.01

(0.25

.2.

0.3

0.0125

0.125 0.1

0.125

0.1 0.025

0.7

0.025 0.08

0.25

0.2

0.05

0.07

0.6

0.01

0.125

0.2

0.07

0.05

0.05

0.7

0.25 0.1 0.2

0.4 0.2 0.1


0.25 0.4 0.2 0.3
0.25

..
v

0.25 O.I 0.4 0.2

'0.35

0.4 0.125

0.25

0.25

0.15 0.425 0.025

0.15
0.25

0.125

0.15

0.4

0.125

0.1

0.025 0.45

0.25

0.15

0.2 0.025 0.24

0.25

\\.

0.035 0.1

80
'0.15 0,3 0.01 0.125

0.2

0.15 0.2 0.04 0.225 0.3


11.5. = 0.15 0.1 0.65

.6. =

0.35 0.025

0.15 0.2 0.25

0.2

0.225

0.4

0.1

0.25

0.2 0.05

0.25

0.3 0.05 0.325

0.35

0.3 0.35 0.025

0.125 0.3 0.5

0.35

0.275 0.2 0.1

0.3

0.45

0.4 0.05 0.15

0.125 0.1 0.45 0.05


0.175 0.1 0.25 0.65
0.25

0.4 0.25

0.15

0.25

0.2 0025 0.325

0.3

0.425 0.2 0.025 0.025

0.2

0.125 0.2 0.9

0.35

0.05

0.125 0.2 0.025

0.15

0.25

0.075 0.2 0025

0.15

0.2

0.15

0.2 0.25

0.125

0.15

0.2 0.45

0.475 0.2

0.15

0.1 0.1

0.05

0.025 0.25

0.15

0.1 0.025 0.15

0.025 0.25

0.25

0.2 0.075 0.05

0.35

0.1

0.15

0.2 0.1

0.1

0.1

0.45 0.1
0.1

0.15

0.3

0,015 0.325 0.15

0.1 0.035 0.025 0.25

. = 0.15 0.1

0.85

0.35

0.05

0,15 0.1

0.05

0.25

0.25

0.15 0.6

0.05

0.05

0.3

0.15 '
0.15

11.

81

, ,
11.111.10
Mathcad

: O R I G I N : = l

t : =rows () i : = 1 ; t

E2: = ^<>>

T=

, , , 1 (. 11.1),
:
c:=eigenvec{,1)

minbud:=!()

:^c/minbud

11.1. : 1.606 : 2.923 ;


2.704 : 2.729 : 1 : 1.874.

fin d
II

12


n-
- = (\, 2, -, ,) ,, ...,, . - Af",
= ( , ) = (\, ..., b,i)

Af"

= (, - ..., - ) " ( ). -

: = + . \\ =^({ -\)2 + ... + ( -)2 ,


Af, = ([,..., ) = (/?/, ...,/?), = (\, ...,)
X~A+ip, t~ . /3
.
: \ = ci\ + tp\, ..., = + tpn
, - at
, - 7
-
L
L

= = ... =
- . , \
Pi
*

x -a.
,-
. , t =
0
3
, 3(xL - {) = 0(2 - 2).
- Af\ = ( ..., ) f>i,p1,...,pkwiR", X = + tt p^ +t2p2 +... + t{pL, t\, t2, , ^ . , .
(- 1)-
Af.
1 2 . 1 . = ( ...,) Af , :
fli*i + 2+ ...+ + b = Q,
2, ..., , ..., .

(12.1)

86

II.

.
X^M + i,^ +!22 + - + ', - () 2, ..., ). {,

, ,
+1

R". , = MX , . ^ /). + / 2 / + ,>-\-\ , ,

{, 2,..., .

, i- ,.
, 7.1 \\ = 0.
(, - ni\, 2 - . - - ) :
(-, - ,)/*, + (2 - 2)82 +---+ ( - ), = 0,

(12.2)

|, ....
, .... - . \= 2 = ...= = 0. (12.2) , \\ = 0
, - . , 5 ,
/3|, 2,---, pn.\, z (
. 5.2 5.7), 7.1. \, 2, -, ,,
. ,
u, = B,,,J = I, ...,/7, =-(|| + ...+ /,(),
(12.2) (12.1).
, ,
(12,1), . a = (a}, ..., ). 5.2
5.7
],2, ,-\ R" , /3, ,

, /?!, Pi,..., ,_\,


/=2, 3, ...,.

= (\, , ., \ (12.1).
: , , 1^0,
(-/\, 0,..., 0). =+ /,/?, +/-,/3-, +... + /_,/? _, . , MX = t\ , + ; 2 ^ 2 +... + 1.1_,
: [ MX] = / , [ - ^ ] ] + ...+ ^. 1 [ ^]. [- ,] = 0 , [
<7|(|-|)+ ...+,)(-- /) = 0,
...+ ,*+ = 0. .

^^ + ...+ a,fxll-(aifni + ...+

+ atlx,,) = 0,


12.1. : , , , Af\ AB+ =
= - ; ^ , ^.
12.2. , ^- Af < .

12. n-

87

12.3. , - Af Af.
12.4. + !, + si

Af. ,

, .? , s .
12.5. + pi B + st, =(2, I, 1,3, -3),
= ( 2 , 3 , 1, 1,-1), =(\, 1,2, 1,2), s =(1,2, 1,0, 1).
12.6. + pt B + st, =^(3, 1,2, 1,3),
= ( 1 , 0 , 1, 1,2), = ( 2 , 2 , - 1 , - 1 , - 2 ) , s =(2, 1,0, 1, 1).

, ,
12.1. : ,
Af.
12.2. : 5.4.
12.3. 5.5.
12.4. : ,
= (mi, , -.., ), ,

=(], ..., ) s = (S[,..., ) , . .


pas. ,

, .

-^
'- = ...=-2
, -,
asn
.
, .
M=A+tJ>,

M=B+t2s

/j,/2,

= AM + MB = tj>+(-t2s ) (. TI2.1), . .

AM=ttp,

BM=t2s,

p u s .
, = ttp~- i2s . ' A +txp, L
B+tJ .

AN^t^p,

12.1,

LB = ~ t2s ,

AN + LB^ tjj- t2s ^ . -

~AN+~NB=AB .

AN + LB = AN + NB,

LB=NB,

LB + BN = 0 , LN =0 , L ~ N, .
12.5. 12.4,

II.

88

~ txp-t^ tht2, = (-1, 0, 1, -2, 5).


:
2

-1

-2

-I
-2

1 -1
1

=>

-2
1 -3

- 1 -1
1\ =-2,

- 3 - / ~2

12.4), . . / = ( - 2 , - 5 , - 1 , 1,-1).
1 2 . 6 . : (0, 1 , - 1 , - 2 , - 3 ) .

B~3s

(. -

13

/ , Af~ , 12.1 .
13.1. (x,y,z) ,
+ by+ cz+ d= ,
, , . (,)
,
+ + = 0, a, b .

*)
R3, ,
. ft2
, .
13.2. n~(a>b,v) ,
+ by + cz + d = 0. h ~ (a, b)
, + by + = 0.
13.1.
13.3. , = (\, , {),
= {b[, b2, ), = (), 2, 3), ,
:
-,

1 -2

, -

, -, -2 , -, = 0.
:-,

~2

.
] = = {] ~^2~, -2),

2 = = (] -2-2, -.).

90

II.

, , , , ,
/3, /3,, , , /5, /5, (. 12.4).

.. +/, + / 2 ,,
t\,t2 . 12.1 ,
\D\ - 0, D ,
, , (.v- ci\,y- < z- a-x). .


13.1. 13.2.
TI3.2. , O.v, Ov. Or
(, 0, 0), (0, , 0), (0, 0, ) ^, /?^0, =*0,
a

13.3. , ,
(//], i'2, a 3 ), (bu b2, by), :
-a.

Y-a-,

-{

2-,

-,
, - tf3

13.4. atx+ bby+ c}z+ d\ =0


+ hzv + Ci_z -+ d2 ^ 0. , ,
u\a2 + b\b2 + C\C2 = 0.

13.5.
^ + \ + C\Z -* d\ - 0
+ bzv + c2z + di ~ 0. , , , - 2, \ = ab2, ct = 2.
TI3.6. \ + \ - \~ 0
aix + biy + c2 = 0. , :

a a, +b.b,

13.7. , 13.2, TI3.3, 13.4, 13.5.


13.1 -1113.21 ABCD. :
; AD; ;
ABC; , D
1 3 . 1 . = ( 1 , - 2 ) , - ( 2 , - 1 , 3), - ( 1 , 3 , - 1 ) , D = ( 2 , 0 , - 2 ) .

13. 91
13.2. = (0, -2, 5), = (6, 6, ), = (3, - 3 , 6), D = (2, - 1 , 3).
13.3. = (4, 5, -3), = (6, 3, 0), - (8, 5, -9), D = (-3, -2, -10).
13.4. = (5, -6, 2), = (2, - 1 , 3), = (1, 9, - I ) , D = (2, - I , -2).
13.5. = (-5, 6, 2), - (8, - 1 , 3), = (2, 1, -1), D = (3, - 1 , -4).
13.6. = (-1, 1,2), = (8,-1, 1), = (2, l , - l ) , D = (-3,-l,-^).
. = ( - 1 , I, 1), = (1,-1, 1),=(2,2,2),> = (-3,-1,2).
13.8.=(-1,2, I), = (3,-3,3), =(2, 1,2), D = (-3, 1,2).
13.9. = (-1,2, 1),S = (4 J -3,3),C = (5> l , 2 ) , D = (0, 1,2).
13.10. = ( - 4 , 3, 1), = (4, -5,3), - ( 5 , 1,6), D = (, 1,3).
13.11. = (-4, 4, 1), = (4, -6, 0), - (9, 1, 0), D = (-5, 2, 3).
13.12. = (7, 7, 3), - (6, 5, 8), = (3, 5, 8), D - (8, 4, 1).
13.13. = (-7, 7, -3), = (6, 5, -8), = (3, -5, 8), D = (-8, 4, 1).
13.14. = (10, 6, 6), = (-2, 8, 2), - (6, 8, 9), D - (7, 10, 3).
13.15. = (2, 1, 4), = (-1, 5, -2), = (-7, -3, 2), D = (-6, 3, 6).
13.16. = (8, 6, 4), = (5, 7, 7), = (5, 3, I), D = (2, 3, 7).
13.17. = (-7, 1,-3), - ( 6 , 15, -8), = (4, 5,2), D = (2, 4, 1).
13.18. = (, - 1 , -1), = (-2, 3, 5), - (I, -5, -9), D = (-1,-6, 3).
13.19. = (-4, 2, 6), - (2, 2, 1), - (-1,0, 1), 0 = (-4, 6, -3).
13.20. = , 5, 1X = (0, 4, 8), = (2, - 1 , 7), = (4, 0, 1).
13.21./4 = (1,-3, 2), = (2, -1,-1), = (3, -4, 3), D - (3, 4, 5).

, ,
13.1. = ([,[, Z|) Q^= fc,^, ^) . ,
ax\ + by\ + CZ] + d = 0,
ax-i + by2 + cz2 + d = 0.

a(*2-*i) + -{) + c(z2-Z\) =0.


[ PQ] = 0, PQ. Q ,
.

92

II.

,
13.2. 13.3:
-a

- 0 = 0 . , :
~ z
(-)

b 0
0

+Z

= 0,

(- ) + + zab = 0.

'
abc: " - 1 + + ~ = 0, .

be

13.3. :
(] - a\,b2- ci2,bs~ )13.4. ,
} = (,, \, ) = (ai, b2, c2), .
TI3.5. ,
, - ([, ], |) = (2, b2, ci),
, .
13.6.
, = ( \) - (2, 2). , 2

13.21.

= ( 2 - 1 , - 1 + 3 . - 1 - 2 ) = ( I , 2, - 3 ) :

\AB\=J]+4+9=>f\4.
AD = (\,2, -3) AD-^ (2, 7, 3) . AD AD, . .

\AB'~AD\ __

AB\\AD\

2+14-9
4 + 49 + 9

7
//2

, ,

arcos(7/ VI4 62 ).
= (1, 2, -3),

-\ _ + 3_z-2

13. 93
, , ,

= ( 1 , 2 , -3)

= ( 2 , - 1 , 1), , (
). ,
, , , 13.3, :
2

-3
-0.

1
-\

+3

z-2

, :
2 -3
-1

-(+3)

1 -3
2

+ (z-2)

2 1

1 + 5+ 10 = 0.

.
, D ABC,
ABC, . . . = (1, 7, 5) ( 13.2), -3
-4
z-5
, D ,

14


, + ( - ) , Af , () :
, . ,
- - (. . 12).

?
Bk^Af"
A I B I + ...+, /., > 0 , /= 1, ..., , /-1 + 2+ ...+/.* = 1- V /1 ,
Vc .

. .

, Afn V R", Af", 6 + ,


, V.
, Af",
. , , .
. 14.1 Af\ , PiiP, 1 4 . 1 . , , .
14.5.
, Af" ,
(0, 0,..., 0) Af" .

14.

95

. 14.1.

, , , .
. 14.2 Af".
14.2. .

. 14.2.
. G , Bh ..., fi;
/*?,, 2,..., . , D , ,
, G, G.

, I],

I , . . . , in

96

II.

P=\,l?>0.t^>0,

/=

, = 1

- -KZ^B, + \^, + (1 - )?, + - )2>.!2| =


1=1

=|

1-1

,1=\

) G.

)
G G, G\{A), G , .
.
14.1. , , . .
.
(12.1) /", , \] + ...+ + <0 \\ + ...+ + >0.

Q 3
Afn , .
.
14.2. ,
. , .

14.

97


14.1. , , 5,
+ t , / [0; 1] ( , ,
).
14.2. , G, , G.
14.3. /:
, , .
14.4. , .
14.5. 14.1.
14.6. /2 .
, Af~
V R2:
)/>- {(0,0)}, |/= {(0,!),(1,0)};
) P = { ( l , 0 ) , ( 0 , l ) } , F = {(!,])};

) { ( 0 , 0 ) } , ^ { ( 0 , 0,(0,-1)};

) - {(0, , = {(0, 1), (1, 0), (-1, -Y)}.

, ,
14.1. , . ,
, = (\-)+ /Ve[0; 1]

~ + \(~) = +X .

, + t = + t(B~A) = A(\ -t) + tB, /[0; I].


14.2. : .
14.3. ; (); ;
.
14.4. : , , .

98
TI4.5.

II.

a,beR"

\a + b\<\a\ + \b \ ( 2

). , (| a + b \) <\a\ +2 [ a || b \ + \ b \ ,
[a-d] + 2[a-b} + [ b - b ) < \\

+2||| \+\ \, [ a - b ] \ a \ \ b \ ,

1.2. , .
= (0,..., 0) /". , = ~ = .
.
G {/, .... Bk}- , , , .

G.

~\ + .,.+ XkBk,

\>Q,

XX

'

dc=X]OBf+...+ XkOBi , \OC\<\l\OBi\+...+ \k\OBi \X\\CJBa,\ + \2\OB*\ +


+...+\, | = (.|+ ...+ X/i)\OBm I = \OBm |, . . \. |. , , . , G ( V)
.
V. / > 0 + I p e G. /-
, t\ >0, /-
+ 1\ /, ..

\ +1 \> .

G. .
, V .
, G - .
14.6. : ) ; ) , > = ~ + \, = + I, =-\; ) , . = 0, = 0, = 1; ) ~ 0; ) /2,

15

find


j(x\, 2, ...,), ,
XczAf", / /*', /)
( , ,
, ) /
X. , j{M )
.

, . , .
, Af".
- ( ) //(/"" Af", .
{} = /(, 2,..., Mil, ... Af" .
{} . ,
{} M&Af", ,
, ,
. {}, {} -> .

)
XdAf". MeAf" X,
X. X
, .
15.1.
.
Y. (
) /, / () Y.

100

II.

15.2. , .
, {/*} ,
. , X {}. , 1, 1, ..., 1, ...
1, - 1,
. 15.3.

MeAf" XcAf",
X ,
X. X, X .
X, X, .
15.3. XczAf" Af".
X , X, .
. 15.8.

XcAf", /, , X,
X, X. f
X, {} X, ,
{/(*)} /
/(/Wo). / X,
X X.
15.3 , ()
, . ,
" X", , / /
" 1'. , -/
X, . . X "" /, " X' .
15.4. X
X.
TI5.9.
15.1. _*|, ...,.) Af" /(A/oJ^O.
, /
, /fM)).

15.
.
,
, /0) < 0.

:
- /Q ,
f{M,) > 0. , {} > 0. {/} - . {/(Mi)} ->\ . . , .
15.1. g(xux2, ...,*)
Af". Af",
g(X],x2, ...,)>0 g(xux2,..., ) = 0, .
15,2. Af", ,
Af" , .
15.3. .
. 15.515.7.
1 5 . 2 . /( ...,*), X, .
. {AY*} X . / ,
{} \f(Mk)\ > , . . {/)}-> . / ,
15.2 Y / X
. {*} , . * ( ) ;* =4) Y.
{s,}-> 0, {)}-> a {\AMk))-> ).
X , {). , 15.1 /, X ( X ). , 15.3, /
{ } {}- / {/{,) "^ / W o )
, {/{)}~* (/), {f[Mk)}^> a
({f(.Mk)}-> b). , .. {/{ } -> ,
{/{)}-> a ({/(Mt)}-> b). : ^/0)
(b =f{M0)). , Mti - ,
( ). .


15.1. , X. ?
15.2. , X ,
X, Af\X.

102

II.

15.3. X
X, /, .
15.4. 15.4.
TI5.5. 15.1.
15.6. 15.2.
TI5.7. 15.3.
15.8. 15.3.

, ,
15.1. . : X Af~ . , . , ".
15.3. {} , . - / X, /, {/,,} > , {,,} > 0.
15.4. . : ',
{} X, \ , {/*}
.
TI5.5. : 15.1.
15.6. : ,
.
15.7. : , .
TI5.8. X,
X, : , ,,.., /, .... X,
{*} , . , ^- X,
Mh . {*}~-> 0, {Mk}-> M, X.
{} X /. , / 6- , X. X,
(, X), = 8. N, , 5 N. , 5-
X, , , . {}> , ,
+ ... 5- .
, Mr+i, Mr,.2, ... , . . , ,

16

find



:

/ 2, ..., ,) = DXT> max,

(16.1)


'1 =
\>0

(16.2)

D=(du ..., 1,,), =( ..., .v,,), A

= (3.2):
^+... +=

(16.3)

= ( - , ,), 6 t T = ( 1 > 2, , ) , = 1, . . . , .

/ ( (16.1) (16.2)) ( ).
.
, ,
.

.
, .

104

II.

16.1. (16.2) . ,
(16.2), ,
, .
. , , . = (,, 2 , -.-, , 0, ..., 0) (
, ). ,
, , > 0 . (16.3)
,6, +... + - .
,
. (. TI4.2)
= (Pi, ..., ) = ( ..., ,(), a =Xfi +(\ -) (0, 1).
:
0 = .,. 2 +(1 -)

X > 0, 1 - X > , ,^0, , > 0, / = + 1, ..., , ,


/ = i~ 0, t = + 1, ..., .
=(2,...,0,...,0
,/>, +... + yrbt =c .

= (Yi, 2

^ 0

+... + , =,

0),

(Pi -[)6| +... + ( P r -yr)br = 0 .

bj,,,.,br , Pt , = 0, . . . , , - = ( 5.3).
, , . .
- 6,, .,,, ,. ,
, 5.3 ,
yxb\ +... + yrbr =0 ( ..., ,.).
= ( ..., , 0, ..., 0) Af". ,
=
{ a up - AoJ 0 = 0 = .

, 3.1,

, > 0, /= 1, ..., , ( ), .
+ * - u P (16.1)- (16.2). 0.5(+ ) + 0.5( ) = , .. (. 14.2).
. .
, = 0, , , = (0, 0,..., 0) (. TI6.9).

16.

105

. 4 ,

= ,
.
. .

-
(. , ..., ) ,
, 1
. ( =
.) = , , (16.1)-(16.2). ,
, .
16.1. (16.1) - (16.2) ,
.
. ,
. a = ( a h 2 , ..., ar, ,..., 0), ctj > 0, /= !,...,/
(16.1)- (16.2), .
(. TI4.2) (3 ,
a = [3 + (1 - ) X. (0,1). 16.1 , (3 = (f3|, 3 2 , , 0, ..., 0), ~ (2, ..., , 0, ..., 0).
, |3 , , ,
.V], ..., xri . . , ct| = ( = ..., a r = \.= .. a =p =
.
a = (a t , , ..., , 0, ..., 0 ) , ,>0,
i = 1, ..., . , a - - = , ,
(16.1) -(16.2). 16.1 ,
. 5.3 ,
xlbi +... + xrbr = 0 () . , , ,,...,. ,
,6, +... + xrbr +xrilbr + 1 +... + xnbr = ,
1,..., , , \, ,.., (
). , , . .
a .

106

II.

, , . .
16.1 , .
16.1. (16.2) , (16.1) - (16.2) .
16.11,
(16.1)-(16.2) (. . 17).
16.2. j(x\, ...,) .
, ' Af , u j{XM + /V) = ),f(M) + \if(N),
16.1.
16.2. (16.1)-(16.2) ,
, .
. ,
. ,
, , (16.2).
= (,, ot2, ..., ,., , .... 0). . 16.1 , - bj ,...,6 .
16.1

",

= ..., ,-, 0, .... 0), (16.1)-(16.2)


0. . ,
- , U | = m i n (
,> ,
,< ,
u h ^ ). - ,
, , /= 1, 2. ~
, , . .
/ ) >.-,) = ) - 0 )

(16.4)

( 16.2).
. 16.2 ) > / ( up )=J(a) /(),
\\ / ( ) < 0
{
, 0 < / ( ) < 0 , /() = 0 .

[/()<0

(16.4) , /() >), . . , , 16.10.


.
16.2. (16.1)-(16.2) ,
, .
. 14.1 15.3
, 15.2 ,

16.

107

(16.1) - (16.2) . 16.2


, .
16.3. (16.1) (16.2)
,
.
. 16.2.


rank {) , . . .
a ugmen t {Al, 2 , . . ., AN), Al, 2, . . ., AN
, {Al A2 ... AN)
( Al,
,

A2,

AN
'1

Al = 3

augment{Al,

A2,

'l

0>

A3)= 3

(\

= 8
9

A3-

,)

11

1,

maximize (f, v) (minimizeif, v)) , f(v) () . () v. ,


, Given.
maximize :
f(z) := sin{2; (1 ) 2 + c o s

(z, -

-4
'1.575

Given

xl := Maximizeif, x)

x<

vh

xl :=

8 . 4 0 5 10"
V2

Mathcad (Programming) (. 16.1),


(Math). 10 .

II.

108

Add Line ,
,
. ,
-. ( ), .

LJ
Add Line

<-

if

otherwise

for

while

break

continue

return

on error

. 16.1.
Add Line

, , , .
^
Add Line .
, ,
.

<Ctrl> + <{> |i * ij <. , ,


v a r i , 3, vari 3: varj<-3.
for

for.

, ( ) ; ^
( Add Line ).
:
, -

16.

109

,
, . ,

for /eO..3
a, <r-i+\
b,
b

- v=

if.
if
() , , . ,
;

s*~0
if s =

5 ( , s=0 (Boolean)).
otherwise otherwise if.

otherwise

, if, -

. o t h e r w i s e
, , if; ,

II.

, if\ otherwise . ,

b<-V

if

a>0

f - 2 c therwi

2.

if i

otherwise

if i

otherwise .


16.1. 16.2.
16.2. 16.3.
16.3. (16.1)-(16.2) . ,
.
TI6.4. , , ?
16.5. ix, + ...+ a,txn<c
xl + ... + a,txi: + * =
, , >
16.6.

U X +... + CI.X. -.V..., =

16.7. ,
dp

max

alixi

*, + . . . + 1 + ,

+ ] +... + 1 = ,, i = + 1 , . .., m.
xt - , j = 1,..., ,

16.

111

16.8.
T

D.Y -min
" =
>0
.
16.9. , = (0, 0, .... 0) , * = , >0.
16.10. 16.2 , .
T16.ll. :
g(x,, ..Avjb ...,ym)=-)'\- }'2- --

v,H->max

(16.5)


' ' + =

(16.6)

, X > 0, Y > 0

, X, , (16.2), = (y s , ..., ,),


. : 1) g
( 1 6 . 5 ) - (16.6) , (16.2) ; 2)
g (16.5) - (16.6) = ([V ...,
, yi, .... ,,,) , = ( .... $) (16.1) - (16.2).
16.1, , :
4 4.

* 5 = *

(16.7)
, >

16.116.11
T l 6 . l l ,
= ,
I
= 1.1 - 2
1

2.89 3.678

1.9

2 -1

4.6

2^1

-1/2

5.55

16.1. ' = (15, 6.9,29)

16.2. = ( 1 5 , 2 3 , 2 9 )

16.3. = ( 5 , 9, 13)

16.4. = (6, 7.5,34)

1 . 5 . = (1,8.3, 4.5)

16.6. - ( 7 , 2.7, 11)

16.7. = ( 6 , 2 1 , 5 )

16.8. = ( 8 , 4 . 4 , 12)

16.9. = ( 1 3 , 3.4,2.9)

16.10. - ( 3 . 2 , 2.9, 31)

K16.ll. = (14, 11.2,8.2)

112

II.

, ,
16.1. / DX'\ X = ( 2 , ...,-
J

D - (du ..., dn). + - D(XM + N? = =XDM + - V M + /V)


(. 3.1).
16.2. : 16.1.
16.3. : 16.!.
16.4. : , .
16.5. : (], ?,..., ) , | ( ,..., ,,, + ) ) . ,
(|, 2,..., , +,) , (a t , a2,..., a,,) .
16.7. : :
t/iCVi-2]) + . . . + dP(yp-'ZP)+ dp
\(y>\-2\) + ajy\

%(yp-zlJ + al

;J

-IX,,

-2l) + ... + al//yii-sp) + aillllx/l^

y,>0,
x

] p

+-

i+ . . . + </*-> m a x
+

,xl,+tl

+... + amxH

=c,,

i = \,...,k

i = k + \,...,m

zt >0,y = 1,...,/?, /, >0, ./ = !,...

> 0 , j = p + ],...,n

T16.8. : :
-D.VT-> max
16.9. , .
14.2 , , , ?>0 2>0, | + 2 =1,
>.if3 + X2J = = (0, ..., 0). , ,
.
T16.I0. . .
16.9. , , (. 16.2).
T16.il.
1) (*), ..., ,,) (16.1)- (16.2).

= ( ..., , 0, ..., 0) Af '" (16.5) - (16.6). g(a) = 0,


, g .
2) ^() ^ 0, , = ...=y w = 0 = (,, ..., ) (16.1)(16.2).
|3, , 0, . , 16.1 16.1 . ,
(16.1)(16.2).

16.

113

, (16.5)-(16.6)
, > 0 : (0, ..., , ,, ..,, ,).

(
16.1. ,=

(
>2=\

, 16.1

. [2. + , = 4
(ct|. 2 , 0, 0. 0) (16.7) <
[, + : = 3
, ct| = 1, ^ 2. (1, 2, 0, 0, 0) .
| =
4=

, 2^ \

4 =

: (1,0,1,0,0),

(0,2,0,0.5,0), (0,0, 1,0.5,0).

(
, -

(
4 -

, 2 =

(
-^ -

(
, 2 ~ \

?'
5 = I

-1

I 16.1 -

.
\=\

5= \

\.

, ( 0, 0, 0, 5).
[2. - 5 = 4
> <
'
, |~ 1, as~-2.
[, - _, = 3
(1, 0, 0, 0, -2) , . (0, 0, 0, 0.5, -2).


16.1 - 16.11 Mathcad
, . ,
16.11:
ORIGIN : = 1
Y:,:=0

{X,

n-.^cols(A)
Y) :=

m: =rows {A)

i:=l;n

K1:=0

j:=l;m

II.

114

:
Given

A-XAidentity{m) Y=C

X>

Y> 0

X
,

X, )

f[X, Y) =
f , =
. , ( - .
TI6.11):
S: =
kol <- 0
for
isl;n
if x. >0
if kol = Q
M <- A'!>
s -t
s <

M < augment (M,A"1J} otherwise


"X is oporni" if rank (Ml- cois (M)
"X is not
oporni" otherwise

,
, , rank;
rank ( ).
16.1. : X= (0, 0, 4.143 25, 0.916 53, 2.805 24, 0. 0, 0).
16.2. : .

- * --

17

{Mt}

-:=
1

find

(16.1) - (16.2) ,
:
(, , 16.1) , .
, . ,
, .
) ; - , , , , ,

.
, - :
1.

2.

3.

. .
< =1,2,....

' =

(17.1)

=\
z b ..., 2 () , V|. ...,~ . si- (17.2).
1

~Z\ ....

> > =

-II
... ........ hu,

>

... ,,.... .... hni

)',=

"ml)

........ 1...

(17.2)

II.

116

( ) ,
_ ...,)>,
, zs: yr
, a z, ( , 6 ^ 0 ) . ,
(17.1) si- (17.2).
si- zs,
/J,V , 6, .
17.1. br, si- (17.3).
1

-~ \

\.

b' ,

"

b,.,

-n

h\

b,.

br.

bm.

(17.3)

(17.3) (17,2) : v,- , ; ; ; b\k


(/ , s) blk = bit i-ii-.
br,
"" - ,
:

17. -
.

117

(17.1):

, r- si- (17.3).
.
z, /- (17.1) ( ):

/- si- (17.3). .
- (
.)
, = ( 1 5 ..., ,, 0, ..., 0)
(16.1) - (16.2), , A't, ...,, /
, 1, ..., ( , / ):

[, =, -(/,

,+ |

(17.4)

(17.4) si- (17.5).


,=

-,

,<

,=

f, i

-
*'
(17.5)

si-, . , , /-.
1 7 . 1 . si-, a. F.c / si- , /, , .
.

/,'. | >0, ...,/,>0,


, | >0, ..., >0,

f=fu-(J] \X, |+ ... + f,pc)<ft} . ) - / 0 ) 0 .


17.2. si-,
= ( ..., ,, 0,..., 0). /., / . < 0 1<0,

118

II.

i =],..., t, (I6.1)(16.2)
.
. , , ,
=

.V, = a, ~ blsxs,
i = 1, ..., /,
f fo -/

= ( ..., ,, 0,..,, a s , . . . , 0 ) , a s , ^ , . a v , /= 1, ...,/. , > 0 ] > 0,


. ')^/,;-/, .. .
17.3.

si-,

a = (.],..., ,, 0, ..., 0). /,


bn> 0 (I <i<(), a ,
) >). ( .)
. , /,
/>, -. ( ,
.) bri . ,
si- \, ..., , , /,' /- / 0 . 17.1,
a '-=<->(),

-,

=a

/>rv>0,

, ,,

^ = b (
ct

'

>0

ar>0.

1.

bis>0,

- ) .

r>

a >0.

b,s < 0 ,

> 0 ,

, > 0, brt > 0 , , > 0.


, si-
a . ' ) =/,' = / 0 ~ * ~ - ^.

>0,/-< 0, !> 0. .

17.3 , si-
(16.1)(16.2) , , , ..., _)<') < / ( " ) < ....
. 17.1
17.2 , . - . -

17. -

1J9

, .
, . , .
1 7 . ! . / ()
, , () /
TI7.2.
-. (16.1)-(16.2) , -
(16.5) - (16.6). ,
, (16.6) > 0 ( - I ) . (0, 0, ..., , ,, ..., ,) ), y t
,,,. g
(16.6). 17.1
(16.5)- (16.6) , . T16.ll (16.2) [3 = (Pi, .... , ,, .... ,) (16,5) - (16.6)
= ( .... ) (16.1) - (16.2).
- (16.1) - (16.2).

1. (16.5) - (16.6)
= ( ..., , ,
,). &(J3) < 0, (16.1)-(16.2)
. g(P) = , = ..., (5)
(16.1) - (16.2). si-, .
2. f- si-. f-,
. , .
3. f- fs, ,
fs. ,
(16.1) .
4. ,
. brs,
,
.,
= mm .
5. ,
.

-422 3

II.

120


f = 2xi - 2 - 2 + 6x4 > max,

4 = 16

\] + 2

=8
,-,,3,4


:
= _ -

-^

max

, + -, + - + 4 + >', = 1 6
- "| + '7 +

'

- *4 + 2 = 8 .

| , 2 , - , . 4 , _ 1 ' | , V2 >

(0, 0, 0, 0, 16, 8). si- (17.6)

-x,

-X2

-x 4
3

1 =

16

y2=

-1

I-

3 -1

9=

-24

-2

-4

(17.6)

-2

= 16 - (xi
= -24-(01-22-4 - 24). f2 < 0, ft-^O, /4 < 0, , . , f2. 8 16
, < .

(17.7).
-

-4

-1

-2

-1

-^

2=

~2

-Xi
2
-1

-8

-2

/1=

si-

(17.7)

17. -

121

, ft, U < 0.
, .
-\ -\, (17.8).
_, _ 2 _ _ 4
4

0.5-0.5 -1

2=

12

0.5 0.5 2

9=

1 0

(17.8)

17.1, (4, 12, 0, 0, 0, 0)


, , (4, 12, 0, 0)
. si (17.9) , , (17.8)
2 = 1 2 - ( 2 3 + 4), f= 2xi -x2- 2x 3 + 6x 4 = 2(4 + x 3 - 2 x d ) 1 = 4 - ( - 3 + 2 4 ),
(12 - 2 3 - 4) - 23 + 64 = =- 4 - ( - 2 3 - 4).
-

- 4

-1

1 =

2=

12

f=

-4

-2

-3

(17.9)


2 si- (17.10).
-

10

11 II

f=

-Xi

-0.5

0.5

-0.5

-3.5

(17.10)

1.5


2.5. si- (17.11).
~2

-Xi
0.4

4=

0.2

0.4 - 0 . 2

f=

16

1.4

(17.11)

0.8

17.1, (0, 0, 4, 4) 16.

II.

122

stack (Al,

2,

. . . ,

AN),

1, .42, ..., AN (\
2

V"I

( AL, A2, ..., ' ).


, Al = [l 2), 2

"

, stacA-, 2) = 3

minimize maximize Mathcad .


.
. , - . minimize? ma.\i-mize , ,
. 17.1.


-
t

\,
jb
4=)

,s
j

...
i
,,.,....... ,.*,.,.,

. 1 7 . 1 .


TI7.1. : /^ si-, ,
, ,
.
17.2. 17.].

17. -

123

17.117.20

/7 2, ..., ,
\,2,
}. b2, /,.
, (/, )
.
. ., = 1,2, ..., .
: , , ; .

17.1.

/7 = 4 ,

- 11.

] = 6.

i - 20.
'2
=

17.2.

2=6,

1 2

, - 1 5 0 ,
(2

17.3.

2,

6 2 = 180,

= 120,

, = 6,

/-80,

* , = 250.

1 1

'2

1 0 1 1

=
v

f:=7,

, - 6.

h , - 280,

17.4.

* =

-4,

= 4,

/>2 = 37.

= 8,

= 3,

9,

= 3,

1 0

= 300,

,=
'15
2

1200,

20

25

2.5

35 60

60

2 - 250,

450,

^ 150,

3000

II.

124
17.5.

2 = 60,

, = 35,

= 144,

^ = 600,
10

17.6.

20

23

18,

2=12,

h\ = 2 4 ,

= 10

(5

4]

, [ .

17.7.

= 6,

2
2 - 4,

\ =

/7=3,

63,

b,=

6,= 55(

500,

= 0 2

3
3

- 200,

0 1 0
17.8.

=
17.9.

, = 40.

2 - 50,

/),= 100.

6 2 = 260,

2.5

2.5

10

10

\.\

= 10,

/7 = J,

18

15

J
17.10.

/7 = J,

= 100,

= 192,

16,
180,

12

10,
180,

=
2

14,
= 244,

2 5

17. -

..

125

= 4,

, = 3,

<z=7,

=4,

~~ 2,)

6, = 2,

/>2=2,

=2,

= 0 1

17.12.

= 5,

, = 5,

4 = 3 ,

5=6,

*! = 3,
f

=8,
2 =2,

0 1 1
1

17.13.

= 3,

= 3,

= 3,

2)

2 1/

2 = 100,

3 = 150,

, = 400,

^2=250,

63 = 200,

\/\

3/7

1/4

1/7

1/4

1/6

1/7

3/8

, - 80,

2 = 100,

3 =300,

, = 6000,

/-5000,

fa - 9000,

17.15.

3 =2,

,= 120,

'1/6

17.14.

\')

1/2

J/2

1/2

20J

-,= 1,

2 = 2,

=3.

,= 12,

6, = 25,

3 = 18,

3 2

= 5

v4 5
17.16.

~4,

, = 2,

, - 4 0 ,

3=,

6'4 " 1 5 ,

fti= 1000,

6 2 -500,

3= 1200,

'1

= 2

0 0

()

II.

126
17.17.

= 5,

\ = 3,

12
=

17.18.

= 4.

-4,
.1 = 0.8,

12 6 4

, - 2,

10

14

:, = 0.4,

2 =0.2.

/JI-24.

62=12,

, -

4,

*>! =

2,
f

- 0.5,

1 0

/4 =

/7-3,

= 4,

2 = 4,

17.20.

1 3

17.19.

6
1 6

I
6,
^2

'

^*

= 27

9
2 ;

17.21.
/7 /7, /73 //4. \,2.^, 34, 16 22 .

2 4 15
= 4 1 4 1
2 3 12
//,, /72, /-. 18,
14, 15, 10 . ., 25, 17, 19, 12 . . : , , ; .

17. -

127

17.1 17.10
4 , 3 . N, (/', ) /- k-vo . ,
, - - . , .
0.5 4^
17.1. : W=

1 5

= (2400,1200,3000)

= (75, 30, 60,120)

3 2,4 7.3^
17.2. :

13

0.7

4.5 4
17.3. : N=

17 10

16
17.4. :#= 6

10
1,1
3"\
15
6

12 4
5

12 18

5.6

4.8 1 1 1

4.6

31

17.5.:/= 8

5.9

16

7"

4.8

15

13

14 24

17.6. :#=

17.7. : N-- 0

23

17.8. : -

33
0
11

16 23 24 3
14 25

15

36 17

10

fi = (1000,2100,2000)
^ = (91,40,55,30)

= (400, 200, 1000)


' /' = (111,50,77,70)

= (3200, 3100, 3000)


' /> = (21. 60, 71.80)

= (100, 200, 200)


' = (9,4,5,3)

/? = (1400, 1 100, 2400)


' /^ = (165,140,155,130)

=(900, 1300,2400)
' /> = (131,120, 5, 50)

= (800. 900.1000)
/> = (2 13. 145,75,88)

128

13

24 15

(9

= (1700, 3 100, 3000)


= (222, 50, 145, 120)

16 17 10 21
'16 23 24
17.10.

24

23

25 13 20

26

= (1600,1400,3200)
= (95, 60, 85, 80)

10

K17.il. 4 ,
. =(26.6,26, 16.5, 10), = (146, 140, 67, 79).
Q = (170, 230, 280, 120), Z= (31, 42, 30, 25), = (200, 150, 170, 80), = (120.6, 50.9, 30, 98),
k- - : S- ,
7' , Q , 7, ,
, . :
112 0 0 0 , 957 0 0 0
, 122 0 0 0 , 187 000 , 759 000 . /=(1240, 990, 1508, 1270)
.
: ,
, , , , .
17.12. .
2 .
= (10, 12, 8, 16, 11), = ( 3 , 4 , 4 , 2 , 1), = (I. 2, 3, 2, 1)
- -
: , , .
2 2 1!

4 2
2 4
2 2
(/, ) ,
/- , - .

=

3 2 3 4 1
5

13

12

17. -

129

(/, ) , (- - .
90 000, 800 000, 600 000,
500 000. 950 000, 850 000.
600 000, 2 500 000.
1, 3, 4, 5-
10 000, 15 000, 20 000, 30 000 ,
2- 1200.
,
.

, ,
17.1. (17.5) /, , , /.= 0, 17.1 (], .... ,, 0, ..., 0) .
, /, ,
J'=fo-fiXs=fo.
, = , - 6\, / = 1, ..., (. , xs , ,
, /. , /, , , ,.
. ,.- , /
(. 17.3). ,
. 16.3
.
17.2. / (16.1) (16.2).
, 17.2, . , -, (16.1) - (16.2) ( , )
.
17.21. 2, ', * 4 /7i, 2, , /74, , /- . , /7,,
2 5 - 1 8 - 7 . .. /2 3 . ., /7j 4 . ., /74 2 . .,
:
/ = 7*| + 3*2 + 43 + 2.
]2, ','4 ,
. , \

II.

130

(xi, 2, , -Y4) 2 i + 42 + 3 + 54 ., 2,
\ \ . \\ 42 ] 2 .
/72 . . ,
\ 34 ., . .
2,

+ 5 <34.

2 .
4| + 2 + 4 + .v4 < 16,

.vh x2, ^, 4
, . . , > 0, / = 1, 2, 3, 4.

, :
= 7.v, + 3.v;

max

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2.Y, + J.YI + .V-, + 2 4 < 22

> >0, = 1,2, 3,4


, -, (. 16.7).
. . ,
() .v.i, >, >,
. :
/ = 7.V. + 3.V, + 4, + 24
2.v,

42

4.,

2A'I

+ , + + 2 -

+ 5 = 34
6 = 16

=22

), j = 1,2.3, 4, 5, 6, 7
, 5, 6 , .v7 Pt, P2. /'.. .
{.v5, , 7 }, *|, -v2, , . -

17. -

131

( 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 . 3 4 , 16,22). si (17.12).

5-

34

-.v, - 2 -* - 4
2
1 5
4

6=

16

xf-=

22

(17.12)

-2

si- (17.12) ,
/ . ,
, (, ,
4 (
34 16 22
, , ) . si- (17.13).

-xt,

-2 -
3.5 -1 4.5

5=

26

-0.5

*,=

0.25

0.25

*7=

14

-0.5

2.5 -1 1.5

28

1.75 -1.25 3 -0.25

1 0.25

(17.13)

, ,
7 ?
2.5. si- (17.14), /- .
-

_7

-3

_4

6.4
(17.14)

2.6
: :

5.6
35

1.5

1.2

2.5 0.5

(2.6, 5.6, 0, 0, 6.4, 0, 0) , 35. ,


2.6 . /7t 5.6 . /72; 3 /74 .

132

II.

K17.I. : (0,0,400,550),
90 000.
K17.ll. : (1240, 990, ]58, 1326.75), 375 196.5.
7.12. Mathcad. , , , /,
, CG, ,
(
). , ,
:
ORIGIN:=1

i:=l;5

,=0

f(X) :={-) -

A:=stack(N,

-)

:
Given

A'XUCXf

2<1200

> ( 1 0 0 0 0 ,
Y:=maximize(f,

0,

15000,

20000,

30000)'

X) .

: (29 000, 0, 15 000, 164 000, 35 000),


2 909 000.

18



,
, , , .
.
:

/(*,,..., xn) = dixi +.., + dnx,, ->max,


:
i*i +... + < / = 1

(18.1)

[ >0, =\,..,, .
:

:

\\ + 2+--

(18.2)

= !,...,

, ^dk,

, > 0, / = 1,...,
:
T

F=DX -> max

[Y>Q

>0
X=(xu...txt,\

f/IT >D'

AX' <C
D = (af,, ..., </),

g=C K -> min

Y = (yu...,ym\

C 1 = ( c b ..., cm).


(. 16.5 - 16.7):
,/{xi, ...,.*)= d]xl+ ...+ 4,_> max
xi +... + aIHxw +.r/f+, = ; = 1, . . . ,
> , = 1,.... +

(18,3)

II.

134

min

g(y'\, -)'>)= c

(18.4)
Xi > 0,

+ .

/=!

: { h ...,x/, , ,} {, ,, ..., , } . (18.3) (18.4)


si- (18.5).
1

...

...

-.V,,

U\k

...

,,,

| '""

...

-V,,.,-

,\

...

... ,

>
(18.5)

/1 - /71 ~~
/ =

... ,,,),

... -4

"

-d\

g=

\- "

... ~da

(18.3), .. 17.
(18.4) , (18.4). , g,yin . \, ..., .
\,...,0 /- (18.3)
^- (18.4).

Q ^
,
(18.5), , . . +, * *
, / = 1, ..., , = 1, ..., .
, (18.5) , si-.
, si- , , .
18.1.
si- , , , . si-, (xxtx,\ (yr,yp), si-, .

18.

135

17.1.
(18.1) (18.2).
- m .... . d^
k-vo , ! /- -ro .
,
-,
diX] + ... + 1 , /- ,
,\\ + ...+ ,1, ,. (18.1).
, -
, . ( ) ,, ....,
, :
^*- ..-( ; \}'\ + ci2k)'2+ + <-' ,
- , dk ( )- -.
, (18.2).


T18.I. , (18.1) (18.2).
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... + </*-> max
M x, +... + amxn =cn

xk >0,

iH

=1,..., n

18.1. si-:
/ = 4, +2.Y, -> max
\\\ + 2 <6
.V, <4
2-,+.\-<12
> 0 , /=1,2

(18.6)

II.

136

18.2. , :
/ = 52 +104 > max
2 + 3 + 7 4 = 19
2 - 2 4 + 5 = 1 5
, + 12 2 + 4 = 1 6
0 ,

= 1 , 2 , 3 , 4,5

18.3. ;
/ = 1 2, + 2 - ] 2 -^ max
3

+ 22 + 3 < 1
",

- '2 + , > 5

, > 0, 2 > 0,

>

, ,
18.1. (18.2) :
giy

,ym) =-

-1\

--~

, > 0,

/ = 1,...,

;
( ...,) = - / , x , - . . . - ^ r n -

(18.1).
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) = d]xi +,.. + dllxll - > m a x
allx]

, <cn

+... a-mxn > c,,


xk >

i= 1,..., m
i = 1,.... m

18.

137

:
/('(,..., ;) = /,, + ... + cf,,x/l - max
/ = 1,...,

]+...+ 1 <
-{ -...- < -,-,
, >0, = 1

i = 1,..., m

\ uJ\~ 'u<)\ +-+amliym-<imky"m > dh,

, = , ~,,

= 1,...,

/= 1,..., / . :

[>', - / - 1,...,
18.1. :
1

-*,

12

-4

-2

18.2. 18.2. ,
{ 7, $}. :
/ = 52 + 104 -> max

I , - 2 4 < 15
12; + . \ 4 < 1 6
, > 0. -4 > 0

138

II.

:
# = I 9 j | + \52 + I6.i'3 -min
+ 3j-'2 + 12>'3 > 5
\ ~2y2 + .!',>
18.3. : .

-* -w

19

v
c

Tfc

find

1 9 . 1 . (18.1), (18.2) , / g . , .
. (18.1), (18,2) ,
si- (18.5). ,
. -, . .
si- (19.1);
,
{.v,, ..., ) !>' .... ,,}.

--

/=

, ..

\.

1 h

".

Pi-

,II

V|~

] i n

m. in

II

... P (l
...

>,

(19.1)

i
y,,^

:
1.
2.

/- (19.1) .
/- p.s., , , .

, ; . > 0 , = 1, ..., .
(at

a m . , ,... 0 ) (18.1) ( 17.1).

(19.1) g = t- ,

, + ... + ,

,, g> -

II.

140

^,, ,, ..., , .
g
. ([3,,..., , 0,..., 0).
, . / ( 17.2), (19.1) ,= $+ . I&I.V+ ... + , ,bmxt
, >\>0,
\b\i+ + }', A n .

(18.1) (18.2) ,
-1. .
19.1: , .

si-, 18.1.
, (0, 0, 6, 4, 12) (18.6).
-. ^ ,
, & 1. si- (19.2).
1

-4

-2

3=

-1

1 =

5=

f=

16

0
1
-2

(19.2)

5 =

2 , , 5 yi 1. si (19.3).
1

-,

2 =

Xi =

5 =

-1

-1

f=

20

2 =

1 =

-
1

(19.3)

19.

141

si- (19.3) f- .
= (4, 2, 0, 0, 2 ) (18.6), a (i'= (2, 2, 0, 0, 0 )
:

yl > 0. 2 > 0, 3 > 0

f{a') = g(p') = 20.


19.1. ,
.
1

19.2. (18.1)
(18.2) . /()<^((3),
(J .
. 19.1 - 19.2.
19.2. ^--('

**), = >",... ,') -

(18.1) (18.2).

,(,>,)

(19.5)

19.3.
19.3. = (**,..., **), = (v,\ ..., _*) (18.1) (18.2), (19.4) (19.5).
.
19.4.
19.2 . (*,..., '*) = ],,-* /- , ( , ,..., ) -
] .
' /- ,
,. , : ( )
, . , -

142

II.

[3 / , * > ' , ,

- , dk , k-ra (* = 0 ) . , . . * > 0, , - , dk .
. * + 2 = 4 + 2 = 6 ,
' = 4 , 2\ + *2 = 10 < 12, - . * >0, 2 >0, = 0 , 19.2. _," = '2,
. , ; :
[ + yl + yl = 4, ' + yl =2. , ,
, ,
- , \ > 0, , > 0 .


19.1. 19.1.
19.2. 19.2.
TI 9.3. 19.2.
19.4. 19.3.
19.1 - 19.21, 19.119.12
7.1 -17.21, 17.1K17.I2 17.
19.1 - 19.21. ,
17, . , .
19.1 -19.12. . Mathcad, . ,
.

19.

143

, ,
19.1. : 19.1.
19.2. 19.1 (18.1) (18.2)
* * , *) = g(P*). / ( ) <*), #(|3)>(*),
.) < #(), , ) - / ( ) it g(P) - g(p ).
19.3. /- (18.1) ", , :
(19.6)
i

:
^
/

\ > 0,

"

(19.7)

<

= / ( )

(19.4)

<C

/.

,
) /, ik k I}'I ,

. 19.2 (|3)=),

(19.6)


. , ,
(19.5). .
19.4. (19.4) (19.5) ,

/ ( a ) = g(f3) , ,
19.2.
19.21. 17.21 , a = (2.6, 5.6, 0, 0, 6.4, 0, 0).
X, - 2.6 . ,, 2 ~ 5.6 . 2, /7^ 4

:3 - 4 - 0 ;

5 = 6.4 . 2 3 ,

144

II.

:
g = 34{ + 12 + 22>'3 -* inin
2>>, + 2 + 2 , > 7
4

.| + 2 + 3 , > 3

' \ + 4>'2 + ^ 4
5]+2+23

>2

> , 2 > 0, 3 > 0.


19.1 ,
/^
si- (17.14), -
;
17.21. >> I 2,.Y7 , $ HV6,.V4 uy7,
si-

= (0, 1.5,0.5,0,0,2.5,0.5). , - 0 , -, 1.5, v^ = 0.5


2,
: Pt , 2 , , '2 > >1 ? . , 4 = _? - 0, = 2.5, * - 0.5 ,
, /7, //? , ,
3 /74,
, . . .
19.1. : (30, 15, 0).
19. .
:

(0,0,0,0, 1.225, 124.4, 132.85, 178.25,0).

19.12. Mathcad (
17.12). (18.1):
A: =s tack [A,

- i d e n t i t y (5) )

CGI: = ( - 1 0 0 0 0
OG2:=ugment{OG,

1200

Av-. ,;.--!

-1 000

-2 0000

-30 000)

OG1}

:
m:=rows[A)

i:=l;m

g (Y) ; ^OG2T Y

Y;:=0

:
Given

' Y> [ - )''

Y>G


= (0, 2.8, 0.8, 0.6, 0. 0. 0, 0, 0, 0, 7.4, 0, 0)

Y: ^minimize ( f,

Y)

19.

145

= (29 000, 0, 15 000, 164 000, 35 000) , 29000 . , 15 000 . , 164 000 . - , 35 000. ;
.
: , ; ; 2 500 000.
|3 , ( ) 15 000.

20

til*



. G - (, ).
, -- .
, ,
, , , . , , .
h , ah
(,) . h ab,
, (, ). , ( h),
--- .
b ( ) .
,
, , ,
, -- .

G = (V, ), . 20.1.

. 2 0 . 1 . G = (I/, E)
={1.2, 3, 4}, = {(1,2), (1, 3), (2,3), (2, 4), (3, 4)}.

20.

147

(v,, v2), (v2, v3), ..., (v H . b v,,)


, V/ v,,,
. v, = v,,,
.
v,v2, v2vi,...,
v
vn-2 n-b v,,.)V,, , v( v,, (v,, v,,)-. v, --v,,, . , , () .
.
, , , ()
().
.
20.1 ,
.
. :
. v,. , \>2. \>2 ,
v, . . . , , - , , . . , . .
20.1. , , .
, 20.1, ,
. 1. . , , . 2. .
. .
.
.

^
G, G. ( ) ,
.

. , , , . G, . 20.2,
: G-i, Gi, G3.

148

II.

G2

G3

. 20.2. G
.
.
,
.
20.2.
.
. T20.I.
20.2. G, m , :
1.

G .

2.

G m = - 1.

3.

G m = - \.

4.

G .

5.

G ()
.

. . ( .)
1 =} 2 ) ,
.
. , . /? I ( . ). .
+ 1 . 20.2 , . ,
. , (. 20.2).
/; \\-\ .
/? +- 1 /? .
2 -=> 3 ) , G . ,
, ,
. . (
, .) , , ,

20.

149

. , (. 20.3).

. 20.3. G
, . , , G
. m = ~ 1.
3 => 4 ) , G , . . G . : G G], G2, .... Gk. G
, . . .
, = /7,-1,/= 1,2,...,,

(20.1)

, Gh a m,~ .
k

(20.1)

i,

^ / , =/^, ~
(=1

1--

,=\

\,=,

^,

, =!

= - , - - 1, > 1.
, - ,
.
, (.
20.4), - .
4 => 5 ) v .
. uv . uv , , v.
5 => 1) , . , , .
.

150

II.

, ,
. , ,
.
,
, ,
.
20.3. , .
. .
. G , . -
, . - IX) , ,
. , .
5,
, .
. ,
, .
G , I. ,
.
G ,
. . .
v , v , , .
, .
, , v w, .
, I . , , V (, )-, W ()-.

, . ' ',, (, |)-
(\, )-, V, }' ',, (/, 1/|)- (/|, 1)-.
i f (. 20.4).
, (, /|)-, , . ',, 1( .
, vw ,
. . .
2 0 . 1 . .

20.

151

. 2 0 . 4 . (,)- (u,w)-u,er\b


20.1. 20.2.
20.2. , ,
, .
20.3, , (, )- (, v)-uenb.
20.4, ,
, .
20.5. 1. r(v)
v .
v r(v) . ,
.

, ,
20.1. : , 20.1.
20.2. ,
, , ,
. , .
20.3. :
"" .
20.4. = (,, ..., ) Q = (v b ..., vv) , = v, = ,
= vx = v- va, , ,
6 3 4223

152

II.

, v y , ua
va. > 1, (, , Q vu i vy
.
20.5. , -
. 6',
v G2
r(v) 1 . , G\
G2 . G2 . . , , . , , ,
.

21



:
\,,..,, ,
, , ., /= 1, ..., .
\, .... * .,
= 1, ..., /). () , /,* , , , , /,* ,
, , ,
.
. , . , 5*. , + ,2 + ... + , ~ i ~ I,...,
( )- , \ + 2 + .+ xtllk = , --- 1, ..., ( ).
:
MX --- D,

x> o,
..,.Y

1 1 ... 1
0 0 ... 0

(21-1)

),>' =

0... 0.. .... 0

1 I

1,

, ,,

-,

0. .. 0

0 0 ... 0

0 0 ... 0

0 ... 0

1 1 ... 1

I 0 ... 0

1 0 ... 0

1 0 ... 0

0 1 ... 0

1... 0

0 1 ... 0

0 0...1

0 0 ... 1

0 0... 1

II.

154

/ ,
"; , -/,*
1+

*,*. , / R" " :

(/- )

( + )-

, , / + .
III

/ ^/
, ,
/
, , . . / = max tjk ,
to,, , .
:

(21.2)
>0
,
min
(21.3)
>0
.

21.

155

, (21.2) ,
-. . (21.3) Mathcad
. 24.
21.1. (21.1) ,
( ) ( ):

21.1.
, , (21.4).


21. 21.1.
21.2. (21.4) , ( ). ?
21.3. , .
21.4. , m + n - 1 .

, ,
21.1. ,
. (21.4). *,* =
' ' , / = l , . . . , m,

- 1,..., , (21.2). ( 1 (21.1),)


21.2. , ' ~ ^ - = > 0 . (+ 1)- ,\, -

156

II.

, ,.,,. {,j = I, ..., , . , .

21.3. : , - /?"'" 7 1, 1, ..., 1,-1,


- ] , . . . , - ! ( m I,
-1).
21.4. :
N, , x]n,x2nt ..., ,\2, ...,|..|; , N , 5.7 2.3, 5.4.

22



= ( , 1 2 , ..., ,,,,,) /"" (21.2) (21.3).
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() , 20.2 ,
, , , . , ,...,M,t
Mih /,- .
(22.1) , Xik> ~(). 7'() :

(. 20.2) , , , ( , ^ 0 . , , (22.1) . .

158

22.1. (21.2) (21.3)


m+n-\ .
. 22.2.
22.1 . .


0. alk 0, . . a e Af" . = {),
..., ], .... . ,
at , d(A,) d(Bk) ,
/ - 1,..-, ,= 1, ..., . .
(/> 1).
{ }, /,
(21.2) tlk, (21.3).
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22.1 .
, , .

22.

159

3 4 , ai=100,
(6 7 3 5'
82=150, 3 = 50, bi ~ 75, 2 = 80, = 60, 4 = 85. = 1 2

3 10 20 1
(/, )
*. . 22.1 , (0, 5, 60, 35, 75, 75, 0 ,0 ,0, 0, 0, 50)
;
ct2i = 75
,(|00}

,(75)

,(50}

75, a i 3 = 60

)
,(0)
4(35)
3-4

5-6

. 2 2 . 1 .


22.1. 2 ,
- , 1 , -

/ . , 2
(21.2)(21.3).
22.2. 22.2.
22.1. - , .

160

II.

22.2. 3 4 , \ = 3,
'4 4 6 %\
2~6, #3 = 5, ]-5, 62 = 4, b:,-2, b,= 3. - 2 I 3 9

1 5 3 1 ,

/^, . -
().

, ,
22.1. : 22.2.
22.2. : 22.1 20.2.
22.1. : - (75, 25, 0, 0, 0, 55, 60, 35. 0, 0, 0, 50).
22.2. : - (3, 0, 0, 0, 2, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 3)
()=
,*

23

\, ..., q\. ..., / :

Cik = , +

23.1. / (21.2).
23.1.
23.1. /, ,< <1 ,
, , ), (21.2)
.
. .
. clk>cd,
i= I, ..., , = 1, ..., , _)>/(). , /() = / ( ) 23.1.
:

) /() = /() = ., = ^, ,
.
0, , ).

, , /()>/() ,
. .
(21.2) , ) .
. ) ,
. ) ()
. (, () ) .) -

162

II.

(21.2) , .
2 3 . 2 . (21.2) AjBk () clt = clk. ,
/ ] >, ; . (21.2), /()^/(), ,

)<).
. , , > . , \\
1

7 (). , ()
\\. 20.2 20.3 , ,
. , :
,

A]BuBiA2,A2B2,B2Ai

Ar,ArBr,BrA\

(23.1)

, ,
2 ] , 3 2 - , . | , | . X (23.1),

=()|2)...,)^/'" :
p2i

a 2 ] - ^ , 2

2 - ^ ..,

i~a,,,

i , , = , , - , = + X ,

2 2 = 2 2 + X, ..., $ = +,
.
X (23.1). (21.2).
) // , , ., , , . .
7() , , 22.1. . /fa) ), , (23.1):
32+

)-(2|

. . , + )-(2\ + 32+

+cn+...+ crr_t

+ ,.\ + , ) =

+])

(/72 + 2) + ... + ( + qr))


+
(p2+ 2) + (+ ))-(\ + (2+ q2) + ...+ (pF+ qr) + P\) =

=X(C]]-(Pi+ gi)) = X(cu-

?)<0,..$)<)-

, ,
(), ), . ,
X > 0, ) < .
23.1 23.2 (21.2).

23.

163

0. , . 22. ) , ( ) .

<>>1).

( ) .
, () ,+ ^ = , ( .
m + n-\ , m + n
,
.

, + ,<,, {,,;},
(), .
{! ,}, , ,+ qf= > ,;.
() ,
,
23.2. ,
/()</(). )
, .

.
, ,
q} .
23.2 , (22.1) (. 23.2). , . ,
.

, , () . 23.1.
,

50
. 2 3 . 1 . ()

II.

164

, ():
6 7 3 5
1 2

3 10 20

, <7i
:

'{+ =1-

+ = ' ft +<?., =1

pi = , ; = 7, / = 3, q^ = 5,
2 = -5, = -4, qy = 6. , (/', ) ;1 :
(6 7

5'

1 2 - 2 0
2 3-11
, , < . .


(Calculus) (. . 23.2) *"
(Math) 12 .

ftS1

V
' .
( ), ;
( ). Z ,
( ), . , VV , + 7 + , a T](i + l ) ; 2'+ 3" - 4 2 .

- - - - - - -

2 Tjf

-*

--

lim. lm
i

. 2 3 . 2 .

23.

165


23.1. 23.1.
23.2. , , ,
.
23.3. , . 2 .

23.1 - 23.10

Y{, 2 5 &, S%
/ 2, 3, *.
\, 2, , .

-34 }
. .
Y,.
], Pi, Pj, PA iVra Kh K2, /, ^. : , , ; {, 2, 3,
',, 2, , .
23.1.

500,
2 = 1200,
S

=700,

S 3 =440,

t -360,

4= 1600

25

40

20

10

35

25

50

20

15

45

= 40.

25,
23.2.

:
,= 1400,

^|

380,
1050,

(25
= 50

, = 40,

Pi

= 25,

= 520,
= 2880,

s2
40

20

35^

25

10

35

30

10

40,
=60,

S 3 =75O
64 = 800

=20.

166
23.3.

II.
:

5,-250,

5 2=800,

\ - 2000,

2 == 1850,

= 720

^45

15

30

10

20

40

15

25 .35

50

20

] = 40,

23.4.

=25.

$\ == 520

6,-1295,

2=960
^35
= 45
10

20

5 2 = 700,

: = 430,

1550

,= 840,

15 30^

15 25

50

30

35

20

= 35,

23.5.

= 20.

Sr -350

6,= 1350,

2= 1050,
'20

23.6.

23.7.

5*3-520,

25

[45

40

-280,

5 3 = 440,

= 360,

6 4 = 1250

s2
35

15>

10 30

20

35

2 5

15

, = 45,

2 = 50,

* 60,

5, = 250,

5 2 - 170,

5*3= 190,

, = 500,

2= 1300

= 420,

6 4 = 1850,

15

40

15'

30

45

20

50

25

50

10

15

, = 50,

=65,

5 ] -

6, - 850,

2 = 1150,

760,

= 70,

5*1 =

820,

= 960,

4 = 25.

=74.

5 3 - 640,
= 1350,

23.
flO

35

20

25

40

10

45

15

30

55

25

20

8.

= 17,

Pi =

^ = 3 0 ,

/>4=15.

S,=270,

6,= 1300,

2=* 1650,

52=520,
3 =780

4 =660,

'30

20

15

40^

30

25

12

45

20

25

50

35

-65,

9.

=39,

Si = 620,

S2 = 460,

| = 1800,

6, = 940,

bi= 1200

'15

20

30

25'

15

40

10

30

25

35

20

50

/>, = 40,
23.10.

167

6, = 700,

^2=47,

S3 = 370,

, = 22.

440,

= 380,

= 320,

1600,

= 1850,

= 120,

'25 40 45 15
35 20 15 30
20

10 50 25

, = 35,

.= 40,

37,

, = 30.

23.11 23.22

,
\, 2 , /73, /74, 6 62, 3, 64 .
, , .
, (/, ) ,

II,

168

/- . :
, .
23..:| =

2=30,

,= 15,

9 7 5 5)

= 6 8 5 7

9 6 8 5

23.12. : , = 35, 2 = 40, 3 = 55, 6, = 60, 2 = 25, 3 =

15,

= 4 6 7 5
8 4

V
=35, 6,-22, / = 15, by="t

23.13.
8 4 7 6
~ 7 9 8 6
9 7 5 8

23.14. :,-20, 2=45, <*,= 25, , = 30,/= 14, 3 = 26, 4 =20.


(7 6 9 5)
9 5 6 7
4 8 5 9
23.15. :

= 45, = 15,

6, = 20, 63= 22, 3= 18,

' 4 5 6 6
6 7 4 9
V

7 6 8 4

23.16. : , - 3 0 , 2 = 25,
f

9 7 8 4"
6 6 7 5
4 7 9 5

23.17. :, =
9 6 8
5 9 8 7
5 4 6 8

= 32, /= 24, 6 , - 2 8 , 6 4 = 16,

23,
23.18. : , - 3 0 , 2 =40, = 20. />,= 14, 2= 26,

169

= 16,

(5 8 4 7
9 8 5 9
9 8 6

23.19. :,=35,

~ 7 5 6 8
9 4 7 4
23.20. : , = 20, 2=35, i = 55, , - 36, 62 = 32, 6., = 24, &,= 18,
'6 5 9 8

= 6 4 8 6
9 8 4 7
23.21. : 5, = 300, =400, 5 3 = 500, , = 600, 2= 1500, 6 3 =225, 4 = 1250,
'20 50 24 10
25 40 10 20
30 15 20 15

23.22. 22.2,
).

23.1 - 23.10
], 2, ? 4 |. -, , .\. , (/", )
, /- - . b : i- ,
k- b *.
, , , ^
.
23.1.
{

\1 15 19 16

: =

20 19 18 21

=(1 50,188,102,143)

18 17 16 19

=(103,207,255,100)

19 14 17 \)

II.

170
23.2.
7 5 9 6N
2 9 8 2
: =
8 7 6 9
,9 4 7 5,

5^(50,88,12,43)
^=(13,27,55,100)

23.3.

: =

23 25 29 26
21 29 28 22

=(250,108,112,133)

28 27 26 29

=(123,167,105,200)

29 24 27 25
23.4.
'13
11
: =
18
19

35
39
17
14

9
8
6
7

36
32
39
35

=(150,56,52,93)
=(155,134,165,220)

23.5.
'7 15 19 6'
2 13 23 8
8 13 16 9

: =

=(50,58,92,33)
=(103,107,85,130)

9 13 15 8
23.6.
34
11
: =
31
14

42 31 21
12 23 18
15 22 16
14 27 14

=(350,348,234,145)
=056,100,142,245)

23.7.
/

100 9
72 49
: =
32 34
63 28

37
42
29
25

72
63
57
46j

=:(450,333,154,233)
=(213,177,132,253)

23.

171

23.8.
83 42 9 56^
: =

53 28 8 32

=(130,142,154,152)

34 42 6 39

=(127,153,245,8)

39 9

7 15

23.9.
8 13 9 6
: =

2 16 8 5

=(170,124,96,75)

7 8 14 9

=084,99,156,75)

114 18 3
23.10.

65 35 45 53
: =

45 54 53 43

=(450,228,178,256)

32 23 27 32
23 37 72 28

=(84,147,147,265)

K23.ll. 5 . \, 2, 3 167,93, 150 .,


Bj, B2, 3, 4, $ 92, 68, 80,
75, 95 .
(5.4 3.3

8.2

/~i 7.7 6.7 5.9


8

9.7 4.5

1
2.5

(/, ) , , - , :
Si 50 . , 2 5 60 . , 2 4 40 . .
23.12. 200, 300, 250 400
- 260, 200, 340 500
. ,
. . 1 1- -
(/, )
2.5 2.2 0 2.8'
= 1.6 1.0 1.9 1.2
0.8 1.0 0.6 0.9
200, 100, 150 . .
.

172

II.

, ,
23.1. = ( , | > , ..., ,) (21.2).

/=l k=\
m

/=!

=\

=\

/=1

(=1 k=\

;=1

. . /() . .
23.2. (21.2) .
( 14.1. 14.2).
, (21.2) ( 16.1).
,
. .
23.3. NyT=C,
= (pi, ..., -> >)> N , 21, 7"().
N (. 22.1).
N ( 2.3. 2.2). , Ny1 = ,
.
23.21. ,
, /, / . ,
,
300 + 500 + 400 = 1200 . ,
, 6000/20 = 300 , 2 15 000/30 = 500 ,
2250 / 15 = 150 , 4~ 1250 / 50 = 250 .
300 + 500+ 150 + 250= 1200 .
.
-/= - 2 0 * - 50|3 - 2 4 * - 10*|4- 25*2i ~ 4 0 * 2 2 - 10*23~
-20*24-30* 3 ]- 15*32-20*;;,- 15*min
/ ,
.
:
]

' 2\

+ + * + * | 4 =300
+

22

2--

500

' * 3 | +\ 2 + * . , + * , , = 4 0 0

23.

173

:
[*

~ 300

| | 2 + 12 + \, = 5 0 0
?

+ 1 + , = 150
+ 4 + xyi = 250

xlt>0,

/=1,2,3,

7 = 1,2,3,4. , (.
21.2). .
, 22:
22=200

,2-300

433

, = (0, 300, 0, 0. 0, 200, 50, 250, 300, 0, 100, 0).


. ,

' 0

300

200

50 250

300 0

100

0
0

(), , . 23.3.
. - ,
:
/

- 2 0 -50

Pi

25 ^

-24

-15 ^20
c

-15
<?4

174

. 23.3. (),
( - Q :
+q2=-5O,

p2+q3=-\0,

p,+qt^-30,

+<= ~^

, + , = " 2 0 ,

Pi

+= - 4 0 .

. ,
; . , , /?2=0. #2~-40, q3 = ~\0, q4 = ~20,
[ = -\0,~-\0, ^[ = -20. , (/, ) cit ~ , + qk:
'-30

-50

-20

-30'

= -20

-40

-10

-20

-30 -50 - 2 0 -30


, - 2| c2i, . , , 2 | . {)
A2Bi ( . 23.3 ).
A2BU

332

(23.2)

X. . (23.2), : ^,
3. 3 ? . X
: X = min{a 3 i , 2 } = 50. ,

23.

175

3 X, 2 3 \ (*2 3 ? (23.2), ).

300

0 '

50 200

250

1^250 0

150 0 j

) . 23.4.

. 23.4. (),
, . - , :
-20 ^ 5 0 - 2 4

-10'

-25-40-10-20
-30 -15 - 2 0 -15

:
-50, py + qx =-30,
-4Q, p3 + / - -20,
/>2+<7,=-25,

p2+q4=-20.

, 2 = 0: q\ = -25, qi= -40, ^ 4 = -20,/?i - -10,%5,


, + qk:
35

-50

-25 -30

= -25

-40

15-20

-30

-45

20

-25

, = -15. -

//.

176


- . , J3 .
39750 . . ,
2 Kt, A"2. k-t 50,
200, 250 , , ^ ", 3 250 [50 .
23.22. 7{) , . ) () 23 (. 23.5).

,
. 23.5. ()
, ()
( 4 6 8
2 13 9
1 5 3 \j
:

=4

/'2

0,

, :, = 0, /, = 2 /
2

<7 = 3, /4

23.

177

(4353
= 2 1 3 1

2 1 3 1

31 > ,,, , .

. 26.6.
7"() AJBJ, , . 23.6,
2[, B\Ai, , .
{2 3. , : 2, 2. , = 2.
, [} = (3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 4, 2, 0, 2, ,
, 3). ) , , , A-S\ (. . 23.7).

,
. 23.7. )

It.

178

, ):
(4 4 6
=

2 13 9
. 1 5 3 1;

2 +(/,=!
=3

/7.^ = 0, /?| = 3, / ^ 0,
= 1 1 3 1
113

t/

1-

, -

< . , .
23.1. :
'

150

'

88

100

65 37

1,38 0

105

10 928 . .
K23.ll. :
/

74

68

25

18

40

35

55

35 60

15 469.
K23.I2. Mathcad. :
; , ; , ; D, . , ,

23.

179

1 IR, :
ORIGIN : =1

m: =rows (C)

I C

i:=l;m

n: = cols (C)

. :-l

k:=l;n

f (X) :
p-l

:
Given
>0

^1,=0
, X)

X-IR S 1 0 0 0

X* 1 = D

f(Y) -


<k>
:-Y
: Y<k>
:-Y<h<h;'/Dk

y=


: 400
, 250 ,
300 ,
57.69 142.31
. 835 000 . .

24




m , (/, ) tlk. ,
(21.4).

Q ^
,
MX = D
(24.1)

>0

, (21.3). tlk, . tlk


, (24.1) .
(21.3),
/-~<* =

(24.2)

(21.3). , /, - !1 = , /, < < t2,


2^1(. =0 ^', ( . =0 .
, (24.2)
, !. (24.1) , , 21.1, . , (21.3)
.

24.

181

24.1. (21.3) ,
.
. (21.3).
a = ( a n , a i 2 , . . . , , ) ) = /,,. /, ,~ 0 , t,k> tn.

2=0

(24.3)

(21.3) , , (24.2). tn > .



(3 = (, | 2 , .-., /) (21.3), (24.2), . .

.. /</". , tn = , , (24.3)
(24.2).
:
(24.2) ) = /~ max/jA.. . > 0, tn<r. ,
I*

<>

(3 (21.3), ) = t/j < tn. ^,( = 0. ,


, r<llr , r<ih <in <r , . .
24.1 .
24.1. (21.3) ,
.


0. X t,k.
/ = 0-' >'2, . - -, ), s = m -n.

MY = D

\>
, .

//.

182
(>\).

MX = D
'>0

, .
(21,3) , .

= 3 5 1

7 6

ai = 12,

2=8,

3=8,

^ = 6,

2=11,

3 =11-

= (,2
) = = (, 1,2, 22, xii,xi3, X21, x 52 , 23 ). :

(24.4)
1
X,->+Xr>+Xi->=l\
42
22

>0,

/=1,2,3,

A-1,2,3

= (6, 6, 0, 0, 5, 3, 0, 0, 8), /fcto) = 9. Ha (24.4) /1 = 0, .. = 0, = (6, 3, 3, 0, 0, 8, 0, 8, 0), /() = 6.


3 = 0 ^ + = + = 0.
. ^ +2 + =: + 1 +2=0.
, (24.4)
+ 1 + 2 = 8. , - .


while

[while | (Programming)
. while , (

24.

183

Add Line (Programming). .



. ,
: ,
,
. ,

s<while

>1

s < s + 1
< - 1

3.


24.1 - 24.10
b: /- /- , k- b - . 7", (/, ) /- - .
,
.
24.1.
8 3 5 2
: -

4 16 7
s

l 9 4

5 = (10,15,25),
=(5,10,20,15).

24.2.
' 5 107 P
: =

2 8 4 6
3 5 8 2

= (15,5,30),
=(15,5,10,20).

//.

184
24.3.
3 5 6 2
: - 4 6 3 2 3
6 7 8 II 2

5 = (35,15,10),
6=00,3,17,20,10).

24.4.
15 I 13
: =

12 4 5 4
13 5 7 2

=(30,5,25),
= (12,8,20,20).

24.5.
: ^=

15 6 7 I

5=05,30),

12 8 4 6

=(5,15,15,10).

24.6.
9 6 111
: =

5 5 2 16
3 5 8 6

5=(25,15,10),
=(25,15,5,5).

24.7.
11 7 4
:

12 11 3 7

13 12 1 2J

= (1 8,12,20),
=(5,25,5,15).

24.8.
8 15 12 II
: 7 = 12 11 6 6
31 15 4 12

5 = (16,20,34),
= (35,15,15,5).

24.9.
: =

6 10 17
9 18 8 71

' = (5,35),
6^(5,5,15,15).

24.10.
'9 16 9 11 11
: =

116 5 6 5
8 116 3 7

=(35,5,20),
6=(25,15,,2,8).

K24.ll. 93, 154, 256, 247, 215, 125


. -

24.

185

, 135, 105, 48, 152, 120, 105, 305, 120 ,


.
7

16

7.5

7.8

5.8

5.8

10 17.7

2.7
17

15.6

15.4

8.6 12/

4
5.2

1.9

12

3.9

4.8 13.5

1.8

4.4

4.8

7.9

(/, ) , /- - .
.

,,
24.11
Mathcad
: , ,
. , ,
ic i r , :
ORIGIN:=1
n: = c c l s ( )
xlk:=Q

: =rows ( )

icd:=l

ir::=l

i:=l;m
f(x)

:=

max( {x

Jc:=l;
*

0) T) .

Mathcad xiK no
tlk ,
- (.);- [)
xlk, '- .

while

max(t)> 0
n a i b < max(t)

f o r i e 1. .m
f o r k e I . .n

glx} :=

if n a i b = t,

r <- r + 1

//.

186

(24.1):
Given
y.^find(x)

:<> 0

-ic =

x-ir = a
y-

f[y)~

1, 2, 3, ,
, find.
, = - 1, .
24.1. :

'0 0 0 10
5 10 0
0 0 20 5
4.

24.11. :
'93

0 152 2

31

105

42 105 0

87

0 120
13

48

167 0

125 0

7.

25
u

find

,
. , ,
(), . (,
, .)
, .. . ,
, ,
.
, , .
. G = (V, )-
() : s, , ,
. ()>0. v
D'(y) D (v) v
v.

^
f, 6,
G, :
(1) 0 < f{e) < ();
(2) v, s ,

= /- 2>)

(25)

f{e) ,

= I / - . )

(25.2)

/ (0
~(
f 6.
f G, .

188

II.
V S 7,
tG T. (S, 7) ((, S)) , S ( S).
(S, T)u(T, S) , S.

(25.2), (. ,
, ,
2 5 . 1 . S, s
/,

F- S /- Z/W
ce(S,T)

(25

ceO\S)

.3)

. (25.1) v 7\{/}
(25.2). , ,
F. , ,
= (, ) . h S, /()
. a wb ,
) :
,

^/)

/ /(ej

, . . -

. aeS, beT , ) ,

/^/()>

a&T, beS, /() ,

esD'{h)

^/()

(25.3). .
25.1.

-F = f(e)-

c(S) ^(), , S.
25.2. /
5, s t, z
F<c(S)

(25.4)

25.3. / S, (25.4)
, / , a S c(S).
25.1 - 25.3.
/ S, (25.4) , .26.

25.

189


25.1. 25.1.
25.2. 25.2.
25.3. 25.3.

, ,
25.1. S .. (S, 7) = D (), (, S) = D'(s).
(25.3).
25.2.

^ / ( ) > 0 , 25.1

25.3. : 25.2.

26



() . ./ . / ,
, D ,
. , / D , 0 </() < ().
(, () > 0, .)
/() = () ~f(e),
d{e) ~/(). / D .
G, s /,
, s /, , /,
, / s, , D.
"" s /, . .
, .
/ ' :
, f'(e) =.); , f'(e) =) + , , /'() =J{e)-A. ,
/' , (1) (2) , . 25. ,
(25.2), F'-F = A.

; 2

>

7,4

2;2

9,5

30
> t

,
. (s, a), (a, b), (d, t) /,
(, b), (d, ) D, . 4, 3, 3, -

26.

191

2, 5 .
2 s t
6 4
t

'

-6

9:3

3;2

>

26.1

. ..

, /,
.

, (,) /,
, (:, ) ;

, (, )
, (, ) \

2 6 . 1 . 26.1 / , G
. t ,
. .
. , ,
, , . ,
, , .
s,
, . . .
, 20.2 , s . , /, , $ , ,
/, D.
. ,
. "" ,
, , t. / ,
, ,
, .
.

192

II.
1
. 26.1 . .

. 2 6 . 1 . 1

s. , s, (s, ) , /. , : (, ) , /; 6 (, to)
, (, to) /; d (/, )
, (d, ) D. , . (to, ) ,
(to, ) D; d (, d) , /. , (to, t) t, (to, )
/. , (s, ), (, ), (, ), (to, /)

26.2
0. j(e) = 0.
(>\). 26.1 .
, /. ,
, . s /, .
.
. .
26.2. 26.2
, .
. 26.2 , 26.1 . , 26,1 S,
/. , 25.1 (25.3).
(S, ) /, ,

26.

193

(, S) .
:

/ , . (25.3)
F = c(S) 25.3 .

8:4

9;9

. 26.2. 2 9

. 26.2 . (
, .)
, (S, 7) (, S), F = c{S).
, , ,
. (s, ), (, ),
(, ), (b, f). , .
(s, ), (, ) (, t)
8-4, 5-0, 3-0.
(, ) 1.
/(4, 5, 3, 1)= 1.
1 1,
(. 26.3)

5;5

9;9

. 26.3. 2 10

194

II.
(. 26.4).

. 2 6 . 4 . 2

. s
(s, ) , (s, ) /.
(, ) , (, ), , D,
(d, ), , /.
. / . ,
, . 26.3, .
S {$, , ], {, 1, (}. (S, ) = {(, ), (, d)}
(, S) = {(, ), (/, a)}. F=c(S) = 10.

)
,
.
26.3. ,
26.2 , .
. . r-
, /
. ,
/' ,

, .
, . ,
25.2 . .

26.2. ,

26.
26.1 . ( .)
, , 26.2, .
26.1.
.


26.1. , G , 26.2 G
.
26.2.
m ,, ..., ,,
. 6 ( , ..., ,
.
-
. , .
.
26.3. ~ { ..., ,,,} .
, () , .
, m , {{, ..., ,,,} \\ < \()\ ( \R\ R).

1200/

1200\

\1200

/1200

. 2 6 . 5 . 26.4

26.4. 26,2,
, . 26,5 (
).

II.

196

26.1 26.21
X $ /. s t .
, , , /. . 26.6 , ,
, (,)
X (, , ).
, X .

. 26.6.
26.1.

26.2.

ciet)~ 15,

(2) - 4,

cfe,) - 12,

= 10

(5) = 5,

(6) - 3,

c(e-j) = 7,

<*) - 10.

<,)-30,

() = 8,

( ? ) = 12,

(4) = 20

( 7 ) = 14,

) - 2 0 .

(5) = 10,
26.3.

26.4.

26.5.

26.6.

26.7.

(<?) = 8,

(,) - 20,

(2) = 6,

( 3 ) - 8,

(4) - 1 5

(5) = 7,

(6) - 4,

( 7 ) = 1 1 ,

) - 1 5 .

(,)=21,

(2) = 7,

(2) = 9,

= 16

(5) = 9,

6 ) - 6,

(7) - 13,

= 17.

<**,)= 22,

(2) = 8,

(*?) ~ ,

(4) - 1 7

(5) = 10,

() - 7,

(7) = 14,

<*) = 18.

(>) = 8,

<<) = 15

< 7 ) = 1.

&) = 15.

<**,)= 18,
<3) = 13,

() = 2,

<*.) - 12,

(2) = 3,

( - 13
(7) = 7,

= 19.

26.
26.8.

26.9.

26.10.

26.11.

26.12.

26.13.

,) = 51,

( 2 )= 10,

5 )=13,

) = '0,

(7) = 6,

8 ) = 21.

,) = 50,

{2) = 9,

(3) = 16,

(4) = 5,

5 ) = 14,

(6) = 9,

(7) = 7,

(8) = 22.

0=8,

(2)=14,

) = ,

4 ) = 6,

;) = 15,

=13,

( 7 ) = 4,

(,) = 2.

0 = 22,

( 2 ) = 12,

) - 4,

)=,

) = 22,

( 6 ) = 5,

( 7 ) = 9,

c(eR) - 14.

.) - 7,

(2)=2\,

) = 6,

4 ) =13,

(5) = 16,

(() ^ 2 3 ,

(7) - 32,

( 8 ) = 8.

3 ) = 16,

(4) = 6,

(7) = 7,

8) = .

,) - 9,
5 )=,

26.14.

26.15.

26.16.

26.17.

26.18.

26.19.

26.20.

197

(2) = 31,

= 14,

4 ) = 4,

,) = 3,

( 2 )=21.

) - 12,

4> - 20,

:>) = J3,

(6) = ,

7 ) = 7,

8)=15.

0 = 2,

( 2 )=41,

) = 22,

4) = ,

5 ) = 7,

( 6 )=4,

7 ) - 20,

)=15.

0 = 13,

(;) = 7,

) = 14,

4 )=,

5 ) = 31,

(6) = 15,

7 ) = 8,

) = .

,)=1,

(2) - 6,

) = ,

( 4 ) = 18,

) = 5,

( 6 ) = 22,

() = 31,

) = .

(,)= 10,

(2)

=4],

) = 23,

4 ) - 7,

( 5 ) - 8,

(6) = 9,

7) = ,

(8) = 14.

(,)=1,

(2) = 5,

( 3 ) = 13,

4 ) = ,

( 5 ) = 24,

() - 19,

(<?7) = 7,

8) = .

c(ei) = 15,

( 2 )=3,

) - 2,

4 ) = 1,

c(es) = 13,

() = 8,

(7) = 22,

8 ) = 15.

198

II.

26.21. , . 26.7,
s , t .

18

. 26.7. 26.21

, ,
26. G, ,
d,
. G, 26.2 / //^ .
26.2. # = ( 5 , E)
= {|, ..., ani) = {\, ..., ,,} : (a,, bk)
, bk ,.
100( + ). s /,
(5, ,), / - 1, ..., , {bk, t), k~ I, ..., , , 1. s / G.
, . , .
,
. , . ,
F G.
- , . G g : ( bk)
g((oh bk)) = g((s, ,)) = g{(bk, t))= 1, g .
, g
, . F > . , F< .
26.3, G
/ ,

26.

199

(j>, a) I, , I,
, 0. , , bk, I, , bk, 0. , 0 I.
.
, ' , -/'
e
r r
, ' ' . /7/()= J_.f( )- '-
L'C/;

-/'

. G, {s}. 25.1 F~y^f(e) , /;"


, F<r.
, .
26.3. G , 26.2. 26.2
/ F. ,
G. , S, s,
, 26.2, F - c(S).
: , X ~ Sc\ A, Y - \ .
G G
min{m. n}. (S, ) ( bk),
min{m, n).

F=c(S)= X ^(= 5 > 1 1


ce(S.T)

re(

(26.1)

,)

, / , /((5, ,)) = 0, ,,
( /)) = 1. ,/(( bk)) = OU(k^j) , . , () Q S. ,
\(), B\B(X)CLT. , (5. ),
, (S, ) = ({.?}, Y)\J(B{X)4 {(}).
(26.1) :
F= \(S, 7)1 = , >1 + W O , ('})! = U1 + \{)\

(26.2)

~ . 26.2
, F~ . , m = \. -

II. Ma

200

. \\ < \()\. ; . (26.2) , F=\Y\ + \()\ > \\ + |] = . , m = \\.


26.4. : 2400.
26.21. 26.2.
I.
: s, (s, ), , (\ ), , (, b), b, (, d), d, (6, t), t. (s, ), (, b), (h, i), . , min{ 14-0, 9-0, 6-0} = 6, . 26.8. ,
, - .

10;0
13;0
. 2 6 . 8 . 6

(b, i) D, - /. : s, (\ a), a, (s, ), , (, ), ,


(, if), d, (d,t), i. , . (s, ), (, d), (d, t),
. ,
min{!0-0, 13-0, 18 0} = 10, . 26.9. (\ ) (/>, /)
D, - /.

10;10

18;

13:10

. 2 6 . 9 . 16

26.

201

: s, (s, a), a, (, b),


b, (b, d), d, (d, c), c, (d, /), /. (s, a), (a, b), (b, d)t (d, /),
, min{14-6, 9-6, 15-0,
18-10} = 3, . 26.10.

18;13
13;10
. 26.10. 19
: s, (s, a), a.
t . F, , F= ]/()=6 + ]3=\9. S
{5, },
,
(S, ) = {(.v, ), (, a), (a, b)}, c(S) = c((s, )) + ((, ) ) = \ 0 + 9 =
F = c(S), 26.1.

27



, . ;
; ; , , .
, :
, ; , ; , , . ,
. : )
; ) , ; ) , .

( J
G = (, ), V (v,,..., vn) , {,,v k ) (v,, v A ) , v, v ; .
, G ,
(v,, v^.) i<k (. 20.1). ,
,
.
, , z^ , xt vt,
vk, zk , v, f{zt),
/ , = 1, 2,..., .

27.

203

S v( G, D~[vi)=0, ~ v ,

.
1. , v^
tk . :
) lh. ;
) , . . (,
1,);
) (. . ),
/,,. .
.


(> 1). v*.
: v( e S , = 0 ; vk S , (v,, v*) D (v;)
,+ I, .
, tkl (kr = max{e, + I,} .


G (> 1). v M l _ ; . (
, v n l , v n _ 2 . .) . : \\ G , = tki; \\ g , (, v,)
D (Vi) p,-t,
.
:
vk , vk,
. : v(
, v t ,
.

204

II.

rk = pk -ek ~tk vk.


, . ,
- , .

, . , ,
.
2. , v.. /" ( ), zt
, hk
,


.
, d.
* , , . . . , 1 ;,
, , -,,..., z,,,
.
:

| . . . . , , _,,..., , z,,..., :) = max> - min,

~ > hk ^

(27.0

-=("-
> 0, > 0, , > ,
, <

( v , , v k ) e D+ (vk)

= 1,2, -..,"

/~\= , (27.1) =\
maxy, <tht :
i',e'/
,
th.
3. ,
v(. ,
.

27.

205

vk tak ;
vt sk,
= 1,..., . , th
, .

:

v, ^th

>0,

>0,

, <

v, e T

(v,,vk)eD+(vk)

tik fa* .
, t ih t .


27.1 27.21

a, b, , d, e,f, ij,
m. , 27.1.
27.1

j
a

ta

'h

tc

t,

i
e

206

II.

:
)
Vi, v2, v3, v4, V5, v6, v7, vg, VQ , (v,-, vk) / < ;
) ,
tkr ; th.;
) ,
tkr;
) .
27.1. : /(, = 6, /ft = 8, tc = 3, /(/ = 6, te -\,tf = 9, /, - 4, t} - 5, /, - 5 .
27.2. : ta = 2, th = 4, tc = 3, td - 5, te = 2, tf - 11, t, = 3, /, = 7, /, = 5 .
27.3. : ta = 1, /A = 5, /c = 3, /^ = 4, tc =2,tf = 6, /, = 4, / ; = 5, f,H = 6 .
27.4. : ta =4,ih= 7, tc = 2, td = 5, te - 4, tf = 7, t, - 1, t} = 5, r/J( - 8.
27.5. : ta = 5, /A = 4, / t - 4, td = 3, /t, - 1, t} = 6, /, = 8, t, = 3, /, = 6 .
27.6. : ta - 4, / = 4, / t = 5, td = 3, / e - 3, tf -% t, = 5, ^ = 7, /ffl = 1 1 .
27.7. : ta - 2, = 4, /t. = 13, td = 3, , = 4, r ; = 1, t, = 5, ; - 3, /, - 7.
27.8. .: ta = 5 , th = 4 , /t. = 3 , ^ = 5 , /fl = 3, ^ = 6, /, = 4 , ? ; - 2, /, =) .
27.9. : ta ~\,th= 3, /(. = 3, /(/ = 2, /e = 4, /, = 7, ,- = 4, / ; = 2, (, = 8 .
27.10. : ta - 5 , tb = 4 , /. = 2 , \d = 6 , rL, =12, ^ - 8 , t, = 7 , / ; = 1 , tm = 3 .
2 7 . . : / = 5 , /ft ^ 2 , /. = 6 , td =5, tL, = 1 , / r = 3 , , = 8 , / ; = 9 , tm =2.
27.12. : /u - 3, tb = 3, /(. - 3, td = 4, /t, = 7, /, = 1, /, = 4, t] = 6, ^,, = 2 .
27.13. : = 6, /A = 2, fc = I, ^ = 3, te = 5, /^ = 1, /, = 12, t} = 4, tM = 1.
27.14. : ta = 4 , tb = 4 , tc = 8 , td = 4 , /tf - 2 , ^ =10, /, = 6 , /, = 1, tm = 3 .

27.

207

27.15. : ta = 2, tb = 8, tc = 3, td = 7, te = 2, /, = 1, /, - 1 3 , /, = 4, /, - 1 2 .
27.16. : ta = 12, ^ = 3, tc = 5, /(/ - 2, /e = 1, tf = 5, /, = 3, /, - 4, /, - 9 .
27.17. : fa - 8, th = 4, /, = 4, /(/ = 2, /r = 2, / ; = 1, /, - 1 , / ; - 7, /, - 5 .
27.18. : tll=\0, th= 4, /c = 3, td = 2, te =7, t, = 6, /, = 3, t} = 7, I,,, = 4 .
27.19. : ta - 7 , /A = 1, rt. =4, td - 5 , ^, - 6 , tf = 1 , /, - 1 3 , ^ = 5 , !, =2.
27.20. : ta = 4 , / - 4 , /c. = 6 , /^ - 2 , /L, - 5 , tf ^l t, ~7, tf ~\ I, /, = 4 .
27.21. a, b, ,
d, , / /, , , .
. 27.2.
27.2

./

in

18

25

30

10

15

18

19

:
)
Vi, v2, V3, v4, v5, v6, v7, vs, v9, 1, {v,,vk) /<;
) ,
1 ; tkr;
) , tkr;
) .
27.1. v,, v2, v3, v4, v5, { v7.

t-qz. .
. 27.3.

II.

208

27.3
v4

"

12

20

16

14

0.1

0.6

0.4

0.64

0.42

0.12

12

10

V,

"

10

V2
V|

v5

v7

v,

v6

V|
V:,

,
.
12 . .
27.2. 27.1 , . 27.4.
27.4
V|

v2

V3

v2

Vl

v4

v7
V]

v2
V3

v3

12

10

16

18

15

0.2

0.2

0.62

0.71

0.22

0.22

13

,
.
36 . .
27.3. 27.1 , . 27.5.
27.5

V|

v7

^2

V'4

v5

Vf,

V]

V2

Vl

V2

V5

Vj

v6

V3

11

11

17

14

0.1

0.15

0.51

0.38

0.42

0.09

14

12

27.

209

,
.
14 . .
27.4. 27.1 ,
. 27.6.
27.6
v?

V|

vt

v2

v3

>'4

v5
v6

14

20

10

12

0.15

0.3

0.1

0.5

0.3

0.25

12

-i

,
,
26.
27.5. 27.4 ,
. 27.7.
27.7
V2

v5
V| V|

>'2
V4

-i
Vj

V(,

15

2!

13

0.16

0.31

0.11

0.51

0.31

0.26

13

,
,
30.
27.6. 27.4 ,
. 27.8.

210

II.
27.8
V3

v4

vs

V|

V]

v7
v2

v3

v4

v5
v6

13

18

10

0.12

0.27

0.07

0.45

0.26

0.22

II

,
,
32.
27.7. vu v2, v-;, v, v5, vb, v7. vk
tit tak () , * sk (
tit). . 27.9
27.9
V

V3
V|

Vft
V|

v7
v5

Vj

V3

tik

10

tak

11

15

10

62

-10

75

129

10

Ck

, , 34,
, .
27.8. 27.7 / ,
. 27.10.

27.

211

27.10

v7

tak

GO

32

90

215

129

300

101

27.9. 27.7 tak


. 27.11.
27.11
v2

tak

00

GO

GO

x>

GO

38

92

220

132

304

104

K27.10. 27.7 1 ,
. 27.12.
27.12

V2

v3

v4

V'7

tak

GO

CO

35

82

2I0

125

288

98

, ,
27.1. . 27.1, , , , d, e,f, i, j, /n, n vh v2, v3, v,u v5, v6,
v?, vg, v9, vio ( ).


= 2 = (?

j
/

] ! = {0+10,0 + 5}= 10 ;

?3}= {0 + 5,0+ 15}= 15;

,:

212

II.

1 =max{e(i+t6}= 28 + 18 = 46;
<? = max{efi + ^,5 + t$}= max{28 + 18,15+ 19}= 46 ;
<? = { 1 + /7} = 46 + 8 - 54 ;
eUj = { +1^}~ 46+ 25 = 71;
| 0 + / lu ,e 9 + ? 9 }-{71+8, 54 + 3()}=84, = {vo,vllh}.

15

19

30

. 2 7 . 1 .

..

84

= =^ = ;
in{p 4

/y}

843054;

in{/> K -; N ,/? 7 /7} =5 min{76 25, 5 4 - 8 } = 4 6 ;


5 = min{/?K - (} = 76 - 25 = 5 1 ;
4 = \{~{6} = 46-18 = 28;

} { 8 - 1 8 , 5 1 -19}= 10;

, =min{/? 4 -r,)=28-18 = 10.


:
r

i=Pi~i -'i = -

' " 2 = ^ - ^ - ' j = 5 ,

= p

- e

- ( j = 1 7 ,

, = 4 - 4 - /4 = 0 , , = , - , - /, = 1 7 , (, = , - - / = 0 ,
/7=p7-e7-/7=0,

rt=pb-et-ti=5,

\ ~~ \ ~ ~~ 'in "" -1 '

: Vi, v4, v6, v7, v9.

--1=0,

27,

213


27.1 - 27.10 Mathcad
""
v(x, , ... ,
,

. . -,

\,, ...,/)

) , ,

t . . 10, -

. . .,

t,

. , II /{~^)

tk-qkzk,

tt,qt - ,

: - = l-q-z . -
t,

q,

z tt, +- III -

- ,

s,

t i ,.,

-, t i t . .


minimize :
minimize
.
27.1. : z, = z 3 = z , =z ( i = z 7 =0 , z, = 2.625,

z 4 = 9 . 3 7 5 , / f t r = 30.425.

K27.4. : 36.667,
2 = 2 0 , z(i = 16.667 , , = z 4 -zA = z, = z1 = 0 .
K27.7. : 170, ,

\ =Pi = =

1 5

' *

= 2 0

' Pi

, = 4 ,
= 2 2

'

2 - 0 ,
= 2 3

3 = = ^ - ,. = 15 ,

7 = 22 ;

' =32.

27.8. : 519, ,
pt

es=e2=Q,

} = , = e(i = 10 ,

, = 26 , ^ = /?(, = />7 = 34 .

f(=9,

e7 = 26 ,

,=9,

/?2 =/>, = 10,

28

find

, s0, A'I, ..., s,,,


. , , SQ.
, s\,..., s,, , . . ,
s, /? ..., ,. (
/--); , s, (5,) , -( Sk,
> /, . . . (,), s, sk, 1.
, (), 1, ,*> 0.
,

s(l se,
()
()/ + +1 +... + ,

().
s(i.
. G = (V, ) V - | 0 , .vh ..., s,,}, {s,,*^} , (.,) 1.. (slt sk)
, > L D+(.s0) = 0, G s() . sL,, D (s\) = 0, G.

G () , s(,
. ,.
:
$, , (s,),

28.

215

sk Sj.
. ,
',,1, -2, -, s,. \,s,;.2, ...,< , D (si) (sh sit), (sh ,v,2), ...,(5,,Sj j ). w,
()
aH +wt , all2 +wi2, ... ,afi +w,- ,
. e. iv, =

extr

{aik + n\.}, extr -

, a,k . .

.
, ,
, .

. .
: cost ; likv(i)
, /; zatr(i)
,
/ .
.
, . , / ,
, , / , . , s^. ^1,*)
"", "": "" ,
"" . "" ,
cost + zatr(0) - likv(i), "" ,
zatr(i). , "" s^
s]-k, 1 , "" s,k ^ . l j t , ,.
Sft ( 5/ su,,S2,,,...,sm,).
: n = 3, cost = 8000,
likv(l) - 4000,
likv(2) - 3000,
lifoQ) = 1000,
zatr(0) = 1400,
zatr(\) = 1500,
zatr(2) = 1700.
, G,
. 28.1, , sm, s/,
( ).
8 . 4223

216

II.

, , ,
.

. 2 8 . 1 . G
.%> sf; ( sik "" potik, sik sj):
wn = 1000 , w2, = -3000 , wl3 = -4000, 11 = potu = potn - s(,
w22 = min{ 1700+ >)6400+ wi3}= min{ 1700-1000,6400-4000}= 700,
POt22 = S33 .

w ! 2 =min{ 1500+w 2 3 ,5400+w l 3 }=min{ 1500-3000, 5400-4000}=-1500,


potn = * a .
wu =min{l500 + Vj2,5400 + wlj} min{ 1500 + 700, 5400-1500}= 2200,
pot,, = 5 2 2 , wm = 9400 + w,, = 11600 , potm =su.
, s0o,poloo ~ 5, pot\] = s2^ pohi = *,
/73 = -
: "", "", "".

. /7,, 2,...,
. ,
(/, ) ,*>0,

28.

217

/. . (/ = , 1,..., ; - 1, 2,..., ). . ., .
:
/ , , /7 2 ,..., /. .
s,*. <(,)
" . . /7*,,", - 0, 1, ..., - L

ark, u
= 0, 1,..., - /. , " .. -\"
slk s,. , - ! sOtl, S[,,,..., sMl.
:

1 2
9 11 13 , - 3, = 2,
17 34 28


, G, . 28.2,
, sOo ,
.

. 28.2. G
%) , ( slk ""
pot ik , slk):
w

* = w n = -0 = 0 , w22 = 2 , pot12 = sa,

wl2 = m a x { l 3 + w2i,2 + w l 3 } = 13, potn =s23,

II.

218
w01 = max{28 + iv 2 3 ,13+ w l 3 , 2 + wm}= 2 8 ,
POttO. = S2} , W2i =

POt2l = S21 '

,, = m a x { l l + w : 2 , l + H ' 1 2 } = m a x { l 1 + 2,1 + 13}= 1 4 ,

(ll = m a x { 3 4 + vv22,11 + w l 2 ,l + wQ2}= max{34 + 2,11 + 13,1 + 28}= 3 6 ,

, $> potoo = sO\, potQ\ = s2i, pot2j = ^23


:
2 . ., . , 36.


|break | (Programming) jbreaJc, , , if; break if.
break , ;
. ,

<~

for

i e l . .10
break if i =

6.
, ,
break. ,

28.

219

:=

bi-Q

for i e 1 . .7
for je 1. . 9
b<-b + l

break if j = 3

21. , j ,
7, i 7 .

b <-
for

i e 1..7
b <- b + 1
for j e 1. . 9
break

if

j = 3

7.



28.1-28.20 28.1

. . cost. likv(i) zatr(i) , / = 0, 1,..., .
, .

II.

220

28.1. : = 4, cost
= 8500,
1

tifo(f)

6000

5000

3000

1000

zatrii)
600

800

1100

1500

28.2. : = 4, cost = 3000,


1

lifo(i)

1200

1000

800

100

zatr(i)
400

600

tooo

1900

28.3. : = 4, cost = 8400,


1

tikv(i)

7000

4000

3000

1000

zatr(i)
200

2000

2100

2400

28.4. : = 4, co.sf = 1000,


I

likv(i)

800

500

300

100

400
zatr(i)

1000

1700

3400

28.5. : = 4, cos/ = 9000,


/

//Av(/)
100

1100

700

500

200

1000

1600

2000

28.6. : n = 4, co^ = 4000,


1

//Av(/)

3400

2000

1000

900

zatrii)
200

600

1300

3000

28.

28.7. : = 5, cost
= 5400,
i
0
1
2
3
likv(i)

221

3500

3000

2400

2000

1000

zatr(i)
500 2000

2100

2400

2600

28.8. : = 5, cost = 1100,


1

likv(i)

tooo

900

450

400

100

zatr(i)
800

1700

1900

2900

4200

28.9. : = 5, cos/ = 3200,


(

_
likv(i)

1400

700

500

400

200

zatr(i)200

700

1500

3200

3700

28.10. : = 5, cost =3000,


1

lib(i)

2000

1300

900

500

200

zatr(i)
400

800

1300

1400

2100

28.11. : = 6, cos/ = 3000,


1

lifo(i)

2100

1800

1100

800

100

20

700
zatrii)

900

1200

1900

2400

3100

28.12. : - 6, cos/ = 2600,


/

2200

1300

1000

300

100

70

100

300

800

1300

2400

3100

II. Ma

222
28.13. : = 6, cost= 1500,

likv(i)

1400

600

500

300

100

90

zatr(i)1200

1600

2500

3000

3800

4000

28.14. : n = 6, cost = 4000,


1

likv(i)

2000

1800

1000

500

300

100

zatr(i)
400

1100

1700

2500

3500

4100

28.15. : n = 7, cost = 5500,


/

lifo(i)

5000

4200

2300

1500

800

300

200

1200

1900

2400

3500

3700

zatr{i)
400 700

28.16. : n = 7, co.tf = 2000,


/

//Av(<)
za/r(/) 900

1800

1200

900

600

500

300

200

1300

1500

1600

1700

2500

3100

28.17. : - 7, cos/ - 1100,


1

likv(i)

900

800

600

500

300

200

20

zatr{i)50
0

900

1100

1200

1400

2500

2700

"

28.18. : n = 7, cos/ - 3000,


0

likv(i)

1900

1300

900

500

400

300

130

zatr(f)
90

100

400

500

800

1000

1400

28,

223

28.19. : = 8, cost = 1000,


0

__
lifo(i)

900

700

600

400

200

100

50

20

zatr(i)80

200

500

600

800

900

1100

1300

28.20. : n = 8, cost = 1300,


/

lifo(i)

1000

900

800

600

500

400

300

200

zatr(i)
200

250

300

400

550

700

900

1000

K28.1. : n = 10, cost= 7500, 10.


1

10

likv(i)

600

500

300

100

95

95

84

80

40

35

zatr(i)60

80

150

155

155

160

162 250

300

28.2. Mathcad .
28.3. 28.1 - 28.20, 28.2.
28.4. 4 .

10 12

16

31 26

36 37

42 36

45 46

62 54

60 63

76 78

77 80

(/, k), i = 0, 1, ..., , = 1, 2, ..., , , - -

II.

224

/. . 5 . ., .
28.5. 8 10 . . (28.1), (/, k), i = 0, 1, ..., m,
= 1, 2, ..., , , -
/. .

, .

10

12

11

31

26

36

42

36

45

62

54

60

76

78

77

79

79.9

82

92

95

90

100

103

108

112

112

120

125

116

120.8

2
12
37
28
46 44
63 57
80
76
82.7 83
91
91
99
112 104
116 119
0

16

1
11.5
28
42
56
77
84
86
98.9
105
149

3
13.4
32
43
68.8
79
80
83
92
103
120

0>
16.8
30.6
39.5
60
80
80.5
86
112
113
135

(28.1)

28.6. Mathcad .

, ,
28.1. : 19 500, : "", "", "", "", "", "", "", "",
"", "".
28.2. Mathcad.
: likv zatr, i-e

i ; c o s t . pot (. -

28.

225

) kritput (pot) :
kritput (pot) : =
v 0 <-""
Ael..n-1

for

- POtfJc

vk <~ ""
< ""

if

i=1
otherwise

p o t wik w,
slk:
for

i 1..n

for - 1, - 2. . 1
for i 6 1..k
b, wtik+} - likv1 + c o s t + zatra
if b0 < b,
p o tj j. < i + 1

otherwise

zatr0
stack{kritput(pot),

K28.4. : ,
, ., 2 . .
85.
28.5. : , , , 5 . .,
2 . ., 1 . .
174.8.

II.

226

28.6. ( ) , . ,
, . pot.
for
W

J G 0 . .m
1
* "- 0

for G - 1, -- 2. . 0
for

i e 0 . .m
max <~ - 1

r E 0. .m - 1

for

if

w1 +

+ allrtl

>

max

max - w J M , . + a r .
k

pc

break

i/

stackikritputipot

* - max

*- i + r

=0
))

wik sik sjn, potifk = i +


. ,, + 1 ,
i . ., ,
0 < < ) - i , i = 0, 1,..., 1, woo Soo
.
p o t
kritput(pot) :
kritput (pot) : =

for

. .n - 1

vf

i
v

potlk . ., +1 , a i . ., ,
potih - i . ., (*+1)- .

29


,
. . ,
, , . . . .
,
, ,
,
. . , - . .
: . : {, 2,..., ,
], , ..., . At , : = 1, 2,..., , = 1, 2,..., ,
.

(29.1)

,
, (" "), (" "). ,
, .

228

II.
Ai , min{ 1,2,3}= I ,
,
min{6,5,4} = 4 . " ", . .
m a x { l , 4 } = 4 . . 4. Si ,
{ 1, } = 6, , { 2,5}= 5 , , , , max{3,4} = 4.
S " ", .. min{6,5,4}= 4 . 6 , . 4.
, , , . , S ,
?, .

(29.1).
a, = min aik ,
Pfc = max a,k ,
. , a = max min , ,
i

,
, = min max alk,

,
. ., , <. = " = *.

)
(29.1)
.
, ,
. = maxmina,A. = minmaxtf;A.

(29 2)

,
, . , -

29.

(4 1 5)

I3

229

__^

. -

, , .

29.1. < .
29.1.

m +

v{xx,..., yh ...,) =

n
a k>

~ L-t ^1 '

' ' (29.1), -

, : ,
At , aik. ,
() ( ) () , . \ (qt) ,
( ) * (), . . = -*-

()

-,

().

\q - , ,

}+... + pm=l,

ql+q2+...+gll=\.

p = {pu..., pm)e Afm

q = (<7,,..., <) Af",

,^0,

qt>0,

i = \,.,.,m,

k = \,...,n.

Pi + 2 + + , = 1 > \ + + ~ .
, , , qk prt
qrk " " " "
, ()
v(pr^ pr2,..., prm,qr],qr2,... ,qrn) (). v(p, q) () ( ) = (],..., ,)
q .
minv(/j, q) ,
, maxv (p, q)

, q. , maxminv(p, q),

230

II.

, , minmaxv (p, q), <i

,
.

^
q ,
)= maxmin v (p, q)= min max v (p, q)
P

<1

n$ 3)

q , (29.3). (29.1) .
, . ,
, = (0,..., 0,1, 0,..,, 0) Af", /- 1, .
'1 = (0,..., 0,1, 0,..., 0] Af, - 1,
. , v (ef, e"k )= aik .
(29.2) (29.3).
29.1. /? q ,
q Af" Af
(29.4)

v{p,q')<v(p\q')<v(p\q)
29.2.
2 9 . 1 .

* = ?*,..., pm),

- \,..., q*n)

(29.1) ,
\/i s 4i-> > >v )' \\ > > s -> v )'
:

- V\P * )'

/fa,...,<7 B >v) = v-> min


2_.aikqk <v, / = l,...,m,

(29.5)

tt
. = 1, qk > 0,k = 1,..., n.
k=]

29.

231

aikp. > v, = 1 , . . . , ,

, = 1, pt > 0, / = 1,..., .
. , (29.5) (29.6)
. , v , (29.1), (1, 0, ..., , v) (29.5). ,
/ anqx +...+ ainqn = <v .
(29.6).
(29.6) (29.5) (. 29.3),

19.1

/ * / .
*
{ ' ( *
'
-,
\ , v }-{\ ,, pm,v J [q ,v j= ^ , . . . , qn, v J . q
.

i=1 *=1

\,k=]

i=l

J i=\

v [p*, qj> v*. , v[p* ,q* )<v

(29.4).

= 1-v =v

< v [p*, q" j , .


q

* - v [p*, q ) (29.1)
29.1.
, * =\\>..., ) q* = {*,... ,qnj (29.1). 29.1
= 1, ,...,

, \*,..., q'n, v \p', q*)) (29.5). ,

[q't v') = {q[i,..i q'n, v'), v' < vyp ,q j.

J /=1
, ( (q*,...,q*
(29.4).
(294)
* * n,v[p*,qj)
(29.5). ,
(29.6). .

(/>*,..., *, v(p*,q)j

232

II.

29.1. .
. 29.4.


29.1. 29.1.
29.2. 29.1.
29.3. , (29.5) (29.6) .
29.4. 29.1.

, ,
29.1. , , , *. , , ,
. < < , . . ' < *.
29.2. q .
(29.3).

v \ , q j= maxmin v (p, q),

*\

,q

j=mmv\p

,q)t

v[p

*\

,q

)v\p

,qj

qeAf". , v [p\ q')= m i n m a x v ( p , q)

{ *
(
*\
(
*\ ( *
, v\p ,q J= maxv
\p, q J, v\p, q )< vyp ,q J
p
Afm . (29.4) .
, (29.4). maxv [, \~ v [*, q")= min v (/?*, q

, ,
(
\
i

( *
mm max v [, q) < max v \p, q }=v\p ,

p
p
.
( . \
.
i
^
= mmv\p , qj< max mm v [p, q).

</

, (29.4) ,
minv (p, q)<v [p, q*J<v [*, t{ )< v \*, ^ ] < v (p, q)

29.

233

/"' qe Af . q
maxminv [p, q)<v [p*, /*)< minmaxv (/?, q)
p

(29.7) (29.3).
29.3. (29.5) (29.6) :
/ ' = - (v, - v 2 ) -> max
-v2)<0, / =
k=\

={

* , =],..., n, v, >0, v2 >0

>0, i = I, ...,m, v, >0, v 2 >0.


. 18.
29.4. 29.1 , (29.5) (29.6)
. .

30



. . - . ,
. ,
( ),
( ), "". , , ; "" .
:
) ,
, . . ;
) "" ,
- .
, .

, .
. , , , . . (29.1).
,
, .
,
" ", . .
a = m a x m i n a ^ .
1

= {...,) ,
2-,
/ v -. >
1

UJ

, -

30.

235

, ,*2, ...,", v") (29.6), \[, ,*) v*


.
.

k- (29.1).
, , rtk = bk - aik. , /;* , , ,
, *.
, ,
" ", . .
" = minmaxr-,..
i

, -, .
,

(0, 1) . = 1
, - 0 , " ".

10, 11, 12 . . , , 5. . .
,
2 . . . .
,
10, 11 12 . . (
Ai, >, ).
, 10, 11 12 . . ,

0
- 5 -10
-2

-5

-4

-2

(30.1)

II.

236

, -1 = -10
8 ,
10 . ., 12 . .,
, , 2x5 = 10 . .
(30.1).
.

(30.1)

minrtIA. = - 1 0 ,

mma2k = -5 , . = - 4 , max{-10, - 5 , - 4 } = - 4 . , , . .
12 . . . 4 . .,
.
:
max
~2p2

-4p3>v

-5/?| -2 > v
-10/?| -52 ^ v
_

+2+

=],Pl

0 Pi * 0. Pi

(, Mathcad),
(0.2856, 0, 0.7144, -2.857). (0.2856, 0, 0.7144). :
0.2856 10 + 0 11 + 0.7144 12 = 11.43 . ., 2.857 . .
, :
5 \0
2

* ~ mini maxrik, maxr2jfc, maxrik > =min{ I0, 5, 4} = 4.

' J

- , ^.
, =0,6:

{0.6^(-)+0.4-0; 0.6.(-5)+0.4-0; 0.6-(-4)+0.4-0} =


= max{-6, -3,-2.4}= -2.4
- -

30.

237


30.1 30.10

],2,2. , , ( ). , Ah (/)
\- hn , ha
, hj3 . :
;
, ( )
, , .
30.1. :
|=2, 2 = 3 ,

= 4,

/?,, =6, h[2=7,

1 3 =6.5,

h23 = 4, 3, =2.75, h32 =4,

2) =3, 22 =5,

13 =2.5, 0.7.

30.2. :

| =3, 2 =5, 3 =4, =2, |2 =3, )3 =1,


2, =1,

22 = 2 ,

A3i = 2 '

23 =1.6,

32 = 3 '

=1>

= 0.8.

.. :
, = 2 , 2 = 3, 3 = 5 , /) = 6, 12 = 7, |3 - 5,
2, = 3 ,

22=4,

23=5,

31=3,

32=3.2,

33=1.8,

= 0.9.

30.4. :
]

=5,

21=2,

2=6,

3=4,

22=3,

/?2=1

=2,

|2=2.2,

/31 = 2 ,

1 3 =1.8,
4

/732= '

33=3,

= 0.6.

30.5. :
,=7,

2=6,

, = 8 ,

=2,

12=3,

/7| 3 =3.5,

2, = 3 , 22 = 4 , 23 =2, 31 = 2 , 32 = 3 , 33 =1, = 0.7.


30.6. :
, = 8 ,
21=2.

2=10,
22=2.5,

,=9,

, , = 2 ,

2 3 =1.9,

12=3,

31=2,

/7 | 3 =2.5,

/32 = 3 ,

33=

=0.8.

238

II.

30.7. :
, =10,

2 =15,

,,=2,

/^=3,

=12,
:=4,

=5,
3. = 4 ,

/12 = 5.5,
2=5,

,3 =3,

3?=2,

= 0.9.

30.8. :
] = 6, 2 = 8 , 3 = 7 , = 2, ]2 = 3 , 13 =3.5,
21=2,

h22=2.5,

3|=2,

hn=l.5,

33 = 1,

32 - 3,

=0.8.

30.9. :
, =9,

2=10,

A2i=2,

h22=2.5,

30.10. :
, = 8 , 2 = 1 2 ,
2|=0.5,

3 =12,

,, = 2 ,

23=2.2,
3=]0,

2 2 = 1.5,

31=2,

= 1 ,

23=1,

,2=3,

|3 =2.5,

32 2.5,

12=1.5,

3, = 0 . 9 ,

3 3 =1.5,

= 0.7.

13 = 1 . 2 5 ,

A32=l.l,

33=0.8,

= 0.7

30.1130.20

bh bt
.
, ,
. , ' . : , ,
( ); , , .
30.11. :
, = 20, 2 - 22, = 2 4 , = 3, d = 2, a = 0.6.
30.12. :

6, =7, 2 =8, 6 3 =9, = 4, d = 2, a = 0.8.


30.13. :
6, =11,

62=12,

*3=13,

= 5,

d=X

a = 0.7.

30.14. :

6, =14, 2 =16, 6 3 =18, = 7, rf = 3, a = 0.8.

30.

239

30.15. :
, =17,

2=\%

63=21,

= 8,

t/ = 4,

a =0.9.

30.16. :
6, =10, 2 =12, 6 3 = 1 4 ,

==9

> <* = 5> = 0.6.

30.17. :
6, =13, 6 2 =15, &, = 17, = , (/ = 5, = 0.7.
30.18. :
6, =19, 6 2 = 2 0 , =21, = 4, rf = 2, = 0.6.
30.19. :
, =30, 6 2 =32, 6 3 =34,

= 5, rf = 3, a =0.8.

30.20. :
At =12, & 2 =I4, 6 3 = 1 6 , = 4, rf = l, a =0.7.
30.21. ,
. 7.5 .,
8.5, 9, 9.5 .
: 6 ,
7 , 8 . ,
. ,
. ,
.
: ; , (
0.6), , .


30.1-30.10


. m . ,
0", ) , , - /- . .
,
.

II.

240

K30.I. =

10

10

1 4
4
2

.. =

30.2. / =

8 12
11 7

5
7

3
7

30.4. =

11

14

12

11

11

11

30.6. =

13

1 8

10
3

8
14

7
0

13

11

11

13

11

13

II

3 11

12 17

10 7
5

30.8.

0
8
7
3

9 10
11 2
0 6
4 8
8 4 4
6
6

11

14

115

13

10

4 2

6}

15

11

= 5

11
8

0
4

'10

11

12

11

02 7

30.10.

30.9.

/ =

30.5. = 13

30.7.

11

11

0 13

12
9

10^

10 14

2
5

10

13

12

13 12

3
0

K30.ll.
8 . . ,
2, 4, 6 8 . .
,

30.

241

9 . ,; , -
, 5 . .,
6 . . . , .

, ,
30.21. ,
.
, , .
( ) , . , ( \), ( 2), ( ),
6, 7 8 .
( /7 : ), ( 2),
( /73), 6, 7 8 . ,
3x3.
, (\,\). . , 6
, 6 7.5 = 45 . . , - 4 5 ,
. . = - 4 5 .
( /72), . . , 6 , . 1 9 .,
45+ 9 = 54 .
54 ., . . | 2 = -54. (Alt 3) , ,
45 + 2 9.5 = 64 ., an = -64.
, . 21 = 2 2 = -52.5 = = ~ -60 , ( ).
=

' -45

-54

-64'

-52.5

-52.5

-62

-60

-60

-60

II.

242

, maxmin r t . . = -64, mina2k = -62,


i

mina3A. = -60 , {-64, - 62, - 60} = -60, . . 3.


,
max {a min a,k + (1 - ) max alk}. = 0.6

'

am\na.k + (l - a)maxa Xk = 0.6 (- 64)+ 0.4 - (-45) = -56.4 ,


*

it

amin , , + (] - a ) m a x a 2 k = 0.6 (- 62)+ 0.4 (-52.5) = - 5 8 . 2 ,

mina i k + (l - a ) m a x a u = 0.6 (-60)+ 0.4 (-60) = -60,

max{-56.4,-58.2,-60} = -56.4, . . ,.
, rlk

maxa., = - 4 5 , maxa /2 = -52.5, , 3 = -60. :


1.5

7.5

15

7.5

' 0
D

,
minmax/1,, . max/-,, = 4 , max ,,. = 7 . 5 ,
i

"

'

ik

/-;. = 15. min {4, 7.5,15} = 4 , . . .


30.1. . Mathcad :

'

Pi + Pi + P.. + P, = 1 . P , ^ 0, / = 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 .

; 29% , 71% ,
.

30.

243

.. .
2, 4, 6 8 . .
,
2, 4, 6 8 . .
:

18
6

8
36

-2
26

-12
16

-6

24

54

44

-18

12

42

72

(. )
: 9 . . . ,
0.75-2+0-4 + 0-6 + 0.25-8 = 3.5 .
.

31




X (. . 15) ,
. X
, , () . -

, . , ,
. , .

/(*,,..., x,,)-min
X = ] ,
{ Af",

(31.1)

2 Af",
.
(

,
, , , . .
, v ,
.

31.

245

(
) ( ). Q c / c ,
(, , ),
( ) /; / //;
, , /fa) =./}< . (, .) ,
.
,
, (, 2) , .
: Q P ( Q ) ^ min / ( a ) , Q ,
()=, Q. . , (),
, .
.
, 16 , . 4 .
: ; . : , .
, ,
. 31.1. 1 2.
(31.1),
.
, (31.1).

. 3 1 . 1 .

246

II.

. Tt , , = ^ 2 = 11. Q)
/^ +. p(Qi).

(*>1).

7* , . : ,/}<<+, fR
, ; _/^=+,
(31.1) .
,

Q( = \ ' \2 . .\, .. Qk
k])

{k

[ =xl nX2,...,Qkm =X l ' nX2,

L)

x\

^ ^ u . - u X f " ' , -

.
i=\,...,m (\).
( , / ( ) = (. ), / ( a ) v\f!{. j{a)<fR, /? , )
. (

, ) ,

) <fK, - /; , ) .
Q. ^ ( ; .)
^. .
3 1 . 1 .
.
. \
, Xh , . . , ,
, , . ,
/ ; ( < + , / = +<
(31.1) .

():
/ ( * , , . . . , x,,)->min
X = Xt > ,

31.

247

\ :
r

O<xt<bn

b,

,/ = ],..., ,
2
/ ( , , . . . , ) .

S;

Q, = X, \ /!( = +.
p(Q,)

Q, = Xt n 2,
Xi 0<,< /= 1, ..., w. (,)
.
. , ,
( = \) \ 2, ',|()

\ <, <bk ,

ak ,bk

\. - , / = 1,...,.
Qk -Xf' \2,
\


(. <: <bki,

aKi,bki

I = 1 , . . . , 11.

.
/(*,,..., *J-min

Q,

(31.2)

, (.) = +< . (1 ) - / ( a J,
' (31.2). / [ )
Q^, /
.
, ^. , , . 1
, /^,
. * , , ,
D.k . -

9 . 4223

II.

248

a s * \

<xs<bk

akt < , S [ a J [a, J+l < , < bk . , [z] z.

:
W
\^;

,/ l-^l > 2 I ~ \ ~ 2 ~ * 1 ' 1 " 1

5,

-2<\5

- , + 22 <
- 7, + 2*, <
< , < 5
, - , / = 1, 2.
Xi

[.v, - , / = 1, 2.

5,-2<15
7, + 2 ; <

(,) :
/ = .Y, - 2 -^ min
| =

[ < , < 5, / = 1, 2

a = (l, 3.5), p(Q,) = m m / ( a ) = / { a * j = - 2 . 5 .


. Cli, QJ1'

0<; <5
0 < 2 <3
,, 2 -

'

(1)

S
0 < <5

'

4 < <5
,,2 -

31.
1

Q) '
:

249

' .
15

(ni 2 ) )= milli./(a) = -2 =/(*). "=(2,4)

, :
1

? = -2, (2,4). QJ' , (|) =

21

< fR = - 2 . QJ

. QJ '
Q ; , , 1 '/':

0<, -
0<2 <3
X, , ->

(?)
2

'

1<, <5
0<" 2 <3
X, , X ,

2 ' Q(,2) :

(''0= min /'1) = 0= *1 * = ( )'

^'1-

PP?')=

=
= - =-

/ la I, a

1.3

, , 2.
' ! )

2;!
,
( 2 '')= 0 > / = ~ 2 , (2'2!)= - 2 > ^ - 2 .
, . (2,4), - 2 .

, ,
Mathcad.


csorttM, n) ( rsort(M, ) ) () ,

II.

250

( ) .
5 , csortm,

1>

, =

ORIGIN ).
submatrixiM, i, m, k, n) , ,
/,; + 1,..., m - I, m , +\,..., -1, . ,

3
5

, submatrixiM, 0, 1, 1, 2)

7
roundia, )
.
ceil(a) ,
. floor(a) , .
return (Programming)
r e t u r n ; ( ), ( )
. ,

<-15
-20
for

iel..10

return a if i - 5
b

15 ( 20).


31.1. :
/ = , + 22 + Xj -> min
, + -, + -, > 10
22

>7

0 < ., < 10, , - , i = 1,2,3.

31.
31.2. :
/ = 6, + 2 + 43 -> min
X, + 4 3 + "3 > 6
, + 3 > 4
2 7 + 3 > 11
< , < 7, ,- - , / = 1, 2, 3.
31.3. :
/ = , + 2.V, + 3 -> min
f

X, + 3 + 3 -
2, +4 3 ^ 14
22+3>7
0 < , <10,, -,/ = 1,2,3.
31.4. :
/ = 4.Y, + -, +

min

2 + + , > 13
4 + 2 > 9
2 + 23 > 14
0<, <13, , -, / = 1,2,3.
31.5. :
/ = 4, + 2"3 + 3.V, -> min
, + 2 + -, > 9
+ 4-, 13
+2 >9
< , < 8, , - , / = 1, 2,3.
31.6. :
f = 5 + 4, + ; -^> min
'2| + 4 2 + 3 >
3.V) +4 3 > 13
2 + 3*3 > 11
< , < 13, , - , / = 1, 2, 3.

251

II.

252
1.7. :

/ = 5{ + 42 + , -> min
[ +3x 2 + 3.v3 >10
2,
2 + 3 > 5
< , < 6, , - , / = 1, 2, 3.
K3I.8. :
/ = 4', + , + ' - min
2, + 32 +43 >9
, +3 >9
+ 2JC3 > 11

< ; < 12, , - , / = 1, 2, 3.


31.9. :
/ = , + 22 + 4", - min
| + 2 +4 3 > 13
"1 + 3 > 9
2 + 3 > 11
< , < , , - , / = 1, 2, 3.
1.10. :
/ = 4, + 2", + -> min
', + 2 + 3 > 11
> 10

2 3 > 11

0 < , < 8, , - , / = 1, 2, 3.
K31.ll.
.
1

0s!

2 0

1 0

(/, ) ,
- /- . , 23,
22 15. 1,4, 3, 5. ,

31.

253


. , !00 . , .

31.1

1.5

1.5

31.12. . . 31.1 , , ( . . .). :


7. 10, 6. , .

, ,
Mathcad
1.12.
31.1. . (0,2,4),
8.
K31.ll. . 7
15 .
96.
31.12. : O R I GIN : = l . :
2

1.5

:= 3 2
4

1 :=(?, 10, )

1.5

3 ,

\' := (0, 0, 0, 0, 0),

b\' := (l, 1,1,1, l) ( ; =1 i- ,


, =0 - ), := (, 0, 0, ,) , f(x):~-(d- ), d! := (5, 4, 3, 2, l). :

254

II.
<
a\<x<b\
-

,
: resol: =
re: =f[resol) .
1

, QJ! Q^>
,
:
/()

0)

-* min

/(.v) -> min

\<
~{1<-<

\<

* ~\2<<2

( \, , 2, 2 , , ).
Mathcad.
, .
- list newbound.
- list al, , 2, 2 Qj,..,,
.['1{, f(yl) f(y2) .
; , ^, , ^ , , ; , Q ^ , ,
. ,
,
. ,
listial,

<2,

2,

yl,

2,

) : =

*..2<-

31.

255

f(y2)
noA

<- csort(k, 4)
- newbound ,
, ,
re.

Q* . , , . : ys
! >1; 2 ( lj
Q t
Q^2). ,
newbound[k,

): =

while

ki4 < re

i <- i + 1
break

if

i > no

n <- i
return

"end'1

if

<-
<~ *

while

floor[y,)= ys
S <r- S + l

a2s < ceil(ys)


bls < f JoorfyJ
stack(a2ibl,n)

It.

256

- :
res{yl,

y2,

resol,

re):=

res*-resol
if

if

res<-yl

if

res * resol
if

(floor{yl)* l)- (floor{y2)* 2)

(floor{yl)= yl)-(f 1(2) y'l)


r(yl)=min(f(yl),re)
otherwise

(floor{yl)* yi)-(floor(y2)= 2)
y2

if

f(Y2)=mir.(f(y2\re)

res* resol otherwise


if

(floor(yl)= yl)-{floor(y2)= yl)


if
if

f (yl)" rain(f(yl\f (y2),re)


f(y2)=min(f{yl\f(y2\re)
if re = n\in(f(yl),f(y2),re)

(-
f ( y l ) = -8.75, ,
3:/

hi,

a2,

2'-

Given
- Sc

al<x<bl

y l := minimize(f,:<)

k:=list(al,al, , , yl, yl, 1, k)


al:=ku

2:= kul

yl:- roundyy 1,6)

M := newbound(k,l,re)

bl := subma trix(,M, m + 1, 2- :r\l,l)

a2:= subma trix{M, 1, m,l. l)

' := subina trix[M, 2:n+ l,2m + 1,1,1),

r o u n d ( y l , 6), ',2, 6)
( ), . , , flooria)
, .
Q},'1 Q[, :1 ,
f ( y l ) = - 8 . 5 f(y 2 ) = - 8 . 3 1 8 1 . Qj' 1 ( Q\), \, , 2, 2:
Given
< al < < yl:- ininimize(f,x) yl:- round(yl,6j

(JI.J)

31,

257

Given
-< 2<<2
2:= minimi ze(f,) 2:= round(y2,)
resol := res(yl, 2, resol, re) re := f[resol)
k : = i i s t ( a l , a2, ,2, yl, y2, no,icj M :- newbound(*:, no, re)
al := 2:= kU2 bl:=svbma trix(w, 1 + 1, 2-m,l, l)
a2:= submaCrix(M,l, m, 1, l) no := subnia trix(w, 2 + 1, 2m+ 1,1, l).
Euie (31.3) !
2)
[' { , jf(yl) = -8.333 /(2) = - 8 ,
1

} ' ( 12).
, -8 (1, , 1, 0, 0). (31.3)
1
2)
Q' ' ^ , p(n''')=/(yl)=-7.333, . 2: =resol.
}(2' , ( 23).
, (31.3) ^'1 fif, f(yi)=-i. 333,
f(y2)=-7 , (_ = "end").
: ( 1 , 0, 1, 0, 0),
8 . .

* .

32
find



(. . 15):
/ ( * ..., ) > max(min)
X Af

(32.1)

/* (32.1), - (, ),
/(,,..., ,,) - max(min)
(, /V/ ) X

(32,2)

grad/"(/Wo) f(x]
) / = (",..., .v" J , /- f
/- ,: grad f{M0) = (/v' (/ ),..., f'x [Mo)).
-grad f(Mo) fs . ,
/ , , .
3 2 . 1 . X,
(32.1).
/ /
. * - \\,..., * ) . g(x\ )= /(.,, *2,.,., * ) , *,* . * ', , (, ) X. , / /
() (,), , , ,
g ()
(," - , x't + s j c Af1. * g, . .

32.

259

/ .
.
:
/ ( x h ..., xn) - max (min),
X
(

\(<

( 3 2

"3)

,,...,^,)^, = >\bn
[i = ] , . . . ,
/, g], ..., g,,, Af".
1
32.2. (32.3) / X, (32.3)
, X,
, f.
. 15.2 X . 15.2 / X.
. X, 32.1,
/ X,
, .

:
/7 V

\ v 2 + xl > min
2 + : < 4 .
. - .

Af2, xf +x; <4 , . 32.2 .


* + 2 : =4 , f : / =] + ( 4 - , 2 ) = 4 . t
grad/(xi, ) = (2xi, 22), . . (0,0) f, , 0) = 0. (0, 0) .


32.132.21 ,)
, .
32.1. / = 2 +2-9 + 21,
32.2. / = 2 + 2 / + 1 ,

0<<3,

>0,

.>0,

0<<3.
+ <3.

260

II.

32.3. / = - 2
32.4. f = x
32.5. f = x

-+

+4,

+ _<1.

0<<2.

>-1,

v>-l,

- + . < 1 .

/ =

<.

0<>-<4-- .

32.8. /= +2- +4,


32.9.

>>-!,

-1<<1,

32.7. / = ! O + 2 r v - . t ,
2

>0,

>0,

+-,

+ 2 + 2 ,
2

<1,

~-\

+3.v

32.6. / = 5

<0, < 0 , + + 2 > .


2

+-2,

4 -4<<0.

320. f = + , - 1 < * < 1 , 0 < < 3 .


32.11. f = 2x22 +3y
32 2 +1,
1

2 2

+-2 <9.

32.12. / = 3 + ^ 3 -, 0<.<2, - 1 < ; > < 2 .

32.13. / = 2 X 2 > ' - . Y > - X 2 ^ 2 , : + < 6 , > , > 0 .

32.14. f = x2 +2xy-y2,

x + _v + 4 > 0 , .v<0,

y<0.

32.15. / = 2 2 +2--2 -4, <2, < < I, > .


32.16. / = 2+-2,
32.17.

/ = --,

0>>42-4.
22<<8.

328. / = + + , - 2 < < 2 , - 2 < < 4 .


32.19. f = x2 - + , - 2 < < 2 , -3 < > < 3 .
32.20. / = 3 + 2 2 2 , 2 + 2 < 1 .
32.2\. f ^2 + 2- + + .

<0,

-3<<0,

>--3.

32-

261

, ,
32.21. X . 32.1.
, , , . .
. grad/x, ) = (2- + 1, 2- + 1), :
\2 - + 1 = ,

[2- + \ =

-3

\
. 3 2 . 1 . X
* = -l,_y = - l . { = (-1,-1) /,) = - 1 .
/ .

=0,

g{y} = /"(, ) - 2 + ,
g = [-3,0]. :
'=2+1, ' =0
-''
*
' *>'

= ,
2

= ;
I 2}
4

g(-3)=6,

g-(())=0. / 6, 0.

t{x)=f(x, 0)=x

= [-3, ],

_J_
2'

= 0:

_ ! = _ ! , /(_)=6,
2J 4 7

262

/()= 0. , / 6,
0.
,
r(x)=

/(,--3)=

+{--3)

= --3

- ( - - 3 ) + + (--3) = 3 x 4 9 * + 6 ,

' = 6 + 9, ' = 0 = , = . i y
2
{ 2)
4
.
/ ,
/ X 6, / X - 1 .

33

--:=*,*


X .
32.2 , , .
, .
3 3 . 1 . (32.3) .
, , /, glt ..., gm

/, gradgi(Ai), > grad g,,,(AO .
- (32.3), "\, ..., ,

( L .)
33.1. " (32.3) , , ,
33.1.
. ' ( 15.2), 32.2 (32.3) *.
/ . / 33.1, . .

:
f{x, , z) = + + - - max
2
x

+y2+z2

=21

< 3 , _ < 3 , Z < 3 , T O X 33.1 . -

264

II.
33.1 " = \\ *, z j.

2

g] (, , z) = 27,

gi = + + z . grad#|(A/* )= \2*, 2y\2z*). , , ,

{.

2.1).

gradg, [* )= 0 ,

* = ' = z" = 0 , ' X . ,


33.1, 33.1

27).
L:

L;=O
L:

1 + 2' = 0
1 + 2Vv = 0

= ^ '

=0

L
Y :=
2
1
= 2

1 +2Xz - 0
>+2

+z

-27 = 0

2%

= 27
, (3, 3, 3) (-3, - 3 , - 3 ) L.
/ ( 3 , 3, 3 ) = 9 , / ( - 3 , - 3 , - 3 ) = - 9 , '= (3, 3, 3) .
3 3 . 1 . Af,
/(-,, , . . , ! ) - > max (min)

(33.1)

X n Y .
(32.1).
. (33.1),
5(, ),

/{*!,..., )> max (min)
(, /V/ ) {X ).
. B(s, ") , (, *).
^ *)) = (, *)\ .

33.

265

(32.2) , , (32.1).
33.2. (32.3) , - + 1
, Y Z Af, -+ 1 . , X=Yr<l . (32.3) , X

, g\M)*b^ i = + [

, / g,, ..., gk


\ grad#,(A/*), ..., gvad gk\M") .
. 32.2 (32.3) .
,
. (32.3). -/")^6,, / = + 1,..., , 15.1 , * Z. 33.1 , -/*

/(*,,...,*,,)-+max(min)
Y =<

[/ = !

33.1.

33.2 :
/(.Y,

) \ z)= + + z -* min
\xyz - 1000

[, > 0, > 0, z > 0.

f{10, 10, 10) = 30 < 50, :


Y+

y+ z > min

xyz = 1000

\'

> 0, > 0, z > 0


+ v + z < 50.

(33.2)

266

II.
( 50 , 30.)
3
Af , xyz- 1000, Z
> 0, > 0, z > 0, + + z < 50. = Yr,Z , 15.2 , (33.2)
. M=(x,y,z)
. = (10, 10, 10) (33.2)
f(M0) = 30, f(M*)<30 < 50. , x'y"z*=1000, "> 0, *> 0, z"> 0,
grad g]\M* )= \y*z', x'z", x** ) * 0 , g^x, , z) = xyz -1000. 33.2,

l(x, y,z,X)=x + y + z + X(xyz -1000).
, , > 0 , > 0 , z > 0 .
L'r = 1 + Xyz, L\. = 1 + Xxz , L[=\ + Xxy , L\ = xyz- 1000 =>
1 + Xyz = 0

i + te = ^ Uxy-.y(te).(M= (-0' ^,,


xyz = 1000
xyz = 1000

x= y = z = \0.
, (10,10,10).



:
33.1. f = x+y+z-*mm
2

+2

+2=3

.. / = -2+ 2z-> max

33.2. f = xy->m\n
2+2 =1
33.4. / = 2+ J^- 2Z->- max

+2+2=9

x2+y2+z2=9

33.5. / = 6-4- > max

^2+;'2=l

33.6.

v- v
/ = - + ^
2

33.

33.7. / = -2.V+ 2 + z - max


2

x +y +z =9

33.9. / = ,vy'-> in in

267

33.8. / = xyz~> max


x2 +y2+z2 =U
33.10. /=2>'7

33.1133.20

f(x, , z) , , z
. /- /-1,2, 3.
, 6 .
33.11. : f=xyz, 6 ^ 1 0 0 0 , , = 4 , 2 = 2 5 , 3 = 10.
. . : / = 2xyz , 6 = 1000, , = 25 , , = 8 , \ = 1 0 .
33.13. : f = xyz , 6 = 512, , = 4 , 3 = 1 6 , = 8 .
33.14. : / = 5 , 6 = 5 1 2 , , = 8 , = 1 6 , , = 20 .
33.15. : f = xyz , b = \25, , = 5 , 2 = 5 , 3 = 5 .
33.16.: / = 8, 6 = 125, , = 2 0 , 3 = 1 0 , 3 = 5 .
33.17. : / = xyz , 6 = 2 1 6 , , = 9 , 2 = 8 , , = 3 .
33.18. : f = 7xyz, 6 - 2 1 6 , , = 8, 2 = 9 , 3 =21 .
33.19. : / = xyz , 6 = 729 , , = 27 , : = 3 , , = 9 .
33.20. : / = 2xyz , = 729 , , = 9 , 2 = 6 , 3 = 27 .

34

%-.=>

find^

.
(

/ R" M^eAf".
/ ( A J , ..., ) /

(o)
( , -^=-(/(1) f
/ ) .
34.1.
/

. / = (.vf,..., ), / = ( / , , . . . , / ) . ( / ) = ( 1 + / .

/ ( ) = / ( 0 + / / ) = /(v?+

xi+), /( ())=/(w 0 )=/(,,.., *::), / [( = ().

, :

) - (^) (vf+//,)'+
= ) - / , +... + , (/)./
,

lim

=lim

34.

269

34.1. , .
. 34.1. /
MQ / [grad /(/ )/]. 1.2 : [grad/(A/ 0 )'/]<|grad /(,))(/ = grad /{ \ .

[grad J[MQ )/] = grad/(-/]1 ,


grad/U/^) / I.
, / grad ,/'(/(|) , .. / grad f[Mlt), (. 1.3). .
(32.3),
/ X.
, .

. /V/,.

/(/>!).
1.

grad/(A/ ( ). grad f\M J = 0. -/,


/
A-/,+/.grad/(A-/,), !>0,

(34.1)

/ .
2.

.
) (34.1) / > 0
X. , \, (34.1) / . 3.
) (34.1) ' />0.
/, , , , , X, /
rt, grad f\M,)
[?r grad /(/,)]

d f(M, \ '
,
X. ?, , . |,
/, +/F , t > 0.
/ . 3.

270
3.

II.
1 + 1-1 < , > 0 ,

, ].
.

, /.


34.1. , / ,
O.v, fcosa,sina).
34.2. , /' /, ,
, Oz,
(cosa, cos/?, cosy).
34.1. f(x,y) = x5y6 ={\, 1) v = (3, - 2).
34.2. /(, , z)= xy + z2 -xyz (1,2,3) ,
60, 45, 60.
34.3. /(, , z) = xyz (4, 1, 2) ,
(8, 9, 10).
34.4. /(, )-1 + + \5
(-1, ]) / .
34.5. f{x, , z) = xyz (1,2,3)
(cosa, cos/?, cosy). ?
34.6. f\x, _y) = arcsin'.
+
\ = (1, 1) 2= (3, 4).
34.7. f(x, )~ 4 -2 + 32 (I, 1) , (4, 3).
34.8. /(, )= arcctg (xy) (1, 1)
.

34.

271


34.1-34.10
3 . 4
. 7V 4x3, (/, ) alk,
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11
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8
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25
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23

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14
13

20
10
20
13
23
10
23
17
8
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8
6
13
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9
12
11
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1.
12
14
14,
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11
14
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15
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15
14
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8
7
6
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12
10
24
11

24
7
21
3

5
16
14
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13
14
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15
16

22
15
5
17

16
8
9
10

14

17

34.2. N

34.6. N

10

10 16 13
14

1
18
34.8. N =
13
24

15 10

17
7
24
15

10
11
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12
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16
12
10
9

14
15
16
17

18
19
20
21

272

II.

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= /(/)./'

15

12

V13 V13

34.2. 34.2.
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0
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274

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275

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276

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278

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21

10,

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21

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12

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= 20, Q =4,

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35.
35

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279

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8 2
f
1
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=60,

, =6, 2 = 1 0 ,

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5

11 8

10 3. 4223

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280

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dlQ =14,

d]Q = 9 ,
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2 = 13,

d2l =0.2,

4'

355. : 6, = 7 ,

/1 =

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1
2

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13*

15

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12

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^,, = 0 . 2 ,

17

i/,, = 0 . 2 5 ,

8.5

14

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6 2 =102,

62 =105,

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= 11,

P]

Pi

=12,

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17

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t/;i =0.25,

^=136,

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6

=13,

(/ M =12, rf2l=0.2,

35.19.: 6, = 5 1 ,
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A2=105,

=12,

35.

281_

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: 25 . 30 . 2 60 . 3- , 2. 4 . .,
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282

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5

25

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35.

283

, + 22 = 30

(35.5)

, +12, = 60
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, (35.3) |02, X () . , , D (. 35.7).


, .

25

20 -

15

10 -

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284

II.

, 8 . . , 3 .
. 2 ( 1 ).
56 . .
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f(X],x2)=(\2-{l + 0.2x]))x{ +(10-(8 + 0.2*2))2


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2

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<90
<88 .

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, (12.5, 5),
= ^181.25-5/ .
X $2 , . 35.8.
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JC, + 62

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35.

285

20

35

. 35.8. f

1 , + 62 = 90

2 -5 = (*| -12.5) /, ( -1 Ik, -


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/= (6, 2) /) = 26 . , , 26 . ., 6 2 .
K35.ll. , 35.22
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:= 5 - - 0 . 2 - 2 + 2 - - 0 . 2 - 2
: = 0

: = 0

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> 0
M:=maximize{f,

1 3 - + - ^ 90
,

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K35.ll, Mathcad
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1.

:
{, ) : = 5 - - 0 . 2 - 2 + 2 - - 0 . 2 - 2

286
2.

II.
z = f(x, ) .
f.
:
General () 3D Plot Format ( 3- )
Display As ( ) Surface Plot ( ); Appearance () Fill Surface (
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Choose Colormap Blues; QuickPlot Data (
) s t a r t -200, end 200;
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35.

287

Y-Axes; Z-Axes Show Numbers.


3D Plot Format. <Enter>,
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-2 5

l.t

7.5

10

13 5

13

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30

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/V,
, [xI7,in; xailX] , [; y n a x L
( ), rnd:
N := 10 000
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:= 10
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288

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At ^ V \

At

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lim

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lim

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\s(t)dt,

292

III.

.. v[a,b] = fs(t)dt.

V[T]
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i(t) = '"" s(t), s(t) , t m

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36.1. , <?(/) t.
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]f(x)dx.
36.3. , , , .
, , /(/)- .

, ,
24
36.1. : \q(t)dt.
36.2. . " "
~ [0,)], [,].
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fi(t)edi.

37



. ,
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.
. , ,
. .
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.
. ,
. /
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, .
,
. 37.1.
i

, . 36, , |/?(:)&

/. y{t)= n-\b\x)dx ,


/ Civ(0> a , ,
y(t) = 0.

294

III.

. 3 7 . 1 .

(.

. 36). , Q/n,

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/.
,
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^\

,
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37.

295


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complex

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296

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298

III.


37.1 37.13

' Q .
1 . .
\ . . . .
.
37.1. : 2 = 2000, 1 = 0.01, 1 = 20 000.
37.2. : Q = 1300, \ =0.04, 1= 10 000.
37.3.: = 1000, \ =0.02, 2 = 15 000.
37.4. : Q= 1200, C l = 0 . 0 3 , C2 = 24 000.
37.5. : Q = 900, \ = 0.06, 2 - 12 000.
37.6. : Q= 1400, 1 =0.01, 2 = 13 000.
37.7. : Q= 1700, \ = 0.03, 2 = 9000.
37.8. : Q= 1000, 1 = 0.05, 1= 16 000.
37.9.: 0 = 1 6 0 0 , 1=0.04, 1= 10 000.
37.10. : 2 = 2500, 1 =0.07, 1 = 9000.
K37.ll.
120 000 , . ?
. 0.35 . . ,
10 000 . .
. , 1000 .
37.12. :
t 11 12 + 5;
100 + 10/7 . .
37.13. .
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.
( ):

10, 5, 7, 5, 8, 8, 3, 9 . .; -

37.

299

100, 50, 90, 20, 20. 25, 40, 40 . .;


0.1, 0.2, 0.2, 0.1, 0.3, 0.3, 0.1,
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200 . .

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37.12. :/? = 56.475.
37.13. Mathcad .
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300

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1- :

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29.1,

40.4,

35.3,

29.7,

28.4,

49.8,

22.7).

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, . 38.1.

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,
s ,
.
, . 37, , . r(l)
t 4 .

302

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/ Cti'<A y(l)=s -\b(x)d\, ,
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y(t)dt+ \c2w(t)dt + g(n)

Ci


38.138.12

Q
. . \ . . , 2 . .
,
.
. .
, .
38.1. : Q= 120000, \ -0.35,

2=10000, 4 = 3.5.

38.2. : Q= 125000, cl = 0.4,

2 - 8000, 4 = 3.1.

38.3. : Q= 110000, cl =0.3,

2 = 12000, .4 = 3.8.

38.4. : 0= 115000, c l = 0 . 3 1 ,

2= 11000, 4 = .

38.5. : Q=U 7000, \ = 0.36,

cl = 14000, 4 - 3.2.

38.6. : Q = 121000, cl =0.38.

2 = 9000, 4 = 3.3.

38.7. : Q - 112000, \ - 0.32,

2 = I 1000, 4 = 3.5.

38.8. : > = 120000, ] =0.31,

2 = 10000, 4-3.2.

38.
38.9. : Q= 115 000, cl=0.34,
38.10. : Q = 120 000, \ = 0.37,

305

2 = 9000, 4 = 3.3.
2 '-= 13 000. 4 = 3.4.

38.11. 38.1 : / /12; / 5/.


38.12. N 150 .

1000 + 10 . .
35 . . ,

. 250 . . .

, .

, ,
38.1 - 38.12 Mathcad.
: Q ,
; c l d
, 2 ()
;
s . s : : =
s : = s. b(x)
, :

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- s:

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\

1 s:
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38.12. : = 15.23, s = 7.236.

39


,
.
/ ..., /, ... ,
:
t

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, , , ,
. ,

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306

III.

39.1 , t
/

, ^-~

Xl

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39.2. . / >^; + (/), o(At) , /.


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. 39.1 ,

Xl
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40.5. : = 5, = 12.

40.6. : =\, = 6.

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40.8. : = 3, = 14.

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, , \.

320

III.

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j = n,..., m - 1,

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41.2. : = 10 = 0.8, /= 1.5.

322

III.

41.3. := 1 = 0.6, /=1.6.

41.4.:=10 = 0., / = 1.6.

41.5. :/? = 2 = 0.8, / = 1.5.

41.6. : = 8 = 0.8, /= 1.5.

41.7. : = 1 = 0.5, /=1.8.

41.8. : = 10 = 0.5, /= 1.8.

41.9. : = 5 = 0.2, / = 2.

41.10. :/?= 1 = 0.2, 1 = 2.

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328 IV. -
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X .

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42.

333

42.2. : a = 2 D ,

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335

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339

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. , Y X .
D(Y\x), .
43.2. . . X 43.1 ?

43. /,
/ = 1 , 2 , 3,4, 5, 6,7,8, 9,10,11
43./. . . (X, Y) .42./ ; D(Y\x)
D(X\y).

43,

343

, ,
43.1. R d\\ dy, (,). , , ((, Y)eR)- {, y)dxdy
(. 42.3). , ,

P((X,Y)^R) = P((x < < + dx)-(y < Y<y + dy)) = P(x < X < + dx) =
}>)

= P(v<Y<y + dy\x< X < + dx)= ip \(x)dx-ip b>\x)dy. (yl.r) = ^ *'

T43.2.
1.

X | < . . . < x m , i <...<>', Xj<x < x i i h


y k < y < y k M .

F(x, )
Fl(x)F2(y) i, k.
2.

..

F(x, ) = F](x)F2(y).

F Ix, >) = F, (x)F2(y). Wo F v , (.v, ) = cp(x, ;'), , () = (, (),


?2 () = 2 (). (, >) = ,() 2 ().
: ^ (, ) = 1 ( ) < 2(). 3
' (, ) 42:
v

F(x.y)= \ \ (, y)dxdy = \ ,{.v>p,(v)dbc<A- = J ,( Jtp : 0')4' = ^(.vj/sfy),


- I

- /

-I".

-f.-S

- .

. . . . Y .
3.

. 2, ' , >(,)= |()


2()- 43.1

(, v) = (\) 2()-

(, ).
43.3.
1.

. (X, ) X . p,t
( 43.2) , ,

12 . 422.1

~M(Y))pc,k =

344 IV. -

k=]

Ill

11

~
'-'
. . (X, Y) X Y .
(, \>) = ty\ ix)-->() ,
T V

'

Vl

2 ;

' ^ -

->-i\

( 43.2) , ,

= ( \( - /('))| (-)' - M(Y))q>2(y)dxdy =

())(() - M(Y)) = ,

| (x)dx = 2 (^)c/v = 1 ( ).

2.

: () = , () = /(),
- , M{Z + U) - A-/(Z) + M(U). ,
Kvv. - M(XY- Y-M(X)-X-M{Y) + M(X)M{Y)) - M(XY) - /()/() - M(X)M(Y) + M(X)M(Y) = M(XY) - M(X)M(Y);
D(X + Y) = M{X + Y- M(X + Y))z = M((X- M(X)) + (Y-M(Y))f - M(X)f +M(Y- M(Y)f + 2M[(X- M(X))-(Y- M( .

_
3.

,
_ X-M(X)
Y-MjY) _
Z=.
-- , U=,
. :

K,

Ho

<]

\2()\<2.

43.
2

345

,
M(U ) = 1,

2 ^ M{Z ) + M(U ).
,
2
2
2
\2M(ZU)\ < ('/}) + M(U\ 0 < M(Z ) + M(U ) 2M(ZU)t 0< M(Z + (f 2ZU),
0 < A/(Z Uf.
. .
4.

= 1

0 ^ (1 U)'. , Z = U
Y-M(Y)

X -()

=
=

,
Y = -^-(.\ -M(X))+ M(Y),

() ,= 1 ( = -1). .
43.1. . . (', )
2
42.1. , * > 1 (\) = 0.
2
- < I. 43.1
1

-2 + v2 < 1,

.Y2 + V2 > I.

+ * < 1,

2yj\-y

*2 + 1 > 1.

x)ydy = = =

. (\) =

ydy. , -

, .
|-! < !. D(Y \ ) = [( v | )( ~(\ ))2 dy =

2
2V1 -.v^

f
J

2 ,
' '

V d)' =

~'" .
4

|.v| > 1 D(}1.\-)-0, (vj.v) ^ 0 .|Y[ > 1. () ^ () = 0 (


1, ),
.

VI

-V

^ = J \x)\p(x,y)dxdy = \xdx- f -dy = 0.


-..

,., = 0.

- !

-VI - -

346 IV. -
43.2. : . ," / .
43.11. Mathcad.
:
((.)

>(,)

2(_)

1()

(,_), 2(), 1() 42.11. " Y:


<

1(-)& := \ >2()/

\-

<.

Dx := \( - ) >\()1

Dy := f (v - My) <p2(y)dy

-co

Mx = 0.785

My - 0.785

Dx = 0.l 88

Dv = 0.188

:
05

k:= f \(x-Mx)-(y-My)-q(x,y)dxdy

p := ,

= -0.046

=-0.245

2
:= \->)

2
Mx

' v(y) =: = JJ x

Dyx(x):= j(y~ Myx(x)f -q>x(x,y)dy Dxv(y) = \(

, 0 .

I / ,

44



, . . Z -

4 < >

. , 1 ^
" 2

. . Z.

^
. . (X, V) () ,, , , , ,

., . , - av " _ .Y - )( - ,. 1 ( >' (, ) =
!- - 2
44.1. . ,
,, , ,., ,, ,
av, c v ,., ,.,
.
. 44.1.
44.2. . . (X, Y) ,
.
44.2.
, . . (X, ) (). X
.
44.3. . . {X, Y)
, ,,, GV, p, ,
Y X ,

348

IV, -

M(Y\x)=av

44.3.
. 43.1
= \

\\)= J1

x>>i

(, ) (. . 42), (, {) ,
=\, Oxz Vi (. 44.1). ,

, yt)dx S\ ~yh -

(,,) =\ ( . 44.1 ).
, ([|) "" (, \) 1/5, ^}>]. (X, Y) , (1,) D(X\y2) (|>) (\2)
, . 44.1.

{\)

. 4 4 . 1 .

44.

349


44.1. 44.1.
44.2. 44.2.
44.3. 44.3.

, ,
44.1. . |() -

x-at

-,
- , v=

(v, y)dy -

a,

:
--trtJ2kz+c
rJ

h -

--

, f=re

V2

0,1

dl = 1 .

_V2TI

:
A'vv =
, v (. ),
v -
-=
: . . .. ..=,
2

V o-p )
.
44.2. 44.1 . . X Y.
= 0 , , . .
(', Y) :

43.2.

350 IV. -
44.3. 44.1 43.1,
:
)
m- av +

(x-ax), s = y l - p

. , ^ (|)

, /, s. m s"t .

45
find




,
. ,
0 I.
.
45.1 ( ).
\,2,..., ,
\, 2, ..., , . >
(,

*)=!.

45.2 ( ). ] 2>..., ,
\,2, .., [ , \,..., ^, ,
\+2+...+
+] + ... + 1 . :
,
.

- ( ) ,
, .
. 45.1 ^- .

352

IV. -

0.5-

fc=1

0.4 "

.k=2

0. .
2

k=Q

0.1 -

10

12

. 4 5 . 1 . ^-

45.2 /^- , . . Z /"-


, M(Z) - , D(Z) = 2.
(

^- ( )
U
= :\ , V

U , V , . . U /^- .
. 45.2 /- .

. 4 5 . 2 . t-

45.

353

45.1 U/k 1.
/- . , >30 /- . , . . /-

, {) = , D(7) =

.
2

F- ( -)
/c-i
(V/ki) : (U/), V U , V U
2
- fa 2 .
. 45.3 /-"- .
&i-> 2-> /^ .

. 4 5 . 3 . F-


dchisqix, )
, //- . d t ; x , ) , t . dF(x, kl, k2) , /^- kl

354

IV. -

2 . dnorm (x, , ) ,
\ .


45.1. , . . Z //- ,
M(Z) = .
45.2. , . . Z /^ ,
D(Z) = 2k.

45.1 - 45.10
^- ] , /- 2 , /^- ] k2 , // .
45.1. : 1 = 5, 2 - 6 , = 0, - !.
45.2. : 1 = 6, 2 = 5, = 0, = 1.
45.3. : 1 = 6, ! = 6, = 0, = 2.
45.4. : 1 = 5 , . = 5, = 0, = 3.
45.5. : 1 = 10. 2 = 12, = 0, = 1.
45.6. : 1 = 12, 2 = 10, = 0, = 2.
45.7. : \ = 12, 2 = 12, = 0, = 3.
45.8. : 1 - 10, 2 = 10, = 0, - 3.
45.9. : 1 - 20, ! = 20, - 0, - !.
45.10. : Al = 19, 2 = 19, = 0. = 2.

, ,
,2

45.1. Z=U[ +... + Uj:, (/ , / - 1, .... .


M(U) - 0, D(U,) = 1 ,

45.

355

45.2. . . . /2 , D(Z)= 2^0(11*). :

< <) . ( V]) = D(U,) = 1.

D(U;)= j((x

\x

tyN(x)dx

tpN(x)dx -

,
, , , 3 1 .
D(U?) = 3-2 + \ = 2 , , D(Z) = 2k.
K45.l-K45.10. : Formatting Currently Selected X-Y Plot, . 40.

:
46

find

'.
,
: ,

.

, . , ,
, .
.
( ) ( ) . : .
, , . .
, , . ,
, .
.
X \, ..., . . ', X,
. .,, ..., \- () ',. ..., ', , . . '. ...,, "" . . ',
( v,

46. 357
). . . X
. , () , D(X) . .
(

9 X. 0
0(1
) Xi, ..., X. (*1, ...,) 8
.
I

0 6 ,
: (0) = 0. 6 , :
> 0 lim (\ 9 - 01< ) - 1. 0
,
0, .
, , .
.
, 9. , 0 /(0-0)~, . . 6 0.
.

4-

4 6 . 1 . = '

( D(X)in)
a = () X.
46.1.
. . X, 1
(1 - ) .
, , .

, = 1. X =


W.
. . X. , () = , D(X) = (\ ~).

358 IV. -
46.1. X 7
.
(

) .

4 6 . 2 . S

- I
a"~D(X)
2

X, S =

= ().

46.1 46.2 , .V|, ...,* . .

^
, s , .v2
5>,
X

5>,-^
,

! > , - * /
,

II - I

/7-1

. .,
w.
. . (X, Y),
(Xi, Vi), .... (, Yn), Xi , , X , = 1, .... . , , \:, . . . X V, -

fiss.

, 0
6 ,
.
, 0 6 .
: ..., 9]. Q] ( 9],, 0^),
= 1 - , 9: P(Q[n < 9 < ^) = .

46. 359
2

(8|, ,9, .) G ()
, .
,
, , ,
, . - 1%.
, 1% , . 1%, .
.

Q j

.
46.1. . . X ,
Ov, {\\ < () = . / - - X.
.
= (\\ < /) = 1 - (\\ ^ 0 = 1 - -*'> 0 - (< - / ) = ! - 2(> I),

(>!) = (< -I). (\\ >t)= -= 1 - ( < /) ( < /) - - ^ .


.
.
46.2.
, <\ X , "/.
. . . ' ,
. 46.1.
4 6 . 3 .
2, :
{-

, +-

/ ] t v

360 IV. -

. 46.2 , , .

>

() - ) = 0 ,

X-


_2

46.1
-

.
46.4. ,
/

(Jr /i
/, h,

//7-1 V " ' " "

/- - 1 .

46.4.
46.5. ,
"
nS1

nS2

/*, 1 2- - I .
46.5.
, , .

46. 361
46.6.
, a
',

/, + ..

1+

, , /?,
1

. X
, 45.2
- (),

-,

JD(X) .,

G ~ J
. .
V
46.1

~-
..

,.

. . . ..= .

ID(X)
.
/; D(X) ,
W S2. , 46 6 .
.

( ^

.V
( W) ( ),
.


46.1. , 8 0
iim D (0) = 0 , 0 .
46.2. 46.1.

362 IV. -
2

46.3. S 46.2.
46.4.

//- ~\ . X.
, 46.4.
46.5. 46.5.
46.1 - 46.20 .
46.1. 10 ,
5.5 ,
1.7 . . 0.9 ,
.
46.2. 46.1 ,
, .
46.3. - . 12 10 , - 2 . , . , 0.9 .
46,4. 46.3 ,
, 0.9 .
46.5. 16 , , 45.5 , 5.6 . , ,
0.9 .
46.6. 15 3.8%, 2.7%. ,
0.9 , .
46.7. . , . 17 .
, 980 ,
324 2. , 0.9 .
46.8. 46.7 , ,
0.9 .
46.9. 46.6 , ,
0.9 .
46.10. , .
16 , 20 ,
4 . 90%- .

46, 363
46.11. 100 . 36
107. 90%-
.
46.12. 1500 30%. , 0.9
( ).
46.13. -
16%. , 0.9 1%?
46.14. 300 .
8000 . ., - 50 (. .)". , 0.9 .
46.15. 600 100 . 90%-
.
46.16.
1000 . , 80%. ,
0.9.
46.17. ,
, 400 ". , 15 0.9?
46.18.
. 0.5 .
, 9.
, 0.9 .
46.19. 0.4. , , . ,
0.9 , 0.02?
46.20.
, 0.9
I ?
5 '.
46.21. 20 ,
, ,
15 .
620 . ,
, , 0.9
} .

364 IV. -
46.22.
100 : 119.2%, 9.353%. , 0.9
; , 0.9 1%.
46.23. 100 10 . 90%- .
,
. 46 w 47.

:
:

0.9

0.95

0.975

1.28

1.645

1.96

0.95 0.9 /- 11 25 . 46.1:


46.1

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

19

21

23

25

0.95

1.8

1.8

1.8

1.8

1.8

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

0.9

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

0.95 0.05 2- 11 20 . 46.2:


46.2

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

0.95

19.7

21

22.4

23.7

25

26.3

27.6

28.9

30.1

31.4

0.05

4.6

5.2

5.9

6.6

7.7

8.7

9.4

10.1

10.9

, ,
46.1. :
> 0

46. 365
6 /(9) = 0,
1

>

<

G,,.
46.2.

JL

(-'- ) = / M(Xt) = = a.

I=I

D(

Xh ,..,

) = - D(,\ ,) =

T46.I.
2

46.3. 11 () ^ , () = \ . S - - V ((', - ) - (X - )) =

-)2 +(-)2 - ! ( ' - ) ( ' ; -/) = -!-(-, - ) 2 -(-)2 ,

V(A', - ) = 2-, - = X -.
,-,
/; ,.|
S", , () = ,
D(X~)= (. 46.2):

/U(.V, -)2

F = - .

-(-)2

= - A/(.V(

- I

46.4. 46.J , . .

(X - )4

.
I

liS

(X - /)V" - 1

(-1)2

366 IV. -
/- - 1 . 46.1

46.5. /^- - I (.

nS
46.4), = ( < _ , ) . 7~

:
f>(

< <

) = ( <

) - ( <

)=

~(!^1>
az

."-I

.(!^1.>
"

-y---i

)-(]^lzl\

lIwv
2

.
46.21. ( ), 20 .
46.4, 46.5, , ^ :
f

\
ns1

in-]

ns'

," -

, -

, - 1 , tUf

/- - I , raM \
-//- -\ . - 20, * = 620,
.v = 15, /(,51 ~ 1.73, /"0.95.19 = 30.1, _5,!9= 10.1 :
(614.05. 625.95), (149.5, 445.5).
46.22. 46.6
/ :

(-

jt

~
]

,X + - ^ / |

),

46. 367
, 5 ,
([ + >
"

1+V
2

. = 100.

- 119.2, /0_95 1-64, '= 9.353.


(117.67, 120.73).

1%,

/]+

--^1,

- - yjn

/ ? > ( ^ l w ) 2 = 235.2, .. -236.


2
46.23. 46.6
:
- w)

jw(\ -w)

2
n , w , tUy

1+Y

. = 100, w= 10/100, /.95= 1-64.


(0.0508, 0.149).

47

find

()
X. ,
, . ,
.
. ,
. -,
), ,
.
\ ( ),
((.,... ,) Wk) = . ('|, .... ) (
), "|, ..., , Wk, /7(, , \V\,
. 4 ,
. 47.1.

47.1

HQ
:

:

1 -

1-JJ

47,

369

^

. 1 -
.
, "
", ,
, " ",
, .
, , a (3 .
, \
(3 ,
. : I - (3
. .
, , # 0 , ,(.).
, , \()
](). :

W\ = {a + \, +) ( );
W2 = (-, a - 2) ( );
^ - ( - , - ) ( + , +) (
).
, //0
,
6, 2(), b > . , . (. . 47.1).
, W,, ie {1,2, 3} . , 1 - , W, ?(*)
. 47.1 , , 2() Wu W2 iVj, .

370 IV. -

~-

-*7

+,

.47.1.
, //, , :
//] " > ", (+\, +)
(> xt) = {\< + \) = I - ;

/, - " < ", (-, 2)


( < - 2) = ct;
//, = " ", (, -,)<( + *3, +) (< --,) + (> + -3) = .
. / , .
(</| ,-*-;), >
CJ\ _ . (-, /),
A,,<qu. (. qn )<u(q ,,, + ), npnAlt<qit >q n. 2

~1

, /; ,
[ || >q , qu =~q a .

|
2

|_
2

. X Y,
c/ v ,a ( av,av, ;.,~ . \, ....
[, .... YIU . : = .

47.

371

47.1. /-/<,= " = " v

V =

- + ^- .
V I

'72

, X Y , Wx - W..
= " = pv U =
- .. .
. .
\-),
--/?>)
, Wx, JT,, , .
47.1.
47.1 . . V U
. ] , (. 47.23). ] a2v , ,
, .
47.2.
U=

XY

//0 = ", = ,"

. .

-.j=r /- /?, + 2 - 2 .

'hS2+n2S;
, + 2 - 2

X
, ,
.
47.3. " Y . 2 , 0 = " = /?,.",

Wt-Wb
.'

= -

, = = .
47.3.
,

w=

\ + . . . + JT, + V, +...+ .,
J

"1 + 2

(. 47.22).

372 IV. -


47.1. 47.1.
47.2. , . . X
({-( = -Cf\ _ , / . '.
47.3. 47.3.
47.1. 14 9 182 185 ,
. ,
, , . : 5 " , 7 " . , , ( 0.1).
47.2. 1 , , .
47.3. , ,
.
40 50
, 4 3.8 .
0.25 ". ? 0.05.
47.4. : ,
, 50
85 , 70
78 . .
, 100 74.
, . 0.05.
47.5. 25 50 ,
, 9.79 9.6. ! 0.1
, ,
0-3?
47.6. ,
.
0.5%,
0.65%, 1.9 2%. , , , ! 0.05.
47.7. :
. 8 16.2 /,
3.2 .'; 9

47.

373

13.9 u/ 2.1 /. 0.05 , ,


.
.
47.8. 7 ,
.
47.9. (. 47.2):
47.2

14.1

10.1

14.7

13.7

14.0

14

14.5

13.7

12.7

14.1

, , ? 0.3.
47.10. ( ) (. 47.3):
47.3

24

26

25

22

27

28

25

29


, ?
0.1.
47.11.
. (. 47.4):
47.4

4 .

192 .

34 .

111 .

374

IV. -

?
0.01.
47.12. 200 , 3
. 850 , 7 .
? 0.01.
47.13. . :

195

149

0.0!.
47.14. . 900 500 ,
- 800 408 .

. 0.01.
47.15. 500 , -, 60 ; 600 , , 42 . . 0.01.
47.16. :

92

13

287

, ?
0.05.
47.17. , [ .
, , :

140

185

10

15

47.

375

? 0.01.
47.18. 1000 .
,
:

38

442

514

0.01.
47.19. . , , 1000 , 25 .
800 , , 36 .
0.1?
47.20. :

12

88

17

183

, ? 0.05.
47.21. . 47.5 47.6 :
47.5.
i

Xj

303

307

307

307

307

308

308

308

308

47.6.
i

10

11

12

13

303

303

304

304

304

304

304

304

306

306

306

306

308

. 4223

376

IV. -

47.22. . 47,7
.
:
47.7

60 .

45 .

69 .

71 .

, ? 0.1.

, ,
47.1. 46.1 . . X , J*- , - . V \
' V 2
, . . X . , . . - (
),
Y ) = ( ) - M(Y ) = 0,

, ,

47.2. (<-1) = (> t), F(-c}[ _) = P(X<-q] _) = (> qx. Y) = 1 ~P(X<q\ ) = 1 - ( 1 -y) = Y, <7 = -?,.. .
47.3, Wx Ws ^
, 45.2
i-> =o, r\i~* = = = M(WX),

J = = M{Wy), J~.
,
V
2
,

47.
.

Wx~Wy

j- =

377

( + ) { \ - ) (. 47.1). .

V \

47.21. :
= ^ - = 307, = 2^'- - 305 . :

'

'

. .

~X-Y
1
t

1
n2

S]nx+Sln2
ni + n2 - 2

(- i + m - 2 .
?, = 9, 2 =13, = 307, ^ - 3 0 5 , 5 2 =2.2, s] = 2.1, :
307-305
1 +

2.2.9 + 2.1-!3
13
20

3.

0.95 /- 20 1.7
3 > 1.7, ,
.
47.22. . . :

W-W,.
+ )0-)

. xvv=0.571,
\=

69
140

0.493, i= 105, 2= 140.

378 IV. -
w =
F

0.527. ,
105 + 140


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436

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2.5 + 5 +

substitute,x = 5
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substitute,= 4

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substitute ,b = 11
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439

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return

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448

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+ 1 - 3 | - C3-

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463

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465

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Advanced, . 4.19, 4 .

General | Aes j Appearance \ Lighting j Title


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. 4.19. Advanced 3-D Plot Format

466

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() . Weight -

467

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, . Fill,
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468

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(Function)

(Insert Function) . : (Function Category) (), ,


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