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Types of defects in welding

Manufacturing defectscracks, undercut, lack of fusion, and lack of penetration in

seam welds; laps, pits, cracks, and rolled-in slugs in the pipe body; hard spots.
Environmentally caused defectsselective corrosion and hydrogen stress cracking
in electric resistance welded or flash welded seams; general pipe corrosion; pitting
corrosion; stress corrosion cracks; hydrogen stress cracking in hard spots.
Defects caused by outside forces which include dents and gouges.
Construction defects.
Submerged arc-welded (SAW) seam defects, both straight seam and spiral, include
undercut, incomplete fusion, incomplete penetration, and cracks. Repair methods
recommended for these defects are shown in Table 1. No filler is required with
sleeves because after the weld reinforcement is ground flush, no gap between the
pipe and sleeve should exist.
Removal by hot-tapping is not recommended because the tap would involve cutting
through the seam, a practice considered unacceptable by many companies. Repair
by deposited weld metal is applicable only for undercuts and is subject to special
requirements given in footnotes of Table 1.
Type B pressurized sleeves used on nonleaking defects can be pressurized only by
using a tapping nipple. Since other means of sleeve repair are entirely adequate
when used as directed, the intentional pressurization of a sleeve when no leak or
near leak is present is not necessary.
Inside or interior defects require special consideration since they are not readily
visible. Removal may be the best alternative unless one can be reasonably certain
of the extent of the defects. Hot-tapping is not recommended because of the
uncertainty of the extent of an inside or interior defect.