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1-

., . ., .

2005
1


.
:

H2SO4;
- ;
- .

- .
: HCl, H2SO4, NaOH, NH4OH.
- 6 .

:
1.

.
(Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cr3+, Fe3+).

2.

(Fe3+, Fe2+,
NH4+).

3.

.
, :

1. -

II

Ag+, Pb2+

Ba2+, Ca2+

HCl
(2 /)

H2SO4
(1 /)


III
IV
V
3+
3+
3+
2+
2+
Al , Cr ,
Fe , Fe ,
Cu , Co2+,
Zn2+
Mn2+, Mg2+
Ni2+
NH3H2O
NaOH
NH3H2O

VI
K , Na+,
NH4+
+

1
1-2 1-6 2-3 HCl.
Ag+, Pb2+.
HCl 1-2 .

Pb2+ AgCl
(AgCl, PbCl2) + H2O
Pb2+ + KI ( K2Cr2O7)

AgCl + NH4OH(.) Ag+ +


Ag+ + ... ()

2
1-2 Ag+, Pb2+ 2-3 H2SO4.
Ba2+, Ca2+.

BaCO3, CaCO3
(BaSO4, CaSO4) + Na2CO3
2+
2+
BaCO3, CaCO3 + HCl Ba , Ca
Ba2+ + ()
Ca2+ + ()

6
5 1 2 3 (NH4)2CO3.
9-10 , 3,
4 5 , 6 (K+, Na+, NH4+). ,
6 .

3
( (NH4)2CO3) HCl:

MeCO3, Me(HCO3)x + HCl


+ NaOH () Na3[Al(OH)6], Na3[Cr(OH)6], Na2[Zn(OH)4] +
( 4, 5 )

5
, NaOH (

4, 5 ), NH4Cl

NH4OH():
Fe(OH)3, Fe(OH)2, Mn(OH)2, Mg(OH)2 + NH4Cl NH4OH()
Cu(OH)2, Co(OH)2, Ni(OH)2

Mg2+ + ()
Cu2+ + ()
Co2+ + ()
Ni2+ + ()

A 4

Fe(OH)3, Fe(OH)2, Mn(OH)2 + HCl Fe3+, Fe2+, Mn2+


Fe3+, Fe2+, Mn2+ + NaOH + H2O2 Fe(OH)3, Mn(OH)4
Fe(OH)3, Mn(OH)4 + HCl Fe3+, Mn4+
Fe3+, Mn2+ + ()
3

[Cu(NH3)4]2+, [Co(NH3)6]2+, [Ni(NH3)6]2+

+ Fe(OH)3, Fe(OH)2, Mn(OH)2, Mg2+

2.

AgCl
NH4OH (NH4)2CO3

Ag+ + Br- AgBr

AgBr
Na2S2O3

Ag+ + I- AgI

H2S, (NH4)2S

2Ag+ + S2- Ag2S

NaOH, KOH

Ag+ + OH- AgOH

K2CrO4

2Ag+ + CrO42-
Ag2CrO4

Ag2CrO4
CH3COOH

HCl, NaCl, KCl

Pb2+ + 2Cl- PbCl2

PbCl2

NaOH, KOH

Pb2+ + 2OH-
Pb(OH)2

Pb(OH)2

H2S, (NH4)2S

Pb2+ + S2- PbS

H2SO4 .

Pb2+ + SO42-
PbSO4

KI

Pb2+ + 2I- PbI2

Ag+

Pb

Ag+ + Cl- AgCl


HCl, KCl, KBr, KI

2+

AgI
Na2S2O3
Ag2S
HNO3
AgOH, Ag2O
HNO3

PbS
HCl
PbSO4
,
CH3COONH4, H2SO4
.
PbI2

II

Ba2+

BaSO4

,


BaCO3
BaCO3

H2SO4, Na2SO4,
K2SO4

Ba2+ + SO42-
BaSO4

Na2CO3, K2CO3,
(NH4)2CO3

Ba2+ + CO32-
BaCO3

K2CrO4, K2Cr2O7

Ba2+ + CrO42-
BaCrO4

Na2HPO4

Ba2+ + HPO42-
BaHPO4

Na2SO3

Ba2+ + SO32-
BaSO3

BaHPO4

BaSO3

H2SO4, Na2SO4,
K2SO4

Ca2+ + SO42-
CaSO4

CaSO4
(NH4)2SO4

BaCrO4
CH3COOH

NaOH, KOH
Ca2+

Na2CO3, (NH4)2CO3
(NH4)2C2O4
K4[Fe(CN)6] + NH4Cl

NaOH, KOH

Na2CO3, K2CO3
Al3+

Al(OH)3

Al(OH)3

C14H6O2(OH)2

Na2HPO4
H2O2 + NaOH
K2S2O8
KMnO4
NaOH, KOH
(NH3H2O) .
H2S, (NH4)2S
K4[Fe(CN)6]
C6H5-(NH)2-C-N=N-C6H5

Cr3+ + 3OH-
Cr(OH)3
CO32- + HOH
HCO3- + OH3+
Cr + 3OH- Cr
(OH)3
Cr3+ + PO43-
CrPO4
2CrO2- + 3H2O2 +
2OH- 2CrO42- +
4H2O
3+
2Cr + 3S2O82- +
7H2O Cr2O72- +
6SO42- + 14H+
10 Cr3+ + 6MnO4+12H2O 5Cr2O72+ 6Mn2+ + 22H+
Zn2+ + 2OH-
Zn(OH)2
Zn(OH)2 + 6NH3
[Zn(NH3)6]2+ + 2OHZn2+ + S2- ZnS
3Zn2+ + 2K+ +
[Fe(CN)4]4-
K2Zn3[Fe(CN)6]2

Ca(OH)2

CaCO3

CaC2O4

Ca(NH4)2[Fe(CN)6]

Na2CO3, K2CO3

Zn2+

C22H11O9(NH4)3

NaOH, KOH

Cr3+

Ca2+ + 2OH-
Ca(OH)2
2+
Ca + CO32-
CaCO3
2+
Ca + C2O42-
CaC2O4
Ca2+ + 2NH4+ +
[Fe(CN)6]4-
Ca(NH4)2[Fe(CN)6]
III
Al3+ + 3OH-
Al(OH)3
CO32- + HOH
HCO3- + OHAl3+ + 3OH-
Al(OH)3

Cr(OH)3

Cr (OH)3

CrPO4
CH3COOH

Zn(OH)2

[Zn(NH3)6]2+



CH3COOH

o-

IV
NaOH, KOH

Fe

2+

+ 2OH-
Fe(OH)2
5

Fe

2+

Fe3+

Na2CO3

Fe2+ + CO32-
FeCO3

H2S, (NH4)2S

Fe2+ + S2- FeS

K3[Fe(CN)6]

Fe2+ + + +
[Fe(CN)4]3-
KFe[Fe(CN)6]

NaOH, KOH

Fe3+ + 3OH-
Fe(OH)3

H2S, (NH4)2S

2Fe2+ + 3S2- Fe2S3

K4[Fe(CN)6]

4Fe3+ + 3[Fe(CN)6]4 Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3

KSCN, NH4SCH

Fe3+ + 3SCN-
Fe(SCN)3

NaOH, KOH

Mn2+ + 2OH-
Mn(OH)2

H2S, (NH4)2S

Mn2+ + S2- MnS

Na2CO3
Mn2+

Na2C2O4
(NH4)2S2O8
PbO2
NaBiO3

Mg2+

NaOH, KOH

Mg2+ + 2OH-
Mg(OH)2

Na2CO3

Mg 2+ + CO32-
MgCO3

(NH4)2C2O4

Mg 2+ + C2O42-
MgC2O4

Na2HPO4,
(NH4OH + NH4Cl)

NaOH, KOH
H2S
Cu2+

Mn 2+ + CO32-
MnCO3
Mn 2+ + C2O42-
MnC2O4
2+
2Mn + 5S2O82- +
8H2O 2MnO4- +
10SO42- + 16H+
2Mn2+ + 5PbO2 + 4H+
2MnO4- + 5Pb2+ +
2H2O
2Mn2+ + 5BiO3- +
14H+ 2MnO4- +
5Bi3+ + 7H2O

Na2S2O3 (insuf.)

Mg2+ + NH4+ + PO43 MgNH4PO4


V
Cu2+ + 2OH-
Cu(OH)2
Cu2+ + S2- CuS
Cu2+ + S2O32-
CuS2O3
CuS2O3 + H2O
CuS + 2H+ + SO426

HCl
,

HCl
Fe(SCN)3

MnC2O4
CH3COOH

NH3
HNO3
HNO3

(NH3H2O)
Zn, Al, Fe
NaOH, KOH

H2S, (NH4)2S
Co2+

(NH4)2[Hg(SCN)4]
(NH3H2O)
KSCN, NH4SCN
NaOH, KOH

Ni2+

Cu2++ 4NH3
[Cu(NH3)4]2+
Cu2+ + Zn Zn2+ +
Cu
2+
Co + 2OH-
Cu(OH)2
2+
Co + S2- CoS
Co2+ + [Hg(SCN)4]2 Co[Hg(SCN)4]
Co2+ + 6NH3
[Co(NH3)6]2+
Co2+ + SCN-
[Co(SCN)4]2Ni2+ + 2OH-
Ni(OH)2

[Cu(NH3)4]2+

HNO3


NH3

(NH3H2O)

Ni2+ + 6NH3
[Ni(NH3)6]2+

H2S, (NH4)2S

Ni2+ + S2- NiS

HNO3

Na2HPO4

3Ni2+ + 2PO43-
Ni3(PO4)2

O H

C4H8N2O2

( )

CH3-C=N
CH3-C=N

Ni

OH
N=C-CH3
N=C-CH3
O

O
H

VI
NaHC4H4O6
Na3[Co(NO2)6]
K+

K + HC4H4O6-
KHC4H4O6
2K+ + Na+ +
[Co(NO2)6]3-
K2Na[Co(NO2)6]
+

Na+

K[Sb(OH)6]

Na+ + [Sb(OH)6]-
Na[Sb(OH)6]

UO2(CH3COO)2

Na+ + UO2(CH3COO)2
+ CH3COO-
NaUO2(CH3COO)3

NH4+

NaOH, KOH

NH4+ + OH- NH3


+ H2O

K2[HgI4] + KOH

NH4+ + 2[HgI4]2- +
4OH- [OHg2NH2]I
+ 3H2O + 7I7

Hg2Cl2

2NH4OH + Hg2Cl2
[Hg2NH2]Cl + NH4+ +
Cl- + 2H2O
[Hg2NH2]Cl
[HgNH2]Cl + Hg

[HgNH2]Cl + Hg

3.


II

I
SO42-, SO32-, CO32PO43-, CrO42BaCl2

2-

Cl , Br , I , S
AgNO3

III
NO3-, MnO4-,
CH3COO

4.

BaCl2
SO42-

AgNO3
Pb(CH3COO)2
BaCl2, BaNO3

SO32-

SO42-

2+

+ Ba
BaSO4

SO42- + 2Ag+
Ag2SO4
SO42- + Pb2+
PbSO4
2SO3 + Ba2+
BaSO3

H2SO4, HNO3

SO32- + 2H+ SO2 +


H2O

KMnO4
()

5SO32- + 2MnO4- +
6H+ 2Mn2+ +
5SO42- + 3H2O

CO32- + 2H+ CO2 +


H2O

CO32Pb(CH3COO)2
Ba2+, Ca2+
AgNO3
PO43-

Zn(NO3)2

CO32- + Pb2+
PbCO3
2CO3 + Ba2+
BaCO3
PO43- + 3Ag+
Ag3PO4
2PO43- + 3Zn2+
Zn3(PO4)2
8


BaCO3
NH3
HNO3

SO2

CO2

Ca(OH)2

CaCO3
PbCO3


NH3
Zn3(PO4)2

Al(NO3)3, AlCl3

PO43- + Al3+ AlPO4

FeCl3

PO43- + Fe3+
FePO4

Pb(NO3)2
CrO42

CrO42- + Pb2+
PbCrO4
2CrO42- + 3SO32- +
H2O 2CrO2- +
3SO42- + 2OH-

AlPO4
CH3COOH
FePO4

CH3COOH
PbCrO4

K2CrO4

II

Cl

Br

+ 4H+
2Cl +
Cl2 + SO2 + 2H2O

Cl2 -

Cl2

MnO2 (H+)

2Cl- + MnO2 + 4H+


Cl2 + Mn2+ 2H2O

Cl2 -

Cl2

Hg2(NO3)2

2Cl- + Hg22+
Hg2Cl2

H2O

AgNO3

Cl- + Ag+ AgCl

AgCl
NH4OH (NH4)2CO3

H2SO4 .

2Br- + SO42- + 4H+


Br2 + SO2 + 2H2O

Cl2 + H2O

2Br- + Cl2 Br2 +


2Cl-

AgNO3

Br- + Ag+ AgBr

10Br- + 2MnO4- +
16H+ 5Br2 + 2Mn2+
+ H2O
2I + SO42- + 4H+ I2
+ SO2 + 2H2O

2I- + Hg2+ HgI2

H2SO4 .
I-

Hg(NO3)2
CuSO4

S2-

4I- + 2Cu2+ 2CuI +


I2
2I + 2Fe3+ I2 +
2Fe2+

S2- + 2H+ H2S

CuSO4

S2- + Cu2+ Cus


5S2- + 2MnO4- + 16H+
5S + 2Mn2+ +
8H2O
III
2NO3 + 8H+ + 3Cu
3Cu2+ + 4H2O + 2NO
2NO + O2 2NO2

2Fe2+ + 2NO +
2SO42-

NO3-

SO42-

H2SO4 .

Cu + H2SO4 .
FeSO4 (H2SO4
.)

Br2

Br2

AgBr
Na2S2O3
Br2


KI

HNO3

NO

NO2

2[Fe(NO)]SO4
-

(6H5)2NH

Zn, Al

(FeSO4, KNO2)

MnO4-

H2O2

MnSO4
H2SO4 .
CH3COO-

AgNO3
Fe3+

NO3- + 4Zn + 7OH-


NH3 + 4ZnO22- +
2H2O
2MnO4- + 5NO2- +
6H+ 2Mn2+ + 5NO3+ 3H2O
2MnO4- + 5H2O2 +
6H+ 2Mn2+ + 5O2 +
8H2O
2MnO4- + 3Mn2+ +
2H2O 5MnO2+
4H+
CH3COO- + H+
CH3COOH
CH3COO- (.) + Ag+
CH3COOAg
3CH3COO- + Fe3+ +
2H2O
Fe(OH)2CH3COO +
2CH3COOH


NO3-

1. Isac V., Dragalina G., Chetru P., Revenco M. Probleme la chimie, Ed. Lumina, 1995.
2. . , . , 1975.
3. . , . , 1984.

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