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Majors: Mathematics

Unit Plan Template

Subject Area

Grade Level

Topic

Length of Unit (days)

Mathematics

Math 31

Curve Sketching

15

Rationale

Curve sketching in calculus is where limits and differentiation are utilized to help unveil critical

points and concavity trends on a function, allowing us to graph it. Curve sketching is perhaps one of the

best ways for students to visualize functions, and solidify the idea that derivatives are a tool to discover

the rate of change of a function. Students may wonder why bother to learn curve sketching when

graphing calculators are now commonplace. One such reason that it is still important is that there may

be information outside the specified window on the calculator, leading you to potentially gloss over

missing critical points. Additionally, curve sketching allows visual learners to visualize what

differentiation tells us about a function.

In this unit plan, I have structured both the instruction and the assessment in such a way that a

variety of learners can be reached. Summative assessment is a combination of quizzes, a performance

task, and an exam. Formative assessment will be provided through exit slips, observations/anecdotal

notes, worksheets, and conversations in order to triangulate the collection of evidence of learning. This

unit is planned to last for three weeks.

Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

Majors: Mathematics

Unit Plan Template

Subject Area

Grade Level

Topic

Length of Unit (days)

Mathematics

Math 31

Curve Sketching

15

Established Goals:

Students are expected to understand that calculus is a powerful tool in determining maximum and minimum points and in

sketching of curves, and demonstrate this, by:

relating the zeros of the derivative function to the critical points on the original curve

using the concept of critical values to sketch the graphs of functions, and comparing these sketches to computer

generated plots of the same functions

Understandings:

Students will understand that

Essential Questions:

curve approaches, but does not cross

Horizontal asymptotes are y-values that the

curve tends to as x approaches positive or

negative infinity.

Derivatives can be used to find local maximums

and minimums.

Second derivatives can be used to determine

concavity of curves.

Curve sketching is a process that involves using

derivatives and knowledge of asymptotes and

intercepts to accurately represent the function.

about a function? How can it relate to real world

examples?

Why would representing a function in a graph be useful?

APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES

Conceptual Understanding

1. identifying, from a graph sketch, locations at which the first and second derivative are zero

2. illustrating under what conditions symmetry about the x-axis, y-axis or the origin will occur

3. explaining how the sign of the first derivative indicates whether or not a curve is rising or falling; and by explaining how

the sign of the second derivative indicates the concavity of the graph

4. illustrating, by examples, that a first derivative of zero is one possible condition for a maximum or a minimum to occur

5. explaining circumstances wherein maximum and minimum values occur when f'( x) is not zero

6. illustrating, by examples, that a second derivative of zero is one possible condition for an inflection point to occur

7.

explaining the differences between local maxima and minima and absolute maxima and minima in an interval

8.

explaining when finding a maximum value is appropriate and when finding a minimum value is appropriate.

Procedural Knowledge

1.

sketching the graphs of the first and second derivative of a function, given its algebraic form or its graph

2.

3.

4.

5.

using the first and second derivatives to find maxima, minima and inflection points to aid in graph sketching

determining vertical, horizontal and oblique asymptotes, and domains and ranges of a function

finding intervals where the derivative is greater than zero or less than zero in order to predict where the function is

increasing or decreasing

verifying whether or not a critical point is a maximum or a minimum

using a given model, in equation or graph form, to find maxima or minima that solve a problem.

6.

7.

Problem-Solving Contexts

Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

Majors: Mathematics

Unit Plan Template

Subject Area

Grade Level

Topic

Length of Unit (days)

Mathematics

Math 31

Curve Sketching

15

1.

2.

comparing and contrasting graphs plotted on a calculator and graphs sketched, using a systematic calculus procedure

3.

constructing a mathematical model to represent a motion problem, and using the model to find maximum or minimum

time or distance.

Resources Needed:

Calculus: A First Course Textbook

Graphing Calculators

Curve graphing website - http://fooplot.com/

Separate binder for anecdotal notes (1 page per student)

Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

Majors: Mathematics

Unit Plan Template

Subject Area

Grade Level

Topic

Length of Unit (days)

Mathematics

Math 31

Curve Sketching

15

Assessments

Unit

Exam

Task

Quiz 1

Quiz 2

Exit

Slips

Observations

Worksheets/Ques

tions/Discussions

45%

25%

15%

15%

CU1

CU2

CU3

CU4

CU5

CU6

CU7

CU8

PK1

PK2

PK3

PK4

PK5

PK6

PK7

PS1

PS2

PS3

Learning

Outcomes

Title

Type

(Formative/Summa

tive)

Weighting

X

X

X

X

Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

Majors: Mathematics

Unit Plan Template

Subject Area

Grade Level

Topic

Length of Unit (days)

Mathematics

Math 31

Curve Sketching

15

Assessment Tool

Title

Unit Exam

Outcomes

Brief Description

All (ideally)

At the end of the unit, students will write a unit exam that

ideally covers all of the outcomes. A strong emphasis will be

on sketching curves, as that process encompasses most of the

other outcomes for this unit.

45

Performance Task

CU1, CU3

PK2, PK3, PK4, PK5,

PK6

PS1, PS2, PS3

Quiz 1

CU4, CU5, CU7, CU8

PK4, PK5, PK6

Quiz 2

PK2, PK3, PK4, PK7

Exit Slips

PK6

PS2

Observations/Anecdotal

Notes

will vary)

Worksheets/Questions/

Discussions

All

performance task involving having to determine if the

provided curve is correct for the given function (the given

graph for the function won't be correct, there will be at least

one error). The function will be related to motion

(distance/time). They will need to follow curve sketching

procedure to graph the function, and explain what the local

max/mins and points of inflection represent.

The first quiz will cover finding intercepts, determining if

functions are even/odd, finding asymptotes, and using the

first derivative test to find critical points. The quiz will be

collected, marked that evening, and reviewed the next day

(formative feedback). The exit slip at the end of the class the

quiz was written in will be related to how they felt the quiz

went, and where they could improve (assessment as learning).

The second quiz will cover using the first and second

derivative tests to determine critical points, local

maximums/minimums, points of inflection, and concavity. The

quiz will be collected, marked that evening, and reviewed the

next day (formative feedback). The exit slip at the end of the

class the quiz was written in will be related to how they felt

the quiz went, and where they could improve (assessment as

learning).

At the end of some classes, an exit slip will be written to

summarize learning for the day. The teacher will use them to

gauge student understanding on the topic. The student will

use them to reflect on what they have learned.

The teacher will create brief anecdotal notes for each student

throughout the unit. This assessment will help the teacher see

what needs to be focused on and which students are

struggling. This will be used for the observations portion of

triangulation.

Worksheets and given questions will be used to gain practice

in unit content. Discussions will be in the form of deep

questions toe engage students in critical thinking of content.

Discussions in particular will be used for the conversations

portion of triangulation.

Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

For

AS

OF

25

15

15

Subject Area

Grade Level

Topic

Length of Unit (days)

Majors: Mathematics

Unit Plan Template

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 60 minutes

Introduction

Review intercepts,

define even/odd

functions, even/odd

practice.

Vertical Asymptotes

and Intro to Horizontal

Asymptotes

Examine what happens

as the denominator

gets closer to 0. Define

vertical asymptotes.

How do we find

vertical asymptotes?

What about horizontal

asymptotes?

Horizontal Asymptotes

Recall what a vertical

asymptote is. What

might a horizontal

asymptote correspond

to? How to find

horizontal asymptotes.

Attempt to sketch a

curve, what info are we

still missing?

Monday

Tuesday

Time: 60 minutes

Review the Quiz, and

Concavity

Go over Friday's quiz.

Review and practice

finding concavity

again.

Mathematics

Math 31

Curve Sketching

15

Thursday

Time: 60 minutes

Friday

Time: 50 minutes

Review of FDT,

and Intro to

Concavity

Recall what the First

Derivative Test was

used for. Practice

using it. Introduce

concavity, how to find

it, and what it is used

for.

Quiz 1

Students will write

the first quiz. When

it is over, we can go

over specific issues

with the test, or

continue practicing

concavity.

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 50 minutes

Introduce the second

derivative test. Utilize

it and concavity to

discover basic curve

sketching (rich task).

Curve Sketching

Formalize the process

of curve sketching.

Practice sketching

curves using the

procedure.

Quiz 2

Students will write the

second quiz. When it

is over, we can go over

specific issues, or

practice curve

sketching.

Exit Slip:

What information do

we need to know

before we attempt to

sketch a curve?

Exit Slip:

Given a function, find

the vertical and

horizontal asymptotes.

Exit Slip:

What areas did you

think you did well

on the quiz? What

do you still need to

focus on?

Curve Sketching

Go over Thursday's

quiz. Continue

practicing curve

sketching. Compare

with computer drawn

Exit Slip (take home):

sketches. Students

Come up with a

Exit Slip:

should be encouraged

mnemonic acronym for What areas did you

to share any acronyms

the process of curve

think you did well on

they have come up

sketching: DISAILCS

the quiz? What do you with.

still need to focus on?

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 50 minutes

Review Curve

Sketching, Task

Review how to sketch

curves briefly. Introduce

performance task. Give

class time to work on it.

Performance Task

Dedicate the class to

working on the

performance task.

Unit Review

Performance task due

today. Review the

concepts that have

been covered in this

unit.

Unit Exam

Students will write the

unit exam this class. It

will take the duration

of the class.

and Performance Task

Go over the results of

the unit exam.

Afterwards, go over the

performance task.

Exit Slip:

What would you like

to review tomorrow in

preparation for the

unit exam?

Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

Lesson

Title

Date

March 9

Subject/Grade

Level

Math 31

Time

Duration

60 minutes

Unit

Curve Sketching

Teacher

Jeff Scott

General

Learning

Outcomes:

Applications of Derivatives:

Students are expected to

understand that calculus is a powerful tool in determining maximum and minimum

relating the zeros of the derivative function to the critical points on the original curve

using the concept of critical values to sketch the graphs of functions, and comparing these sketches to

computer generated plots of the same functions

Specific

Learning

Outcomes:

Conceptual Understanding:

illustrating under what conditions symmetry about the

x

-axis,

y

-axis or the origin will occur

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Students will:

1. Review how to find the x and y intercepts of a function.

2. Define what it means for a function to be even or odd, and identify even and odd functions.

ASSESSMENTS

Observations:

Key Questions

:

Products/Performances:

Participation, discussions

What are the points of interest on a graph? How do we find the x and y intercepts? How can

we identify functions as even or odd?

Textbook questions, poster answers

Program of Study

Textbook

Picture of a curve -

http://fooplot.com/

PROCEDURE

Prior to lesson

Attention Grabber

Assessment of Prior

Knowledge

Expectations for Learning

and Behaviour

Advance

Organizer/Agenda

Transition to Body

Learning Activity #1

Introduction

Introduce the unit. What might be the advantages of drawing the curve of a

function?

Time

3 minutes

Review intercepts

Do some intercept problems

Define even/odd functions

Even/odd function problems

Closure

Show a picture of a curve with multiple max/mins and inflection points. Lets say

that we have just drawn this curve. What are some points of interest on the curve?

Discuss in pairs briefly and then share with the class.

Body

Review how to find x and y intercepts. Ask students for input along the way.

Afterwards, let students try the questions on page 204. Go over a few answers.

5 minutes

Time

15 minutes

Differentiation

Learning Activity #2

Differentiation

Learning Activity #3

Differentiation

Consolidation of Learning:

Feedback From Students:

Feedback To Students

Transition To Next Lesson

Alter instruction depending on how familiar the students are with the topic. Assess

based on discussions, observatons, and the answers they get to textbook questions.

Introduce even and odd functions. Give the mathematical definition, show a graph,

and let students figure out that even functions are symmetrical along the y axis, and

odd functions are rotated 180 degrees around the origin. Go through a few

problems, both mathematical and by interpreting a graph.

Providing both a mathematical and graph representation allows two different types

of learners to understand. Assess based on discussion.

Have students pair into groups of 2. Students will do a gallery walk around the room

and work together to solve whether given pictures on the wall represent even

functions, odd functions, or neither. Some will be of graphs, others will be just

functions to solve mathematically. Go over the answers with the class.

This activity will get them out of their seats and moving. It also allows them to share

knowledge with a peer. Assess based on observations, discussions, and the answers

they provide. Assist when needed.

Closure

Review what has been covered today. How do we find the x and y intercepts?

What are two ways we can tell if a function is even or odd?

15 minutes

17 minutes

Time

5 minutes

Provide any suggestions based on areas that may have been difficult this class.

Lesson

Title

Date

March 10

Subject/Grade

Level

Math 31

Time

Duration

60 minutes

Unit

Curve Sketching

Teacher

Jeff Scott

General

Learning

Outcomes:

Applications of Derivatives:

Students are expected to

understand that calculus is a powerful tool in determining maximum and minimum

relating the zeros of the derivative function to the critical points on the original curve

using the concept of critical values to sketch the graphs of functions, and comparing these sketches to

computer generated plots of the same functions

Specific

Learning

Outcomes:

Procedural Knowledge

determining vertical, horizontal and oblique asymptotes, and domains and rangesof a function

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Students will:

1. Explore limits which tend to positive or negative infinity.

2. Define vertical asymptotes, and discover how to find them from a function.

ASSESSMENTS

Observations:

Key Questions

:

Products/Performances:

Participation, discussions

What happens to the function when the denominator approaches zero? How can we find

the x values of these vertical asymptotes?

Participation in whiteboard examples, textbook problems

Program of Study

Textbook

http://fooplot.com/

PROCEDURE

Prior to lesson

Introduction

Attention Grabber

Assessment of Prior

Knowledge

Expectations for Learning

and Behaviour

Advance

Organizer/Agenda

Transition to Body

Learning Activity #1

Teacher Notes: Assessments/

Differentiation

What did we define an even function as? What about an odd function? How can

we identify them?

Time

5 minutes

Review last class

Infinite limit example

Vertical asymptote definition

Solving for vertical asymptotes

Introduce horizontal asymptotes

Closure

Have the function y = 1 / (x )^2 on the board. What happens when x approaches 0

(vertical asymptote)? Why cant we divide by 0?

Body

Define what vertical asymptotes are. Practice solving some limits where the

denominator goes to 0. Have students give feedback.

Have a variety of students give feedback. Assess based on the feedback you

receive. Ensure they understand before moving on.

5 minutes

Time

10 minutes

Learning Activity #2

Differentiation

Learning Activity #3

Differentiation

Consolidation of Learning:

Feedback From Students:

Feedback To Students

Transition To Next Lesson

Give the class an example with a polynomial in the denominator. Ask them to try

to figure out on their own what the asymptotes are. After a few minutes, get the

students to explain how they found them. Explain that when a polynomial is in the

denominator, the roots will give you the vertical asymptotes. Go through another

example with the class. Then let the students practice on page 212/213.

Purposely provide very little assistance as they try to solve the asymptotes for the

polynomial, but monitor which students are figuring it out. Afterwards, during the

practice, provide assistance when needed. Assess based on observations,

discussions, and answers.

Introduce horizontal asymptotes by showing the graph of the function y = 1/x + 1.

Where is the asymptote? How is this different than the other asymptote? How

would we solve for this without a graph? Would we find the limit and set x equal

to 0? Why not? Let students figure this out as a group before explaining. Give a

few examples for students to try to solve.

Provide minimal scaffolding. Students will likely spot the asymptote immediately,

but may have to think a moment to figure how to solve without a graph. Assist

students with example questions.

Closure

How do we find vertical asymptotes? How we find horizontal asymptotes?

20 minutes

15 minutes

Time

5 minutes

Next class, we will see that unlike vertical asymptotes, the curve can cross the

horizontal asymptote at some point.

Lesson

Title

Horizontal Asymptotes

Date

March 11

Subject/Grade

Level

Math 31

Time

Duration

60 minutes

Unit

Curve Sketching

Teacher

Jeff Scott

General

Learning

Outcomes:

Applications of Derivatives:

Students are expected to

understand that calculus is a powerful tool in determining maximum and minimum

relating the zeros of the derivative function to the critical points on the original curve

using the concept of critical values to sketch the graphs of functions, and comparing these sketches to

computer generated plots of the same functions

Specific

Learning

Outcomes:

Procedural Knowledge

determining vertical, horizontal and oblique asymptotes, and domains and rangesof a function

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Students will:

1. Define horizontal asymptotes, and discover how to find them from a function.

ASSESSMENTS

Observations:

Key Questions

:

Products/Performances:

Participation, discussions

How can we find the horizontal asymptote? Why can a function cross the horizontal

asymptote but not the vertical asymptote?

Smartboard answers, exit slips

Program of Study

Smartboard slide

Bean bag

http://fooplot.com/

Exit slips

PROCEDURE

Prior to lesson

Introduction

Attention Grabber

Assessment of Prior

Knowledge

Expectations for Learning

and Behaviour

Advance

Organizer/Agenda

through an example of each.

Time

10 minutes

Rational functions and horizontal asymptotes

Asymptote practice with Smartboard

Attempt to sketch a curve using what we know

Closure

Exit Slip

Transition to Body

Learning Activity #1

Body

Try finding the horizontal asymptotes of the rational function (x)/(x^2 + 1). Youll

end getting infinity divided by infinity. Graph the function on the computer. Clearly

there is a horizontal asymptote. Explain how we can get around this by dividing

both the numerator and denominator by the highest power of x. Also, why did it

cross the horizontal asymptote? Go over a few other examples as a class.

Time

15 minutes

Differentiation

Learning Activity #2

Differentiation

Learning Activity #3

Differentiation

Consolidation of Learning:

Feedback From Students:

Graphing the function will give a visual to assist them see that there is, indeed, a

horizontal asymptote. Assess based on participation in conversation.

Open up the interactive Smartboard slide. On the slide there will be spots that will

open a question on vertical and horizontal asymptotes when pressed. Pass a bean

bag to a student and have them lightly toss the bag at the board to press the

button (press it yourself afterwards if it doesnt work). Have students work

through each question on a piece of loose paper. Go over the answer before

tossing the bag again.

This gives the students a chance to get up from their seats. Make sure that the

same questions dont get hit again (perhaps rig this Smartboard slide). Assess

based on observations of answers.

Attempt graphing a curve. What information about the curve have we learned so

far? We can find the x and y intercepts, any symmetry, and now asymptotes. Try

sketching x/(x+1). What are we missing to make this even better? Compare with

computer drawn graph.

Encourage students to reflect on what weve covered so far. Get them to

collectively graph the curve, with you drawing what they say. Assess based on

observations and discussions.

Closure

What do we do to find vertical asymptotes? What do we do to find horizontal

asymptotes? What if the function is a rational function?

Have students complete an exit slip. Find the vertical and horizontal

asymptotes of (2x^2)/(x^2 +3x - 4). Collect the slips before they leave.

15 minutes

10 minutes

Time

5 minutes

5 minutes

Feedback To Students

Transition To Next Lesson