Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 12

ED 3601 Curriculum and Instruction for

Majors: Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit (days)

Mathematics
Math 31
Curve Sketching
15

Rationale
Curve sketching in calculus is where limits and differentiation are utilized to help unveil critical
points and concavity trends on a function, allowing us to graph it. Curve sketching is perhaps one of the
best ways for students to visualize functions, and solidify the idea that derivatives are a tool to discover
the rate of change of a function. Students may wonder why bother to learn curve sketching when
graphing calculators are now commonplace. One such reason that it is still important is that there may
be information outside the specified window on the calculator, leading you to potentially gloss over
missing critical points. Additionally, curve sketching allows visual learners to visualize what
differentiation tells us about a function.
In this unit plan, I have structured both the instruction and the assessment in such a way that a
variety of learners can be reached. Summative assessment is a combination of quizzes, a performance
task, and an exam. Formative assessment will be provided through exit slips, observations/anecdotal
notes, worksheets, and conversations in order to triangulate the collection of evidence of learning. This
unit is planned to last for three weeks.

Spring 2015: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

ED 3601 Curriculum and Instruction for


Majors: Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit (days)

Mathematics
Math 31
Curve Sketching
15

Established Goals:
Students are expected to understand that calculus is a powerful tool in determining maximum and minimum points and in
sketching of curves, and demonstrate this, by:
relating the zeros of the derivative function to the critical points on the original curve
using the concept of critical values to sketch the graphs of functions, and comparing these sketches to computer
generated plots of the same functions
Understandings:
Students will understand that

Essential Questions:

Vertical asymptotes are x-values at which the


curve approaches, but does not cross
Horizontal asymptotes are y-values that the
curve tends to as x approaches positive or
negative infinity.
Derivatives can be used to find local maximums
and minimums.
Second derivatives can be used to determine
concavity of curves.
Curve sketching is a process that involves using
derivatives and knowledge of asymptotes and
intercepts to accurately represent the function.

What does the derivative and second derivative tell us


about a function? How can it relate to real world
examples?
Why would representing a function in a graph be useful?

Students will be able to do


APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES
Conceptual Understanding
1. identifying, from a graph sketch, locations at which the first and second derivative are zero
2. illustrating under what conditions symmetry about the x-axis, y-axis or the origin will occur
3. explaining how the sign of the first derivative indicates whether or not a curve is rising or falling; and by explaining how
the sign of the second derivative indicates the concavity of the graph
4. illustrating, by examples, that a first derivative of zero is one possible condition for a maximum or a minimum to occur
5. explaining circumstances wherein maximum and minimum values occur when f'( x) is not zero
6. illustrating, by examples, that a second derivative of zero is one possible condition for an inflection point to occur
7.

explaining the differences between local maxima and minima and absolute maxima and minima in an interval

8.

explaining when finding a maximum value is appropriate and when finding a minimum value is appropriate.

Procedural Knowledge
1.

sketching the graphs of the first and second derivative of a function, given its algebraic form or its graph

2.

using zeros and intercepts to aid in graph sketching

3.
4.
5.

using the first and second derivatives to find maxima, minima and inflection points to aid in graph sketching
determining vertical, horizontal and oblique asymptotes, and domains and ranges of a function
finding intervals where the derivative is greater than zero or less than zero in order to predict where the function is
increasing or decreasing
verifying whether or not a critical point is a maximum or a minimum
using a given model, in equation or graph form, to find maxima or minima that solve a problem.

6.
7.

Problem-Solving Contexts

Spring 2015: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

ED 3601 Curriculum and Instruction for


Majors: Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit (days)

Mathematics
Math 31
Curve Sketching
15

1.

employing a systematic calculus procedure to sketch algebraic and trigonometric functions

2.

comparing and contrasting graphs plotted on a calculator and graphs sketched, using a systematic calculus procedure

3.

constructing a mathematical model to represent a motion problem, and using the model to find maximum or minimum
time or distance.

Resources Needed:
Calculus: A First Course Textbook
Graphing Calculators
Curve graphing website - http://fooplot.com/
Separate binder for anecdotal notes (1 page per student)

Spring 2015: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

ED 3601 Curriculum and Instruction for


Majors: Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit (days)

Mathematics
Math 31
Curve Sketching
15

Assessments
Unit
Exam

Task

Quiz 1

Quiz 2

Exit
Slips

Observations

Worksheets/Ques
tions/Discussions

45%

25%

15%

15%

CU1

CU2

CU3

CU4

CU5

CU6

CU7

CU8

PK1

PK2

PK3

PK4

PK5

PK6

PK7

PS1

PS2

PS3

Learning
Outcomes

Title
Type

(Formative/Summa
tive)

Weighting

X
X

X
X

Spring 2015: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

ED 3601 Curriculum and Instruction for


Majors: Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit (days)

Mathematics
Math 31
Curve Sketching
15

Assessment Tool Overview


Assessment Tool
Title
Unit Exam

Outcomes

Brief Description

All (ideally)

At the end of the unit, students will write a unit exam that
ideally covers all of the outcomes. A strong emphasis will be
on sketching curves, as that process encompasses most of the
other outcomes for this unit.

45

Performance Task

CU1, CU3
PK2, PK3, PK4, PK5,
PK6
PS1, PS2, PS3

Quiz 1

CU1, CU2, CU3,


CU4, CU5, CU7, CU8
PK4, PK5, PK6

Quiz 2

CU1, CU3, CU5, CU6


PK2, PK3, PK4, PK7

Exit Slips

CU3, CU5, CU7, CU8


PK6
PS2

Observations/Anecdotal
Notes

All (anecdotal notes


will vary)

Worksheets/Questions/
Discussions

All

Towards the end of the unit, students will be given a


performance task involving having to determine if the
provided curve is correct for the given function (the given
graph for the function won't be correct, there will be at least
one error). The function will be related to motion
(distance/time). They will need to follow curve sketching
procedure to graph the function, and explain what the local
max/mins and points of inflection represent.
The first quiz will cover finding intercepts, determining if
functions are even/odd, finding asymptotes, and using the
first derivative test to find critical points. The quiz will be
collected, marked that evening, and reviewed the next day
(formative feedback). The exit slip at the end of the class the
quiz was written in will be related to how they felt the quiz
went, and where they could improve (assessment as learning).
The second quiz will cover using the first and second
derivative tests to determine critical points, local
maximums/minimums, points of inflection, and concavity. The
quiz will be collected, marked that evening, and reviewed the
next day (formative feedback). The exit slip at the end of the
class the quiz was written in will be related to how they felt
the quiz went, and where they could improve (assessment as
learning).
At the end of some classes, an exit slip will be written to
summarize learning for the day. The teacher will use them to
gauge student understanding on the topic. The student will
use them to reflect on what they have learned.
The teacher will create brief anecdotal notes for each student
throughout the unit. This assessment will help the teacher see
what needs to be focused on and which students are
struggling. This will be used for the observations portion of
triangulation.
Worksheets and given questions will be used to gain practice
in unit content. Discussions will be in the form of deep
questions toe engage students in critical thinking of content.
Discussions in particular will be used for the conversations
portion of triangulation.

Spring 2015: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

For

AS

OF

25

15

15

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit (days)

ED 3601 Curriculum and Instruction for


Majors: Mathematics
Unit Plan Template
Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 60 minutes

Introduction
Review intercepts,
define even/odd
functions, even/odd
practice.

Vertical Asymptotes
and Intro to Horizontal
Asymptotes
Examine what happens
as the denominator
gets closer to 0. Define
vertical asymptotes.
How do we find
vertical asymptotes?
What about horizontal
asymptotes?

Horizontal Asymptotes
Recall what a vertical
asymptote is. What
might a horizontal
asymptote correspond
to? How to find
horizontal asymptotes.
Attempt to sketch a
curve, what info are we
still missing?

Monday

Tuesday

Time: 60 minutes
Review the Quiz, and
Concavity
Go over Friday's quiz.
Review and practice
finding concavity
again.

Mathematics
Math 31
Curve Sketching
15

Thursday
Time: 60 minutes

Friday
Time: 50 minutes

Review of FDT,
and Intro to
Concavity
Recall what the First
Derivative Test was
used for. Practice
using it. Introduce
concavity, how to find
it, and what it is used
for.

Quiz 1
Students will write
the first quiz. When
it is over, we can go
over specific issues
with the test, or
continue practicing
concavity.

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 50 minutes

Second Derivative Test


Introduce the second
derivative test. Utilize
it and concavity to
discover basic curve
sketching (rich task).

Curve Sketching
Formalize the process
of curve sketching.
Practice sketching
curves using the
procedure.

Quiz 2
Students will write the
second quiz. When it
is over, we can go over
specific issues, or
practice curve
sketching.

Exit Slip:
What information do
we need to know
before we attempt to
sketch a curve?

Exit Slip:
Given a function, find
the vertical and
horizontal asymptotes.

Exit Slip:
What areas did you
think you did well
on the quiz? What
do you still need to
focus on?

Review of Quiz 2, and


Curve Sketching
Go over Thursday's
quiz. Continue
practicing curve
sketching. Compare
with computer drawn
Exit Slip (take home):
sketches. Students
Come up with a
Exit Slip:
should be encouraged
mnemonic acronym for What areas did you
to share any acronyms
the process of curve
think you did well on
they have come up
sketching: DISAILCS
the quiz? What do you with.
still need to focus on?

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 60 minutes

Time: 50 minutes

Review Curve
Sketching, Task
Review how to sketch
curves briefly. Introduce
performance task. Give
class time to work on it.

Performance Task
Dedicate the class to
working on the
performance task.

Unit Review
Performance task due
today. Review the
concepts that have
been covered in this
unit.

Unit Exam
Students will write the
unit exam this class. It
will take the duration
of the class.

Review of Unit Exam


and Performance Task
Go over the results of
the unit exam.
Afterwards, go over the
performance task.

Exit Slip:
What would you like
to review tomorrow in
preparation for the
unit exam?

Spring 2015: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

Lesson
Title

Unit Introduction: x/y intercepts and Even/Odd Functions

Date

March 9

Subject/Grade
Level

Math 31

Time
Duration

60 minutes

Unit

Curve Sketching

Teacher

Jeff Scott

OUTCOMES FROM ALBERTA PROGRAM OF STUDIES


General
Learning
Outcomes:

Applications of Derivatives:
Students are expected to
understand that calculus is a powerful tool in determining maximum and minimum

points and in sketching of curves, and demonstrate this, by:


relating the zeros of the derivative function to the critical points on the original curve
using the concept of critical values to sketch the graphs of functions, and comparing these sketches to
computer generated plots of the same functions

Specific
Learning
Outcomes:

Conceptual Understanding:
illustrating under what conditions symmetry about the
x
-axis,
y
-axis or the origin will occur

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Students will:
1. Review how to find the x and y intercepts of a function.
2. Define what it means for a function to be even or odd, and identify even and odd functions.

ASSESSMENTS
Observations:
Key Questions
:
Products/Performances:

Participation, discussions
What are the points of interest on a graph? How do we find the x and y intercepts? How can
we identify functions as even or odd?
Textbook questions, poster answers

LEARNING RESOURCES CONSULTED


Program of Study

Calculus: A First Course textbook

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT


Textbook

Picture of a curve -
http://fooplot.com/

Six Even/odd function posters

PROCEDURE
Prior to lesson
Attention Grabber
Assessment of Prior
Knowledge
Expectations for Learning
and Behaviour
Advance
Organizer/Agenda

Transition to Body

Learning Activity #1

Tape the six posters around the classroom.


Introduction
Introduce the unit. What might be the advantages of drawing the curve of a
function?

Time
3 minutes

Students will be expected participate in activities and discussions.


Review intercepts
Do some intercept problems
Define even/odd functions
Even/odd function problems
Closure
Show a picture of a curve with multiple max/mins and inflection points. Lets say
that we have just drawn this curve. What are some points of interest on the curve?
Discuss in pairs briefly and then share with the class.
Body
Review how to find x and y intercepts. Ask students for input along the way.
Afterwards, let students try the questions on page 204. Go over a few answers.

5 minutes
Time
15 minutes

Teacher Notes: Assessments/


Differentiation

Learning Activity #2

Teacher Notes: Assessments/


Differentiation

Learning Activity #3

Teacher Notes: Assessments/


Differentiation

Consolidation of Learning:
Feedback From Students:
Feedback To Students
Transition To Next Lesson

Alter instruction depending on how familiar the students are with the topic. Assess
based on discussions, observatons, and the answers they get to textbook questions.
Introduce even and odd functions. Give the mathematical definition, show a graph,
and let students figure out that even functions are symmetrical along the y axis, and
odd functions are rotated 180 degrees around the origin. Go through a few
problems, both mathematical and by interpreting a graph.
Providing both a mathematical and graph representation allows two different types
of learners to understand. Assess based on discussion.
Have students pair into groups of 2. Students will do a gallery walk around the room
and work together to solve whether given pictures on the wall represent even
functions, odd functions, or neither. Some will be of graphs, others will be just
functions to solve mathematically. Go over the answers with the class.
This activity will get them out of their seats and moving. It also allows them to share
knowledge with a peer. Assess based on observations, discussions, and the answers
they provide. Assist when needed.
Closure
Review what has been covered today. How do we find the x and y intercepts?
What are two ways we can tell if a function is even or odd?

15 minutes

17 minutes

Time
5 minutes

Provide any suggestions based on areas that may have been difficult this class.

Lesson
Title

Vertical Asymptotes, and Intro to Horizontal Asymptotes

Date

March 10

Subject/Grade
Level

Math 31

Time
Duration

60 minutes

Unit

Curve Sketching

Teacher

Jeff Scott

OUTCOMES FROM ALBERTA PROGRAM OF STUDIES


General
Learning
Outcomes:

Applications of Derivatives:
Students are expected to
understand that calculus is a powerful tool in determining maximum and minimum

points and in sketching of curves, and demonstrate this, by:


relating the zeros of the derivative function to the critical points on the original curve
using the concept of critical values to sketch the graphs of functions, and comparing these sketches to
computer generated plots of the same functions

Specific
Learning
Outcomes:

Procedural Knowledge
determining vertical, horizontal and oblique asymptotes, and domains and rangesof a function

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Students will:
1. Explore limits which tend to positive or negative infinity.
2. Define vertical asymptotes, and discover how to find them from a function.

ASSESSMENTS
Observations:
Key Questions
:
Products/Performances:

Participation, discussions
What happens to the function when the denominator approaches zero? How can we find
the x values of these vertical asymptotes?
Participation in whiteboard examples, textbook problems

LEARNING RESOURCES CONSULTED

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

Program of Study

Calculus: A First Course textbook

Textbook

http://fooplot.com/

Horizontal asymptote examples

PROCEDURE
Prior to lesson
Introduction
Attention Grabber
Assessment of Prior
Knowledge
Expectations for Learning
and Behaviour
Advance
Organizer/Agenda

Transition to Body

Learning Activity #1
Teacher Notes: Assessments/
Differentiation

What did we define an even function as? What about an odd function? How can
we identify them?

Time
5 minutes

Students will be expected participate in activities and discussions.


Review last class
Infinite limit example
Vertical asymptote definition
Solving for vertical asymptotes
Introduce horizontal asymptotes
Closure
Have the function y = 1 / (x )^2 on the board. What happens when x approaches 0
(vertical asymptote)? Why cant we divide by 0?
Body
Define what vertical asymptotes are. Practice solving some limits where the
denominator goes to 0. Have students give feedback.
Have a variety of students give feedback. Assess based on the feedback you
receive. Ensure they understand before moving on.

5 minutes
Time
10 minutes

Learning Activity #2

Teacher Notes: Assessments/


Differentiation

Learning Activity #3

Teacher Notes: Assessments/


Differentiation

Consolidation of Learning:
Feedback From Students:
Feedback To Students
Transition To Next Lesson

Give the class an example with a polynomial in the denominator. Ask them to try
to figure out on their own what the asymptotes are. After a few minutes, get the
students to explain how they found them. Explain that when a polynomial is in the
denominator, the roots will give you the vertical asymptotes. Go through another
example with the class. Then let the students practice on page 212/213.
Purposely provide very little assistance as they try to solve the asymptotes for the
polynomial, but monitor which students are figuring it out. Afterwards, during the
practice, provide assistance when needed. Assess based on observations,
discussions, and answers.
Introduce horizontal asymptotes by showing the graph of the function y = 1/x + 1.
Where is the asymptote? How is this different than the other asymptote? How
would we solve for this without a graph? Would we find the limit and set x equal
to 0? Why not? Let students figure this out as a group before explaining. Give a
few examples for students to try to solve.
Provide minimal scaffolding. Students will likely spot the asymptote immediately,
but may have to think a moment to figure how to solve without a graph. Assist
students with example questions.
Closure
How do we find vertical asymptotes? How we find horizontal asymptotes?

20 minutes

15 minutes

Time
5 minutes

Next class, we will see that unlike vertical asymptotes, the curve can cross the
horizontal asymptote at some point.

Lesson
Title

Horizontal Asymptotes

Date

March 11

Subject/Grade
Level

Math 31

Time
Duration

60 minutes

Unit

Curve Sketching

Teacher

Jeff Scott

OUTCOMES FROM ALBERTA PROGRAM OF STUDIES


General
Learning
Outcomes:

Applications of Derivatives:
Students are expected to
understand that calculus is a powerful tool in determining maximum and minimum

points and in sketching of curves, and demonstrate this, by:


relating the zeros of the derivative function to the critical points on the original curve
using the concept of critical values to sketch the graphs of functions, and comparing these sketches to
computer generated plots of the same functions

Specific
Learning
Outcomes:

Procedural Knowledge
determining vertical, horizontal and oblique asymptotes, and domains and rangesof a function

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Students will:
1. Define horizontal asymptotes, and discover how to find them from a function.

ASSESSMENTS
Observations:
Key Questions
:
Products/Performances:

Participation, discussions
How can we find the horizontal asymptote? Why can a function cross the horizontal
asymptote but not the vertical asymptote?
Smartboard answers, exit slips

LEARNING RESOURCES CONSULTED

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

Program of Study

Calculus: A First Course textbook

Smartboard slide

Bean bag

http://fooplot.com/

Exit slips

PROCEDURE
Prior to lesson
Introduction
Attention Grabber
Assessment of Prior
Knowledge
Expectations for Learning
and Behaviour
Advance
Organizer/Agenda

How do we find vertical asymptotes? How do we find horizontal asymptotes? Go


through an example of each.

Time
10 minutes

Students will be expected participate in activities and discussions.

Review vertical/horizontal asymptotes


Rational functions and horizontal asymptotes
Asymptote practice with Smartboard
Attempt to sketch a curve using what we know
Closure
Exit Slip

Transition to Body
Learning Activity #1

Body
Try finding the horizontal asymptotes of the rational function (x)/(x^2 + 1). Youll
end getting infinity divided by infinity. Graph the function on the computer. Clearly
there is a horizontal asymptote. Explain how we can get around this by dividing
both the numerator and denominator by the highest power of x. Also, why did it
cross the horizontal asymptote? Go over a few other examples as a class.

Time

15 minutes

Teacher Notes: Assessments/


Differentiation

Learning Activity #2

Teacher Notes: Assessments/


Differentiation

Learning Activity #3

Teacher Notes: Assessments/


Differentiation

Consolidation of Learning:
Feedback From Students:

Graphing the function will give a visual to assist them see that there is, indeed, a
horizontal asymptote. Assess based on participation in conversation.
Open up the interactive Smartboard slide. On the slide there will be spots that will
open a question on vertical and horizontal asymptotes when pressed. Pass a bean
bag to a student and have them lightly toss the bag at the board to press the
button (press it yourself afterwards if it doesnt work). Have students work
through each question on a piece of loose paper. Go over the answer before
tossing the bag again.
This gives the students a chance to get up from their seats. Make sure that the
same questions dont get hit again (perhaps rig this Smartboard slide). Assess
based on observations of answers.
Attempt graphing a curve. What information about the curve have we learned so
far? We can find the x and y intercepts, any symmetry, and now asymptotes. Try
sketching x/(x+1). What are we missing to make this even better? Compare with
computer drawn graph.
Encourage students to reflect on what weve covered so far. Get them to
collectively graph the curve, with you drawing what they say. Assess based on
observations and discussions.
Closure
What do we do to find vertical asymptotes? What do we do to find horizontal
asymptotes? What if the function is a rational function?
Have students complete an exit slip. Find the vertical and horizontal
asymptotes of (2x^2)/(x^2 +3x - 4). Collect the slips before they leave.

15 minutes

10 minutes

Time
5 minutes
5 minutes

Feedback To Students
Transition To Next Lesson