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Written Report

In
Plant Visit
(Toyota Motor Philippines Sta. Rosa Technopark)
Nov. 19, 2013

Submitted by:
Parducho, Ralph Ehdscel
Vargas, Aubrey
Galang, Mark Angelo
De Torre, Fiel
Dicdican, Blanch
Abellanosa, Kristine

Submitted to/on:
Engr. Marlon O. Martinez
Dec. 5, 2013

Table of Contents:
The Company

...

Finished Products and Services Provided


Finished Products
Services

...................

3
4-6

..

Raw Materials and Pre-Mixes

7-12

Waste Water Source

Waste Water Report Form

12

Waste Water Manufacturing Process and discussion

13-15

Environmental Management System (EMS)

16-24

Preliminary

16

Primary

17

Secondary

18

Tertiary

21

Sludge Management .

23

Quality Control and Quality Assurance


Conclusion and Recommendation
Miscellaneous

..

25-27

28-29

..

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INTRODUCTION OF COMPANY

WHO WE ARE
TOYOTA MOTOR PHILIPPINES CORPORATION (TMP) is an automotive manufacturing company
incorporated on August 3, 1988. TMP is a joint venture of GT Capital Holdings, Inc., Toyota Motor
Corporation and Mitsui & Co. Ltd.
In 1995, the Toyota Santa Rosa (Laguna) Industrial complex was declared as a Special Economic
Zone. The 82-hectare Toyota Special Economic Zone (TSEZ) is home to Toyotas manufacturing
plant and head office and houses a number of investors performing strategic roles in the
manufacture and export of automotive products to ASEAN, Japan and other parts of the world.
TMP is the biggest automotive company and the market leader in the country, with the widest
vehicle line-up of 18 models and a sales distribution and service network composed of 36 outlets
nationwide as of July 2013. In term of sales, TMP has achieved the much-coveted Triple Crown
award from 2002-2012, being No. 1 in Passenger Car Sales, No. 1 in Commercial Vehicle Sales and
No. 1 in Total Sales.
The best-selling Vios and Innova are proudly made in Santa Rosa City, Laguna.

FINISHED PRODUCTS AND SERVICES PROVIDED


PRODUCTS:

SERVICES:
PERIODIC MAINTENANCE
Toyota requires bringing the car to a Toyota dealer for Periodic Maintenance every
5,000 Km or 3 months whichever comes first.
This will comply with Toyotas warranty requirement and will also keep the car in superb and
safe running condition, enjoy better fuel economy, longer vehicle life and higher vehicle resale
value since its Toyota-maintained, and of course, that peace-of-mind you get every time you sit
behind the steering wheel.
EXPRESS MAINTENANCE
Toyota values time, that's why they created the express maintenance service. Simply call the
nearest Toyota workshop, set a service appointment, and enjoy the one-hour periodic
maintenance service.
GENUINE PARTS AND OILS
Use of non-genuine parts may affect the vehicles performance, reliability, can compromise
safety, void warranty and could cost more in the long run. Also, for protection, Toyota
recommends buying parts, or better yet, have the car serviced at authorized Toyota workshops
since counterfeit parts exist in the market.
Toyota Genuine Motor Oils are available in all Toyota Dealerships to ascertain your Toyota
engines excellent performance. Toyota offer a variety of Motor Oils to cater to your engine car
needs.

WARRANTY COVERAGE
Toyota warrants that it will either repair or replace any Toyota supplied component part that is
found to be defective in material or workmanship under normal use within a period of 36
months or 100,000 kilometers whichever comes first. Your Toyotas warranty period begins on
the date you received the vehicle.
All repairs covered by the warranty will be done at no charge except consumables such as oils,
chemicals and brake pads. Some parts, like tires, batteries and audio systems have separate
warranty coverage.
Should you decide to sell the car, the unexpired portion of the warranty is fully transferable to
the new owner.
INSURANCE CLAIMS
When an unfortunate event, such as a collision happens, Toyota workshops are the only ones
that can bring back your vehicle from its original appearance.
Just bring the following
*Insurance Policy
*Vehicles OR/CR
*Drivers License
*Police Report/ Affidavit
And they will take care of the rest.

RAW MATERIALS AND PRE-MIXES


Sources of waste water pre-mixes in Toyota Motor Philippines are as follows:
PAINTING WASTE WATER SOURCE
1. Degreasing contribute 80m3/day of waste water.
Hazardous Content:
- Phosphates
- Metasilicates
- Pyrophosphates
- Nitrites
Parameters:
pH 11.0 COD 3000 TSS 300
BOD 200 O & G 50
2. Phosphating contribute 80m3/day of waste water.
Hazardous Content:
- Na2H2PO4.nH2O
- Ni(NO 3)2
- ZnH2PO4.nH2O
- H3PO4
- H4MnO8P2
- H4ZnO8P2.2H2O
Parameters:
pH 4.0
COD 100 TSS 30
BOD 100 O & G 30
3. Electrophoretic Deposition (ED) contribute 40m3/day of waste water.
Hazardous Content:
- Organic pigment and resin
Parameters:
pH 5.0
COD 1800 TSS 100
BOD 400 O & G 20
4. DeIonization (DI) contribute 50m3/day of waste water.
Waste Generated:
- Processed Water
Parameters:
pH 7.0
COD 10
TSS 10
BOD 10 O & G ND
7

5. Floor washing contribute 12m3/day of waste water.


Waste Generated:
- Contaminated Process (washed) water
Parameters:
pH 7.0
COD 10
TSS 100
BOD 10 O & G 20
6. Sludge pool contribute 1.52m3/day of waste water.
Hazardous Content:
- Paint Sludge
- Highly Concentrated Water (heavy metals, paint, primer, etc.)
Parameters:
pH 7.0
COD 3500 TSS 240
BOD 1300 O & G 10

RESIN WATER SOURCE


1. Sludge pool contribute 0.303m3/day of waste water.
Hazardous Content:
-Paint Sludge
-Highly concentrated water (heavy metals, paint, primer, etc.)
Parameters:
pH 7.0
COD 3500 TSS 240
BOD 1300 O & G 10
2. Floor gutter drain contribute 12m3/day of waste water.
Waste Generated:
-Processed (washed with paints, primer, solvents) water
Parameters:
pH 7.0
COD 10 TSS 100
BOD 10 O & G 20

WELDING WASTE WATER SOURCE


1. Cooling tower generate 12m3/day of waste water.
Waste Generated:
- Processed water
Parameters:
pH 7.0
COD 10 TSS 10
BOD 10 O & G ND
UMS WASTE WATER SOURCE
1. Cooling tower generate 0.227m3/day of waste water.
Hazardous Content:
- processed water
Parameters:
pH 11.0
COD 10 TSS 10
BOD 10
O & G ND
2. Boiler blow down generate 10m3/day of waste water.
Hazardous Content:
- processed water
Parameters:
pH 11.0
COD 10 TSS 10
BOD 10
O & G ND

QC WASTE WATER SOURCE


1. Shower tester generate 1.27m3/day of waste water.
Waste Generated:
-Washed Water
Parameters:
pH 7.0
COD 100
BOD 200 O & G 50

TSS 200

2. Drizzle tester generate 4.55m3/day of waste water.


Waste Generated:
- Washed water
Parameters:
pH 7.0
COD 10 TSS 10
BOD 10 O & G ND
3. Floor gutter drain generate 4.55m3/day of waste water.
Waste Generated:
- Washed water
Parameters:
pH 7.0
COD 4 TSS 30
BOD 2
O &G 2
CHASSIS WASTE WATER SOURCE
1. Cooling tower generate 0.152m3/day of waste water.
Waste Generated:
- Washed water
Parameters:
pH 7.0
COD 10 TSS 10
BOD 10
O & G ND
2. Chassis pretreatment generate 0.739m3/day of waste water.
Hazardous Content:
- Na2H2PO4.nH2O
- Ni(NO 3)2 , nitrites
- ZnH2PO4.nH2O
- H3PO4 , pyrophosphates
- H4MnO8P2
-H4ZnO8P2.2H2O
- organica pigments and resin
Parameters:
pH 5.0
COD 1800
BOD 400 O & G 20

TSS 100

10

3. Floor gutter drain generate 0.1m3/day of waste water.


Hazardous Content:
- contaminated water (pigments, resin, phosphates, etc.)
Parameters:
pH 5.0
COD 1800
BOD 400 O & G 20

TSS 100

Others
1. Scrapyard oil separator generate 10m3/day of waste water.
Waste Generated:
- Oily water & liquids used for rinsing
Parameters:
pH 7.0
COD 10 TSS 100
BOD 10
O & G 100
2. VLD oil separator generate 10m3/day of waste water.
Waste Generated:
- Oily water & liquids used for rinsing
3. MFG office waste generate 60m3/day of waste water.
4. MFG plant sanitary waste generate 60m3/day of waste water.
5. CPD sanitary waste - generate 60m3/day of waste water.
Parameters:
pH 7.0
COD 140
BOD 260 O & G 1

TSS 420

6. Canteen sanitary waste generate 100m3/day of waste water.


Parameters:
pH 7.0
COD 140
BOD 260 O & G 50

TSS 420

11

12

WASTE WATER MANUFACTURING PROCESS AND DISCUSSION


Treatment of Waste Water:
Mechanical Treatment
Chemical Treatment

Biological Treatment

Flotation, Settling, and Filtration


Coagulation and Floculation, pH control (Sulfuric acid,
Lime, Aluminum sulfide, Kurifloc)
Aerobic, activated sludge.

Wastewater Treatment Plant Flow:


1.

2.
3.

Periodic Dump wastewater dumped on weekends. Sources: hot water tank dump,
DIP tank dump, surface treatment, rinse tank dump, top coat sludge pool, caustic
strip dump, DI water equipment, welding cooling tank, shower tester, drizzle tester,
boiler and cooling tower.
Daily Dump wastewater dumped continuously. Sources: hot water tank rinse,
phosphate rinse, ED rinse, caustic strip rinse, moisture sanding, floor washing.
Sanitary Waste Water wastewater comes from comfort rooms, shower rooms,
canteen, and offices.
13

Emulsion Break
Sulfuric acid is dosed to lower the pH of waste water to pH 3-3.5. At this pH, the oils &
greases that formed emulsion with water are broken down for easy separation
Coagulation
Alum, Al2(SO4)3, is dosed to reaction tank together with calcium hydroxide. The alum
acts as a coagulant in which it binds finely divided solids and colloids into small clusters.
Agitation is applied on the wastewater during the coagulation process
pH Control
Calcium Hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 is introduced to raise the pH of the WW to between 5-7.5.
Flocculation
The coagulated particles/small clusters are further flocculated by dosing suitable
amounts of Kurifloc, a flocculant, so that large flocs of suspended solids are formed.
Formation of these large clusters of solid particles make the separation much easier.
Flotation
At the flotation tank, air bubbles are introduced to lift the suspended particles/flocs to
the surface of the water.
A skimmer mechanism skims/scrape this mixture of flocs and air bubble sludge into the
sludge tank.
Aeration
At the aeration tank, organic substances in wastewater are decomposed by the
introduction of micro organisms. This aerobic treatment oxidises and decomposes
organic substance by enzyme reactions of micro organisms.
Factors affecting the reactivity of the micro organisms:
1. pH the most suitable pH range is 7-7.5, and usually a pH range of 6-8 is
maintained.
2. Temperature the activity of micro-organisms is reduced at temperature under 10 d
e.g. C or above 40 deg. C. The activated sludge process is generally operated at a
temperature range of 15-30 C.
3. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the aeration tank
must be over 0.5-1.0 ppm.
4. Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solid (MLVSS) MLVSS in the aeration tank is
generally maintained within the range of 2,000 to 4,000 ppm. Excessively high
concentration of sludge may cause deficiency in DO and excessively low
concentration may degredate the quality of treated water.

14

Sedimentation
Suspended solids whose density is larger than that of water are separated at the sedimentation
tank with the aid of natural gravity. The sludge that settled at the bottom of the tank is pumped
back to the aeration tank continuously so that the bacteria can be returned for biochemical
oxidation reaction.
Filtration
Dual media filter contains porous substance layers in particular sand, gravel and anthracite and
is used as a means of filtering undissolved solid particles in the treated water.
Sludge Tank
The sludge at the sludge tank is treated by anion polymer and cation polymer at sludge
conditioning tank 1 and 2 respectively.
The cationic and anionic polymer are used for neutralization of pole charges for floc formation
to further obtain tough and large flocs with less water content
Belt Press
Belt press is a dewatering machine where sludge are presses by dewatering roll and uniform
cakes are formed. The cakes formed are collected in a tonner bag for disposal.

15

Environmental Management System (EMS)

OFF-SITE TREATMENT
A. Preliminary Treatment
-removes large objects and non-degradable materials
- protects pumps and equipment from damage
- bar screen and grit chamber

BAR SCREEN

LATERAL GRIT CHAMBER

VORTEX TYPE GRIT CHAMBER


16

B. Primary Treatment
- a physical process
- wastewater flow is slowed down and suspended solids settle to the bottom by gravity
- the material that settles is called sludge or biosolids

Primary Sedimentation
Remove suspended solids usually by gravity settling
Organic solids also contain BOD
Typically, remove 70% of incoming solids, 30% of BOD
Done in tanks called clarifiers

Type of Sedimentation Tanks

Rectangular

Circular

17

C. Secondary Treatment (biological)

Secondary treatment is a biological process


Utilizes bacteria and algae to metabolize organic matter in the wastewater

18

1st Approach: Fixed Film System

grow microorganisms on substrates such as rocks, sand or plastic


wastewater is spread over the substrate

Trickling Filter

Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC)

2nd Approach: Suspended Film System

stir and suspend microorganisms in wastewater


settled out as a sludge
pumped back into the incoming wastewater

Aeration Tank

Secondary Clarifier

Sludge return

19

3rd Approach: Lagoon System

hold the waste-water for several months


natural degradation of sewage

C. Secondary Treatment (chemical)

Introduction of binding chemicals


Separation of emulsified substances

CHEMICAL PROCESS

DESCRIPTION

CHEMICALS

1. Emulsion break

Introduction of acid to separate oil-water


mix. Reduce pH level

Sulfuric acid, hydrochloric


acid

2. Coagulation

Introduction of coagulant chemicals that


binds small solid particles

Aluminum sulfate, ferric


sulfate

3. Flocculation

Introduction of flocculant chemicals that


binds the cluster of solid particles after
coagulation

polymer

4. Precipitation

Introduction of base to increase pH to


precipitate dissolved substance esp. heavy
metals

Lime, caustic soda

20

D. Tertiary Treatment
- remove disease-causing organisms from wastewater
3 different disinfection treatment:

CHLORINATION
Most common
Advantages: low cost &
effective
Disadvantages: chlorine
residue could be harmful
to environment

UV LIGHT RADIATION
Damage the genetic structure
of bacteria, viruses and other
pathogens.
Advantages: no chemicals
are used
water taste more natural
Disadvantages: high
maintenance of the UV-lamp

OZONATION
Oxidized most
pathogenic
microorganisms
Advantages: safer than
chlorination
fewer disinfection byproduct
Disadvantage: high cost

21

ON-SITE TREATMENT
SEPTIC TANK

Buried, watertight receptacles designed and constructed to receive wastewater from the
structure to be served
separates solids from the liquid, provides limited digestion of organic matter, stores
solids, allows the clarified liquid to discharge

SEPTIC TANK

22

Sludge Management
1. Sludge Reduction (reduce moisture content)
A. Pressing remove moisture content by applying pressure

Filter press
(batch type)

Belt press
(continuous flow)

B. Drying introduction of heat to evaporate moisture content


Sources of heat:
1. Sunlight
2. Exhaust
3. Electricity

2. Composting

aerobic process
Biodegradation of organic component
by microorganisms

23

New Composting Technologies


Vermicomposting use earthworms (African nightcrawlers)
Rapid composting use fungi (trichoderma)

3. Disposal

Sanitary landfill

Cement factory

As fertilizer

24

WASTE WATER QUALITY CONTROL

Classification of Waste Water

Periodic Waste Water

Steady Flow Waste Water

Sanitary Waste

COD 45,000 ppm, BOD 10,000ppm, with


dissolve heavy metal ions (nickel)
COD 8800ppm, BOD 3340ppm, no
dissolve heavy metal ions
Waste from Comfort rooms and Canteen COD
140ppm, BOD 260ppm, no dissolve heavy
metal ions

Control Parameter:

In House Testing; Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, (AAS)

25

Source of Waste Water

Production Line

a) Painting Plant
b) Resin Plant
c) ED Chassis

Domestic Waste

a) Comfort rooms/Toilet
b) Shower rooms
c) Canteen

Water Quality entering and leaving WWTP

WWTP
PARAMETERS

pH

INFLUENT STANDARD

EFFLUENT STANDARD

Equalization 1 Equalization 2 Equalization 3

Government

TMP

Actual
(Ave. 2009)

6.5-8.5

6.5-8.5

6.5-9.0

6.5-9.0

6.5-8.5

7.84

COD (ppm)

2176.00

140.00

910.00

100.00

80.00

37.71

BOD (ppm)

405.00

260.00

1460.00

50.00

40.00

2.16

TSS (ppm)

287.00

420.00

6570.00

70.00

56.00

16.33

O&G (ppm)

30.00

31.00

140.00

5.00

4.00

1.23

OTHER ACTIVITIES AT WWTP

1. Vermicomposting Technology
Biological sludge are generated from
Wastewater treatment operation.
Worms (African nightcrawlers) are used to
convert the sludge into vermicast.
Vermicast are used as fertilizer.

26

2. Treatment of Busted Fluorescent Lamps


The Bulb Eater crushes busted fluorescent lamps
contaminated with mercury vapour
Mercury content is separated from the glass and
metal through a multi-stage vacuum filtration
system
The crushed glass will be used as material for
brick formation

27

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


Effective waste-water treatment is of great importance from the standpoint of both
environmental and public health. In order to do so, companies and factories should establish an
environmentally safe way to reduce and treat waste water. Wastewater treatment is defined to
be any of the mechanical or chemical processes used to modify the quality of wastewater in
order to make it more compatible or acceptable to humans. In doing this, step by step
procedure should be done in order to fully treat the wastewater.
Toyotas wastewater treatment is divided into three sections namely mechanical, chemical and
biological treatment. Wastewater includes microorganisms that should be removed in order to
treat the water. Several factors affect the reactivity of the microorganisms such as pH,
temperature, dissolved oxygen and mixed liquor volatile suspended solids.
Priority of Toyota waste water is to treat the waste water to satisfy the ISO 14001 standards to
avoid water pollution. Waste water of Toyota come from different sector namely PAINTING
WASTE WATER SOURCE, RESIN WATER SOURCE, WELDING WASTE WATER SOURCE, UMS
WASTE WATER SOURCE, QC WASTE WATER SOURCE, CHASSIS WASTE WATER SOURCE and
other general uses such as in sanitary filed.
Before you treat waste water you must identify the sources of waste water and the
hazardous content of it, to establish appropriate step in treating waste water and to avoid too
much cost.
In the first stage of the treatment process uses screen to remove the solid inorganic materials.
And this will be followed by the removal of particles such as grit and silt which is abresive to the
plant. The prelimenary treatment will follow, wastewater is passed through a primary
sedimentation tank where solid particles of organic material are removed from the suspension
by gravity settling. The resultant settled primary sludge is raked to the center of the tank where
it is concentrated and pumped away for further treatment.
For the next stage, a biological process which breaks down dissolved and suspended
organic solids by using naturally occurring micro-organisms. It is called the activated sludge
process. The settled wastewater enters aeration tanks where air is blown into the liquid to
provide oxygen for mixing and to promote the growth of micro-organisms. The active
biomass uses the oxygen and consumes organic pollutants and nutrients in the wastewater to
grow and reproduce. From the aeration tanks, the mixture of wastewater and micro-organisms
passes into a secondary sedimentation tank (also known as a clarifier) where the biomass
settles under gravity to the bottom of the tank and is concentrated as sludge.

28

All wastewater treatment plants use disinfection for tertiary treatment to reduce pathogens,
which are micro-organisms which can pose a risk to human health. Chlorine is usually dosed
into the treated wastewater stream for disinfection. However, Bolivar uses large ponds in which
sunlight and other micro-organisms reduce the pathogens. Additional treatment may be
required if the treated wastewater is reused for purposes such as irrigation of food crops or
where close human contact may result.
In the sludge treatment, the process contains a large amount of biodegradable material
making it amenable to treatment by a different set of micro-organisms, called anaerobic
bacteria, which do not need oxygen for growth. This takes place in special fully enclosed
digesters heated to 35 degrees Celsius, where these anaerobic micro-organisms thrive without
any oxygen. The gas produced during this anaerobic process contains a large amount of
methane.
Once the micro-organisms have done their work water is removed from the digested
sludge through mechanical means such as centrifuging, or by natural solar evaporation in
lagoons. The liquid remaining at the end of the process is usually pumped back into the
aeration tanks for further treatment. The stable, solid material remaining, or bio solids, looks,
feels and smells like damp earth and makes ideal conditioner for soil.
Wastewater treatment method in Toyota mainly focuses in floatation, settling, coagulation and
flocculation. They no longer use filtration since other treatments are enough.
Toyotas waste water treatment plant has three (3) classifications for waste treatment. In every
classification, there are different types of treating the water reliant on how high the BOD ppm,
COD ppm and other metal those are present in the water.
To ensure the treated water is safe in the environment the Department of Environment and
Natural Resources (DENR)/ Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA) set standards for every
parameter, this will certify that the ppm of every parameter of the treated water will not cause
any harmful effect to the bodies of water. To further maximize the purpose of waste water
treatment plant of Toyota, the company uses the method of Vermicomposting Technology and
Treatment of Busted Fluorescent Lamps for solid waste to be recycled and used again.
It would just be better if they will be having a method to test the cleanliness of the treated
water. They only test the treated water by natural indications. For example, the treated
wastewater goes to the small pool of fish right after the treatment. Also, the Toyota must use a
compact filtration system although it is not being used, there can be no assurance of the
instance that a solid waste can pass through this system, this can cause damage to the
treatment plant and spend the company some money in repairing this hazard.
The Toyota Environment Management System is one of a kind in its industry, providing a
greener way to treat the wastewater to ensure the safety not only by the people, but also the
world.
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MISCELLANEOUS

30