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Biology 1010 Final Exam Take-home

NAME: Erick J. Saidi___

1) (5 pts) In order for Hardy and Weinberg to formulate a mathematical model for
microevolution they made five assumptions. List these assumptions and explain why they
dont reflect what happens in nature.

1) Large Population
2) No Immigration or Emigration
3) No Mutations
4) Random Mating
5) No Natural Selection
It doesnt reflect what happens in nature, because when they put these 5 assumptions
together, there was no evolution; things were constant. Unintentionally, Hardy and
Weinberg discovered the five things that cause evolution. Evolution emerges when theres a
small population, immigration & emigration, non-random mating, and Natural Selection.

2) (3 pts) One of the volcanic islands Darwin visited had sea shell fossils in a layer of rock
that was 5000 feet above sea level. Why was this important to Darwin and the development
of his theory?
This was a crucial discovery for Darwin, because it allowed him to understand that the
Earth is really old. He theorized that evolution is a slow process. Things that were here on
earth are no longer here and things that are here now werent in the past.

3) (3 pts) What was it about An Essay on the Principle of Population by Malthus that
helped Darwin and Wallace formulate the theory of Natural Selection?

Malthus stated in his essay that resources were limited, which helped formulate Natural
Selection. Because resources are limited, it allowed Darwin to understand that favorable
variations would be preserved and unfavorable ones would be destroyed, resulting in new

4) (4 pts) Give an example of convergent evolution and an example of divergent evolution.

Make sure to mention homology and analogy.
Humans and bats are an example of Divergent Evolution. We show a Homologous
structure, such as out upper arm and a bats upper limb.
European Rabbits and South American Mara are an example of Convergent Evolution,
because they show Analogous traits. Another example is Sharks and Dolphins.

5) (2 pts) Describe what is meant by the term Punctuated Equilibrium. How does this differ
from Darwins concept of gradualism?
In Puntuated Equilibrium, theres a long period of time where there is no change, then
theres a rapid and vast amount of change.
Darwins concept of gradualism states that evolution happens slow, but Punctuated
Equilibrium states that it happens rapid due to changes in the environment.

6) (5 pts) LIST and GIVE AN EXAMPLE for the FIVE types of evidence people use to
support the Principle of Evolution.

1) FOSSIL RECORD: The size of the brain in Homids; its getting bigger over
2) BIOGEOGRAPHY: The finches on the Galapagos Island.
3) EMBRYOLOGY: Human embryo is very similar to animal embryos.
4) MOLECULAR: Dogs and wolf
5) COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: The wing of a bird and a human arm.

7) (3 pts) How do biologist define a SPECIES? Describe an example were two

individuals ARE the same species AND an example where two individuals ARE
NOT the same species.

Species: is a group of individual organisms that interbreed and produce fertile,

viable offspring.
Bald Eagles and African Fish Eagles are not the same species.
Dogs and Wolfs are the same species.